Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Ciliophora; mtSSUrRNA; Histone; origin of replication
Online: 19 July 2021 (13:47:38 CEST)
Two distinct isolates of the facultative parasite, Tetrahymena rostrata were compared, identifying and utilising markers that are useful for studying clonal variation within the species. The mitochondrial genomes and several nuclear genes were determined using Illumina short read sequencing. The two T. rostrata isolates had similar morphology and were pathogenic for Deroceras reticulatum slugs. The linear mitogenomes had the gene content and organisation typical of the Tetrahymena genus, comprising 8 tRNA genes, 6 ribosomal RNA genes and 45 protein coding sequences (CDS), twenty-two of which had known function. The two isolates had nucleotide identity within common nuclear markers encoded within the histone H3 and H4 and small subunit ribosomal RNA genes and differed by only 2-4 nucleotides in a region of the characterised actin genes. Variation was observed in several mitochondrial genes and was used to determine intraspecies variation and may reflect the natural history of T. rostrata from different hosts or the geographic origins of the isolates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0247.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Antivirals; arbovirus; dengue virus; Streptomyces; virus replication
Online: 15 February 2023 (01:51:33 CET)
Dengue has long been a serious health burden to the global community, especially for those living in the tropics. In spite of the availability of vaccines, effective treatment for the infection is still needed and currently remained absent. In the present study, antiviral properties of the KSF 103 ME which consisted of a number of potential antiviral compounds were investigated against DENV-2. The effects of this extract against DENV-2 replication were determined using the qRT-PCR. Findings from the study suggested that the KSF 103 ME showed maximum inhibitory properties toward the virus during the virus entry stage at concentrations of more than 12.5 µg/mL. Minimal antiviral activities were observed at other virus replication stages; adsorption (42% reduction at 50 µg/mL), post-adsorption (67.6% reduction at 50 µg/mL), prophylactic treatment (68.4% and 87.7% reductions at 50 µg/mL and 25 µg/mL, respectively) and direct virucidal assay (48% and 56.8% reductions at 50 µg/mL and 25 µg/mL, respectively. The KSF 103 ME inhibited dengue virus repication with an IC50 value of 20.3 µg/mL and SI value of 38.9. The KSF 103 ME showed potent antiviral properties against DENV during the entry stage. Further studies will be needed to deduce the antiviral mechanisms of the KSF 103 ME against DENV.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Blockchain, Consensus, Hash functions, Privacy, Replication, Scalability
Online: 17 September 2019 (12:16:11 CEST)
Over the last decade the blockchain technology has emerged to provide solutions to the complexity and privacy challenges of using distributed databases. It reduces the cost for customers by eliminating intermediaries and builds the trust in peer-to-peer communications. Over this time, the concept of blockchain has shifted greatly due to its potential in business growth for enterprises and the rapidly evolving applications in a collaborative smart cities' ecosystem, healthcare, and governance. Many platforms, with different architectures and consensus protocols, have been introduced. Consequently, it becomes challenging for an application developer to choose the right platform. Furthermore, blockchain has misaligned with the goals for efficient green collaborative digital ecosystem. Therefore, it becomes critical to address this gap and to build new frameworks to align blockchain with those goals. In this paper, we discuss the evolution of blockchain architecture and consensus protocols, bringing a retrospective analysis and discussing the rationale of the evolution of the various architectures and protocols, as well as capturing the assumptions conducting to their development and contributions to building collaborative applications. We introduce a classification of those architectures helping developers to choose a suitable platform for applications and providing insights for future research directions in the field to build new frameworks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0046.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: DNA replication, DNA repair, genetic recombination, mutagenesis
Online: 2 November 2018 (10:19:18 CET)
Covalent DNA protein crosslinks (DPCs) are common lesions that block replication. We examine here the consequence of DPCs on mutagenesis involving replicational template-switch reactions in Escherichia coli. 5-azacytidine (5azaC) is a potent mutagen for template-switching, dependent on DNA cytosine methylase (Dcm), implicating the trapped Dcm-DNA covalent complex as the initiator for mutagenesis. The leading strand of replication is more mutable than the lagging strand, explained by blocks to the replicative helicase and/or fork regression. We find that template-switch mutagenesis induced by 5-azaC does not require DSB repair via RecABCD. The ability to induce the SOS response is anti-mutagenic by an unknown mechanism. Mutants in recB, but not recA, exhibit high constitutive rates of template-switching and we suggest that RecBCD-mediated DNA degradation prevents template-switching associated with fork regression. A mutation in the DnaB fork helicase also promotes high levels of template-switching. We also find that other DPC-inducers, formaldehyde (a non-specific crosslinker) and ciprofloxacin (a topoisomerase II poison) are also strong mutagens for template-switching. Induction of mutations and genetic rearrangements that occur by template-switching may constitute a previously unrecognized component of the genotoxicity and genetic instability promoted by DPCs.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: RecG; SSB; stalled DNA replication fork; DNA repair; DNA replication; helicase; atomic force microscopy; OB-fold; SH3 domain; PXXP motif
Online: 2 April 2020 (04:26:52 CEST)
In E. coli DNA replication forks stall on average once per cell cycle. When this occurs, replisome components disengage from the DNA, exposing an intact, or nearly intact fork. Consequently, the fork structure must be regressed away from the initial impediment so repair can occur. Regression is catalyzed by the powerful, monomeric DNA helicase, RecG. During this reaction, the enzyme couples unwinding of fork arms to rewinding of duplex DNA resulting in the formation of a Holliday junction. RecG works against large opposing forces enabling it to clear the fork of bound proteins. Following subsequent processing of the extruded junction, the PriA helicase mediates reloading of the replicative helicase DnaB leading to the resumption of DNA replication. The single-strand binding protein (SSB) plays a key role in mediating PriA and RecG functions at forks. It binds to each enzyme via linker/OB-fold interactions and controls fork loading sites in a substrate-dependent manner that involves helicase remodeling. Finally, it is displaced by RecG during fork regression. The intimate and dynamic SSB-helicase interactions play key roles in ensuring fork regression and DNA replication restart.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0013.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: APOBEC; RNA virus replication; DNA virus replication; AID; HIV-1 Vif; genome hypermutation; MMTV Rem; G-to-A mutations; viral variants
Online: 2 November 2020 (10:06:10 CET)
Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like (APOBEC) proteins are a diverse and evolutionarily conserved family of cytidine deaminases that provide a variety of functions from tissue-specific gene expression and immunoglobulin diversity to control of viruses and retrotransposons. APOBEC family expansion has been documented among mammalian species, suggesting a powerful selection for their activity. Enzymes with a duplicated zinc-binding domain often have catalytically active and inactive domains, yet both have antiviral function. Although APOBEC antiviral function was discovered through hypermutation of HIV-1 genomes lacking an active Vif protein, much evidence indicates that APOBECs also inhibit virus replication through mechanisms other than mutagenesis. Multiple steps of the viral replication cycle may be affected, although nucleic acid replication is a primary target. Packaging of APOBECs into virions was first noted with HIV-1, yet is not a prerequisite for viral inhibition. APOBEC antagonism may occur in viral producer and recipient cells. Signatures of APOBEC activity include G-to-A and C-to-T mutations in a particular sequence context. The importance of APOBEC activity for viral inhibition is reflected in the identification of numerous viral factors, including Vif, which are dedicated to antagonism of these deaminases. Such viral antagonists often are only partially successful, leading to selection for viral variants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0126.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Omicron; SARS-CoV-2; piRNAs; coronavirus genome; translation; replication
