REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0190.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: iron-deficient anemia; IDA; stroke; cerebral venous thrombosis; brain MRI; aortic thrombosis; pulmonary embolism; embolic pattern
Online: 10 August 2022 (04:31:26 CEST)
Background: Anemia is one of the most frequent diseases worldwide, affecting a third of the general population. Anemia in general and in particular, iron-deficient anemia (IDA), has been associated to a higher risk of thrombotic manifestations, including ischemic stroke and cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT), as well as systemic extra cerebral arterial and venous thrombosis. Despite these data, anemia is seldom considered as an etiological factor of stroke. Methods: An individual case encompassing all known neurovascular and systemic arterial and venous thrombotic manifestations related to IDA is presented with the focus on clinical reasoning issues in the diagnostic pathways, starting from the neuroradiological signs. The main questions have been identified and addressed in a narrative review of the most relevant data in the literature from a pragmatic and clinical viewpoint. Results and Discussion: The presented case concerns a 46 years old man admitted to the Stroke Unit because of acute is-chemic stroke with multiple thrombi in large intracranial and extracranial vessels, multifocal ischemic lesions in several arterial territories and the concurrent finding of asymptomatic CVT, pulmonary embolism with lung infarction and aortic thrombosis. An extended diagnostic work-up excluded the main etiologies (arterial dissection, cardiac embolism, genetic and acquired prothrombotic disorders, as cancer and antiphospholipid syndrome), except for a severe IDA, such as to require blood transfusions followed by anticoagulant therapy for the several thrombotic manifestations. Neuroimaging and systemic vascular findings have been analyzed and the main issues proposed by the case in the diagnostic pathway have been identified and discussed in a pragmatic clinical road map reviewing the data provided by the literature. Conclusions: IDA is a common but treatable condition that, independently or synergically, may increase the risk of thrombotic events. The diagnostic and therapeutic approach has not yet defined and each case should be individually addressed in a pragmatic clinical road map.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0161.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Pulmonary Hypertension; Haemolytic anemia; Haematological Disorders; Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension; Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension; Balloon Pulmonary Angioplasty
Online: 5 December 2023 (06:18:52 CET)
Haemolytic anaemia represents a risk factor for the development of pulmonary hypertension (PH), currently classified as World Health Organization group 5 PH and data regarding appropriate therapeutic strategy are limited. A total of 28 patients, 85.7% with thalassemia and 14,3% with sickle cell disease, with a diagnosis of PH confirmed by right heart catheterization, were included in the study. The patients were divided into three groups according to haemodynamics and overall diagnostic approach: 42,9% had precapillary PH (Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension -PAH group), 25% post-capillary PH and 32.1% Chronic Thromboembolic PH (CTEPH) (29% of b-thalassemia and 50% of SCD patients). The therapeutic approach in each group and its impact on the outcome and haemodynamics was recorded. PAH-specific drug therapy received 82.1% of patients and Balloon Pulmonary Angioplasty (BPA) was performed in 6 patients with CTEPH. There were statistically significant differences in baseline mPAP and PVR values between the CTEPH-haemolytic anaemia group and other groups. PAH-specific drug therapy resulted in haemodynamic improvement for PAH-group. Patients who underwent BPA improved Pulmonary Haemodynamics. Median survival time was 162 months and the survival rate was 1yr-100%, 2,3,4,5,6 years 96%, 9yrs 90% and 13yrs 78%. In patients with haemolytic anaemia, the wide spectrum of induced PH highlights the importance of a correct diagnosis. BPA in CTEPH patients and specific-PAH drug therapy for PAH patients represent potential therapeutic strategies, however the management should be offered in expert PH centers under patients’ individualized approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0100.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: screening after pulmonary embolism; chronic thromboembolic pulmonary disease; chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension; diagnostic work-up of post-pulmonary syndrome
Online: 9 October 2022 (02:09:20 CEST)
Background: The annual mortality of patients with untreated chronic thromboembolism pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is approximately 50% unless a timely diagnosis is followed by adequate treatment. In pulmonary embolism (PE) survivors with functional limitation the diagnostic work-up starts with echocardiography. It is followed by lung scintigraphy and right heart catheterization. However, noninvasive test providing diagnostic clues to CTEPH, or ascertain this diagnosis as very unlikely, would be extremely useful since the majority of post PE functional limitations is caused by deconditioning. Methods: Patients after acute PE underwent a structured clinical evaluation with electrocardiogram, routine laboratory tests including NT-proBNP and echocardiography. The aim of study was to verify whether the parameters from echocardiographic or perhaps electrocardiographic examination and NT-proBNP concentration best determine the risk of CTEPH. Results: A total (n = 261, male n = 123) patients after PE were included into the study, in group of 155 patients (59.4%) with reported functional impairment 13 patients (8.4%) had CTEPH and 7 PE survivors had chronic thromboembolic pulmonary disease (CTEPD) (4,5%). Echo parameters differed significantly between CTEPH/CTEPD cases and other symptomatic PE survivors. Patients with CTEPH/CTEPD had also higher level of NT-proBNP (p = 0.022) but concentration of NT-proBNP above 125 pg/ml did not differentiate patients with CTEPH/CTEPD (p>0.05). Additionally, proportion of patients with right bundle brunch block registered in ECG was higher in group with CTEPH/CTED (23.5% vs. 5.8%, p = 0.034) but there were no differences between other ECG characteristics of right ventricle overload. Conclusion: Screening for CTEPH/CTEPD should be performed in patients with reduced exercise tolerance compared to pre PE period, It is not effective in asymptomatic PE survivors. Patients with CTEPH/CTED had predominantly abnormalities indicatingchronic thromboembolism in the echocardiographic assessment. NT-proBNP and electrocardiographic characteristics of right ventricle overload proved to be insufficient in predicting CTEPH/CTEPD development.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0012.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: pulmonary arterial hypertension; pulmonary arterial banding; right ventricle; preclinical studies
Online: 1 October 2023 (08:01:20 CEST)
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a progressive condition that affects pulmonary vessels, but its main prognostic factor is right ventricle (RV) function. Many mice/rat models are used for research in PAH, but results fail to translate in clinical trials. This study reviews studies that test interventions on pulmonary artery banding (PAB), a model of isolated RV disfunction, and PH models. Multiple tested drugs both improved pulmonary vascular hemodynamics in PH models and RV structure and function in PAB animals. PH models and PAB frequently exhibited similar results (73.1% concordance) with drugs other than endothelin receptor antagonists and phosphodiesterase inhibitors. RV systolic pressure accounted for most differences between PH models and PAB. On the other side, all results on RV fibrosis agreed (12 drugs). Macitentan, sildenafil and tadalafil improved most tested pathophysiological parameters in PH models, but almost none in PAB animals. Dapagliflozin was the only drug that improved no parameters. This review shows that many drugs currently under research for PAH have a cardioprotective effect on animals that may translate to humans. To improve the translational potential of drugs in this field, researchers should test them in multiple models, including PAB, while optimizing induction methods for human disease translation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0181.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Covid-19; idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; interstitial lung disease; pulmonary fibrosis
Online: 4 May 2023 (04:09:04 CEST)
This review brings together the current knowledge regarding the risk factors, and the clinical, radiologic and histological features of both post-COVID-19 interstitial pul-monary fibrosis (PCPF) and Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) with a particular fo-cus on describing the similarities and the disparities between the fibrotic changes in these two diseases. It is important to highlight the common points of PCPF and IPF to observe if they are some targetable changes to improve patient outcomes. The litera-ture review was performed using numerous databases to identify relevant articles published in English through October 2022. This review would help clinicians, pathologists and researchers to make an accurate diagnosis, which can be useful in identifying the group of patients who can be selected for antifibrotic therapies, and future therapeutic perspectives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0534.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Congenital Pulmonary Malformations; thoracic surgery; lobectomy; pulmonary sequestration; congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation
Online: 10 July 2023 (03:57:02 CEST)
Background: Congenital Pulmonary Malformations (CPMs) are rare benign lesions potentially causing infective complications and/or malignant transformation requiring surgery even when asymptomatic. CPMs are infrequent in adult but potentially detected at any age. There is not a consensus indicating the correct extent of resection in both adults and paediatrics. This retrospective multicentric study aims to identify the appropriate surgical resection to prevent the recurrence of related respiratory symptoms. Methods: Between 2010 and 2020, a total of 96 patients (adult and pediatric) underwent surgery for CPMs in 4 centers. A 2:1 propensity score matching (considering sex and lesion side) was performed, identifying 2 groups: 50 patients underwent lobectomy (group A) and 25 sub-lobar resections (group B). Clinical and histopathological characteristics, early and late complications and symptom’s recurrence were retrospectively analyzed and compared between the two groups by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: Patients who underwent lobectomy had a statistically significant lower rate of recurrence (4% vs 24% of group B, p = 0.014) and a lower rate of intraoperative complications (p = 0.014). Logistic regression identified sub-lobar resection (p=0.040), intra- and post-operative complications (p=0.105 and 0.022) and associated developed neoplasm (p=0.062) as possible risk factors for symptoms recurrence after surgery. Conclusions: Pulmonary lobectomy seems to be the most effective surgical treatment for CPMs, guaranteeing stable remission of symptoms and a lower rate of intra- and postoperative complications. To our knowledge this is one of the largest studies comparing lobectomy and sub-lobar resections in patients affected by CPMs, considering the low incidence worldwide.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2023.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease; inhaled corticosteroid; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; fluticasone; budesonide
Online: 30 May 2023 (02:34:11 CEST)
Studies have shown increased nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease (NTM) incidence with inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) use in patients with chronic respiratory diseases; however, this association in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains insufficiently studied. Using a nationwide population-based database of the Korean National Health Insurance Service, newly diagnosed COPD patients (20052018) treated with inhaled bronchodilators were selected. An NTM case was defined by the presence of the first diagnostic code following inhaled bronchodilator use. Results indicated that ICS users did not have an increased risk of NTM disease compared to non-ICS users (hazard ratio [HR], 1.121; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9501.323; p = 0.1755). The highest quartile of the cumulative ICS dose was associated with the development of NTM (1.200, 0.9501.323, p = 0.0497). Medium (1.229, 1.0081.499, p = 0.0410) and high daily doses of ICS (1.637, 1.2412.160, p = 0.0005) were associated with an increased risk of NTM disease. There was no difference in the risk of NTM according to ICS type. ICS use may not increase the risk of developing NTM disease in patients with COPD. However, physicians should weigh the potential benefits and risks of ICS, especially when using high doses and prolonged durations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0053.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome; Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome; transpulmonary thermodilution; pulmonary edema; Andes virus
Online: 5 August 2019 (07:48:43 CEST)
Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) is characterized by capillary leak, pulmonary edema (PE) and shock that leads to death in up to 40% of patients. Treatment is supportive, including mechanical ventilation (MV) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Hemodynamic monitoring is critical to titrate therapy and to decide ECMO support. Transpulmonary thermodilution (TPTD) provides hemodynamic and PE data that has not been systematically used to understand HCPS pathophysiology. We identified 11 HCPS patients monitored with TPTD; 5 on MV, 3 on ECMO. We analyzed 133 measurements to describe the hemodynamic pattern and its association to PE. The main findings were reduced stroke volume, global ejection fraction (GEF) and preload parameters associated to increased extravascular lung water and pulmonary vascular permeability compatible with hypovolemia, myocardial dysfunction and increased permeability PE. Lung water correlated positively with heart rate (HR, r=0.20) and negatively with mean arterial pressure (r=-0.27) and GEF (r=-0.36), suggesting that PE is linked to hemodynamic impairment. Pulmonary vascular permeability correlated positively with HR (r=0.31) and negatively with cardiac index (r=-0.49), end-diastolic volume (r=-0.48) and GEF (r=-0.40), suggesting that capillary leak contributes to hypovolemia and systolic dysfunction. In conclusion, TPTD data suggests that in HCPS patients, increased permeability leads to PE, hypovolemia and circulatory impairment.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0509.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: bleomycin; ECMO; pulmonary fibrosis; pulmonary toxicity; veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; lung transplant
Online: 28 February 2023 (06:46:44 CET)
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) can be a life-saving intervention in cases of potentially reversible refractory respiratory failure. One such indication can be bleomycin-induced lung injury. However, in some cases, the injury can be so severe that it becomes irreversible and creates complex medical decisions regarding life support and the continuation of care when no additional therapeutic options are feasible, particularly in cases of patients who were young and fully functional prior to an acute illness. In cases of full pulmonary replacement with mechanical support and the degree of functionality that can be attained utilizing modalities such as ECMO can obscure the true severity of illness and make end-of-life decisions significantly harder for families and caregivers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1398.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Pulmonary embolism; asymptomatic; cancer; chemotherapy
Online: 19 May 2023 (07:51:33 CEST)
Abstract: Cancer patients are explored by CT-scans more than others. The study reports the local prevalence of these embolisms, the oncological profile of the cases as well as the therapeutic management. Patients and methods: The work was based on the Analysis of the CT-examinations performed on patients of the Radiology department, for reasons other than the search for pulmonary embolism. The examinations are interpreted by 2 radiologist doctors. Results: In 389 patients, 12 cases of asymptomatic pulmonary embolism were detected, representing a prevalence of the order of 3%. The mean age of onset is 67 years. 11 patients had metastatic cancer at the time of diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. 4 PE patients are proximal, while 8 others had segmental and / or sub-segmental PE. 10 patients are treated for carcinomas, the rest for melanoma and splenic lymphoma. After analysis of clinical records, 3 of the 4 proximal pulmonary embolisms were manifested by a discrete clinical symptom attributed to diagnoses other than pulmonary embolism. 10 patients are undergoing chemotherapy alone or combined with radiotherapy, surgery or hormone therapy. At the time of the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism, 3 patients were hospitalized, while 9 were followed up on an outpatient basis. Conclusion: Asymptomatic pulmonary embolism in cancer patients is becoming more frequent. Asymptomatic pulmonary embolisms are mainly peripheral, segmental or sub-segmental. As for symptomatic VTE, asymptomatic pulmonary embolism is diagnosed in patients with metastatic cancer, especially carcinoma type, and treated with chemotherapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0354.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: MWCNT; senescence; pulmonary fibrosis; epithelial
Online: 14 May 2021 (17:05:25 CEST)
Multi-walled carbon nanotubes are engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) that have a fiber-like structure which may be a concern for the development of cellular senescence. Premature senes-cence, a state of irreversible cell cycle arrest, is implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic lung dis-eases such as pulmonary fibrosis (PF). However, the crosstalk between downstream pathways mediating fibrotic and senescent responses of MWCNTs is not well defined. Here, we exposed human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS2B) to MWCNTs for up to 72 hours and demonstrate that MWCNTs increase reactive oxygen species production (ROS) accompanied by inhibition of cell growth and proliferation. In addition, exposure resulted in the increase of p21 protein and senes-cence associated β-galactosidase (SA β-gal) activity. We also determined that co-exposure with the cytokine, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) exacerbated cellular senescence indicated by increased protein levels of p21, p16, and γH2A.X Furthermore, the production of fibronectin and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) was significantly elevated with the co-exposure compared to MWCNTs or TGF-β alone. Together, this suggests that the senescence potential of MWCNTs may be enhanced by pro-fibrotic mediators in the surrounding microenvironment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0162.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Hybrid computer tomography; pulmonary ground glass nodule localization; video-assisted thoracic surgery; pulmonary recruitment
Online: 10 April 2023 (09:30:44 CEST)
The standard treatment for early-stage lung cancer is complete tumor excision by limited resection of the lung. Pre-operative localization is used before video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) to improve the accuracy of pulmonary nodule excision. However, lung atelectasis and hypoxia resulting from controlling apnea during the localization procedure may affect the localization accuracy. Pre-procedural pulmonary recruitment may improve respiratory mechanics and oxygenation during localization. In this study, we investigated the potential benefits of pre-localization pulmonary recruitment prior to pulmonary ground-glass nodule localization in a hybrid operating room. We hypothesized that pre-localization pulmonary recruitment would increase localization accuracy, improve oxygenation, and prevent the need for re-inflation during the localization procedure. We retrospectively enrolled patients with multiple pulmonary nodule localizations before surgical intervention in our hybrid operating room. We compared localization accuracies between patients who had undergone pre-procedure pulmonary recruitment and patients who had not. Saturation, re-inflation rate, apnea time, procedure-related pneumothorax, and procedure time were also recorded as secondary outcomes. Patients who had undergone pre-procedure recruitment had better saturation, shorter procedure time, and higher localization accuracy. The pre-procedure pulmonary recruitment maneuver was effective in increasing regional lung ventilation, leading to improved oxygenation and localization accuracy.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0283.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: Ventilation, pulmonary; Lung Injury; Personalized ventilation; Hypoxia; Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity; Intensive care; Pneumonia; Stenotrophomonas maltophilia
Online: 5 December 2023 (15:24:52 CET)
Chest trauma is one of the most serious and difficult injuries, with various complications that can lead to ventilation - perfusion (V/Q) mismatch and systemic hypoxia. We are presenting a case of 53 – year - old male with no comorbidities or chronic therapy, who was admitted to the Intensive Care Unit due to severe respiratory failure after chest trauma. He developed right - sided pneumothorax and then thoracic drain was placed. On admission, the patient was hemodynamically unstable and tachypneic. The patient was intubated and mechanically ventilated, febrile (38.9°C) and unconscious. A lung CT showed massive non-ventilated areas predominantly in the right lung. He was ventilated with PEEP of 10 cmH2O with a FiO2 of 0.6 – 0.8. Empirical broad-spectrum antimicrobial therapy was immediately initiated. Both high FiO2 and moderate PEEP were maintained and adjusted according to the current blood gas values and oxygen saturation. After Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was identified and treated with sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim his general condition gradually improved, and he was weaned from mechanical ventilation. In conclusion, both ventilatory and antibiotic therapy were needed to improve oxygenation and outcome of the patient with pneumonia due to the resistant S. maltophilia with V/Q mismatch.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0558.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); Pulmonary Rehabilitation; Vegetables; DNA damage; Genomic Instability; Oxidative stress; Inflammation.
