Working Paper Article Version 2 This version is not peer-reviewed

A Review of Blockchain Architecture and Consensus Protocols: Use Cases, Challenges, and Solutions

Version 1 : Received: 27 August 2019 / Approved: 29 August 2019 / Online: 29 August 2019 (12:28:03 CEST)
Version 2 : Received: 16 September 2019 / Approved: 17 September 2019 / Online: 17 September 2019 (12:16:11 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Ismail, L.; Materwala, H. Article A Review of Blockchain Architecture and Consensus Protocols: Use Cases, Challenges, and Solutions. Symmetry 2019, 11, 1198. Ismail, L.; Materwala, H. Article A Review of Blockchain Architecture and Consensus Protocols: Use Cases, Challenges, and Solutions. Symmetry 2019, 11, 1198.

Journal reference: Symmetry 2019, 11, 1198
DOI: 10.3390/sym11101198

Abstract

Over the last decade the blockchain technology has emerged to provide solutions to the complexity and privacy challenges of using distributed databases. It reduces the cost for customers by eliminating intermediaries and builds the trust in peer-to-peer communications. Over this time, the concept of blockchain has shifted greatly due to its potential in business growth for enterprises and the rapidly evolving applications in a collaborative smart cities' ecosystem, healthcare, and governance. Many platforms, with different architectures and consensus protocols, have been introduced. Consequently, it becomes challenging for an application developer to choose the right platform. Furthermore, blockchain has misaligned with the goals for efficient green collaborative digital ecosystem. Therefore, it becomes critical to address this gap and to build new frameworks to align blockchain with those goals. In this paper, we discuss the evolution of blockchain architecture and consensus protocols, bringing a retrospective analysis and discussing the rationale of the evolution of the various architectures and protocols, as well as capturing the assumptions conducting to their development and contributions to building collaborative applications. We introduce a classification of those architectures helping developers to choose a suitable platform for applications and providing insights for future research directions in the field to build new frameworks.

Subject Areas

Blockchain, Consensus, Hash functions, Privacy, Replication, Scalability

Comments (1)

Comment 1
Received: 17 September 2019
Commenter: Leila Ismail
Commenter's Conflict of Interests: Author
Comment: This version is officially accepted for publication in Symmetry Journal. The changes are as follows:

- We revised the entire paper to make the text as concise as possible, while emphasizing on three major parts of blockchain: architecture, consensus protocols and applications use cases. We revised the whole manuscript, corrected the English grammar, spelling mistakes, and rewrote statements in a concise and clearer way.
- Minor changes to the abstract.
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