Online: 7 February 2023 (08:54:49 CET)
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that caused the COVID-19 pandemic still able to infect the population in many countries. The Omicron strain is the most mutated variant of SARS-CoV-2. The high transmissibility of the strain and the ability to evade immunity require a priority study of its properties in order to quickly create effective means of preventing it. The present work is devoted to the study of in silico interaction of piRNAs with the genome of the SARS-CoV-2 (gRNA) in order to identify endogenous piRNAs and propose synthetic piRNAs with high antiviral activity for drug development. The studies were carried out using proven bioinformatic methods of interaction of the entire SARS-CoV-2 genome with more than eight million piRNAs. Binding sites (BSs) of piRNAs in the 5'UTR were located with overlapping nucleotide sequences called clusters of BSs. Several clusters of BSs were found in the nsp3, nsp7, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, endoRNAse, S surface glycoprotein, ORF7a and nucleocapsid. 16 synthetic piRNAs have been proposed that interact with gRNA with free binding energy from -170 kJ/mol to -175 kJ/mol, which can be used to create drugs that suppress the reproduction of SARS-CoV-2.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0534.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: enteroviruses; poliovirus; autophagy; LC3 processing; p62/SQSTM1; enterovirus replication
Online: 23 May 2021 (22:01:28 CEST)
The capsid precursor P1 constitutes the N-terminal part of the enterovirus poly-protein. It is processed into VP0, VP3, and VP1 by the viral proteases, and VP0 is cleaved autocatalytically into VP4 and VP2. We observed that poliovirus VP0 is recognized by an antibody against a cellular autophagy protein LC3A. The LC3A-like epitope overlapped the VP4/VP2 cleavage site. Individually expressed VP0-EGFP and P1 strongly colocalized with a marker of selective autophagy p62/SQSTM1. To assess the role of capsid proteins in autophagy development we infected different cells with poliovirus or encapsidated polio replicon coding for only the replication proteins. We analyzed the processing of LC3B and p62/SQSTM1, markers of the initiation and completion of the autophagy pathway, and systematically investigated the association of the viral antigens with these au-tophagy proteins in infected cells. We observed cell-type specific development of autophagy upon infection and found that only the virion signal strongly co-localized with p62/SQSTM1 early in infection. Collectively, our data suggest that activation of autophagy is an antiviral response, and that capsid proteins con-tain determinants targeting them to p62/SQSTM1-dependent sequestration. Such a strategy may control the level of capsid proteins so that viral RNAs are not re-moved from the replication/translation pool prematurely.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0328.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Chikungunya replication; antiviral; N-ω-Chloroacetyl-L-Ornithine; polyamines
Online: 14 December 2020 (12:34:24 CET)
The infections caused by Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), genus Alphavirus, have become a health problem around the world, due to this virus’s widespread occurrence and high morbidity rate and the absence of vaccines or antiviral drugs. In this study, we analyzed a competitive inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase—an enzyme that is key in the biosynthesis of polyamines (PAs), N-ω-chloroacetyl-L-ornithine (NCAO), which is a possible inhibitor of CHIKV replication because intracellular polyamines participate in the in vitro transcription and translation of CHIKV. NCAO does not have any cytotoxic effect on C6/36 cells even at 1000 μM at 72 h post-exposure. However, in Vero cells, a cytotoxic effect was present above 380 μM at 48 h post-exposure, which was considered when determining the inhibitory effect on viral replication. In this work, we demonstrate that NCAO inhibits the replication of CHIKV in Vero and C6/36 cells in a dose-dependent manner, causing a decrease in the PFU/mL of at least 4 logarithms (p <0.01) in both cell lines. Viral yields were restored by the addition of exogenous polyamines, mainly putrescine. The HPLC analyses showed that NCAO decreases the content of intracellular PAs, even though mainly spermidines and spermines are present in infected cells. NCAO inhibits CHIKV replication by depleting the intracellular polyamines in Vero and C6/36 cells, suggesting that this compound is a possible antiviral for CHIKV infections.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0167.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Zika virus; apoptosis; viral replication; Bcl-2 protein family
Online: 18 September 2019 (03:05:26 CEST)
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging human mosquito-transmitted pathogen of global concern, known to be associated with complications such as congenital defects and neurological disorders in adults. ZIKV infection is associated with induction of cell death. However, previous studies suggest that the virally-induced apoptosis occurs at a slower rate compared to the course of viral production. In this present study, we investigated the capacity of ZIKV to delay host cell apoptosis. We provide evidence that ZIKV has the ability to interfere with apoptosis whether it is intrinsically or extrinsically induced. In cells expressing viral replicon-type constructions, we show that this control is achieved through replication. Finally, our work highlights an important role for anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family protein in the ability of ZIKV to control apoptotic pathways, avoiding premature cell death and thereby promoting virus replication in the host-cell.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0298.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: papillomaviruses; HPV; replication; transcription; E1; E2; IFIT1; cancer; HNSCC
Online: 30 January 2019 (04:42:41 CET)
The incidence of human papillomavirus-related head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HPV+HNSCC) has reached epidemic levels in the last decade. While prophylactic vaccines will prevent future HPV infections, there are currently no HPV-specific antiviral drugs to treat current HPV infections or HPV+HNSCC. HPV replication and transcription are promising targets for anti-HPV therapeutics, as modulation of these processes can alter expression levels of HPV E6 and E7, which are required for maintenance of the transformed phenotype. This is a particularly attractive target in in HPV+HNSCC where the majority of tumors have episomal genomes replicating in an E1-E2 dependent manner. Here, we describe a model system to study HPV16 E1-E2 mediated DNA replication and HPV16 E2-mediated transcriptional activation and repression in multiple HNSCC cell lines. Our results demonstrate that low levels of IFIT1 are required for HPV16 replication in HNSCC cell lines and HPV16 E1 interacts with IFIT1. Restoration of IFIT1 expression in HNSCC cell lines partially inhibits HPV16 E1-E2 mediated replication. This system can be used to study replication and transcription by HPV16 E1 and E2 in HNSCC as well as be utilized to screen potential anti-HPV therapeutics that target HPV16 replication and transcription.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0311.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: Statistical inference; p-hacking; pre-registration; publication bias; replication crisis
Online: 20 January 2022 (15:32:13 CET)