Online: 23 June 2021 (10:08:20 CEST)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a respiratory disease associated with airways inflammation and lung parenchyma fibrosis. The primary goals of COPD treatment are to re-duce symptoms and risk of exacerbations, therefore pulmonary rehabilitation is considered the key component of managing COPD patients. Oxidative airway damage, inflammation and re-duction of endogenous antioxidant enzymes are known to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of COPD. Natural antioxidants have also recently been considered as they play an important role in metabolism, DNA repair and fighting the effects of oxidative stress. In this paper we evaluated the response of 105 elderly COPD patients to pulmonary rehabilitation (PR), based on high or low vegetable consumption, by analyzing clinical parameters and biological measure-ments at baseline and after completion of the three weeks PR. We found that high vegetable in-take in normal diet, without any specific intervention, can increase the probability to success-fully respond to rehabilitation (65.4% of responders ate vegetables daily vs. 40.0% of Non-Responders, p=0.033). Three weeks of pulmonary rehabilitation are probably too short to reveal a reduction of the oxidative stress and DNA damage, but are enough to show an im-provement in the patient's inflammatory state.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0263.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: chronic obstructive; patient discharge; patient care team; personalized care; interdisciplinary health team; patient safety; pulmonary disease; pulmonary medicine
Online: 14 July 2021 (09:58:17 CEST)
Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) often require frequent hospitalization due to worsening symptoms. Preventing prolonged hospital stay and readmission becomes a challenge for healthcare professionals treating patients with COPD. Although the integration of health and social care supports greater collaboration and enhanced patient care, organizational structure and poor leadership may hinder the implementation of patient-oriented goals. This paper presents a case of a 64-year-old chronic smoker with severe COPD who was to be discharged on long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT). It further highlights the healthcare decisions made to ensure the patient’s safety at home and further provides a long-lasting solution to the existing medical and social needs. The goal was accomplished through a discharge plan that reflects multidisciplinary working, efficient leadership, and change management using Havelock’s theory. While COPD is characterized by frequent exacerbation and hospital readmission, it was emphasized that most failed discharges could be attributed to bureaucratic organizational workflow which might not be in the patient’s best interest. It was further demonstrated that healthcare professionals are likely to miss the window of opportunity to apply innovative and long-lasting solutions to the patient’s health condition in an attempt to remedy the immediate symptoms of COPD
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0112.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); Pulmonary Rehabilitation; Diet; DNA damage; Genomic Instability; Oxidative stress; Inflammation
Online: 3 June 2021 (12:21:13 CEST)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a respiratory disease associated with airways inflammation and lung parenchyma fibrosis. The primary goals of COPD treatment are to re-duce symptoms and risk of exacerbations, therefore pulmonary rehabilitation is considered the key component of managing COPD patients. Oxidative airway damage, inflammation and re-duction of endogenous antioxidant enzymes are known to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of COPD. Natural antioxidants have also recently been considered as they play an important role in metabolism, DNA repair and fighting the effects of oxidative stress. In this paper we evaluated the response of 105 elderly COPD patients to pulmonary rehabilitation (PR), based on high or low vegetable consumption, by analyzing clinical parameters and biological measure-ments at baseline and after completion of the three weeks PR. We found that high vegetable in-take in normal diet, without any specific intervention, can increase the probability to success-fully respond to rehabilitation (65.4% of responders ate vegetables daily vs. 40.0% of Non-Responders, p=0.033). Three weeks of pulmonary rehabilitation are probably too short to reveal a reduction of the oxidative stress and DNA damage, but are enough to show an im-provement in the patient's inflammatory state.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1406.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: hemoptysis; pulmonary artery; embolization; lung cancer
Online: 23 October 2023 (08:39:09 CEST)
(1) Background: Bronchial artery embolization has been shown to be effective in the management of neoplastic hemoptysis. However, knowledge of pulmonary artery embolization is lacking. To evaluate safety and efficacy of pulmonary artery embolization in patients presenting with hemoptysis related to lung tumors. (2) Methods: This retrospective study reviewed all consecutive patients with cancer and at least one episode of hemoptysis that required pulmonary artery embolization from December 2008 to December 2020. The endpoints of the study were technical success, clinical success, recurrence of hemoptysis and complications. (3) Results: A total of 92 patients were treated with pulmonary artery embolization (63.1 years ± 9.9; 70 men). Most patients had stage III or IV advanced disease. Pulmonary artery embolization was technically successful in 82 (89%) patients and clinically successful in 77 (84%) patients. Recurrence occurred in 49% of patients. Infectious complications occurred in 15 patients (16%). The 30-days mortality rate was 31%. At 3 years, survival rate was 3.6%. Tumor size, tumor cavitation and necrosis and pulmonary artery pseudo-aneurysm were significantly associated with recurrence and higher mortality. (4) Conclusions: Pulmonary artery embolization is an effective treatment to initially control hemoptysis in patient with lung carcinoma but recurrence rate remains high and overall survival remains poor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1852.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; Pirfenidone; disease progression
Online: 27 September 2023 (08:20:51 CEST)
Background: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive fibrotic lung disease with a poor prognosis. Pirfenidone is approved and widely used for the treatment of IPF and reduces lung function decline. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of different doses of pirfenidone for the prevention of disease progression in patients with IPF. Methods: This was a prospective, observational, single-center cohort study conducted in Haeundae Paik Hospital, Republic of Korea, from April 2021 to March 2023. IPF patients were assigned to three groups according to the dose of pirfenidone (600mg, 1,200mg, 1,800mg). The primary endpoint was the efficacy of pirfenidone according to dose for the prevention of disease progression over 12 months. The secondary endpoint was the role of Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6) in predicting disease progression. Results: A total of 44 patients were enrolled, of whom 39 completed the study, with 13 patients assigned to each of the three groups. The median age was 71.7 years, and 79.5% of patients were men. The baseline characteristics were similar across groups, except the 600mg group was older (75.9 vs. 69.2 vs. 68.2 years, p = 0.016). Fourteen patients (35.9%) suffered disease progression. The rate of disease progression did not differ according to the dose of pirfenidone (38.5 vs. 38.5 vs. 30.8%, p = 1.000). In multivariable logistic regression analysis, KL-6 was not a statistically significant predictor of disease progression. Conclusions: In our study, regardless of dose, consistent pirfenidone use for 12 months resulted in similar efficacy for the prevention of disease progression in patients with IPF. Large-scale, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials are needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1020.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Costaria costata; fucoidan; idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Online: 15 May 2023 (10:27:55 CEST)
Pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic, progressive and fatal disease of the interstitial lung， there still lack of efficient therapy to reverse the prognosis of patients currently. In this study, a fucoidan from Costaria costata was isolated and its anti-idiopathic fibrosis activity was investigated both in vitro and in vivo. The chemical composition analysis results show that Costaria costata polysaccharide (CCP) is consisting of galactose and fucose as the main monosaccharides with a sulfate group content of 18.54%. The results found that CCP could resist TGF-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in A549 cells by inhibiting the TGF-β/Smad and PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathways. In vivo data found that CCP treatment alleviated bleomycin (BLM)-stimulated fibrosis and inflammation in mice lung tissue. This study suggests that CCP could protect the lung from fibrosis by relieving the EMT process and inflammation in lung cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0014.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: pulmonary hypertension; proteomic analysis; metabolomic analysis
Online: 3 January 2023 (07:53:10 CET)
Pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) causes a rare type of Pulmonary Hypertension (PH), by impacting the flow and pressure within the pulmonary vasculature resulting in endothelial dysfunction and metabolic changes. A prudent line of treatment in this type of PH would be targeted therapy in order to relieve the pressure and reverse the flow related changes. We used a swine model in order to mimic PH post PVS using pulmonary vein banding (PVB) of the lower lobes for 12 weeks to mimic the hemodynamic profile associated with PH and investigate the molecular alterations that provide an impetus for development of PH. Our current study aimed to employ unbiased proteomic and metabolomic analyses on both the upper and lower lobes of the swine lung to identify the regions with metabolic alterations. We detected changes in the upper lobes for the PVB animals mainly pertaining to fatty acid metabolism, ROS signaling and extracellular matrix remodeling, and small albeit significant changes in the lower lobes for purine metabolism.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0688.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: lung disease; pulmonary embolis; circulating anticoagulant
Online: 31 August 2020 (03:26:55 CEST)
The quarantine imposed as the response to the COVID 19 pandemic has been related to an increase in cases of thromboembolism in Non-COVID19 patients .We report the case of a patient with pulmonary thromboembolism without usual triggering causes during the quarantine period, related to a previously undiagnosed hypercoagulable condition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0280.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: diabetes mellitus; breast cancer; pulmonary volumes
Online: 27 June 2019 (06:08:48 CEST)
Background and Objective: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and breast cancer (BC) are diseases of high prevalence worldwide. Both alter lung function separately. So suffering both tables would increase this decrease in lung function. The objetive was to determine the effects of DM2 and BC on ventilation volumes and pressures in adult women. Material and Methods: Forty-two women patients were recruited, of whom 40 were accepted under the exclusion criteria. They were divided into four groups: control group (CG), DM2, BC and DM2+BC. Body plethysmography was used to measure forced vital capacity, lung volumes, airway resistance and muscle pressures. Finally the normality of the data was determined using Student's t test or the Mann-Whitney U test; the threshold of significance was p<0.05. Results: No significant differences were observed in the anthropometric variables between the control group and the other groups. The ventilation flows showed no significant differences, while the lung volumes presented significant differences in the inspiratory capacity (IC) variables (p<0,002). Maximum inspiratory and expiratory pressures (MIP-MEP) also presented significant diminution (p<0,001; p<0,041, respectively). Conclusions: From the results obtained we can conclude that the combination of type 2 diabetes mellitus with breast cancer caused a diminution in ventilation volumes and pressures, specifically in IC, MIP and MEP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0743.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: anesthesia; perioperative care; dehydration; fasting; pulmonary aspiration
Online: 11 October 2023 (13:20:04 CEST)
Despite the advancements in evidence-based medicine, many hospitals still maintain high rates of patients undergoing prolonged preoperative fasting. The goal of this study is to determine the prevalence of prolonged fasting time among patients undergoing elective surgeries at a Brazilian university hospital and its associations with clinical and sociodemographic variables. This cross-sectional study was conducted between May and November 2019 and included patients of all ages undergoing elective surgeries. Out of the 293 patients analyzed, 64.2% were male, with ages ranging from 1 to 85 years, and 93.9% were classified as ASA I or II. The prevalence of preoperative fasting exceeding 8 hours was 89.4%. An average fasting time exceeding 11 hours was observed across all age groups. Patients who underwent procedures in the afternoon had an average fasting time that was 16% longer than those in the morning period (13.84 vs. 11.92, p<0.001). Surgery time (r=0.134, p<0.03) and anesthesia times (r=0.121, p<0.04) demonstrated a weak correlation with fasting time. Despite the international consensus on preoperative fasting time, our study demonstrated low adherence to current recommendations. Therefore, healthcare professionals should ensure the comprehension of fasting guidelines, and further studies should aim to identify effective solutions to mitigate prolonged fasting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1996.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Gas6; Axl; EMT; Fibroblast activation; Pulmonary fibrosis
Online: 28 September 2023 (18:06:19 CEST)
The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a major event in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis pathogenesis. Here, we investigated whether growth arrest-specific protein 6 (Gas6) plays a protective role in lung fibrosis via suppression of the EMT and fibroblast activation. rGas6 ad-ministration inhibited the EMT in isolated mouse ATII cells 14 days post-BLM treatment based on morphologic cellular alterations, changes in mRNA and protein expression profiles of EMT markers, and induction of EMT-activating transcription factors. BLM-induced increases in gene expression of fibroblast activation-related markers and the invasive capacity of primary lung fi-broblasts in primary lung fibroblasts were reversed by rGas6 administration. Furthermore, the hydroxyproline content and collagen accumulation in interstitial areas with damaged alveolar structures in lung tissue were reduced by rGas6 administration. Targeting Gas6/Axl signaling events with specific inhibitors of Axl (BGB324), COX-2 (NS-398), EP1/EP2 receptor (AH-6809), or PGD2 DP2 receptor (BAY-u3405) reversed the inhibitory effects of rGas6 on EMT and fibroblast activation. Finally, we confirmed the antifibrotic effects of Gas6 using Gas6−/− mice. Therefore, Gas6/Axl signaling events play a potential role in inhibition of EMT process and fibroblast acti-vation via COX-2-derived PGE2 and PGD2 production, ultimately preventing the development of pulmonary fibrosis.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0782.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: telerehabilitation; COVID-19; pulmonary rehabilitation; aerobic exercises
Online: 12 September 2023 (10:42:59 CEST)
The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of a pulmonary telerehabilitation (TR) program in young adults with post-COVID-19 syndrome. The information of sixteen students' medical files were analyzed and allocated to one of two groups (control=CG/experimental=EG). Twelve TR sessions were performed distantly and asynchronously at the EG patients' homes during 4-weeks. The program included diaphragmatic pattern breathing and aerobic exercises. The parameters: i) vital signs (oxygen saturation "SpO2", heart rate "HR", respiratory rate "RR" and blood pressure "BP"; ii) physical capacity “Sit-to-stand test”; iii) cardiorespiratory capacity “6-Minute Walk Test”; and iv) perceived effort "Borg scale" were assessed in both groups. The statistical analyses showed a significant decrease of RR and HR (p < 0.012) accompanied by a significant increase in SpO2 (p < 0.042), physical (p < 0.012) and respiratory (p < 0.028) capacity. The perceived effort decreased significantly in both groups (CG: p < 0.006; EG p < 0.001) only for physical but not for cardiorespiratory capacity (p < 0.106). There were no statistical changes registered in BP (p > 0.05). The current study suggests that a TR program that involves breathing and aerobics exercises is feasible and effective in treating post-COVID-19 syndrome in young patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2072.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: pulmonary embolism; mortality; total leukocyte counts; hemoglobin
Online: 30 August 2023 (11:02:52 CEST)
This study aimed to assess the prognostic significance of total leukocyte count (TLC) and hemoglobin (Hb) levels upon admission for patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE), considering the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) model for mortality risk. 1622 patients from a regional PE registry were included. Decision tree statistics were employed to evaluate TLC and Hb's prognostic value, both independently and in conjunction with the ESC model. Results indicated all-cause and PE-related in-hospital mortality rates of 10.7% and 6.5% respectively. Subgrouping patients based on TLC cutoff values (≤11.2, 11.2-16.84, >16.84 x10^9/L) revealed increasing all-cause mortality risks (7.0%, 11.8%, 30.2%). Incorporating Hb levels (≤126 g/L or above) further stratified the lowest risk group into two strata with all-cause mortality rates of 10.1% and 4.7%. Similar trends were observed for PE-related mortality. Notably, TLC improved risk assessment for intermediate-high risk patients within the ESC model, while Hb levels enhanced mortality risk stratification for lower risk PE patients in the ESC model for all-cause mortality. In conclusion, TLC and Hb levels upon admission can refine the ESC model's mortality risk classification for patients with acute PE, providing valuable insights for improved patient management.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1855.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: sarcoidosis; advanced pulmonary fibrosis; signaling; molecular pathway
Online: 26 May 2023 (04:55:01 CEST)
Sarcoidosis is a multisystemic disease of unknown etiology characterized by the formation of granulomas in various organs, especially lung and mediastinal hilar lymph nodes. The clinical course and manifestations are unpredictable: spontaneous remission can occur in approximately two thirds of patients; up to 20% of patients have chronic course of the lung disease (called Ad-vanced Pulmonary Sarcoidosis) resulting in progressive loss of lung function, sometimes life-threatening that can lead to respiratory failure and death. The immunopathology mechanism leading from granuloma formation to the fibrosis in APS still remains elusive. Recent studies have provided new insights into the genetics factors and immune components involved in the clinical manifestation of the disease. In this review we aim to summarize the clinical-prognostic charac-teristics and molecular pathways which are believed to be associated with the development of APS
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1291.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Emergency Medicine Keywords: Pulmonary emboli; PE; right ventricular (RV) dysfunction
Online: 18 May 2023 (07:44:33 CEST)
Background: Pulmonary emboli (PE) is a life threatening condition that is discovered in many patients only "post mortem". Adequate and timely detection of PE is crucial, because of the high mortality and morbidity and the sudden unexpected hemodynamic collapse that may occur in patients with PE. Objectives: To assess the ability to predict clinical outcome of patients with acute PE, using a non-gated computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA), based on the dimensions of the right ventricle. Methods: A retrospective study that analyzed CTPA images of patients admitted with acute PE during the years 2012-2017 in Baruch Padeh Medical Center. The cohort study included 300 patients with documented acute PE, among them 255 were hospitalized in medical (non-intensive care unit) wards, and 45 were patients were hospitalized in an intensive care unit (ICU). Results: Among the 45 patients admitted to the ICU, 8% died. Larger RV diameters predicted mortality (OR=10.14, 95% CI [1.09-93.86]) as well as lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements (p=0.001 and 0.01). Among the 255 patients that were admitted in the Internal Medicine Ward 7% died. Older age (p=0.028), sepsis and cancer (both p<0.001), high WBCs count (p<0.001), and renal failure (p<0.001) predicted death. Overall, of all 300 patients that were admitted, lower blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) (p<0.001, 0.008), older age (p<0.007), sepsis (p<0.001), cancer (p=0.006), higher WBCs count (p<0.001), and impaired renal function (p<0.001) predicted death among patients admitted with confirmed acute PE. Conclusions: Clinical parameters and hematological parameters could predict the outcome of patients admitted with acute PE. RV diameter, measured by the non-ECG gated CTPA had an additive predictive value for patients who were hemodynamically unstable on admission and were hospitalized in the ICU.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0417.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: cytokines; pulmonary; COVID-19; CORADS; moderate; severe
Online: 22 November 2022 (09:56:04 CET)
Aim: In individuals with COVID-19, the study assessed the relationship between cytokine expression and pulmonary dysfunction. These correlations may help to suggest strategies for prevention and therapies of coronavirus disease outbreak. Patients and methods: 50 healthy participants and 100 COVID-19 patients participated in this study. COVID-19 participants were subdivided into moderate and severe groups based on the severity of their symptoms. In both patients and controls, measurements of white blood cells (WBCs), lymphocytes, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-1, IL-4, IL-6, IL-18, and IL-35 were estimated. All the patients performed chest CT and CO-RADS score was assessed. Results: All patients had increased WBCs count and CRP, IL-1, IL-4, IL-6, IL-18, and IL-35 levels than healthy controls. While WBCs, CRP, and cytokines like IL-1β and IL-6 showed significantly higher levels in the severe group as compared to moderate patients, IL-4, IL-35, and IL-18 showed comparable levels in both disease groups. Furthermore, CO-RADS score was positively connected with WBCs, CRP, and cytokine levels (IL-35, IL-18, IL-6, IL-4 and IL-1β) in both groups, and lymphocyte levels in all patient groups considerably decreased as compared to the controls. CO-RADS score, also demonstrated a positive correlation with lymphocytes in the moderate COVID-19 patients, whereas in the severe patients, it demonstrated a negative correlation with lymphocytes. Conclusion: Severe COVID-19 patients, compared to individuals with moderate illness and healthy controls, patients had lower lymphocyte counts and increased CRP with greater WBCs counts. In contrast to moderate COVID-19 patients, severe COVID-19 patients had higher levels of IL-1β and IL-6, but IL-4, IL-18, and IL-35 between both illness categories at close levels. CO-RADS 5 was the most frequent category in both moderate and severe cases. Patients with a typical CO-RADS involvement had a higher CRP and white blood cell count with a lower lymphocyte count than the others. Cytokine levels were considered a surrogate markers of severe lung affection in COVID 19 patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0499.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: HAPE; risk factors; echocardiography; pulmonary pressure; workload
Online: 30 August 2022 (03:18:35 CEST)
Background: At altitudes beyond 2500 m the risk of developing high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) grows with the increases in pulmonary arterial pressure. HAPE is characterized by severe pulmonary hypertension, though the incidence and relevance of individual risk factors are not yet predictable. However, the systolic pulmonary pressure (SPAP) and peak in tricuspid regurgitation velocity (TVR) are crucial factors when diagnosing pulmonary hypertension by echocardiography. Methods: The SPAP and TVR of 27 trekkers aged 20-65 years en route in the Solu Khumbu region of Nepal was assessed. Echocardiograph measurements were performed at Lukla (2,860 m), Gorak Shep (5170 m), and the summit of Kala Patthar (5,675 m). The altitude profile and the participant’s characteristics were also compiled for correlation with the measured data. Results: The results showed a highly significant increase of SPAP and TVR after ascending Kala Patthar. The study revealed a lower increase of SPAP and TVR in the group of older participants, although the initial respective measurements in Gorak Shep were significantly higher for this group. A similar finding occurred in those using Diamox® as prophylaxis. There was an inverse relationship between TVR and SPAP, the peripheral capillary oxygen saturation and heart rate. Conclusions: The echocardiograph results indicate that older people are a risk group for developing a HAPE. The prophylactic use of acetazolamid led to higher initial SPAP values in Gorak Shep, and a lower increase of SPAP as well as TRV after ascending Kala Patthar. Arterial oxygen saturation measurements can provide an indicator for the self-assessment for the risk of developing HAPE and provide a rule of thumb for the altitude profile but does not replace a HAPE diagnosis. The collected data variables concerning backpack weight, sex, workload (actual ascent speed), and pre-existing diseases were not statistically significant factors related to SPAP and TVR (p=<0.05).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0332.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Angiogenesis; Pulmonary hypertension; Endothelium; PHD2 Deficiency; Hypoxia
Online: 22 March 2021 (15:51:47 CET)
Endothelial autocrine signaling is essential to maintain vascular hemostasis. There is limited in-formation about the role of endothelial autocrine signaling in regulating severe pulmonary vas-cular remodeling during the onset of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). In this study, we employed the first severe PAH mouse model, Egln1Tie2Cre (Tie2Cre-mediated disruption of Egln1) mice, to identify the novel autocrine signaling mediating the pulmonary vascular endothelial cells (PVECs) hyperproliferation and the pathogenesis of PAH. PVECs isolated from Egln1Tie2Cre lung expressed upregulation of many growth factors or angiocrine factors such as CXCL12, and exhib-ited hyperproliferative phenotype in coincident with upregulation of proliferation specific tran-scriptional factor FoxM1. Treatment of CXCL12 on PVECs increased FoxM1 expression, which was blocked by CXCL12 receptor CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 in culture human PVECs. Endo-thelial specific deletion of Cxcl12 (Egln1/Cxcl12Tie2 Cre) or AMD3100 treatment in Egln1Tie2Cre mice downregulated FoxM1 expression in vivo. We then generated and characterized a novel mouse model with endothelial specific FoxM1 deletion in Egln1Tie2Cre mice (Egln1/Foxm1Tie2Cre), and found that endothelial FoxM1 deletion reduced pulmonary vascular remodeling and right ventricular systolic pressure. Together, our study identified a novel mechanism of endothelial autocrine sig-naling in regulating PVECs hyperproliferation and pulmonary vascular remodeling in PAH.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0475.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: pulmonary arteriovenous malformation; exercise intolerance; oxygen desaturation
Online: 18 November 2020 (12:29:02 CET)
Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (PAVMs) in children are rare lesions characterized by abnormal low resistance vascular structures connecting a pulmonary artery to a pulmonary vein, resulting in an intrapulmonary right-to-left shunt. The insidious onset and variable signs and symptoms make diagnosis difficult, especially in children. PAVMs can be single or multiple, congenital or acquired, and up to 47-80% of cases are associated with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT).We present the case of a 12-year-old female teenager referred to our center for epistaxis, headache, fatigue and weakness, with evidence of mild oxygen desaturation. Bubble test showed a right-to-left shunt and pulmonary angio-CT confirmed the diagnosis. Percutaneous selective embolization was performed with full recovery of normal arterial oxygen saturation. When differentiating between mild oxygen desaturation and exercise intolerance in children and adolescents, physicians should be aware of the possibility of PAVMs as a cause.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0073.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: genomics; pediatrics; lung disease; pulmonary arterial hypertension
Online: 3 September 2020 (15:29:36 CEST)
Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a rare disease with high mortality despite recent therapeutic advances. The disease is caused by both genetic and environmental factors, and likely gene x environment interactions. While PAH can manifest across the lifespan, pediatric-onset disease is particularly challenging because it is frequently associated with a more severe clinical course and comorbidities including lung/heart developmental anomalies. In light of these differences, it is perhaps not surprising that emerging data from genetic studies of pediatric-onset PAH indicate that the genetic basis is different than that of adults. There is a greater genetic burden in children, with rare genetic factors contributing to at least 36% of pediatric-onset idiopathic PAH (IPAH) compared to ~11% of adult-onset IPAH. De novo variants are frequently associated with PAH in children, and contribute to at least 15% of all pediatric cases. The standard of medical care for pediatric PAH patients is based on extrapolations from adult data. However, the increased etiologic heterogeneity, poorer prognosis and increased genetic burden for pediatric-onset PAH calls for a dedicated pediatric research agenda to improve molecular diagnosis and clinical management. A genomics-first approach will improve the understanding of pediatric PAH and how it is related to other rare pediatric genetic disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0303.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: ventilatory assessment; physiotherapy; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Online: 29 August 2019 (04:52:15 CEST)
Background and objective: Addressing the global morbidity associated with pulmonary disease is an important need for the respiratory community. However, there is also a growing momentum to show the efficacy of new tools of diagnosis. Despite this, there are few physiotherapeutic tools that help identify and categorize these conditions. The aim was to analyze the variables of physiotherapy index of the ventilatory workload (PIVW) in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) during stability and exacerbation in an outpatient setting. Material and Methods: Analyzed retrospectively of 198 clinical records were reviewed. The PIVW was extracted in stability and exacerbation of these patients with COPD. After applying the exclusion and inclusion criteria; 54 patients were classified. Through the statistical analysis of chi-square, a significant association was reported for each of the variables and the total PIVW score. Results: when analyzing the baseline with the peak of PIVW, there was a significant increase in patients COPD exacerbation. Similarly, the variables that constitute the loads, translations and supports underwent a significant increase from baseline to exacerbation (p<0.0001), except for the additional oxygen contribution, where the frequency of patients was the same in basal and exacerbation as well. Conclusions: the PIVW, serves to determine ventilatory problemas in outpatients, characterizing the specific changes of loads, translators or assistance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0065.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: pulmonary tuberculosis; lymph node tuberculosis; extra-pulmonary tuberculosis; single nucleotide polymorphisms; cytokine; innate immunity; genetic association; genotype; serum
Online: 5 December 2022 (08:00:15 CET)
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) manifests itself primarily in the lungs as pulmonary disease (PTB) and sometimes disseminates to other organs to cause extra-pulmonary TB, such as lymph node TB (LNTB). This study aimed to investigate the role of host genetic polymorphism in immunity related genes to find a genetic basis for such differences. Methods: Sixty-three, Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in twenty-three, TB-immunity related genes including eleven innate immunity (SLCA11, VDR, TLR2, TLR4, TLR8, IRGM, P2RX7, LTA4H, SP110, DCSIGN and NOS2A) and twelve cytokine (TNFA, IFNG, IL2, Il12, IL18, IL1B, IL10, IL6, IL4, IL1RA, IL8 and TNFB) genes were investigated to find genetic associations in both PTB and LNTB as compared to healthy community controls. The serum cytokine levels were correlated for association with the genotypes. Results: PTB and LNTB showed differential genetic associations. The genetic variants in the cytokine genes (IFNG, IL12, IL4, TNFB and IL1RA and TLR2,4 associated with PTB susceptibility and cytokine levels but not LNTB (p < 0.05). Similarly, genetic variants in LTA4H, P2RX7, DCSIGN and SP110 showed susceptibility to LNTB and not PTB. Pathway analysis showed abundance of cytokine related variants for PTB and apoptosis related variants for LNTB. Conclusions: PTB and LNTB outcomes of TB infection have a genetic component and should be considered for any future susceptibility and functional studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0537.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: resistin like molecule; pulmonary hypertension; type 2 inflammation; adaptive immune response; retnla; retnlb; retnlg; mouse strains; experimental pulmonary hypertension; urban PM; urban fine dust; immune response in pulmonary hypertension
Online: 7 June 2023 (10:40:37 CEST)
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) has a high mortality, and few treatment options. Adaptive immune mediators of PH in mice challenged with antigen/particulate matter (antigen/PM) has been the focus of our prior work. We identified key roles of type 2 and type 17 responses in C57BL/6 mice. Here, we focused on type 2 response related cytokines, specifically Resistin-like-molecule (RELM)α, a critical mediator of hypoxia-induced PH. Because of strain differences in the immune responses to type 2 stimuli, we compared C57BL/6J and BALB/c mice. A model of intraperitoneal antigen sensitization with subsequent, intranasal challenges with antigen/PM (ovalbumin and urban ambient PM2.5) or saline was used in C57BL/6 and BALB/c wild type or RELMα-/- mice. Vascular remodeling was assessed by histology, right ventricular (RV) pressure, RV weights and cytokines were quantified. Upon challenge with antigen/PM2.5, both C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice developed pulmonary vascular remodeling; these changes were more prominent in the C57BL/6 strain. Compared to wild type mice, RELMα-/- had significantly reduced pulmonary vascular remodeling in BALB/c, but not in C57BL/6 mice. RV weights, RV IL-33 and RV ST2-IL-33-receptor were significantly increased in BALB/c wild type mice, but not in BALB/c-RELMα-/- or in C57BL/6-wild type or C57BL/6-RELMα-/- mice. RV systolic pressures (RVSP) were higher in BALB/c compared to C57BL/6J mice, and RELMα-/- were not different from their respective wild type controls. In BALB/c mice, RELMα was a key contributor to antigen/PM2.5 induced pulmonary vascular remodeling, RV thickening and RV cytokine responses, highlighting the significance of the genetic background. The RELMα-/- animals demonstrated significantly decreased expression of RELMβ and RELM which makes these mice comparable to a situation where human RELMα levels would be significantly modified, as humans only have one RELM molecule.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1992.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Fungal; Bacterial; crosskingdom communiites; di-kingdom; pulmonary disease
Online: 5 December 2023 (04:28:14 CET)
Fungal-bacterial co-colonization and co-infections are emerging among TB-suspected patients, yet the underlying mechanisms that enable and arise from their interactions are poorly understood. Understanding how environmental microbes such as fungi and bacteria co-evolve and develop traits to evade host immune responses and resist treatment is critical to controlling opportunistic co-infections. Our previous work has demonstrated that fungal-bacterial interactions can have dramatic impacts on fungal pathogenesis and drug resistance. Here, we, therefore, hypothesize that cross-kingdom synergistic interactions between environmental fungi and bacteria may influence both fungal and bacterial virulence, antimicrobial resistance patterns and aetiology. Through this, we aimed to establish the prevalence of fungal–bacterial microbial communities associated with chronic primary or opportunistic pulmonary infections. Concordantly, through surveilling 302 clinical samples from 151 patients, we established the prevalence of TB (0.7%) to be lower than that of fungi (1.3%) and non-TB bacterial (4.6%) mono-aetiologies Figure 2. However, our main observation was the unexpected taxonomic diversity with a striking twist of fungal-bacterial di-kingdom aetiological conformities. Interestingly, the majority of the patients presented with at least a di or mono-kingdom aetiological pairings. Importantly, fungi and non-TB bacteria formerly regarded as atypical opportunists are now frequently isolated as possible aetiology for chronic pulmonary infection. Hence, we revealed many di-kingdom aetiological pairings here but their significance remains a question of further examination. Among which Acremonium spp + K. pneumoniae (n=5), Acremonium spp +Streptococcus pneumoniae (n=4), Acremonium spp + C. albicans + K. pneumoniae (n=3) were among the most dominant aetiological pairings observed. Interestingly, Acremonium spp + K. pneumoniae pairings were also seen to be the most commonly associated with pulmonary TB both during and after treatment. Isolation from the same infection niche as seen here calls for further investigations into any interaction signatures that may exist between these organisms. Taken together, our data suggest that fungal-bacterial co-existence may influence their virulence attributes and antimicrobial resistance patterns, with relevance to patient outcomes. Therefore, our data reveals an array of fungal-bacterial pairings that may influence the prognosis of chronic pulmonary disease. Importantly, suggesting that the diversity of pulmonary infective fungi and bacteria, and their complex population structures may pose challenges to the analysis and interpretation of conventional data. Thus, there is a need to redirect our diagnostic approaches to encompass polymicrobial aetiology in order to enhance our suspicion index for better management of opportunistic fungal-bacterial co-infections.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0669.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: case report; COVID-19; mRNA; pulmonary hypertension; vaccine
Online: 8 August 2023 (11:53:56 CEST)