A vivid debate is ongoing in the scientific community about statistical malpractice and the related publication bias. No general consensus exists on the consequences and this is reflected in heterogeneous rules defined by scientific journals on the use and reporting of statistical inference. This paper aims at discussing how the debate is perceived by the agricultural economics community and implications for our roles as researchers, contributors to the scientific publication process, and teachers. We start by summarizing the current state of the p-value debate and the replication crisis, and commonly applied statistical practices in our community. This is followed by motivation, design, results and discussion of a survey on statistical knowledge and practice among the researchers in the agricultural economics community in Austria, Germany and Switzerland. We conclude that beyond short-term measures like changing rules of reporting in publications, a cultural change regarding empirical scientific practices is needed that stretches across all our roles in the scientific process. Acceptance of scientific work should largely be based on the theoretical and methodological rigor and where the perceived relevance arises from the questions asked, the methodology employed, and the data used but not from the results generated. Revised and clear journal guidelines, the creation of resources for teaching and research, and public recognition of good practice are suggested measures to move forward.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0670.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Mayaro; MAPKs; p38, SB203580; PROTACs; NR-7h; Losmapimod; replication; inhibition
Online: 26 April 2021 (13:17:06 CEST)
Mayaro virus (MAYV) hijacks the host´s cell machinery to effectively replicate. The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) p38, JNK and ERK1/2 have emerged as crucial cellular factors implicated in different stages of the viral cycle. However, whether MAYV uses these MAPKs to competently replicate has not yet been determined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of MAPKs inhibition on MAYV replication using primary human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) and HeLa cells. Viral yields in supernatants from MAYV-infected cells treated or untreated with inhibitors SB203580, SP600125, U0126 or Losmapimod were quantified using plaque assay. Also, viral protein expression was analyzed using immunoblot and immunofluorescence. Knockdown of p38⍺/p38β isoforms was performed in HDFs using the PROTACs molecule NR-7h. Our data demonstrated that HDFs are highly susceptible to MAYV infection. SB203580, a p38 inhibitor, reduced MAYV replication in a dose-dependent manner in both HDFs and HeLa cells. Additionally, SB203580 significantly decreased viral E1 protein expression. Similarly, knockdown or inhibition of p38⍺/p38β isoforms with NR-7h or Losmapimod, respectively, affected MAYV replication in a dose-dependent manner. Collectively, these findings suggest that p38 could play an important role in MAYV replication and could serve as a therapeutic target to control MAYV infection.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0510.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID19; RNA replication; protein structure; infectious disease
Online: 29 April 2020 (12:52:18 CEST)
COVID19 is a current pandemic disease due to the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. The scientific community mounted a strong response by accelerating research and innovation, and rapidly setting the basis to the understanding of molecular determinants of the disease for the development of targeted therapeutic interventions. The replication of the viral genome within the infected cells is a key step of SARS-CoV2 life cycle. It is a complex process involving the action of several viral and host proteins in order to perform RNA polymerization, proofreading and final capping. This review provides an update of structural and functional data on key actors of the replicatory machinery of SARS-CoV-2, filling the gaps in the current availability of structural data using homology modelling. Moreover, learning from similar viruses, we collect literature data to reconstruct the pattern of interactions among protein actors of the SARS-CoV-2 RNA polymerase machinery. In this pattern, an important role is played by co-factors, like Nsp8 and Nsp10, not only as allosteric activators but also as molecular connectors holding the entire machinery together to enhance the efficiency of RNA replication.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0539.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Replication fork trap; Tus-Ter; dif; ChIP-Seq; GC-skew; Enterobacterales
Online: 29 November 2021 (12:52:31 CET)
In Escherichia coli, DNA replication termination is orchestrated by two clusters of Ter sites forming a DNA replication fork trap when bound by Tus proteins. The formation of a ‘locked’ Tus-Ter complex is essential for halting incoming DNA replication forks. However, the absence of replication fork arrest at some Ter sites raised questions about their significance. In this study, we examined the genome-wide distribution of Tus and found that only the six innermost Ter sites (TerA-E and G) were significantly bound by Tus. We also found that a single ectopic insertion of TerB in its non-permissive orientation could not be achieved, advocating against a need for ‘back-up’ Ter sites. Finally, examination of the genomes of a variety of Enterobacterales revealed a new replication fork trap architecture mostly found outside the Enterobacteriaceae family. Taken together, our data enabled the delineation of a narrow ancestral Tus-dependent DNA replication fork trap consisting of only two Ter sites.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0322.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Virus; plant virus; long noncoding RNA; replication; positive sense RNA virus
Online: 14 May 2021 (11:01:56 CEST)
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) of virus origin accumulate in cells infected by many positive strand (+) RNA viruses to bolster viral infectivity. Their biogenesis mostly utilizes exoribonucleases of host cells that degrade viral genomic or subgenomic RNAs in the 5’-to-3’ direction until being stalled by well-defined RNA structures. Here we report a viral lncRNA that is produced by a novel replication-dependent mechanism. This lncRNA corresponds to the last 283 nucleotides of the turnip crinkle virus (TCV) genome, hence is designated tiny TCV subgenomic RNA (ttsgR). ttsgR accumulated to high levels in TCV-infected Nicotiana benthamiana cells when the TCV-encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), also known as p88, was overexpressed. Both (+) and (-) strand forms of ttsgR were produced in these cells in a manner dependent on the RdRp functionality. Strikingly, templates as short as ttsgR itself were sufficient to program ttsgR amplification, as long as the TCV-encoded replication proteins, p28 and p88, were provided in trans. Consistent with its replicational origin, ttsgR accumulation required a 5’ terminal G3(A/U)4 motif shown by others to be crucial for the replication of a TCV satellite RNA. More importantly, introducing a new G3(A/U)4 motif elsewhere in the TCV genome was alone sufficient to cause the emergence of another lncRNA. Collectively our results unveil a replication-dependent mechanism for the biogenesis of viral lncRNAs, thus suggesting that multiple mechanisms, individually or in combination, may be responsible for viral lncRNA production.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0190.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: integrated stress response; eIF2α phosphorylation; unfolded protein response; viral replication; host
Online: 9 July 2020 (12:22:42 CEST)
The integrated stress response (ISR) is an adaptational signaling pathway that is induced in response to different stimuli, such as accumulation of unfolded and misfolded protein, hypoxia, amino acid deprivation, viral infection and ultraviolet light. It has been known that viral infection can activate ISR, but the role of ISR during viral infection is still unclear. In some cases, ISR is a protective mechanism of host cell against infection with virus whilst ISR may be hijacked by viruses for facilitating its replication. In this review, we highlighted recent advances on induction of ISR upon viral infection and the downstream responses involved such as autophagy, apoptosis, formation of stress granules and innate immunity response. We then discussed the molecular mechanism of ISR regulating viral replication and how viruses antagonize this cellular stress response resulting from ISR.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0440.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Dormant origins; replicative stress; replication timing; DNA damage; genome instability; cancer
Online: 21 September 2018 (16:00:30 CEST)
Maintenance of the human chromosomes stability requires a tight regulation of DNA replication to duplicate once and only once the entire genome of a single cell. In mammalians cells, origin activation is controlled in space and time by a cell specific and robust program called replication timing. About 100 000 of potential origins are loaded onto the chromatin at the G1 phase but only 20-30% are selected and active during the replication of a given cell. When the replication fork is slowed down by exogenous or endogenous sources, the cell need to activate more origins to complete the replication on time. Thus, the large choice of origins that can be activated may be a key player in the protection of the genome. The aim of this review is to discuss about the role of these dormant origins as housekeepers of the human genome in response to replicative stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0068.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: reproducibility crisis; replication crisis; data reliability; bias; publication bias; meta-research
Online: 5 April 2018 (10:54:09 CEST)
A lack of data reproducibility (“reproducibility crisis”) is debated across many scientific and medical disciplines. A systematic analysis of the available evidence on the reliability of scientific data revealed that, although the existence of a reproducibility crisis is widely perceived, conclusive data on the scale of the problem are lacking. Most importantly we found that, although the debate is largely focused on methodological issues, researcher conduct defines research standards and in turn data reliability. The availability of reliable methods itself does not guarantee good practice. Moreover, research is typically characterised by a lack of established methods due to its immanent novelty. Despite the crucial importance of researcher conduct, research and conclusive data on the determinants of researcher behaviour are missing. In conclusion, meta-research is urgently needed that establishes an understanding of the factors that determine researcher behaviour. This knowledge can then be used to implement and iteratively improve measures, which incentivise researchers to apply the highest standards resulting in high quality data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0470.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus; MEK; thymidine kinases; lytic replication; infectivity; ORF21; herpesvirus
Online: 25 November 2022 (06:13:52 CET)
Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), also known as human herpesvirus-8, is the causative agent of Kaposi’s sarcoma, Castleman’s disease, and primary effusion lymphoma. Although the functions of the viral thymidine kinases (vTK) of herpes simplex virus-1/2 and varicella zoster virus are well understood, that of KSHV ORF21 (an ortholog of vTK) is largely unknown. Here, we investigated the role of ORF21 in lytic replication and infection by generating two ORF21-mutated KSHV BAC clones: ORF21-kinase activity deficient-KSHV (21KD) and stop codon-induced ORF21-deleted-KSHV (21del). The results showed that both ORF21-mutations did not affect viral genome replication, lytic genes transcription, or the production of viral genome-encapsidated particles. ORF21 molecule-dependent function, other than the kinase function of ORF21, was involved in the infectivity of progeny virus. ORF21 was expressed at 36 h after induction of lytic replication, and endogenously expressed ORF21 was localized in the whole cytoplasm and decreased on the cell surface area. Moreover, the effects of ORF21 expression on signaling pathways and proliferation were analyzed. The results showed that ORF21 upregulated the MEK phosphorylation and anchorage-independent cell growth. These findings indicate that ORF21 plays key roles in both infection and oncogenesis of KSHV through the manipulation of cellular function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0369.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: MTH1; TH588; TH1579; c-Myc; replication stress; DNA damage; cell death; cancer
Online: 22 August 2022 (03:37:41 CEST)
Previously, we reported that MTH1 inhibitors TH588 and TH1579 selectively induce oxidative damage and kill Ras expressing or transforming cancer cells, as compared to non-transforming immortalized or primary cells. While this explains the impressive anti-cancer properties of the compounds, the molecular mechanism remains elusive. Oncogenes induce replication stress, re-sulting in under replicated DNA and replication continuing into mitosis, where TH588 and TH1579 treatment cause toxicity and incorporation of oxidative damage. Hence, we hypothesized that oncogene-induced replication stress explains the cancer selectivity. To test this, we overex-pressed c-Myc in human epithelial kidney cells (HA1EB), resulting in increased proliferation, polyploidy and replication stress. TH588 and TH1579 selectively kill c-Myc overexpressing clones, enforcing the cancer cell selective killing of these compounds. Moreover, the toxicity of TH588 and TH1579 in c-Myc overexpressing cells is rescued by transcription, proteasome or CDK1 inhibitors, but interestingly not by nucleoside supplementation. This suggest that cancer selectivity is unrelated oncogene-induced replication stress. We conclude that the molecular toxi-cological mechanisms how TH588 and TH1579 kill c-Myc overexpressing cells have several com-ponents and involves MTH1-independent proteosomal degradation of c-Myc itself, c-Myc driven transcription and CDK activation, and is likely unrelated to oncogene-induced replication stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0375.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Enterovirus; vemurafenib; RAF; MAPK signaling pathway; genome replication; virus assembly; VP0 cleavage
Online: 25 July 2022 (12:25:13 CEST)
Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) infection is a major cause of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) which may be occasionally associated with severe neurological complications. There are currently a lack of treatment options for EV-A71 infection. The Raf-MEK-ERK signaling pathway, in addition to its critical importance in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation and survival, has been shown to be essential for virus replication. In this study, we investigated the anti-EV-A71 activity of vemurafenib, a clinically approved B-Raf inhibitor used in the treatment of late stage melanoma. Vemurafenib exhibits potent anti-EV-A71 effect in cytopathic effect inhibition and viral load reduction assays, with half maximal effective concentration (EC50) at nanomolar concentration. Mechanistically, vemurafenib interrupts both EV-A71 genome replication and assembly. These findings expand the list of potential antiviral candidates of anti-EV-A71 therapeutics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0575.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: antiretroviral treatment; residual HIV replication; episomal DNA; proviral DNA; antibody quantitation; LPS
Online: 26 November 2018 (08:32:26 CET)
Background: The presence of HIV residual replication markers was investigated among distinct subgroups of individuals on antiretroviral treatment (ART). Methods: One hundred sixteen patients were distributed into 5 treatment groups: first-line suppressive ART with a non-nucleoside analog reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) (n = 26), first-line suppressive ART with boosted protease inhibitors (PI-r) (n = 25), suppressive salvage therapy using PI-r (n = 27), suppressive salvage therapy with PI-r and raltegravir (n = 22) and virologic failure (n = 16). Episomal and total DNA quantitation was evaluated. HIV antibody and LPS quantitation was performed. Results: Episomal DNA was positive in 26% to 38% of individuals under suppressive ART, and it was higher among ART virologic failure group (p = 0.04). HIV proviral load was higher among patients with detectable episomal DNA (p = 0.01). Individuals receiving initial PI-r treatment presented lower HIV antibody (p = 0.027) and LPS (p = 0.029) levels than individuals receiving NNRTI. There was a negative correlation between episomal DNA quantitation and the duration of suppressive ART (p = 0.04), CD4+ T-cell count (p = 0.08), and CD8+ T-cell count (p = 0.07). Conclusions: Residual HIV replication has been inferred among individuals under suppressive ART according to episomal DNA detection. Residual replication may decrease with longer periods of suppressive ART and higher levels of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. The relationship between episomal DNA and total DNA suggests there is a replenishment of the proviral reservoir. Lower antibody and LPS levels among patients with initial PI-r ART suggest these regimens may more effectively suppress HIV, more effectively decreasing HIV antigenic component.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0095.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Human cytomegalovirus; primary tree shrew dermis fibroblasts; cross-species infection; lytic replication.