Background: To our knowledge, the sudden onset of symptomatic pulmonary hypertension after COVID-19 vaccination has not been described. Both cases presented here resulted in functional limitations and likely permanent organ damage. Case Summary: We report two cases of acute onset pulmonary hypertension in previously healthy adult males within three weeks of receiving the second dose of the Pfizer (BNT162b2) mRNA COVID-19 vaccine from different lots. Both patients experienced the sudden onset of severe fatigue and dyspnea on exertion with negative COVID-19 PCR testing. The diagnosis was made by serial transthoracic echocardiography in the first case and by both transthoracic echocardiography and right heart catheterization in the second. Discussion: Pulmonary hypertension is a serious disease characterized by damage to lung vasculature and restricted blood flow through narrowed arteries from the right to left heart. The onset of symptoms is typically insidious, progressive and incurable, leading to right heart failure and premature death. The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies pulmonary hypertension into 5 categories and recently re-defined as a resting mean pulmonary artery pressure greater than 20 mmHg. Sudden onset pulmonary hypertension would only be expected in the settings of surgical pneumonectomy or massive pulmonary emboli with compromise of at least 50% of the lung vasculature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1057.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: genetic polymorphism; ACE1 rs4646994; lung cancer; pulmonary nodules
Online: 27 April 2023 (07:47:55 CEST)
Background: Currently, many detection methods have high sensitivity to the diagnosis of lung cancer. However, some postoperative patients with pulmonary nodule were eventually diagnosed as benign nodules. The ideal evaluation of an individual with a pulmonary nodule would expedite therapy for a malignant nodule and minimize testing for those with a benign nodule.Methods: This case-control study is designed to explore the relationship between ACE1 rs4646994 polymorphism and the risk of lung cancer in patients with pulmonary nodules, 400 individuals with lung cancer and benign pulmonary nodules were included. A DNA extraction kit was used to extract plasm DNA from peripheral blood. The relationship between ACE1 rs4646994 and the risk of lung cancer in patients with pulmonary nodules was determined by chi-square test, logistic regression analysis and cross analysis. Results: The results showed that the DD genotype of ACE1 rs4646994 may increase the risk of lung cancer in patients with pulmonary nodules, and this correlation was more significant in the female subgroup. In the age stratification analysis, it was found that the risk of lung cancer was significantly increased in the DD genotype of ACE1 rs4646994 in the older subgroup (> 45 years). In addition, the possibility of EGFR mutation in lung adenocarcinoma patients with ACE1 rs4646994 DD genotype was lower than that of II or ID genotype carriers. Conclusions: Our study indicated that ACE1 rs4646994 polymorphism increases the risk of lung cancer in patients with pulmonary nodules from China.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0337.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Pulmonary vasculature; BMP signaling; angiogenesis; vascular biology; lung
Online: 20 February 2023 (09:39:09 CET)
Transmembrane protein 100 (TMEM100) plays an important role in angiogenesis, vascular morphogenesis, integrity and cardiovascular development. TMEM100 is a downstream target of the BMP9/10 and BMPR2/ALK1 signaling pathways. Our recent study demonstrates TMEM100 is a lung endothelium enriched gene. Endothelial-specific deletion of Tmem100 impairs lung endothelial cells regeneration. Activation of Tmem100 signaling represents a novel strategy for lung vascular repair and regeneration. It is interesting and important to understand the roles of TMEM100 in the physiological and pathological conditions. In this review, we summarized the current knowledge of TMEM100.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0416.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: kidney disease; hemodialysis; immunosuppression; pulmonary infections; computed tomography
Online: 24 August 2022 (08:30:16 CEST)
Patients under immunosuppressive therapy for kidney diseases or on maintenance hemodialysis are more susceptible to infection than the general population since loss of renal function per se was an immunocompromised condition. Of relevance, CT imaging plays a crucial role in the detection and management of pulmonary infectious diseases. We hence presented diverse CT findings of pulmonary infections in the above said patients collected during our arduous work against a wide range of pathogens including klebsiella pneumoniae, staphylococcus aureus, candida parapsilosis, aspergillus, cryptococcus, mucor, pneumocystis carinii, cytomegalovirus, mycobacterium and nocardia. Notably, the pulmonary pathological changes were either primary pneumonia or secondary to the catheter-associated bloodstream infection. For a descriptive purpose, pulmonary manifestations of Wegener’s granuloma, lung cancer and diffuse alveolar hemorrhage/infection in vasculitis were also examined. As such, we retrospectively elaborated most likely CT features of each individual pathogen and briefly covered the differential diagnosis as well. Arguably, combination of pattern recognition with knowledge of the clinical setting could make a presumptive diagnosis and early treatment even more convenient. From the experience of first-line nephrologists, our work could make a substantial contribution to the expeditious and efficacious management of pulmonary infections in the pertinent patient population.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0023.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; bradykinin; ACE2; pulmonary angioedema; ARDS; icatibant
Online: 3 April 2020 (04:13:43 CEST)
Most striking observations in COVID-19 patients are the hints on pulmonary edema (also seen on CT scans as ground glass opacities), dry cough, fluid restrictions to prevent more severe hypoxia, the huge PEEP that is needed while lungs are compliant, and the fact that anti-inflammatory therapies are not powerful enough to counter the severity of the disease. We propose that the severity of the disease and many deaths are due to a local vascular problem due to activation of B1 receptors on endothelial cells in the lungs. SARS-CoV-2 enters the cell via ACE2, a cell membrane bound molecule with enzymatic activity that next to its role in RAS is needed to inactivate des-Arg9 bradykinin, the potent ligand of the bradykinin receptor type 1 (B1). In contrast to bradykinin receptor 2 (B2), the B1 receptor on endothelial cells is upregulated by proinflammatory cytokines. Without ACE2 acting as a guardian to inactivate the ligands of B1, the lung environment is prone for local vascular leakage leading to angioedema. Angioedema is likely a feature already early in disease, and might explain the typical CT scans and the feeling of people that they drown. In some patients, this is followed by a clinical worsening of disease around day 9 due to the formation antibodies directed against the spike (S)-antigen of the corona-virus that binds to ACE2 that could contribute to disease by enhancement of local immune cell influx and proinflammatory cytokines leading to damage. In parallel, inflammation induces more B1 expression, and possibly via antibody-dependent enhancement of viral infection leading to continued ACE2 dysfunction in the lung because of persistence of the virus. In this viewpoint we propose that a bradykinin-dependent local lung angioedema via B1 and B2 receptors is an important feature of COVID-19, resulting in a very high number of ICU admissions. We propose that blocking the B1 and B2 receptors might have an ameliorating effect on disease caused by COVID-19. This kinin-dependent pulmonary edema is resistant to corticosteroids or adrenaline and should be targeted as long as the virus is present. In addition, this pathway might indirectly be responsive to anti-inflammatory agents or neutralizing strategies for the anti-S-antibody induced effects, but by itself is likely to be insufficient to reverse all the pulmonary edema. Moreover, we provide a suggestion of how to ventilate in the ICU in the context of this hypothesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0137.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: mycoses; epidemiology; Romania; candidaemia; aspergillosis; chronic pulmonary conditions
Online: 21 February 2018 (16:41:29 CET)
Objective: To estimate for the first time the burden of serious fungal infections in Romania; Methods: Data derived from the World Health Organization (WHO), National Institute of Statistics, Romanian public health agencies and non-profit health organizations and published annual reports on local epidemiology were used in the present study. When no data was available, specific at-risk populations were used to calculate frequencies of serious fungal diseases, using previously published epidemiological parameters. All data refer to the year 2016; 3) Results: The estimated number of serious fungal infections in Romanian population was 435,930 in 2016. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis accounts for up to 80% of total cases (more than 350,000 women annually). Concerning the HIV related infections, among 14349 infected persons, Pneumocystis pneumonia occurred in about 10% of late presenters (30 cases in 2016), while cryptococcal meningitis is rarely diagnosed (less than 20 cases). Annually, the total number of oesophageal candidiasis and oral thrush cases in HIV-positive patients may be as high as 1229 and 3066, respectively. In immunocompromised and cancer patient population, the annual incidence of candidaemia is 295, and at least 158 invasive aspergillosis cases and 4 mucormycosis cases occur yearly. With 4,966 critical care beds and approximately 200,000 abdominal surgeries performed, the estimated annual incidence of candidaemia and Candida peritonitis is 689 and 344, respectively. The annual incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis is still high in Romania (12,747 cases). Thus, the prevalence of post-TB chronic pulmonary aspergillosis is estimated to be 8.98/100,000 (1768 cases). The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma in adults is 6% and 6.5%, respectively. Therefore, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis prevalence is estimated at 29,387 and severe asthma with fungal sensitisation at 38,731 cases annually. 4) Conclusions: Not being on the list of reportable diseases, the number of patients presenting with severe mycoses in Romania can only be roughly estimated. Based on local reports and prevalence estimation, we consider that at least 2.2% of Romanians suffer a serious form of fungal disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0036.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: pulmonary arterial hypertension; prostacyclin; nanoparticle; drug delivery system
Online: 13 February 2017 (09:27:09 CET)
Nanoparticles have been used as a novel drug delivery system. Drug-incorporated nanoparticles for local delivery might optimize the efficacy and minimize the side effects of drugs. The efficacy and safety of intratracheal administration of prostacyclin analog (beraprost)-incorporated nanoparticles and imatinib, a PDGF-receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, -incorporated nanoparticles in Sugen-hypoxia-normoxia or monocrotaline rat models of PAH and in human PAH-pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells have been reported. The use of inhaled drug-incorporated nanoparticles might be a novel approach for treatment of PAH.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0074.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; miR-30a; TET1; Drp-1
Online: 16 January 2017 (04:44:44 CET)
Several recent studies have indicated that miR-30a plays critical roles in various biological processes and diseases. However, the mechanism of miR-30a participation in the regulation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is ambiguous. Our previous study demonstrated that miR-30a may function as a novel therapeutic target for lung ﬁbrosis by blocking mitochondrial fission, which is dependent on dynamin-related protein-1 (Drp-1). However, the regulatory mechanism between miR-30a and Drp-1 has yet to be investigated. In addition, whether miR-30a can act as a potential therapeutic has not been verified in vivo. In this study, the miR-30a expression in IPF patients was evaluated. Computational analysis and a dual luciferase reporter system assay were used to identify the target gene of miR-30a, and cell transfection was used to confirm this relationship. Ten-eleven translocation 1 (TET1) was validated as a direct target of miR-30a, and the transfection of miR-30a mimic/inhibitor significantly reduced/increased the expression of TET1 protein. Further experiment verified that the interference on TET1(siRNA) could inhibit the hydroxymethlation of the Drp-1 promoter. Finally, miR-30a agomir was designed and applied to identify and validate the therapeutic effect of miR-30a in vivo. Our study demonstrated that miR-30a could inhibit the TET1 expression by base pairing with complementary sites in the 3′ untranslated region to regulate the hydroxymethlation of the Drp-1 promoter. Furthermore, miR-30a could act as a potential therapeutic target for IPF.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1440.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: Interstitial lung diseases; Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; Telomere length; Prognosis
Online: 23 November 2023 (17:35:25 CET)
Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) constitute a group of more than 200 disorders, being idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) one of the most frequent. Telomere length (TL) shortening causes loss of function of the lung parenchyma. However, little is known about its role as prognostic factor in ILD patients. With the aim of investigating the role of TL and telomerase activity in the prognosis of patients affected by ILDs, we analysed lung tissue samples from 61 patients. We measured relative TL and telomerase activity by conventional procedures. Both clinical and molecular parameters were associated with overall survival by the Kaplan-Meier method. Patients with IPF had poorer prognosis than patients with other ILDs (p = 0.034). When patients were classified according to TL, those with shortened telomeres reported lower overall survival (p = 0.085); differences reached statistical significance after excluding ILD patients who developed cancer (p = 0.021). In a Cox regression analysis, TL behaved as a risk-modifying variable for death associated with rheumatological disorders (RD) co-occurrence (p = 0.029). Also, in patients without cancer, ferritin was significantly increased in cases with RD and IPF co-occurrence (p = 0.032). In relation to telomerase activity, no significant differences were detected. In conclusion, TL in lung tissue emerges as a prognostic factor in ILD patients, Specifically, in cases with RD and IPF co-occurrence, TL can be considered as a risk-modifying variable for death.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0865.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: COVID-19; invasive pulmonary aspergillosis; critically ill; cytomegalovirus; ards
Online: 13 October 2023 (08:36:47 CEST)
Introduction and Aims: COVID-19-associated invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) is common and is associated with poor outcomes in critically ill patients. This prospective observational study aimed to explore the association between CAPA development and the incidence and prognosis of cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation in critically ill COVID-19 patients. Materials and Methods: We included all consecutive critically ill adult patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection who were admitted to three COVID-19 intensive care units (ICUs) in an Italian hospital from February 25, 2020, to May 8, 2022. A standardized procedure was employed for early detection of CAPA. Risk factors associated with CAPA and CMV reactivation and the association between CMV recurrence and mortality were estimated using adjusted Cox proportional hazard regression models. Results: CAPA occurred in 96 patients (16,6%) of the 579 patients analyzed. Among the CAPA population 40 (41,7%) patients developed CMV blood reactivation with a median time of 18 days (IQR 7-27). The CAPA+CMV group did not exhibit a significantly higher 90-day mortality rate (62.5% vs. 48.2%) than the CAPA alone group (p=0.166). The CAPA+CMV group had a longer ICU stay, fewer ventilation-free days, and a higher rate of secondary bacterial infections than the control group of CAPA alone. In the CAPA population, prior immunosuppression was the only independent risk factor for CMV reactivation (HR 2.33, 95% C.I. 1.21-4.48, p=0.011). Conclusions: In critically ill COVID-19 patients, CMV reactivation is common in those with a previous CAPA diagnosis. Basal immunosuppression before COVID-19 appeared to be the primary independent variable affecting CMV reactivation in patients with CAPA. Furthermore, the association of CAPA+CMV versus CAPA alone appears to impact ICU length of stay and secondary bacterial infections but not mortality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1440.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: interstitial lung disease; idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; hyaluronic acid; Longidaza
Online: 21 July 2023 (02:36:30 CEST)
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is one of the most common forms of interstitial lung disease characterized by progressive parenchymal fibrosis and respiratory failure. In a model of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, the antifibrotic and anti-inflammatory activity of Longidaza (bovhyaluronidase azoxymer), which contains a conjugate of the hyaluronidase enzyme with a high molecular weight synthetic carrier azoxymer bromide, was investigated. Experiments were conducted in male C57BL/6 mice. Longidaza was administered at different doses by intranasal and intramuscular routes. Histology, hematology and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used in the study. The use of Longidaza reduced pulmonary fibrosis as evidenced by an improvement in histopathologic damage to the lungs, a decrease in the area of connective tissue and the levels of profibrotic factors (TGF-β1, hydroxyproline, collagen I) in lung tissue. In addition, Longidaza inhibited the inflammatory response in pulmonary fibrosis, decreased the levels of IL-6, TNF-α, hyaluronic acid in lung tissue and the recruitment of inflammatory cells into lung tissue. The highest therapeutic efficacy was observed with the use of Longidaza at doses of 120 and 1200 U/kg intramuscularly, which was superior to that of the reference drug pirfenidone axunio. The data presented in this study suggest that Longidaza is a new and promising drug for the treatment of IPF that warrants further investigation in patients with fibrotic interstitial lung disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1516.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: Pulmonary aspiration; gastric ultrasound; antrum; gastric volume; elective surgery
Online: 21 June 2023 (09:54:17 CEST)
Pulmonary aspiration is a serious anaesthetic complication with morbidity and up to 9% of all anaesthesia-related mortality. Aspiration risk is especially focused on fastening time. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of 'risky stomach' defined by ultrasound imagine of solid contents and/or calculated gastric fluid volume >1.25 mL/kg in elective surgery also comparing this definition with the 0-2 qualitative rating scale used for "empty/risky stomach". This prospective study has 97 patients aged 2-18. Ultrasonographic evaluations of the gastric antrum content is scaled with qualitative assessment in supine and right lateral decubitus (RLD) position. Gastric volume was calculated. In our study, stomach content and volume were evaluated by ultrasound in 97% of children and 5.2% had Grade 2 antrum. In RLD position, antral CSA was 2.36 cm², and the median gastric volume was 0.46 mL/kg. In patients with grade 0 antrum has moderate and positive correlation between antral CSA and BMI, and strong and positive correlation between antral CSA and age like grade 1 antrum. We showed that 0.1%-4.7% of elective children had gastric fluid volumes of >1.25 mL/kg as "risky stomach". Ultrasound for gastric contents could be used routine practice to determine pulmonary aspiration risk in emergency and elective procedures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1442.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: alkaline phosphatase; cardiac surgery; cardio-pulmonary bypass; endocarditis; kidney
Online: 20 June 2023 (12:35:56 CEST)