Online: 5 November 2018 (09:43:16 CET)
As a universal pathogen leading to neonatal defects and transplant failure, Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) has strict species specificity that the inability to using this virus in animals has hampered its pathogenesis study. However, the mechanism of cross-species barrier remains elusive that no non-human cell model has been established to fill this knowledge gap. We observed that primary dermis fibroblasts (TSDF) isolated from the Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis), a small laboratory animal with close affinity to primates, were permissive to HCMV replication. In TSDF infected with GFP-expressing HCMV, the green fluorescence and cytopathic effect were observed and the expression of 3 kinetic genes and replication of viral genome were detected. The cell-free viruses produced in TSDF reached 103 pfu/mL at 96 hpi, which were 10-fold lower than in primary human foreskin fibroblasts. Our results demonstrated that TSDF supported low level of lytic replication of HCMV. The TSDF model provides a useful platform for the mechanism study of species barrier of HCMV.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0542.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: VCP; p97; virus replication; ERAD; cellular trafficking; uncoating; egress; antiviral immune response; retrotranslocation
Online: 30 August 2021 (12:06:29 CEST)
Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites that are dependent on host factors for their replication. One such host protein, p97 or the valosin-containing protein (VCP), is a highly conserved AAA ATPase that facilitates replication of diverse RNA- and DNA-containing viruses. The wide range of cellular functions attributed to this ATPase is consistent with its participation in multiple steps of the virus life cycle from entry and uncoating to viral egress. Studies of VCP/p97 interactions with viruses will provide important information about host processes and cell biology, but also viral strategies that take advantage of these host functions. The critical role of p97 in viral replication might be exploited as a target for development of pan-antiviral drugs that exceed the capability of virus-specific vaccines or therapeutics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0312.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2(COVID-19); + ssRNA; ribosomal – framshift; Pseudoknot; replication; model; drug; vaccine
Online: 14 August 2020 (08:26:31 CEST)
SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19, a new seventh human corona virus, has out-broken in Wuhan, China since 31st December 2019, and quickly escalated to take the form of pandemic which killed many human beings throughout almost all countries across continents. The rapidity of its transmission from human to human is far greater than all previous human corona viruses which came into existence like SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, etc. The nucleotide sequence of SARS-CoV-2 (isolates Wuhan-Hu-1) is 29,875 bp in ss-RNA. Symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infected pneumonia include from asymptomatic to high fever and/or respiratory illnesses. Coronavirus virion (spherical/round /elliptical in shape) consists of three parts- outer membrane or envelope, nucleocapsid and genome (RNA). SARS-CoV-2 was shown to use receptor, angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) for attachment to the cells through its surface spike (S) protein (S1), and the virion enters into the host cell through two routes- direct membrane fusion and endocytotic pathway. The RNA of SARS-CoV acts directly as mRNA and here minus(-) 1 programmed ribosomal frameshift (-1PRF) is being operated by slippery sequence and pseudoknot, so it translates 16 nonstructural proteins including RNA dependent RNA replicase. Then genomic RNA replicated continuously on – strand RNA template and subgenomic RNA transcribed discontinuously on –RNA template to sgmRNA. Subgenomic RNAs/sgmRNAs synthesize all structural proteins. This article takes into consideration the details of established theories of viral structure, viral attachment, mode of entry into human cells, different models of replication and transcription of virus genome proposed by eminent scientists over the years, and makes an in depth examination highlighting meaningful points or important target cites of viral propagation or synthesis, which are conserved, for prompt development of potent drugs or vaccine to counter COVID-19 for which human race is anxiously and eagerly waiting.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0319.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Higher Order Repeats; Non-B DNA; Centromere Protein B; Break-Induced Replication; Molecular Drive
Online: 18 November 2021 (08:27:35 CET)
Centromeres, the chromosomal loci where spindle fibers attach during cell division to segregate chromosomes, are typically found within satellite arrays in plants and animals. Satellite arrays have been difficult to analyze because they comprise megabases of tandem head-to-tail highly repeated DNA sequences. Much evidence suggests that centromeres are epigenetically defined by the location of nucleosomes containing the centromere-specific histone H3 variant cenH3, independently of the DNA sequences where they are located; however, the reason that cenH3 nucleosomes are generally found on rapidly evolving satellite arrays has remained unclear. Recently, long read sequencing technology has clarified the structures of satellite arrays and sparked rethinking of how they evolve, while new experiments and analyses have helped bring both understanding and further speculation about the role these highly repeated sequences play in centromere identification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0161.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: COVID-19; docking; drug repurposing; natural products; in silico drug design; viral replication inhibition
Online: 1 June 2020 (02:42:54 CEST)
We use state-of-the-art computer-aided drug design (CADD) techniques to identify prospective inhibitors of the main protease enzyme, 3CLpro of the SARS-CoV-2 virus causing COVID-19. From our screening of over one million compounds including approved drugs, investigational drugs, natural products, and organic compounds, and a rescreening protocol incorporating enzyme dynamics via ensemble docking, we have been able to identify a range of prospective 3CLpro inhibitors. Importantly, some of the identified compounds had previously been reported to exhibit inhibitory activities against the 3CLpro enzyme of the closely related SARS-CoV virus. The top- ranking compounds are characterized by the presence of multiple bi- and monocyclic rings, many of them being heterocycles and aromatic, which are flexibly linked allowing the ligands to adapt to the geometry of the 3CLpro substrate site and involve a high amount of functional groups enabling hydrogen bond formation with surrounding amino acid residues, including the catalytic dyad residues H41 and C145. Among the top binding compounds we identified several tyrosine kinase inhibitors, which include a bioflavonoid, the group of natural products that binds best to 3CLpro. Another class of compounds that decently binds to the SARS-CoV-2 main protease are steroid hormones, which thus may be endogenous inhibitors and might provide an explanation for the age-dependent severity of COVID-19. Many of the compounds identified by our work show a considerably stronger binding than found for reference compounds with in vitro demonstrated 3CLpro inhibition and anticoronavirus activity. The compounds determined in this work thus represent a good starting point for the design of inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 replication.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0525.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: COVID-19; evolution of SARS-CoV-2; replication; emerging disease 2019 and diagnostic tools
Online: 30 April 2020 (10:39:54 CEST)
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an etiologic agent of the respiratory disease in humans that is known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID19). The first outbreak of the disease was initially documented in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China in late December 2019 where people had experienced SARS pneumonia-like symptoms with unknown etiology. Since then it has been observed that COVID-19 positive patients have been showing mild to severe upper respiratory illness symptoms. The type of virus is known to make its transfer from animals to humans and for the concerned virus; researchers have claimed its origin from bat coronavirus at whole-genome level with a 96 % sequence identity. The COVID-19 virus is very contagious and communicable in nature and has been spread throughout the globe since its first outbreak in China. On March 9, 2020, WHO declared it as a Pandemic, and within a month it was already reported to have shown its presence in 213 countries and territories or areas. As of April 29, 2020, this novel virus infected 3,218,183 people and caused 228,029 mortalities worldwide with a variable mortality rate from 3-13 % across the planet and also varied by age and gender. Diagnosis of the disease is a key component in understanding and controlling the spread of the virus and several techniques have been devised including RT-PCR, ELISA, and sequencing-based approaches. To cure COVID-19 patients as of now we do not have proven to be a safe and effective treatment. Therapeutic options currently under investigation in various parts of the world. However, there are various effective therapeutic targets to repurpose the present antiviral therapy for developing potential interventions against SARS-CoV-2. Boosting the immune system can also help to prevent and spread of COVID-19 using various medication and exercises. In this review, our goal to summarize and discussed the present scientific advancements to fight against this novel pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0584.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: algorithmic probability; universal constructors; self-replication; universal Turing machines; algorithmic information theory; deterministic finite automaton
Online: 28 October 2020 (11:17:03 CET)
In this article we explore the limiting behavior of the universal prior distribution obtained when applied over multiple meta-level hierarchy of programs and output data of a computational automata model. We were motivated to alleviate the effect of Solomonoff's assumption that all computable functions or hypotheses of the same length are equally likely, by weighing each program in turn by the algorithmic probability of their description number encoding. In the limiting case, the set of all possible program strings of a fixed-length converges to a distribution of self-replicating quines and quine-relays - having the structure of a constructor. We discuss how experimental algorithmic information theory provides insights towards understanding the fundamental metrics proposed in this work and reflect on the significance of these result in digital physics and the constructor theory of life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0528.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: DNA strands, complementary replication, DNA alphabets, binary opposition, binary numbers, dyadic groups, matrices, algebras, split-quaternions, root-complementarity.
Online: 20 December 2022 (01:29:16 CET)
This article is devoted to results of in-depth analysis of the system of binary-oppositional structures in DNA n-plet alphabets and their algebraic-matrix representations. These results show that the molecular complementary replication of DNA strands is accompanied by the presence of an algebraic version of the principle "like begets like" in matrix representations of DNA alphabets having internal structures. This algebraic version is based on binary-oppositional structures in the genetic molecular system, which can be represented by bynary numbers and corresponding matrices of DNA alphabets. The received results allow thinking that the phenomenon "like begets like" (or a complementary replication in a wide sense) is a systemic in the genetic organization and is connected with algebraic features of biological organization. Correspondingly, the biological principle "like begets like" can be additionally modeled by algebraic-matrix methods and approaches. Such algebraic-matrix modeling of the genetic coding system gives new ways for studying and understanding a key role of the named principle in genetic and other inherited physiological complexes. The author believes that further study of the algebraic relationships of the genetic system and inherited physiological complexes will be increasingly revealing the key biological role of the ancient principle "like begets like" at different levels of biological organization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0110.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: benchmarking; bioinformatics; defective viral genomes; gradient boosting; machine learning; RNA-seq; SARS-CoV-2; virus replication
Online: 7 March 2022 (16:25:18 CET)
The generation of different types of defective viral genomes (DVG) is an unavoidable consequence of the error-prone replication of RNA viruses. In recent years, a particular class of DVGs, those containing long deletions or genome rearrangements, has gain interest due to their potential therapeutic and biotechnological applications. Identifying such DVGs in high-throughput sequencing data has become an interesting computational problem. Up to nowadays, several algorithms have been proposed, though all incur in false positives, a problem of practical interest if such DVGs have to be synthetized and tested in the laboratory. Here we develop a novel software, DVGfinder, that wraps the two most commonly used algorithms into a pipeline that predicts DVGs. Using a gradient boosting classifier machine learning algorithm, we evaluate the performance of DVGfinder compared to previous algorithms and found that it outcompetes their precision and sensitivity in simulated datasets. DVGfinder generates user-friendly output files in HTML format that can assist users to identify DVGs based on their associated probability of being true positives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0184.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: baloxavir marboxil; H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus; viral replication; inhibition; lung inflammation; combination therapy; oseltamivir
Online: 12 January 2022 (13:18:58 CET)
Human infections caused by the H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) sporadically threaten public health. The susceptibility of HPAIVs to baloxavir acid (BXA), a new class of inhibitors for the influenza virus cap-dependent endonuclease, has been confirmed in vitro, but it has not yet been fully characterized. Here, the efficacy of BXA against HPAIVs, including recent H5N8 variants, was assessed in vitro. The antiviral efficacy of baloxavir marboxil (BXM) in H5N1 virus-infected mice was also investigated. BXA exhibited similar in vitro activities against H5N1, H5N6, and H5N8 variants tested in comparison with seasonal and other zoonotic strains. Compared with oseltamivir phosphate (OSP), BXM monotherapy in mice infected with the H5N1 HPAIV clinical isolate, the A/Hong Kong/483/1997 strain, also caused a significant reduction in viral titers in the lungs, brains, and kidneys, thereby preventing acute lung inflammation and reducing mortality. Furthermore, compared with BXM or OSP monotherapy, combination treatments with BXM and OSP using a 48-hour delayed treatment model showed a more potent effect on viral replication in the organs, accompanied by improved survival. In conclusion, BXM has a potent antiviral efficacy against H5 HPAIV infections.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0219.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Equid alphaherpesvirus 1; EHV-1; transcriptome; replication origin; long-read sequencing; nanopore sequencing; direct RNA sequencing; Illumina sequencing
Online: 15 June 2022 (09:30:44 CEST)
In this study, a structural profiling of equid alphaherpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) transcriptome was carried out using next-generation (Illumina) and third-generation (Oxford Nanopore Technologies) sequencing platforms. We annotated the canonical mRNA molecules and their isoforms, including transcript start and end site isoforms, and splice variants. Additionally, a number of putative 5′-truncated mRNAs containing shorter in-frame ORFs were detected. We also demonstrated that EHV-1 produces a high number of non-coding transcripts, including antisense and intergenic RNAs. One of the most remarkable features of the EHV-1 is the generation of abundant fusion transcripts some of which encoding chimeric polypeptides. We observed a higher number of splicing and transcriptional overlaps than in related viruses. Additionally, we found that many upstream genes of tandem gene clusters have their own transcript end sites (TESs) besides the co-terminal TESs, which is rare in other alphaherpesviruses. We show here that the replication origins (OriS and OriL) of the virus are co-localized with promoter sequences and overlap with specific RNA molecules. Furthermore, we discovered a novel non-coding RNA (designated as NOIR) that overlaps the 5′-ends of the longer transcript variants encoded by the two main transactivator genes ORF64 and 65 bracketing the OriL. These all suggest the existence of a central regulatory system which controls the genome-wide transcription and the replication through a mechanism based on the interference between the machineries carrying out the synthesis of DNA and RNA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0161.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Enterovirus 71; EV71; EV71 non-structural protein 2B; interleukin enhancer binding factor 2; ILF2; virus infection; virus replication
Online: 15 October 2019 (05:37:34 CEST)
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD), meningoencephalitis, neonatal sepsis, and even fatal encephalitis in children, thereby representing a serious public health hazard. It is important to determine the mechanisms underlying the regulation of EV71 infection. In this study, we initially reveal that the interleukin enhancer binding factor 2 (ILF2) down-regulates EV71 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID50), attenuates EV71 plaque formation unit (PFU), thereby repressing EV71 infection. Moreover, we reveal a distinct mechanism by which EV71 antagonizes ILF2-mediated antiviral effects. Chip data analyses show that ILF2 mRNA is reduced upon EV71 infection. Cellular studies indicate that EV71 infection represses ILF2 mRNA expression and protein production in human leukemic monocytes (THP-1) differentiated macrophages and in human rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells. Additionally, EV71 non-structural protein 2B interacts with ILF2 in human embryonic kidney (HEK293T) cells. Interestingly, in the presence of EV71 2B, ILF2 is translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and co-localizes with 2B in the cytoplasm. Therefore, we reveal a distinct mechanism by which EV71 antagonizes ILF2-mediated antiviral effects by inhibiting ILF2 expression and promoting ILF2 translocation from the nucleus to cytoplasm through its 2B protein.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0199.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Atomic And Molecular Physics Keywords: dissipative structure; energy conversion; mechanical work; self-oscillation; collective dynamics; autonomous motion; self-replication; autocatalysis; molecular motor; molecular robot