(1) Infective endocarditis is a severe inflammatory disease associated with substantial mortality and morbidity. Alkaline phosphatase (AP) levels have been shown to change significantly during sepsis additionally we previously found higher initial AP drop after cardiac surgery is associat-ed with unfavorable outcomes. Therefore, the course of AP after surgery for endocarditis is of special interest. (2) 314 patients with active isolated left-sided infective endocarditis at the De-partment of Cardiac Surgery (Medical University of Vienna, Austria) between 2009 and 2018 were enrolled in this retrospective analysis. Blood samples were analyzed at different time points (baseline, postoperative day 1-7, postoperative days 14, and 30). Patients were categorized ac-cording to relative alkaline phosphatase drop (≥30% vs. <30%). (3) The rate of postoperative renal replacement therapy with or without prior renal replacement therapy (7.4 vs. 21.8%; p=0.001 and 6.7 vs. 15.6%; p=0.015, respectively) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (2.2 vs. 19.0%; p=0.000) was observed after a higher initial alkaline phosphatase drop. Short-term (30-day mor-tality 3.0 vs. 10.6%; p=0.010) and long-term mortality (p=0.008) were significantly impaired after a higher initial alkaline phosphatase drop. (4) The higher initial alkaline phosphatase drop was accompanied by impaired short and long-term outcomes after cardiac surgery for endocarditis. Future risk assessment scores for cardiac surgery should consider alkaline phosphatase.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0453.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: electrocardiogram; pulmonary hypertension; right axis deviation; dextrocardia; technical errors
Online: 26 August 2022 (09:27:06 CEST)
A 57-year-old male with a history of hyperlipidemia and mild pulmonary hypertension presented for a left inguinal hernia repair. Preoperative electrocardiogram showed severe right axis deviation at 177 degrees and abnormal repolarization. Right ventricular hypertrophy secondary to pulmonary hypertension was the primary differential but was quickly ruled out due to the patient being asymptomatic and having great exercise tolerance. Dextrocardia was also ruled out due to normal progression on the precordial leads. The simultaneous severe right axis deviations of P, R, and T waves raised suspicion for erroneous lead placement. The repeat electrocardiogram confirmed the diagnosis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0027.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: acute pulmonary embolism; dilemmas; therapeutic treatment; recommendations; clinical application
Online: 2 August 2022 (03:12:56 CEST)
Pulmonary thromboembolism is a very common cardiovascular disease, with a still high mortality rate. Despite the clear guidelines, this disease still represents a great challenge both in diagnosis and treatment. Heterogeneous clinical picture, often without pathognomonic signs and symptoms, represents a huge differential diagnostic problem even for experienced doctors. The decision on the therapeutic regimen also represents a major dilemma in the group of patients who are hemodynamically stable at initial presentation and have signs of right ventricular (RV) dysfunction proven by echocardiography and positive biomarker values (pulmonary embolism of intermediate-high risk). Studies have shown conflicting results about the benefit of using fibrinolytic therapy in this group of patients until hemodynamic decompensation, due to the risk of major bleeding. The latest recommendations give preference to new oral anticoagulants (NOACs) compared to vitamin K antagonists (VKA), except for certain categories of patients (patients with antiphospholipid syndrome, mechanical valves, pregnancy). When using oral anticoagulant therapy, special attention should be paid to drug-drug interactions, which can lead to many complications, even to the death of the patient. Special population groups such as pregnant women, obese patients, patients with antiphospholipid syndrome and cancer represent a great therapeutic challenge in the application of anticoagulant therapy. In these patients, not only the effectiveness of the drugs must be taken into account, but great attention must be paid to their safety and possible side effects, which is why a multidisciplinary approach is emphasized in order to provide the best therapeutic option.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0162.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Mucorales; pulmonary mucormycosis; hematologic malignancy; transplantation; fungal culture; histopathology
Online: 11 March 2022 (07:59:01 CET)
Cultural recovery of Mucorales from hyphae-laden tissue is poor, and the clinical implications of culture positivity are scarcely studied. Therefore, we compared clinical and histological characteristics of culture-positive and culture-negative histology-proven pulmonary mucormycosis cases among cancer patients. Histology specimens were blindly reviewed by a Thoracic Pathologist and graded on four histopathologic features: hyphal quantity, tissue necrosis, tissue invasion, and vascular invasion. Twenty cases with a corresponding fungal culture were identified; five were culture-positive, and 15 culture-negative. Although no statistically significant differences were found, culture-positive patients were more likely to exhibit a high burden of necrosis and have a high burden of hyphae but tended to have less vascular invasion than culture-negative patients. In terms of clinical characteristics, culture-positive patients were more likely to have acute myeloid leukemia (60% vs. 27%, p=0.19), a history of hematopoietic cell transplant (80% vs. 53%, p=0.31), severe lymphopenia (absolute lymphocyte count ≤500/µL, 100% vs. 73%, p=0.36), and monocytopenia (absolute monocyte count ≤100/µL, 60% vs. 20%, p=0.11). Forty-two-day all-cause mortality was comparable between culture-positive and culture-negative patients (60% and 53%, p=0.80). This pilot study represents the first comprehensive histopathological scoring method to examine the relationship between histopathologic features, culture positivity, and clinical features of pulmonary mucormycosis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0104.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: hyrogel; cardiotoxicity; regenerative medicine; antineoplastic drugs; polydioxanone; pulmonary autograft
Online: 6 September 2021 (14:01:12 CEST)
Hydrogels, hydrophilic polymeric compounds, have been recently put under investigation as regenerative medicine applications and delivery systems for antineoplastic drugs, particularly chemotherapeutics (anthracyclines, alkylating agents), target drugs (trastuzumab) and immunotherapies. Porosity, conductivity, biodegradability and physical states are some of the peculiarities that render hydrogels suitable for therapies implementation. Chemically-modifying agents and enzymes can be also coupled to hydrogels for pharmacokinetical parameters improvement and side effects avoidance. Cardiotoxicity is in fact one of the major issues for oncological patients after treatment efficacy. Heart failure, myocarditis and hypertension are causes of morbidity and mortality that can possibly be avoided. Specific reaching of the target tumor site has been achieved by several authors in preclinical in vivo studies but clinical studies are currently under design processes. Polydioxanone, a hydrogel-mimicking agent, is capable to interact with the elastic properties of pulmonary artery. An advantageous characteristic is that can be also reabsorbed within biological systems and can cause a remodeling process of the vessel wall. Hydrogels currently represent a strong topic of interest for researchers and probably will guide future clinical investigations and practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0109.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: coagulation impairment; international normalised ratio; mortality; pulmonary embolism; thrombosis
Online: 5 July 2021 (15:36:32 CEST)
Pulmonary embolism (PE) is one of the leading causes of cardiovascular mortality, therefore new parameters regarding risk stratification are sought after. In patients admitted for acute PE we investigated associations between the initial coagulation impairment, expressed by prothrombin time international normalised ratio (INR), and parameters reflecting PE severity. Furthermore, in-hospital, 30-day and long-term mortality were also evaluated. The analysis included 848 patients who were divided into two groups: with normal INR≤1.2, and elevated INR>1.2 (252 patients, 29.7%). The group with elevated INR presented higher incidence of tachycardia and lower systolic blood pressure, higher CRP, d-dimer, and NT-proBNP. This group presented higher estimated systolic pulmonary artery pressure (49 IQR39-62mmHg vs 43 IQR32-53mmHg, p<0.001) and shorter pulmonary artery acceleration time (65 IQR55-85ms vs 81 IQR63-102ms; p<0.001). Patients with elevated INR had more often a sPESI of 1 or higher (78%vs60%, p=0.003). Cox regression model revealed that age, leukocyte level, SBP, neoplasm, and INR are associated with higher risk of death (p<0.001). Finally, elevated INR was associated with higher in-hospital (13%vs3%; p<0.001), 30-day (19%vs6%; p<0.001), and long-term mortality (p<0.001). Summing up, elevated INR on admission is frequent in patients with PE, reflects worse clinical condition and is related to PE severity and prognosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0441.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Corona Virus Disease 2019; pulmonary vesicle; prognosis; surgical treatment
Online: 24 April 2020 (12:06:33 CEST)
Background: The Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is spreading globally now. However, the clinical presentation that predict prognosis of the patients are still largely unknow. Methods: We enrolled 393 patients infected with COVID-19 and 30 patients with common pulmonary bulla and reviewed their clinical features to evaluate the potential prognostic value of pulmonary vesicles, especially in the patients with severe symptoms. One COVID-19 patient with vesicles was treated by bullectomy for last resort, and its characteristics of the patient’s perioperative laboratory tests was analyzed. The pathological findings of bullectomy were described and compared with those of common bulla cases. Results: Patients infected with COVID-19 showed more dependence on ventilator, occurrence of super resistant bacteria, and prone to vesicle formation than common bulla (p<0.05). Disease severity is associated with age, sex, and usage of ventilator, ECMO and antibiotics, super resistance bacteria and vesicle formation (p<0.05). The average mortality rate of COVID-19 patients was 4.10% (25.4% in severe patients, 0.00% in mild patients). Interestingly, the mortality rate further increased in severe patients with pulmonary vesicles than those without pulmonary vesicles (35.7% vs 22.4%, p=0.0442). One COVID-19 patient with vesicles underwent bullectomy and had a poor prognosis, who showed diffuse alveolar damage and extensive necrosis in bullectomy specimen. Conclusions: Patients infected with COVID-19 are more prone to form pulmonary vesicles showed on chest CT scans, as an important poor prognosis factor, especially in the severe patients.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0216.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: RMT, IMT, EMT, vascular compliance, pulmonary function, cardiopulmonary, cardiovascular
Online: 13 August 2019 (09:48:11 CEST)
Many lifestyle and occupational habits negatively impact on physical and mental health, increasing the risk of cardiovascular and other diseases. While larger institutions fulfill occupational health requirements to ensure their employees’ wellbeing at work, smaller business workers and entrepreneurs may neglect initial signs of stress or physical decline, putting themselves at increased risk. Early detection of compromised cardiopulmonary health or fitness has the potential to flag up indications for early interventions and reduce the risk of disease onset and progression. This case study highlights the usefulness of respiratory muscle training (RMT) in improving pulmonary and cardiovascular parameters as an early countermeasure to cardiopulmonary decline. We suggest RMT as an easily accessible, cost- and time effective opportunity to support a healthy lifestyle.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: allergy; pulmonary function; allergic rhinitis; asthma; nutritional status; obesity
Online: 14 July 2019 (17:35:01 CEST)
Introduction: The rising trend in allergic diseases has occurred in parallel with an increasing prevalence in obesity, and suggesting a possible association. The increased body mass has numerous health consequences, including an impairment function of the respiratory system. The associations between eating habits and hypersensitivity to allergens have not been clarified sufficiently. Aim: to evaluate pulmonary function, nutritional status, eating habits and risk factors of obesity in children and adolescents with allergic rhinitis. Material and Methods: The study was performed in 106 children with allergic rhinitis (mean age 12.1+/-3.4; M/F 60/46) from the Department of Allergology. 43 (40.6%) of children presented only allergic rhinitis and in 63 (59.4%) additionally diagnosed with asthma bronchiale. Clinical data, detailed interview about allergies, assessment of pulmonary function and nutritional status, allergy skin test (Allergopharma) and spirometry (Jaeger) were evaluated. Nutritional habits were assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. The statistical analysis was done using the program Statistica v 10.0. Results: In the study group the mean centile of BMI was 49.4; underweight presented 25.4% of children, 55.6 % normal BMI and 18.8 % presented overweight or obesity. Multiple regression analysis showed a significant (adjusted R-squared: 0.97; p<0.05) association between high BMI and snacking between meals and low physical activity. No statistical association between the severity of diseases and BMI or body composition was observed. Conclusions: 1. The prevalence of excess body mass in the study group reached 13.5%. Eating habits were incorrect, especially obese children significantly more frequently ate snacks between meals than children with normal body weight. 2. Among the studied group of children and adolescents with allergic rhinitis and asthma bronchiale, the significant risk factors of obesity were snacking and low physical activity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0118.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2-infection; dehydration; hypoalbuminemia; pulmonary hypoxia; hyaline memrane; pulmonary engorgement; lung weight; acute respiratory distress syndrome; diffuse alveolar damage (DAD)
Online: 13 April 2022 (08:27:30 CEST)
ABSTRACT Two years after first patients approached the emergency rooms of hospitals in Wuhan becouse of respiratory distress,thousend of SARS-CoV-2 infected persons continue to die every day worldwide.SARS-CoV-2-infected patients undergo a process of dehydration and malnutrition before they develop respiratory problems and approach the emergency room of a hospital.This is,in many cases, the consequence of high fever which causes massive loss of fluids. In addition loss of appetite, is responsible for the deficit of protein intake.Most of the virus-infected patients admitted to the emergency room are therefore hypovolemic and hypoproteinemic and suffer of respiratory distress accompanied by ground grass opacities at CT-scan of the lungs.Critically ill patients are treated following the guidelines for treatment of septic shock but with „conservative“ fluid replacement and administration of diuretics to assure sufficient hourly urine production. The combination of conservative fluid administration with reduced protein content in the enterally administered diet, together with administration of diuretics, has severe hemodynamic consequenses in mostly aged,dehydrated,critically ill patients. Many of them will develop acute kidney injury in the next 24 hours.In most of the cases, patients continue to loose weight by loosing skeletal muscle mass. Ischemic damage in the lung capillaries is responsible for the acute respiratory distreass syndrome (ARDS) and for the hallmark of autoptic findings,diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) characterized by hyaline membrane formation,fluid invasion of the alveoli recruitment of some inflammatory cells and progressive arrest of blood flow in the pulmonary vessels.The consequence is progressive congestion , increase of lung weight and progressive hypoxia (progressive severity of ARDS).Sequestration of blood in the lungs worsen hypovolemia and ischemia in different organs.This is most probably responsible for recruitment of inflammatory cells and for persistance of elevated serum levels of positive acute-phase markers and of hypoalbuminemia. Autoptic studies have been performed mostly in patients who died in the ICU after SARS-CoV-2-infection because of progessive ARDS.In those patients, tubulus epithelium necrosis in the kidney is a frequent finding as it has been the case in the first SARS-CoV-1 pandemic.In the death certification charts, many times weeks after first symptoms have started ,cardiac arrest is the cause of death after respitatory insufficiency.Replacement therapy with sufficient amount of fluid and albumin should be part of the early individualized life-saving supportive measures avoiding mechanical ventilation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0194.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: antifungal resistance; isavuconazole; cystic fibrosis; pulmonary disease; Aspergillus fumigatus; pulmonary aspergillosis; respiratory disease; antifungal stewardship; therapeutic drug monitoring; minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)
Online: 16 February 2022 (05:12:39 CET)
Background: The burden of resistant fungal infection is rising in patients with pulmonary disease. Options for antifungal therapy are limited, and the only orally-available antifungals, the triazoles, demonstrate inter and intra-patient variability, non-linear kinetics, toxicity, drug interactions and increasing antifungal resistance. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of itraconazole, voriconazole and posaconazole has been necessary to ensure their safety and efficacy, but is considered unnecessary for the newest triazole isavuconazole, use of which is increasing. Aims: To characterise isavuconazole susceptibility of Aspergillus fumigatus isolates in a tertiary respiratory referral centre to understand prevalence of isavuconazole antimicrobial resistance. To retrospectively review experience of isavuconazole use in this setting, assessing tolerability and therapeutic drug monitoring. Methods: A retrospective observational analysis of adult patients with respiratory disease in a tertiary hospital setting between Sept 2016 and Aug 2021. Clinical cultures were collected and triazole Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were recorded (based on Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI method)). Isavuconazole trough drug levels were carried out as part of the standard of care. Clinical outcomes of treatment were evaluated, along with drug tolerance and TDM. Results: During the study period, isavuconazole susceptibility testing was performed on 26 Aspergillus spp isolates. 80.8% of Aspergillus fumigatus isolates were non-wild type and had isavuconazole MIC > 1mg/L, and 73.0% had MIC above the EUCAST (European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing) epidemiological cut-off (ECOFF) of 2mg/L. There was good correlation between isavuconazole MIC and voriconazole MIC (r =0.7, p=0.0002). 54 patients had isavuconazole therapy over the study period with a median duration of 7.7 months (IQR 0.79 - 16.42). 67% of patients were able to tolerate isavuconazole, despite toxicity with prior azole treatment being the primary indication for use (in 61.8%). Increased age (r=0.29; p=0.03 (95%CI 0.02,0.52)) and gender (r for female sex=-0.31; p=0.027 (95%CI -0.52,0.036) were associated risk factors for development of adverse events (AEs). 127 Isavuconazole TDM levels were performed over the study period with 90% >1mg/L and 72% >2mg/L. Dose change from manufacturer’s dose recommendation, however, was required in 15% of patients to achieve a serum drug concentration above the EUCAST ECOFF or Area of technical uncertainty (ATU) value of 2mg/L. Conclusion: In our study, we show use of Isavuconazole as salvage therapy in chronic pulmonary fungal disease setting with high prevalence of azole resistance. Isavuconazole MICs demonstrated good correlation with voriconazole MICs suggesting the latter could be a useful surrogate marker for isavuconazole susceptibility. Although Isavuconazole achieved excellent serum drug concentrations at standard dose compared to other azole drugs, we highlight the importance of antifungal stewardship and TDM monitoring to optimise therapy in this setting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2032.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: COVID-19; post-COVID-19; pulmonary manifestations; spirometry; chest tomography.
Online: 28 July 2023 (12:48:47 CEST)
COVID-19 generated a scenario for global health with multiple systemic impairments. This retrospective study evaluated the clinical, radiological, and pulmonary functional evolution in 302 post-COVID-19 patients. Regarding post-COVID-19 pulmonary symptoms, dry cough, dyspnea, and chest pain were the most frequent. Of the associated comorbidities, asthma was more frequent (23.5%). Chest Tomography (CT) initially showed a mean pulmonary involvement of 69.7%, and the evaluation in the subsequent months showed an improvement in the evolutionary image, and with less than six months post-pathology, there was a commitment of 37 .7%, from six to twelve months, 20% and after 12 months, 9.9%. And as for most of the sample, 50.3% of the patients presented CT normalization in less than six months after infection, 23% normalized between six and twelve months, and 5.2% normalized the images after twelve months, with one remaining. Percentage of 17.3% who maintained post-COVID-19 pulmonary residual sequelae. Regarding spirometry, in less than six months after the pathology, 59.3% of the patients already showed a regular exam; 12.3% normalized their function within six to twelve months, and 6.3% concluded a normal exam after twelve months of post-pathology evaluation. Only 3.6% of the patients still showed some alteration in this period.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1694.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis; Lung Neoplasms; Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors; Database
Online: 25 July 2023 (10:01:14 CEST)
Little is known about the effect of statin use in lung cancer development in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We analyzed the database of the National Health Insurance Service to further investigate the clinical impacts of statin on lung cancer development and overall survival (OS) in IPF patients. The analysis included 9,182 individuals diagnosed with IPF, of which 3,372 (36.7%) were statin users. Compared to statin non-users, the time from diagnosis of IPF to lung cancer development and OS were longer in statin users in IPF patients. In Cox proportional hazard regression models, higher statin compliance, statin use, and being female had an inverse association with lung cancer risk, while older age at diagnosis of IPF and smoking history were associated with higher risk of lung cancer in IPF patients. For OS, statin use, female sex, higher exercise frequency, and diabetes were associated with longer survival. In contrast, older age at diagnosis of IPF and smoking history were associated with shorter OS in IPF patients. These data from a large population indicate that statin had an independent protective association with lung cancer development and mortality in IPF patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1428.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: CT-guided localization; OSCT; TSCT; pulmonary lesions; minimal invasive VATS
Online: 21 July 2023 (02:31:11 CEST)
(1) Background: This retrospective study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of one-stage computed tomography (OSCT)- to that of two-stage computed tomography (TSCT)-guided localization for the surgical removal of small lung nodules. (2) Methods: We collected data from patients with ipsilateral pulmonary nodules who underwent localization before surgical removal at Veteran General Hospital Kaohsiung between October 2017 and January 2022. The patients were divided into the OSCT and TSCT groups. (3) Results: We found that OSCT significantly reduced the localization time and risky time compared to TSCT, and the success rate of localization and incidence of pneumothorax were similar in both groups. However, the time spent under general anesthesia was longer in the OSCT group than in the TSCT group. (4) Conclusions: The OSCT-guided approach to localize pulmonary nodules in hybrid operation room is a safe and effective technique for the surgical removal of small lung nodules.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0737.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: congenital diaphragmatic hernia, severe pulmonary hypertension, bedside surgery, NICU infrastructure
Online: 28 April 2021 (10:06:10 CEST)
Background: This study presents the experience gained in the Newborn Intensive Care Unit (NICU) at “M. S. Curie” Emergency Clinical Hospital for Children in Bucharest after performing a series of bedside surgery interventions on newborns with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). We evaluate the advantages, complications, immediate and long-term outcome as well as the morbidity. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of the data for all patients operated on-site be-tween 2011 and 2020, in terms of pre- and post-operative stability, procedures performed, com-plications and outcomes. Results: Our study is based on data from ten cases of newborns, term or small for gestation age with birthweights ranging from 2300 to 3300 grams, operated, on average, on the fifth day of life. The main reasons for operating on-site were the hemodynamical instability and the need to ad-minister inhaled Nitic Oxide (iNO) and HFOV ventilation. There were no unforeseen events dur-ing surgery, no immediate postoperative complications and no surgery related mortality. One noticed drawback was the unfamiliarity of the surgery team with the new operating environment. Conclusions: Our experience indicates that bedside surgery improves the likelihood of survival for critically ill neonates suffering from CDH. No immediate complications could be associated with this practice. Keywords: congenital diaphragmatic hernia, severe pulmonary hypertension, bedside surgery, NICU infrastructure
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0345.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: COVID-19; venous thrombosis; pulmonary embolism; venous thromboembolism; anticoagulants; mortality
Online: 19 April 2020 (13:08:16 CEST)
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can lead to systemic coagulation activation and thrombotic complications. We investigated the incidence of objectively confirmed venous thromboembolism (VTE) in 198 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in a single-center cohort study. Seventy-four patients (37%) were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). At time of data collection, 58 (29%) were still hospitalized and 14% had died. During a median follow-up of 5 days (IQR, 3-9), 33 patients (17%) were diagnosed with VTE of whom 22 (11%) had symptomatic VTE, despite routine thrombosis prophylaxis. The cumulative incidences of VTE at 7 and 14 days were 15% (95% CI, 9.3-22) and 34% (95% CI, 23-46), respectively. For symptomatic VTE, these were 11% (95% CI, 5.8-17) and 23% (95% CI, 14-33). VTE appeared to be associated with death (adjusted HR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.02-8.0). The cumulative incidence of VTE was higher in the ICU (25% at 7 days 95% CI, 15-36, and 48% at 14 days, 95% CI, 33-61) than on the wards (any VTE and symptomatic VTE 6.5 % at 7 days (95% CI, 1.5-17) and 10% at 14 days (95% CI, 2.9-24)).The observed risk for VTE in COVID-19 is high, particularly in ICU patients, which should lead to a high level of clinical suspicion and low threshold for diagnostic imaging for DVT or PE. Future research should focus on optimal diagnostic and prophylactic strategies to prevent VTE and potentially improve survival.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0035.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube test; pulmonary tuberculosis; sensitivity; specificity
Online: 9 January 2017 (03:58:00 CET)
The value of QuantiFERON in the diagnosis of tuberculosis and in the monitoring of the response to anti-tuberculosis treatment is unclear. The aims of this study were to evaluate the accuracy of the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) test in the diagnosis of tuberculosis and in the monitoring of the response to anti-tuberculosis treatment in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). Between January 2013 and December 2015, 128 cases with active PTB and 128 controls with no mycobacterial infection, matched by age (within 3 years) and by the week that they visited Tainan Chest Hospital, were enrolled in the study. Serial testing by QFT-GIT at baseline and after 2 and 6 months of treatment was performed. At these time points, a comparison of the performance of QFT-GIT with that of sputum culture status among study subjects was conducted. Compared to baseline, 116 (87.2%) cases showed a decreased response, whereas 17 (12.8%) showed persistent or stronger interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) responses at 2 months. Their IFN-γ responses declined significantly from baseline to 2 months (median, 6.32 vs. 4.12; P < 0.005). The sensitivity values of the QFT-GIT test for the detection of pulmonary tuberculosis at cut-off points of 0.35 IU/ml, 0.20 IU/ml, and 0.10 IU/ml were 74.4%, 78.2%, and 80.5%, respectively. The specificity values at cut-off points of 0.35 IU/ml, 0.20 IU/ml, and 0.10 IU/ml were 66.2%, 63.9%, and 57.1%, respectively. Our results support the QFT-GIT assay as a potential tool for diagnosing tuberculosis and for monitoring the efficacy of anti-tuberculosis treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0116.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: cost-effectiveness evaluation; heart failure; telemonitoring; pulmonary artery pressure; hemodynamic monitoring
Online: 19 September 2023 (05:23:15 CEST)
Aims: The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of the CardioMEMS HF system in a HF Clinic in Spain by evaluating the real-time remote monitoring of pulmonary artery pressures, which has shown to reduce heart failure (HF) related hospitalizations and improve the quality of life for selected HF patients. Particularly, the study aimed to determine the value of CardioMEMS in Southern Europe, where healthcare costs are significantly lower and its effectiveness remains uncertain. Methods: This single-centre study enrolled all consecutive HF patients who had been implanted with a pulmonary artery pressure sensor (CardioMEMS-HF system, Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL, USA). The number of HF hospitalizations in the year before and the year after the sensor implantation was compared and quality-adjusted life years (QALY) gained based on a literature review of previous studies was calculated. Results: The rate of HF hospitalisations was significantly lower at 1 year compared with the year before CardioMEMS implantation (0.25 versus 1.10 events/patient-years, HR 0.22, p=0.001). At the end of first year, the usual management outperformed the CardioMEMS HF system, resulting in a net monetary value difference of 2,540€ per patient and a benefit-cost ratio of 0.38. However, by the end of the second year, the CardioMEMS system is estimated to reduce costs compared to usual management. Conclusions: Based on the results, we suggest that remote monitoring of pulmonary artery pressure with the CardioMEMS HF system represents a long-term cost-effective strategy in a healthcare setting in Southern Europe.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0091.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension; epoprostenol; prostaglandin I₂; giant goiter; airway stenosis
Online: 5 September 2023 (10:28:08 CEST)
It has been reported that prostaglandin I2, such as epoprostenol, develops Grave's disease. A 34-year-old woman was diagnosed with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension and started receiving continuous intravenous epoprostenol. Three years after starting epoprostenol, she started complaining of neck swelling and was diagnosed with Grave’s disease. Thyroid function was controlled by thiamazole and levothyroxine. Nevertheless, her thyroid gland enlargement worsened as epoprostenol dose was titrated. After 23 years of treatment with epoprostenol, she suddenly experienced respiratory failure with a giant goiter leading to airway stenosis and passed away. The autopsy confirmed a giant goiter associated with hyperthyroidism and airway stenosis. We experienced a case of idiopathic pulmonary hypertension with a giant goiter and airway stenosis after long-term intravenous epoprostenol therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1541.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: cardiac computed tomography; electrcardiography; pulmonary veins; P wave; left atrial appendage
Online: 23 July 2023 (16:18:43 CEST)
Electrocardigraphy remains as a first-line evaluation method for cardiac function, recording the electrical activity of the heart from the body surface. Since atrial activation is seen on the ECG as P-wave, several factors are known to impact the appearance of the P-wave, such as direction of electric impulse, conduction abnormalities and anatomical characteristics of the atria. The aim of this retrospective study was to find statistically significant associations between anatomy of pulmonary veins (PVs) osberved in cardiac computed tomography (CT) and P-wave appearance during sinus rhythm on resting ECG. For each patient, a resting 12-lead ECG was recorded, the field of analysis was P wave – its’ duration, morphology and axis. The evaluation of the CT scan recordings was performed by creating 3D models of the left atrium and analyzing anatomy of the PVs and left atrial appendage (LAA). Noteworthy correlations were found: anatomy of the left PVs showed an association with LAA volume, LAA morphology and P-wave notching in lead II. The right PVs demonstrated relation with P wave axis and amplitude. Although these correlations cannot be classified as strong, they may play a role in significant scientific discoveries in future research projects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1687.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: hyperoxia; pulmonary function; expired nitric oxide; spirometry; oxygen toxicity; diving; hyperbaric
Online: 23 June 2023 (13:05:19 CEST)
Individual susceptibility to pulmonary oxygen toxicity (PO2tox) is highly variable and currently lacks a reliable biomarker for predicting pulmonary hyperoxic stress. As nitric oxide (NO) is involved in many respiratory system processes and functions, we aimed to determine if expired nitric oxide (FENO) levels can provide an indication of PO2tox susceptibility in humans. Eight U.S. Navy trained divers volunteered as subjects. The hyperoxic exposures consisted of six- and eight-hour hyperbaric chamber dives conducted on consecutive days in which subjects breathed 100% oxygen at 202.65 kPa. Subjects’ individual variability in pulmonary function and FENO was measured twice daily over five days and compared with their post-dive values to assess susceptibility to PO2tox. Only subjects who showed no decrements in pulmonary function following the six-hour exposure conducted the eight-hour dive. FENO decreased by 55% immediately following the six-hour oxygen exposure (n=8, p<0.0001) and by 63% following the eight-hour exposure (n=4, p<0.0001). Four subjects showed significant decreases in pulmonary function immediately following the six-hour exposure. These subjects had the lowest baseline FENO and the lowest post-dive FENO and had clinical symptoms of PO2tox. Individuals with low FENO were the first to develop PO2tox symptoms and deficits in pulmonary function from the hyperoxic exposures. These data suggest that endogenous levels of NO in the lung may protect against the development of PO2tox.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0423.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19; post-COVID pulmonary fibrosis; lung injury; anti-fibrotic agents
Online: 18 May 2021 (11:32:07 CEST)
Total 219 countries and territories globally suffering from the recent pandemic COVID-19 is now in its second wave with more brutality, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) . It has several symptoms like as persistent fever; respiratory illnesses; cough; fatigue; shortness of breath; loss of appetite; persistent pain or pressure in the chest; dysgeusia; acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) etc., and here the things to worry about is the development of pulmonary fibrosis after COVID-19 in both peoples who had died of due to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) or those who survived. Due to COVID-19, dysregulated immune response and wound repair mainly in elderly patients causes this secondary pulmonary fibrosis. Thus using anti-fibrotic agents could be meaningful in these circumstances although their efficacy in treating COVID-19 is subject to more detailed laboratory research works. In this review article you will get to know about the lung fibrosis generation due to COVID-19 infection, about anti-fibrotic agents and the currents challenges of this field.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: DNA methylation; histone code; microRNA; nanoparticles; noncoding RNA; pulmonary arterial hypertension
Online: 4 November 2020 (10:07:24 CET)
Arterial wall remodeling underlies increased pulmonary vascular resistance and right heart failure in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). None of the established vasodilator drug therapies for PAH prevents or reverses established arterial wall thickening, stiffening and hypercontractility. Therefore, new approaches are needed to achieve long-acting prevention and reversal of occlusive pulmonary vascular remodeling. Several promising new drug classes are emerging from better understanding of pulmonary vascular gene expression programs. In this review potential epigenetic targets for small molecules and oligonucleotides will be described. Most are in preclinical studies aimed at modifying growth of vascular wall cells in vitro or normalizing vascular remodeling in PAH animal models. Initial success with lung-directed delivery of oligonucleotides targeting microRNAs suggests other epigenetic mechanisms might also be suitable drug targets. Those targets include DNA methylation, proteins of the chromatin remodeling machinery and long noncoding RNAs, all of which act as epigenetic regulators of vascular wall structure and function. Progress in testing small molecules and oligonucleotide-based drugs in PAH models is summarized.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0296.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; bode index; charlson comorbidity index; medical burden
Online: 26 September 2019 (09:58:37 CEST)
COPD is currently the fourth leading cause of death in the world. Globally, due to continued exposure to COPD risk factors and an aging population, the burden of COPD is expected to increase in the coming decades. The BODE (body mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise capacity) index is a practical and multidimensional predictor for prognosis of COPD, and better than FEV1.We used the database of Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital medical center, Taiwan to analyze the correlation between BODE index, healthcare resource utilization, and Charlson comorbidity index (CCI). This retrospective study to collect COPD patients with complete BODE index data who had undergone a 6-minute walk examination in our hospital from January 2015 to December 2016. The medical cost and comorbidities database were analyzed from January 1, 2015, to August 31, 2017. Of 396 patients, 382 (96.5%) were male, with an average age of 71.3 ± 8.4 years. There was a significant association between the BODE index and the CCI of COPD patients (p < 0.001). Healthcare resource utilization was positively correlated with the BODE index during the 32 months of retrospective clinical outcomes: positively correlated with the number of hospitalizations (p<0.001), hospitalization days (p<0.001), hospitalization expenses (p=0.005), and total medical expenses (p=0.024), respectively. Our findings provide the crucial information for clinician to predict medical burden and comorbidities in patients with COPD by using BODE index.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0941.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: pulmonary veins; stenosis; near-occlusion; cardiac CT angiography; radiofrequency ablation; atrial fibrillation.