Online: 9 September 2020 (05:24:42 CEST)
The construction of molecular robotic-like objects that imitate living things is an important challenge for current chemists. Such molecular devices are expected to perform their duties robustly to carry out mechanical motion, process information, and make independent decisions. Dissipative self-organization plays an essential role in meeting these purposes. To produce a micro-robot that can perform the above tasks autonomously as a single entity, a function generator is required. Although many elegant review articles featuring chemical devices that mimic biological mechanical functions have been published recently, the dissipative structure, which is the minimum requirement, has not been sufficiently discussed. This article aims to show clearly that dissipative self-organization is a phenomenon involving autonomy, robustness, mechanical functions, and energy transformation. Moreover, the author details the recent experimental results of an autonomous light-driven molecular device that achieves all of these features. In addition, a chemical model of cell-amplification is also discussed to focus on the generation of hierarchical movement by dissipative self-organization. By reviewing this research, it may be perceived that mainstream approaches to synthetic chemistry have not always been appropriate. In summary, the author proposes that the integration of catalytic functions is a key issue for the creation of autonomous microarchitecture.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0016.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: DNA polymerase δ; PDIP46; poldip3; PDIP38; poldip2; DNA replication; enzyme regulation; DNA damage response; p12 subunit; E3 ligases; cell cycle
Online: 10 July 2017 (08:44:53 CEST)
This review focuses on the regulation and modulation of human DNA polymerase δ (Pol δ). The emphasis is on mechanisms that regulate the activity and properties of Pol δ in DNA repair and replication. The areas covered are the degradation of the p12 subunit of Pol δ, which converts it from a heterotetramer (Pol δ4) to a heterotrimer (Pol δ3), in response to DNA damage and also during the cell cycle. The biochemical mechanisms that lead to degradation of p12 are reviewed, as well as the properties of Pol δ4 and Pol δ3 that provide insights into their functions in DNA replication and repair. The second focus of the review involves the functions of two Pol δ binding proteins, PDIP46 and PDIP38, both of which are multi-functional proteins. PDIP46 is a novel activator of Pol δ4, and the impact of this function is discussed in relation to its potential roles in DNA replication. Several new models for the roles of Pol δ3 and Pol δ4 in leading and lagging strand DNA synthesis that integrate a role for PDIP46 are presented. PDIP38 has multiple cellular localizations including the mitochondria, the splicesosomes and the nucleus. It has been implicated in a number of cellular functions, including the regulation of specialized DNA polymerases, mitosis, the DNA damage response, Mdm2 alternative splicing and the regulation of the Nox4 NADPH oxidase.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: super-resolution microscopy; advanced light microscopy; quantitative microscopy; live-cell microscopy; SMLM; STORM; SIM; STED; expansion microscopy; influenza virus; viral replication
Online: 6 January 2021 (10:40:59 CET)
With an estimated 3 to 5 million human cases annually and the potential to infect domestic and wild animal populations, influenza viruses are one of the greatest health and economic burdens to our society  and pose an ongoing threat of large-scale pandemics. Despite our knowledge of many important aspects of influenza virus biology, there is still much to learn about how influenza viruses replicate in infected cells, for instance how they use entry receptors or exploit host cell trafficking pathways. These gaps in our knowledge are due, in part, to the difficulty of directly observing viruses in living cells. In recent years, advances in light microscopy, including super-resolution microscopy and single-molecule imaging, have enabled many viral replication steps to be visualised dynamically in living cells. In particular, the ability to track single virions and their components, in real time, now allows specific pathways to be interrogated providing new insights to various aspects of the virus-host cell interaction. In this review, we discuss how state-of-the-art imaging technologies, notably quantitative live-cell and super-resolution microscopy, are shedding new nanoscale and molecular insights into influenza virus replication and revealing new opportunities for developing antiviral strategies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0712.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Group-B Enterovirus; RNA domain-I; viral ribonucleoprotein complexes; Enterovirus replication; 5’ terminally deleted viral forms; antiviral innate immune response; type I Interferon
Online: 30 July 2020 (10:00:13 CEST)
Group-B enteroviruses (EV-B) are ubiquitous naked single-stranded positive RNA viral pathogens that are responsible for common acute or persistent human infections. Their genome is composed in the 5'end by a non-coding region, which is crucial for the initiation of the viral replication and translation processes. RNA domain-I secondary structures can interact with viral or cellular proteins to form viral ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes regulating viral genomic replication, whereas RNA domains-II to -VII (IRES) are known to interact with cellular ribosomal subunits to initiate the viral translation process. Natural 5’ terminally deleted viral forms lacking some genomic RNA domain-I secondary structures have been described in EV-B induced murine or human infections. Recent in vitro studies have evidenced that the loss of some viral RNP complexes in the RNA domain-I can modulate the viral replication and infectivity levels in EV-B infections. Moreover, the disruption of secondary structures of RNA domain-I could impair viral RNA sensing by RIG-I or MDA5 receptors, a way to overcome antiviral innate immune response. Overall, natural 5′ terminally deleted viral genomes resulting in the loss of various structures in the RNA domain-I could be major key players of host-cell interactions driving the development of acute or persistent EV-B infections.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0217.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Premature ovarian insufficiency, POI; Gene therapy; Menopause; SAL-like 4 genes, SALL4; Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH); Basonuclin-1; Replication-incompetent adenoviral vector, Ad; Stem cells, SC.
Online: 12 September 2018 (11:06:42 CEST)
Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) is a highly prevalent disorder, characterized by the development of menopause before age of 40. Most cases are idiopathic; however, in some women the cause of this condition (e.g. anticancer treatment, genetic disorders, and enzymatic defects) may be identified. Although hormone replacement therapy, the principal therapeutic approach for POI, helps to alleviate the related symptoms, this does not effectively solve the issue of fertility. Assisted reproductive techniques also lack efficacy in these women. Thus, the effective approach to manage the patients with POI is highly warranted. Several mechanisms, associated with POI, have been identified, including lack of FSH receptor functioning, alterations in the apoptosis control, mutations in Sal-like 4 genes, thymulin or basonuclin-1 deficiency etc. The above-mentioned may be good targets for gene therapy in order to correct defects, leading to POI. The goal of this review is to summarize the current experience on the POI studies, that employed gene therapy, and to discuss the possible future directions in this field.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: protein/rna world; plasma membrane; cytoplasm; virus world; pre-retro virus; emergence of dna; transcription and replication; first cells; hyperthermophiles; luca; bacteria and archaea; anoxygenic bacteria; oxygenic bacteria; global distribution of cyanobacteria
Online: 15 October 2019 (11:18:58 CEST)
The transition from the Peptide/RNA world to the Protein/RNA world in the hydrothermal vent environment was a major event in the history of life. The advent of proteins utterly changed the conditions of emerging life, representing a watershed in its development. During subsequent translation various protein enzymes emerged driving protocells into a more complex and interconnected system. With their astonishing versatility, the protein enzymes catalyzed crucial biochemical reactions within protocells into more complex biomolecules in diverse metabolic pathways, whereas structural proteins provided strength and permeability in the cell membrane. Four major events followed after availability of various kinds of protein molecules during prebiotic synthesis. These are: (1) the modification of the phospholipid membrane into the plasma membrane; (2) the origin of primitive cytoplasm; (3) the beginnings of the virus world; and (4) the advent of DNA. The first innovation mediated by proteins was the improvement of the cell membrane. The phospholipid membrane was initially evolved in a vent environment from the gradual modification of a fatty acid membrane via an intermediate phosphatidate acid by non-enzymatic reactions. The phospholipid is then synthesized from phosphatidate acid by a series of enzymes. To make the phospholipid membrane more permeable, various protein molecules interacted with the cell membrane. Proteins not only stabilized the wall membrane, but also acted as pumps, preventing some molecules from the protocells from crossing the membrane barriers, while permitting other selected molecules and ions to enter and leave the protocell. The second modification led by proteins is the gradual conversion of the interior of the protocell from a water-like medium into a gel-like cytoplasm, which became the storehouse of a wide range of biomolecules including amino acids, proteins, nucleic acids, ribosomes, as well as salt and water. The third innovation utilizing the newly synthesized proteins was the emergence of the ancient virus world. In the milieu of different kinds of mRNAs in the prebiotic soup, jelly-roll capsid genes originated de novo within genomes of nonviral mRNAs by overprinting. These fragile capsid genes were possibly coated by proteins on the mineral substrate for stability and durability, transforming them into ancient viral particles. These protein coats were random and were not encoded by encased genes. Some protocells might have engulfed these viral particles, when the capsid genes utilized the ribosomes of the host to translate into the appropriate capsid proteins. These capsid proteins then coated the viral genes to make new copies of primordial viruses inside the protocell. Since then, viruses became capsid-encoding organisms. These primordial mRNA viruses parasitized RNA-based protocells, manipulating them to make new copies of themselves. This was the beginning of a relentless war between viruses and their protocellular hosts. The next stage in viral evolution was the emergence of a primitive retrovirus (pre-retrovirus) with a new kind of replicative strategy in a sense that it could turn its RNA into DNA using its own reverse transcriptase enzyme. This is the beginning of the Retro world that facilitated the transition from RNA to DNA genomes. The infection of RNA protocells with pre-retroviruses progressively transferred the RNA genome to a viral DNA genome by retro-transcription. The advent of DNA by the pre-retrovirus marks the fourth innovation, when a number of enzymes had already developed and were utilized by pre-retroviruses. With continued infection, DNA viruses slowly transferred not only their core replication enzymes, such as helicase, primase, and DNA polymerase, to RNA protocells, but also to their DNAs as well. Thus, began the DNA world, when DNA replaced RNA as the major genome of the protocells. With the advent of DNA, replication of information was entirely dissociated from its expression. Because DNA is much more stable than mRNA with more storage capacity, it is a superb archive for information systems in the form of base sequences. DNA progressively took over the replicative storage function of mRNA, leaving the latter for protein synthesis. The new protocell with the DNA genome will diversify into large populations of DNA protocells that will outcompete populations of RNA protocells. Genetic information began to flow from DNA to mRNA to protein in a two-step process involving transcription and translation. In the biological stage, DNA replication was central to the binary fission of the first cell, orchestrated by the duplication of genomes and then the division of the parent cell into two identical daughter cells. It was carried out by a set of enzymes that formed a Z-ring at the site of replication. With the onset of binary fission, the population of primitive cells grew rapidly in the hydrothermal vent environment, undergoing Darwinian evolution and diversification. These primordial hyperthermophiles, presumably the first life, obtained food and energy directly from the vent environment. However, such a situation was self-limiting, so the early cells evolved their own mechanisms for generating metabolic energy and synthesizing the molecules necessary for their reproduction. The earliest fossil record (≥ 3.5 Ga) of biotic activity is preserved in the Archean hydrothermal and sedimentary rocks of the Nuvvuagittuq Craton of Canada, the Isua Craton of Greenland, the Pilbara Craton of Australia, the Kaapvaal Craton of South Africa, and the Singhbhum Craton of India in the form of the carbonaceous remains of microbial cells, cellular microfossils, and stromatolites. These microscopic fossils provide crucial evidence of the origin and early evolution of prokaryotic cells, beginning with hyperthermophiles. Molecular phylogenetic analysis suggests that both domains of life ¬– Bacteria and Archaea probably split from the last universal common ancestor (LUCA), a hyperthermophilic organism. In the younger sequences of these Archean cratons, two kinds of photosynthetic bacteria, anoxygenic green sulfur bacteria, and oxygenic cyanobacteria, appeared in quick succession from the thermophilic ancestor, indicating a shift of niche from a benthic to a planktonic, with reduced thermotolerance. The development of anoxygenic and oxygenic photosynthesis would have allowed life to escape the hydrothermal setting and invade a newly evolved habitat—broad continental shelves to tap solar energy. Cyanobacteria invaded the global ocean, turned it into blue and green, produced oxygen for the first time, and left their signatures in the carbonates and stromatolites.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Paleontology Keywords: protein/RNA world: plasma membrane; cytoplasm; gene regulation; virus world; pre-retro virus; emergence of DNA; transcription and replication; first cells; hyperthermophiles; LUCA; Bacteria and Archaea; anoxygenic bacteria; oxygenic bacteria; global distribution of cyanobacteria
Online: 12 February 2020 (03:25:07 CET)
The emergence of proteins in the prebiotic world was a watershed event at the origin of life. With their astonishing versatility, the protein enzymes catalyzed crucial biochemical reactions within protocells into more complex biomolecules in diverse metabolic pathways, whereas structural proteins provided strength and permeability in the cell membrane. Five major biochemical innovations followed in succession after availability of various kinds of protein molecules during decoding and translation of mRNAs. These are: (1) the modification of the phospholipid membrane into the plasma membrane; (2) the origin of primitive cytoplasm; (3) primitive gene regulation; (4) the beginnings of the virus world; and (5) the advent of DNA. The creative role of viruses during prebiotic synthesis led to the origin of the DNA world, when DNA replaced mRNA as the major genome of the protocells. With the advent of DNA, replication of information was entirely dissociated from its expression. Because DNA is much more stable than mRNA with more storage capacity, it is a superb archive for information systems in the form of base sequences. DNA progressively took over the replicative storage function of mRNA, leaving the latter for protein synthesis. Genetic information began to flow from DNA to mRNA to protein in a two-step process involving transcription and translation. In the biological stage, DNA replication was central to the binary fission of the first cell, orchestrated by the duplication of genomes and then the division of the parent cell into two identical daughter cells. With the onset of binary fission, the population of primitive cells grew rapidly in the hydrothermal vent environment, undergoing Darwinian evolution and diversification by mutation. The habitat of the earliest fossil record (≥ 3.5 Ga) from the Archean sedimentary rocks of Canada, Greenland, Australia, South Africa, and India offers a new window on the early radiation of microbial life. The development of anoxygenic and then oxygenic photosynthesis from early hyperthermophiles would have allowed life to escape the hydrothermal setting to the mesophilic global ocean.