Online: 14 November 2023 (13:37:24 CET)
Fatal hemoptysis secondary to severe pulmonary veins stenosis is an exceptional late complication of radiofrequency ablation for atrial fibrillation. We report the case of a 53-year-old male with a history of atrial fibrillation treated by radiofrequency ablation and admitted in our center 6 months after the initial procedure because of aggravating dyspnea and fatigability. Transthoracic echocardiography showed moderate dilation of right heart cavities, severe pulmonary hypertension, and a turbulent flow in superior pulmonary veins. The cardiologist suspected pulmonary vein(s) stenosis and cardiac computed tomography (CT) angiography was performed with findings of severe stenosis of the right superior, right inferior and left inferior pulmonary veins, near-occlusion of the left superior pulmonary vein and the vein draining the apical segment of the right lower lobe. The CT scan also revealed soft tissue attenuation of the mediastinum posterior to the left atrium suggesting fibrosing mediastinitis together with parenchymal findings consistent with pulmonary venooclusive disease and an area of hemorrhagic infarction. Fatal hemoptysis occurred 3 days after the evaluation before any treatment was attempted. In conclusion, severe pulmonary stenosis remains a rare but severe complication of radiofrequency ablation. Prevention is the key element together with an early diagnosis as the entity is potentially life-threatening.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0162.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: extreme prematurity; surfactant; outcome; children; longitudinal study; pulmonary function testing; neurodevelopment; asthma
Online: 5 September 2023 (05:08:28 CEST)
This study aimed evaluating 7 years’ outcome in 118 very preterm newborn (VPN, gestational age=26±1.4wks) involved in a randomized controlled trial. They presented neonatal respiratory distress (RDS) requiring ventilation for 14±2 days post-natal age (PNA). Repeated instillation of 200mg/kg Poractant alfa (SURF) did not improve early bronchopulmonary dysplasia, but SURF infants needed less re-hospitalization than controls for respiratory problem at 1- and 2-years PNA. There was no growth difference at 7.1±0.3 years for 41 SURF vs. 36 controls (80% eligible children); 7.9% SURF vs. 28.6% controls presented asthma (p=0.021). Children underwent cogni-tive assessment (WISC IV) and pulmonary function testing (PFT) measuring spirometry, lung volumes and airway resistance. Spirometry showed differences (p<0.05) between SURF and con-trols (mean±standard deviation (median z-score)) for FEV1 (L/s) (1.188±0.690(-0.803) vs. 1.080±0.243(-1.446)); FEV1 after betamimetics (1.244±0.183(-0.525) vs. 1.091±0.209(-1.342)); FVC (L) (1.402±0.217 (-0.406) vs. 1.265±0.267(-1.141)), and FVC after betamimetics 1.452±0.237 (-0.241) vs. 1.279±0.264(-1.020)). PFT showed no difference in volumes or airway resistance. Global IQ median [Inter-quartile Range] was 89[82:99] vs. 89[76:98] with 61% children >85 in both groups. Former VPN presenting severe neonatal RDS treated with repeated Surfactant have improved lung function and less asthma at 7 years PNA. There were no differences in neurodevelopmental outcome
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0042.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: dietary acid load; net endogenous acid production; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; KNHANES
Online: 1 September 2023 (10:11:04 CEST)
We investigated whether cigarette smoking and dietary acid load (DAL) are associated with the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in middle-aged healthy Korean men. Healthy men without diagnosed chronic disease (40-64 yrs) from the KNHANES-VI (2013–2015) included in the analysis (n=774) were subdivided by smoking status and DAL levels as estimated by the net endogenous acid production (NEAP) quartile. Current smokers tended to have a higher risk of COPD than non-smokers before and after the adjustment. When divided by the DAL quartile, the Q4 tended to have a higher risk of COPD than the Q1. Additionally, current smokers with lower (Q2), modest (Q3), and highest NEAP scores (Q4) showed more than 4-fold higher risks of COPD than the non-smokers with the lowest NEAP scores (Q1). Ex–smokers with higher NEAP scores (Q3 and Q4) showed more than 4-fold higher risks of COPD than the Q1. Interestingly, the risk of COPD was also more than 6-fold higher in non-smokers with the highest NEAP scores compared to the Q1. NEAP scores and smoking status synergistically increased the risk of COPD in middle-aged healthy Korean men. It suggests that DAL levels are an important factor for the prevention and management of COPD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1870.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); Patient Reported Outcome Measures; Health Care Surveys
Online: 29 August 2023 (03:31:15 CEST)
Introduction: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a common, preventable and treatable disease. The first PREM (Patient Reported Outcome Measure) type questionnaire that has been dedicated to asses experience of care in COPD is the PREM-C9. Aim: To create a Polish version of the PREM-C9 and determine its the psychometric characteristics. Methods: The validation procedure involved forward and back translation and included 42 COPD patients. The psychometric properties were assessed using Cronbach's alpha, Bartlett's test, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin and Spearman correlation coefficient. The validity of the questionnaire was assessed using Principal Component Analysis for the extracted principal components. The validity of the factor analysis was demonstrated by the Bartlett's sphericity test and the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO). Factor analysis was performed using the Oblimin and Varimax rotation. The reliability of the questionnaire was assessed using the Cronbach's alpha. Results: The Polish version of the PREM-C9 questionnaire met all validation criteria: face, translation, psychometric, functional and reconstruction equivalence. The Spearman correlation results between Polish PREM-C9&CAT: rho= 0,44, p=0,003539; HADS-Anxiety: rho= 0.370864, p=0,015612, HADS-Depression: rho= 0,387405, p=0,011253. Conclusion: The developed Polish PREM-C9 questionnaire is a reliable and valid tool that assesses Polish COPD patients' experiences of their disease and the care they receive.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0153.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: epithelial; smooth muscle; interaction; pulmonary disease; airway; asthma; COPD; bronchial re-modeling
Online: 13 June 2023 (10:49:12 CEST)
Chronic pulmonary diseases such as asthma, COPD, and Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis are significant causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Currently, there is no radical treatment for many chronic pulmonary diseases, and the treatment options focus on relieving the symptoms and improving lung function. Therefore, efficient therapeutic agents are highly needed. Bronchial epithelial cells and airway smooth muscle cells and their crosstalk play a significant role in the pathogenesis of these diseases. Thus, targeting the interactions of these two cell types could open the door to a new generation of effective therapeutic options. However, the studies on how these two cell types interact and how their crosstalk adds up to respiratory diseases are not well established. With the rise of modern research tools and technology, such as lab-on-chip, organoids, co-culture techniques, and advanced immunofluorescence imaging, a substantial degree of evidence about these cell interactions emerged. Hence, this contribution aims to summarize the growing evidence of bronchial epithelial cells and airway smooth muscle cells crosstalk under normal and pathophysiological conditions. The review first deliberates the effects of both healthy and stressed epithelial cells on airway smooth muscle cells, taking into account three themes; contraction, migration, and proliferation. Then, it discusses the impact of airway smooth muscle cells on the epithelium in inflammatory settings. Later, it examines the role of airway smooth muscle cells in the early development of bronchial epithelial cells and their recovery after injury.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0455.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: COVID-19 Coagulopathy; hormonal contraception; COVID-19; venous thromboembolism; pulmonary embolism; thrombolysis
Online: 8 May 2023 (05:29:27 CEST)
Coronavirus 19 disease (COVID-19) may be complicated by thrombotic events, particularly venous thromboembolism (VTE), which have been reported both in critically ill hospitalized patients and in individuals with mild symptoms. It is known that the chronic use of oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) is associated with higher risk of VTE. To date, there are only few reports concerning the association of OCPs and VTE/pulmonary embolism (PE) in COVID-19 patients. Given that during the convalescent phase of disease, a state of endothelial dysfunction, hypercoagulability and a low-grade inflammation may be persistent, the occurrence of thromboembolic events following acute COVID-19 infection may be not surprising. Herein, we report a case of high-risk PE detected in a post-COVID-19 young woman under hormonal contraception, which required thrombolytic treatment. A number of prothrombotic phenomena, such as overweight, hormonal contraceptive therapy, recent COVID-19 infection and prolonged immobilization, might have synergically contributed to the development of a sublethal thromboembolic event.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0490.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: cardiovascular 0-D model; pulmonary arterial pressure; gradient-based optimization; automatic differentiation
Online: 29 August 2022 (10:57:18 CEST)
Reliable quantification of pulmonary arterial pressure is essential in the diagnostic and prognostic assessment of a range of cardiovascular pathologies including rheumatic heart disease, yet an accurate and routinely available method for its quantification remains elusive. This work proposes an approach to infer pulmonary arterial pressure based on scientific machine learning techniques and non-invasive, clinically available measurements. A 0-D multicompartment model of the cardiovascular system was optimized using several optimization algorithms, subject to forward-mode automatic differentiation. Measurement data were synthesized from known parameters to represent the healthy, mitral regurgitant, aortic stenosed and combined valvular disease situations with and without pulmonary hypertension. Eleven model parameters were selected for optimization based on 95 % explained variation in mean pulmonary arterial pressure. A hybrid Adam and limited-memory Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno optimizer yielded the best results with input data including valvular flow rates, heart chamber volume changes and systematic arterial pressure. Mean absolute percentage errors ranged from 1.8 % to 3.78 % over the simulated test cases. The model was able to capture pressure dynamics under hypertensive conditions with pulmonary arterial systole, diastole, and mean pressure average percentage errors of 1.12 %, 2.49 % and 2.14 %, respectively. The relatively low errors highlight the potential of the proposed model to recover pulmonary pressures for diseased heart valve and pulmonary hypertensive conditions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0083.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COPD; Interstitial lung disease; Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema; interstitial lung abnormalities
Online: 6 May 2021 (12:56:28 CEST)
Although chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and interstitial lung disease (ILD) have distinct clinical features, both diseases may coexist in a patient because they share similar risk factors such as smoking, male sex, and old age. Patients with both emphysema in upper lung fields and diffuse ILD are diagnosed with combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE), which causes substantial clinical deterioration. Patients with CPFE have higher mortality compared with patients who have COPD alone, but results have been inconclusive compared with patients who have idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Poor prognostic factors for CPFE include exacerbation, lung cancer, and pulmonary hypertension. The presence of interstitial lung abnormalities, which may be an early or mild form of ILD, is notable among patients with COPD, and is associated with poor prognosis. Various theories have been proposed regarding the pathophysiology of CPFE. Biomarker analyses have implied that this pathophysiology may be more closely associated with IPF development, rather than COPD or emphysema. Patients with CPFE should be advised to quit smoking and undergo routine lung function tests, and pulmonary rehabilitation may be helpful. Various pharmacologic agents may be beneficial in patients with CPFE, but further studies are needed.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: antiphospholipid syndrome; systemic lupus erythematosus; melanoma; pulmonary tuberculosis; herpes zoster; case report
Online: 12 January 2021 (17:05:16 CET)
Background. Neoplastic diseases and infections have become the leading causes of death in SLE in recent decades. Cancers and infections were also precipitating factors in the development of catastrophic APS. Case summary. We describe two patients: one of them had definite antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) and melanoma and the other had definite systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with APS, melanoma, infiltrative tuberculosis and severe Herpes Zoster (HZ). Management of patients with SLE concurrent with APS is a rather difficult task in rheumatology practice. In addition to kidney damage and cardiovascular disease, infections and malignancies are a significant cause of death in this cohort. The risk of malignancy in SLE is of considerable interest, since the immune and genetic pathways underlying the pathogenesis of this disease, as well as the immunosuppressive therapy, can significantly alter the risk. Both patients still had reliable APS, confirmed by triple-positive aPL. Both were at high risk of thrombosis. Patients ' adherence to treatment with direct oral anticoagulants and relapse of thrombosis on the background of rivaroxaban were noted. Conclusion. The cases where cancer or tuberculosis develops in the presence of rheumatic diseases are not so common and complicate the possibilities of therapeutic approaches, limiting the use of drugs that are not regulated by clinical recommendations.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0315.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Indoor; PM10; pulmonary disease; inflammation; IFN; type I interferon; cytokine; epithelial cell
Online: 14 August 2020 (09:22:59 CEST)
Indoor dusts are collectively formed from anthropogenic and atmospheric activities. Particle matter 10 (PM10) is inhalable and causes significant inflammation by interaction with the pulmonary epithelial barrier. The mediators involved in bronchial epithelial cells response to dust are remined unknown. The air-liquid interface of our lung on chip model was exposed to indoor dust collected from highly polluted houses in Delhi, India. The media were collected after 4 days and cytokine levels were measured. We found that the concentration of IFN, IFNγ, Interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL1b, TNFa, and Granulocyte monocyte colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) were significantly increased after exposure to indoor dust. IFN type I pathways were a major response from dust exposure. Further investigation is needed to determine the mechanism of action and targets of dust in bronchial epithelial cells.
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; exercise; motor activity; lung diseases; classificatory approach; sitting
Online: 21 August 2019 (09:59:39 CEST)
This study applies a cluster analysis to identify typical physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour (SB) patterns in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) before starting pulmonary rehabilitation (PR). We implemented an observational design which assessed baseline data on objectively measured PA and SB from the STAR (Stay Active after Rehabilitation) study. 355 persons wore a accelerometer (Actigraph wGT3X) for seven days before the start of their PR. Sociodemographic and disease-related parameters were assessed at the start of PR. We applied cluster analysis and compared groups applying univariate variance analyses. Data was available for 326 persons (31.6% women; age ø = 58 yr.). Cluster analysis revealed four movement clusters with distinct PA and SB patterns: sedentary non-movers (28.5%), sedentary occasional movers (41.7%), sedentary movers (19.6%), and sedentary exercisers (10.1%). The four clusters showed very different levels of moderate PA before rehabilitation (Ø daily minutes: 9; 28; 38; 70). Notably, all four clusters displayed considerably long average sitting time per day (Ø daily minutes: 644; 561; 490; 446). The groups differed significantly in disease-related parameters of GOLD severity, FEV1, CAT, and 6-Min-Walk-Test. In addition to PA promotion, PR programs should consider the reduction of sitting time as a valuable goal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0269.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Radiation And Radiography Keywords: Computed Tomography; radiation dose; radiation cancer risk; CT Pulmonary Angiography; effective diameter
Online: 24 July 2019 (10:42:37 CEST)
Computed Tomography (CT) scan examinations has greater demands especially in CT Pulmonary Angiography (CTPA) owing to the public and radiology personnel worries towards CT radiation exposure and risks. The aim of present study is to evaluate the comprehensive radiation exposure in computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) and its cancer risk. The records of 100 patients who had undergone CTPA were retrieved. The radiation dose exposure, scanning acquisition protocol as well as patient characteristics were noted. Radiation exposure were presented as Volume Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDIvol), Size-Specific Dose Estimate (SSDE), Dose-Length Product (DLP), and effective dose (E) and organ dose. Effective cancer risk per million procedure was calculated by referring to the International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 103. The CTDIvol, SSDE, DLP were comparable within different effective diameter groups. The average effective dose received by a patient was 8.68 mSv. The organ dose and effective cancer risk attained for breast, lung and liver were 17.05 ± 10.40 mGy (194 per one million procedure), 17.55 ± 10.86 mGy (192 per one million procedure) and 15.04 ± 9.75 mGy (53 per one million procedure), respectively. In conclusion, CTDIvol was undervalued and SSDE was more accurate in describing radiation dose exposure. The lungs and breast of subjects with large effective diameter were higher risk of developing cancer as they received the highest exposure. Therefore, extra safety measures should be considered for large-sized patients undergoing CTPA.Purpose: This study evaluates the comprehensive radiation exposure in computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) and its cancer risk.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1113.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: SARS‐CoV‐2; COVID‐19; Pulmonary embolism; PE; deep venous thrombosis; DVT; hospitalization
Online: 19 July 2023 (04:41:51 CEST)
Background: We studied the outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID) hospitalizations and their association with myocardial injury and thrombosis. Methods: Retrospective analysis of the National Inpatient Sample 2020 database. Results: We identified 335,799 hospitalizations with COVID. Of these, 1.6% (5,355) were diagnosed with non-ST-segment myocardial infarction (COVNSTEMI). The mean age of COVID hospitalizations was 71.7, with 60.50% being males. The population prevalence included 53.10% Whites, 17.80% Blacks, 19.20% Hispanics, and 4.10% Asians. The average length of stay (LOS) was 10 days, and 37.60% of patients died during their hospitalization. The average cost of hospitalization (TOTCHG) was $156,633. The COVSTEMI group comprised 1,364 cases, with a mean age of 67.4, in-hospital mortality of 47.4%, and the mean TOTCHG was $177,600. The DVTCOV group comprised 2,869 cases, while the PECOV group had 4,828 cases. Male predominance was observed in both groups, with mean ages of 66 years in the DVTCOV group and 64 years in the PECOV group. The DVTCOV group had a LOS of 16 days, with 24.71% mortality, while the PECOV group had a LOS of 11 days, with 19.20% mortality. The average TOTCHG in the DVTCOV group was $248,900, whereas it was $145,378 in the PECOV group. Conclusion: Our study revealed significant mortality rates across different groups, including 38% in COVNSTEMI, 47% in COVSTEMI, 25% in DVTCOV, and 19% in PECOV. These findings highlight the severity of COVID-related complications and the substantial financial burden of hospitalization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0981.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Pulmonary sequestration; computed tomography angiography; intralobar and extralobar sequestration; supplying artery; draining vessel
Online: 14 June 2023 (04:35:55 CEST)
Background: Pulmonary sequestration (PS), generally diagnosed using computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA), is a rare congenital developmental malformation of the lung that is characterized by nonfunctional lung tissue independent of the normal lung tissue. This study summarizes the imaging features of the supplying arteries and draining vessels in patients with PS with an aim to assist with timely clinical diagnosis and operation guidance. Materials and Methods: A total of 55 patients with PS diagnosed on CTPA from multiple clinical centers were retrospectively analyzed. Data included demographic characteristics, imaging features, disease location, isolation type, and the features of supplying and draining vessels, as shown on CTPA images. Results: Of the 55 patients reviewed, 3 (5.45%) were children, 3 (5.45%) were adolescents, and 49 (89.09%) were adults, with a mean age of 44 years. Fifty-four (98.18%) patients had intralobar sequestration and one (1.82%) had extralobar sequestration. PS was noted 3.5 times more frequently in the left lower lobe than in the right lower lobe. For the supplying arteries, 47 (85.45%) were derived from the descending thoracic aorta, 1 (1.82%) from the abdominal aorta, 7 (12.73%) from the celiac axis, and 1 (1.82%) from the bronchial artery. The draining vessels were the pulmonary veins in 49 patients (89.09%), the umbilical vein in 1 (1.82%), the venae intercostal in 1 (1.82%), the pulmonary arteries in 11 (20.00%), and not shown on the images in 2 (3.64%). Conclusion: Clinical presentations of PS are non-specific and can be easily missed or misdiagnosed. However, CTPA can help improve the diagnostic accuracy and identify the supplying arteries and draining vessels, which significantly contribute to surgical planning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0392.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Endothelial dysfunction; inflammation; pulmonary hypertension; diabetes; car-diovascular disease; endothelium-derived relaxing factor
Online: 23 January 2023 (02:23:26 CET)
Endothelial integrity plays a major role in homeostasis and is responsive to the numerous endogenous factors released. While its functional role in vascular tone is well described, its role in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease is of interest as a potential therapeutic target. We performed a systematic review to provide an overview of new therapeutic and diagnostic targets for the treatment of coronary artery disease related to endothelial dysfunction. Databases of PubMed, Ovid’s version of MEDLINE, and EMBASE were interrogated with appropriate search terms. 28 studies met inclusion criteria and were included in the final systematic review. We identified inflammation, pulmonary hypertension, diabetes mellitus and Fabry disease as pathophysiological mechanisms and explored the therapeutic options related to these conditions including medications such as Canakinumab. Endothelial dysfunction has a key role in several different pathophysiological processes which can be targeted for therapeutic options. Ongoing research should be targeted at making the transition to clinical practice. Further research is also needed on understanding the amelioration of endothelial dysfunction with the use of cardiovascular medications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2135.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Influenza vaccine; Grippol® Plus; asthma; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; vaccine efficacy; cytokines; CRP
Online: 30 September 2023 (08:27:03 CEST)
Background: Influenza vaccine is a tool for preventing infection and reducing exacerbations in patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Purpose of this study is to investigate dynamics of CRP and serum cytokines (IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17) in patients with asthma and COPD, as well as to perform a correlation analysis with the clinical parameters of the disease manifestation. Methods: The study included 34 patients with asthma, 20 patients with COPD vaccinated against influenza during a period of remission from 2 to 4 weeks, both groups being under a basic maintenance therapy, and 26 healthy individuals vaccinated with the trivalent polymer-subunit vaccine Grippol® Plus, containing 5 µg of influenza virus strains and 500 µg of azoximer bromide. Results: Observing patients with asthma and COPD, during a year after the vaccination, has revealed a significant reduction in exacerbations frequency (p < 0.05) and duration (p < 0.05) of the bronchial obstructive syndrome (BF). Before the vaccination the IL-6 level in patients with asthma had a direct moderate correlation with duration of exacerbations of the underlying disease (p < 0.05), along with the number of systemic corticosteroids courses during exacerbations (p < 0.05). In 12 months after the vaccination, while assessing cytokine profile of all study groups, a significant reduction in the level of IL-6 was observed, compared to the baseline values (p< 0.05). Conclusion: Conducted analysis of immunological, clinical, and functional parameters of patients with asthma and COPD has proven for influenza vaccine to be effective in BF patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0951.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with connective tissue diseases; drugs; novel drugs; therapy; treatment; prognosis
Online: 11 August 2023 (13:25:08 CEST)
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a severe vascular complication of connective tissue diseases (CTD). Patients with CTD may develop PH belonging to different groups: 1) pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), 2) PH secondary to lung disease and/or hypoxia, 3) PH due to left heart disease, and 4) chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). PAH most often develops in systemic scleroderma (SSc), mostly in its limited variant. PAH-CTD is a progressive disease characterized by poor prognosis, therefore the early diagnosis should be established A specific treatment for PAH-CTD is currently available and recommended: prostacyclin derivative (treprostinil, epoprostenol, iloprost, selexipag), nitric oxide and natriuretic pathway: stimulators of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC: riociguat) and phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors (PDE5i: sildenafil, tadalafil), endothelin receptor antagonists (ERA: bosentan, macitentan, ambrisentan). Moreover, novel drugs e.g. sotatercept are intensively investigated in the clinical trials. The aim of this paper is to review the literature on the recent advances in treatment strategy and prognosis of patients with PAH-CTD.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0472.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; pulmonary fibrosis; coronavirus; nanoparticles; nanomedicine; pandemic; acute respiratory syndrome
Online: 28 March 2023 (03:59:29 CEST)
There have been significant collaborative efforts over the past three years to develop therapies against COVID-19. During this journey, there has also been a lot of focus on understanding at-risk groups of patients who either have pre-existing conditions or have developed concomitant health conditions due to the impact of COVID-19 on immune system. There was a high incidence of COVID-19 induced pulmonary fibrosis (PF) observed in patients. PF can cause significant morbidity, long-term disability, and lead to death in the long run. Additionally, being a progressive disease, PF can also impact the patient for a long time after COVID infection and affect the overall quality of life. Although current therapies are being used as the mainstay for treating PF, there is no therapy specifically for COVID-induced PF. As observed in the treatment of other diseases, nanomedicine can show a significant promise in overcoming the limitations of current anti-PF therapies. In this review, we summarize the efforts reported by various groups to develop nanomedicine therapeutics to treat COVID-induced PF.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0024.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2 infection; pulmonary in situ thrombosis; embolism; immunothrombosis; inflammation; coagulopathy
Online: 1 March 2023 (11:37:10 CET)
COVID-19, the infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), is frequently associated with pulmonary thrombotic events, especially in hospitalised patients. Severe SARS-CoV-2 infection is characterized by a proinflammatory state and an associated disbalance in hemostasis. Immune pathology analysis supports the inflammatory nature of pulmonary arterial thrombi composed by white blood cells, especially neutrophils, CD3+ and CD20+ lymphocytes, fibrin, red blood cells and platelets. Immune cells, cytokines, chemokines and the complement system are key drivers of immunothrombosis, as they induce the damage of endothelial cells and initiate pro-inflammatory and pro-coagulant positive feedback loops. Neutrophil extracellular traps induced by COVID-19-associated “cytokine storm”, platelets, red blood cells, and coagulation pathways close the inflammation-endotheliopathy-thrombosis axis, contributing to SARS-CoV-2 associated pulmonary thrombotic events. The hypothesis of immunothrombosis is also supported by the minor role of venous thromboembolism, chest CT imaging data showing peripheral blood clots associated with inflammatory lesions and the high incidence of thrombotic events despite routine thromboprophylaxis. Understanding the complex mechanisms behind COVID-19-induced pulmonary thrombosis will lead to future combination therapies for hospitalised patients with severe disease, that would target the crossroads of inflammatory and coagulation pathways.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0383.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: CDC2; CDK1; FOXM1; PLK1; smooth muscle cells; pulmonary arterial hypertension; cell cycle; vascular remodeling
Online: 17 May 2021 (11:08:44 CEST)
A key feature of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is the hyperplastic proliferation exhibited by the vascular smooth muscle cells from patients (HPASMC). The growth inducers FOXM1 and PLK1 are highly upregulated in these cells. The mechanism by which these two proteins direct aberrant growth in these cells is not clear. Herein we identify cyclin dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) also termed cell division cycle protein 2 (CDC2), as having a primary role in promoting progress of the cell cycle leading to proliferation in HPASMC. HPASMC obtained from PAH patients and pulmonary arteries from Sugen/hypoxia rats were investigated for their expression of CDC2. Protein levels of CDC2 were much higher in PAH than in cells from normal donors. Knocking down FOXM1 or PLK1 protein expression with siRNA or pharmacological inhibitors lowered the cellular expression of CDC2 considerably. However, knockdown of CDC2 with siRNA or inhibiting its activity with RO-3306 did not reduce the protein expression of FOXM1 or PLK1. Expression of CDC2 and FOXM1 reached its maximum at G1/S, while PLK1 reached its maximum at G2/M phase of the cell cycle. The expression of other CDKs such as CDK2, CDK4, CDK6, CDK7 and CDK9 did not change in PAH HPASMC. Moreover, inhibition via Wee1 inhibitor adavosertib or siRNAs targeting Wee1, Myt1, CDC25A, CDC25B, or CDC25C led to dramatic decreases in CDC2 protein expression. Lastly, we found CDC2 expression at the RNA and protein level to be upregulated in pulmonary arteries during disease progression Sugen/hypoxia rats. In sum, our present results illustrate that the increased expression of FOXM1 and PLK1 in PAH leads directly to increased expression of CDC2 resulting in a potentiated growth hyperactivity of PASMC from patients with pulmonary hypertension. Our results further suggest that the regulation of CDC2, or associated regulatory proteins, will prove beneficial in the treatment of this disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0418.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: Biomarker; CTHRC1; extracellular matrix; interstitial lung disease; idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; rheumatoid arthritis; post-COVID; pirfenidone
Online: 6 September 2023 (10:20:09 CEST)
Pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic, progressive, and irreversible lung disease characterized by fibrotic scarring in the lung parenchyma. This condition involves the excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix (EM) due to a persistently activated wound-repair response. The aberrant activation of myofibroblasts in the alveolar environment by Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGF-β) and other signaling molecules is considered a key event in the development and progression of fibrosis. A primary target of TGF-β signaling in fibrosis is Collagen Triple Helix Repeat Containing 1 (CTHRC1), a secreted glycoprotein that plays a pivotal role in extracellular matrix deposition. CTHRC1 is transcriptionally regulated by TGF-β and inhibits both TGF-β and canonical Wnt signaling pathways. This dual function suggests that CTHRC1 is vital in regulating tissue remodeling during wound repair. In this review, we will highlight recent studies suggesting that CTHRC1 can serve as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for fibrosis in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, rheumatoid arthritis-interstitial lung disease, systemic sclerosis, and post-COVID lung fibrosis. Notably, the expression of CTHRC1 is responsive to antifibrotic drugs such as pirfenidone indicating its potential as a therapeutic target. Collectively, these findings suggest that CTHRC1 may present new opportunities for the diagnosis, stratification, and treatment of patients with lung fibrosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1427.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: pulmonary tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, alveolar macrophages, drug tolerance, persistence, dormancy, biomarkers, non-acid-fastness, Rv2623
Online: 21 August 2023 (12:11:01 CEST)
The emergence of drug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis (Mtb) and the phenomenon of phe-notypic tolerance to drugs challenge the goal of tuberculosis (TB) elimination worldwide. By using the ex vivo cultures of alveolar macrophages obtained from lung tissues of TB patients after intensive antimicrobial chemotherapy before surgery, different subpopulations of multi-drug-tolerant Mtb with a spectrum of phenotypic and growth features were identified in the same TB lesions. Our results indicative of not only passive mechanisms generating nonheritable resistance of Mtb to antibiotics, which are associated mainly with a lack of Mtb growth, but also some active mechanisms of Mtb persistence, such as cell wall and metabolic pathway remod-eling. In one of the subpopulations, non-acid-fast Mtb have undergone significant repro-gramming with the restoration of acid-fastness, lipoarabinomannan expression and replication in host cells of some patients after withdrawal of anti-TB drugs. Our data indicate the universal stress protein Rv2623 as a clinically relevant biomarker of Mtb that have lost acid-fastness in human lungs. The studies of Mtb persistence, dormancy, and resumption and the identification of biomarkers characterizing these phenomena are very important to develop vaccines and drug regimens with the individualized management of patients for overcoming the re-sistance/tolerance crisis in anti-TB therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0123.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; COPD; fall risk factor; gait; balance; cognition; daily activity; muscle dysfunction
Online: 8 September 2022 (10:35:01 CEST)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is increasingly being recognized as a systemic disease rather than a mere disorder of the lungs. Central (respiratory) and peripheral (limb) muscle weakness are among the main pronounced systemic effects of COPD. While the disease primarily affects the lower limb muscles and contributes to gait impairment, COPD is also associated with an increasing risk of falls in patients (COPDp). Previous studies have reported higher rates of falls among COPDp (1.17 to 1.20 falls/person-year), amounting to four times higher than an age-matched healthy group. Potential fall risk factors include muscle weakness, impaired daily activities, cognitive dysfunction, and gait and balance impairment. Although COPDp often manifest many of these risk factors, there remains a gap in literature regarding falls during walking in this population. This study aimed to 1. analyze the literature to identify the risk factors of falling in COPDp, and 2. investigate the underlying mechanisms by which these risk factors can lead to increased prevalence of falling. The results suggest that in addition to the known risk factors of falling, low back pain and mental fatigue should also be considered as relevant risk factors in the treatment process of these patients. Moreover, respiratory problems, which are common in this population, have demonstrated pronounced effects on energy expenditure, gait, and other types of activities of daily living (ADLs), leading to reduced intensity, disrupted coordination of the trunk-pelvic structure with the lower limbs during gait, and altered motor control performance due to activation of muscles in an inefficient synergic manner. These problems potentially lead to the increased vulnerability of these patients to external disturbances and higher incidence risk of falls and injuries. Cognitive problems, which are typically due to reduced oxygen received by the brain, as well as general inflammation caused by COPD, also play a significant role in gait disruption and balance. Future research is warranted to determine the prevalence of falls in COPDp by examining the response of these patients to Medio-Lateral (ML) and Anterior-Posterior (AP) disturbances during gait in association with traditional and recommended fall risk factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0401.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aging Keywords: Comorbidity; Multimorbidity; Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease; COPD; Cumulative Illness Rating Scale; acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD)
Online: 7 November 2023 (10:33:41 CET)
Background. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a heterogeneous systemic syn-drome that often coexists with multiple comorbidities. In high-complex COPD patients the role of the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale (CIRS) as a risk predictor of COPD exacerbation is not known. Objective. To determine the effectiveness of the CIRS score in detecting the association of comorbidities and disease severity with the risk of acute exacerbations in COPD patients. Methods. 105 adults with COPD were included in this prospective study. All participants at baseline had at least 2 moderate exacerbations or 1 leading to hospitalization. The primary outcome was a composite of moderate or severe COPD exacerbation during 12-months follow-up. Results. CIRS indices (CIRS total score, Severity Index and Comorbidity Index) showed a positive correlation with mMRC, CAT and a negative correlation with FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC. The three CIRS indices were able to predict the 12-month rate of moderate or severe exacerbation (CIRS-Total Score: Hazard Ratio (HR) = 1.12 (95% CI: 1.08-1.21); CIRS-Severity Index: HR = 1.21 (95% CI: 1.12-1-31); CIRS-Comorbidity Index = 1.58 (95% CI: 1.33-1.89)). Conclusions. Among patients with COPD, comorbidity number and severity, assessed by the CIRS score, influence the risk in moderate to severe exacerbations. The CIRS score also correlates with the severity of respiratory symptoms and lung function
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0030.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: animal models; cardiac aftereffects; COVID-19; hypoxia; echocardiogram; pulmonary hypertension; right ventricular dilatation; right ventricular hypertrophy
Online: 5 May 2022 (09:36:47 CEST)
COVID-19 affects many organs in our body, including the heart and lungs. COVID-19 cases that require hospitalization often exhibit pulmonary hypertension (PH) due to changes in the lung microvasculature in which the blood vessels become stiff, damaged, or narrow, causing increased pulmonary arterial pressure. This review examines the hypothesis that PH can lead to right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) as a long-lasting aftereffect of COVID-19. Recent studies have shown that significant percentages of hospitalized patients develop right ventricular hypertension and right ventricular dilatation (RVD), which may lead to right ventricular failure and death. Despite recommendations for echocardiogram reports to include right ventricular wall thickness to assess RVH, few published reports have reported this parameter. Relevant studies on animal models of PH in which the timing of PH can be precisely controlled suggest that one to three weeks of PH can cause RVH. Thus, according to the hypothesis proposed here COVID-19 patients who have long-lasting severe disease (e.g., needed to be on a ventilator for one or more weeks) accompanied by PH and RVD may develop RVH as a long-lasting sequela outlasting the infection itself. Echocardiogram studies of recovered COVID-19 patients may determine whether oft-reported cardiovascular sequelae include RVH.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0163.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: artificial intelligence; deep learning; image-to-image translation; dual-energy computed tomography; pulmonary embolism; emergency radiology
Online: 18 April 2022 (09:45:00 CEST)
Detector-based spectral CT offers the possibility of obtaining spectral information from which discrete acquisitions at different energy levels can be derived, yielding so-called virtual monoenergetic images (VMI). In this study, we aimed to develop a jointly optimized deep learning framework based on dual-energy CT pulmonary angiography (DE-CTPA) data to generate synthetic monoenergetic images (SMI) for improving automatic pulmonary embolism (PE) detection in single-energy CTPA scans. For this purpose, we used two data sets: our institutional DE-CTPA data set D1 comprising polyenergetic arterial series and the corresponding VMI at low-energy levels (40 keV) with 7,892 image pairs, and a 10% subset of the 2020 RSNA Pulmonary Embolism Detection Challenge data set D2, which consisted of 161,253 polyenergetic images with dichotomous slice-wise annotations (PE/no PE). We trained a fully convolutional encoder-decoder on D1 to generate SMI from single-energy CTPA scans of D2, which were then fed into a ResNet50 network for training of the downstream PE classification task. The quantitative results on the reconstruction ability of our framework revealed high-quality visual SMI predictions with reconstruction results of 0.984 ± 0.002 (structural similarity) and 41.706 ± 0.547 dB (peak-signal-to-noise ratio). PE classification resulted in an AUC of 0.84 for our model, which achieved improved performance compared to other naive approaches with AUCs up to 0.81. Our study stresses the role of using joint optimization strategies for deep learning algorithms to improve automatic PE detection. The proposed pipeline may prove to be beneficial for computer-aided detection systems and could help rescue CTPA studies with suboptimal opacification of the pulmonary arteries from single-energy CT scanners.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0071.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: lysophospholipids; lysophosphatidic acids; cardiovascular diseases; HPLC-MS/MS; rodent models; pulmonary hypertension; chronic heart failure; hypertension
Online: 3 September 2021 (15:19:54 CEST)
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of premature death and disability in humans. Increasing data suggest that CVD is closely related to lipid metabolism and signaling. This study aimed to assess whether circulating lysophospholipids (LPL), lysophosphatidic acids (LPA) and monoacylglycerols (MAG) may be considered as biomarkers of CVD. For this objective, the evolution of the plasma levels of 22 compounds (13 LPL, 6 LPA and 3 MAG) was monitored by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS²) in different rat models of CVD, i.e. angiotensin-II-induced hypertension (HTN), ischemic chronic heart failure (CHF) and sugen/hypoxia(SuHx)-induced pulmonary hypertension (PH). On one hand, there was modest changes on the monitored compounds in HTN (LPA 16:0, 18:1 and 20:4), LPC 16:1) and CHF (LPA 16:0, LPC 18:1 and LPE 16:0 and 18:0) models compared to control rats but these changes were no longer significant after correction for multiple testing. On the other hand, PH was associated with important changes in plasma LPA with a significant increase in the 16:0, 18:1, 18:2, 20:4 and 22:6 species. A deleterious impact of LPA was confirmed on isolated human pulmonary smooth muscle cells with an increase in their proliferation. This study demonstrates that circulating LPA species are increased in rats with PH and may contribute to the pathophysiology of this disease. Additional experiments are needed to assess whether the modulation of LPA signaling in PH may be of interest.