ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0202.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Clinical handover; Patient Handoff; Patient transfer; Referral and Consultation; Medical Records Systems; Computerized; Patient Safety; Risk Management; Attitude; Institutional Practice
Online: 31 May 2022 (07:14:42 CEST)
Background: Handover is a critical process for ensuring quality and safety in healthcare. Considerable research suggests that poor handover results in significant morbidity, mortality, dissatisfaction, and excess financial costs. Despite this, little formal attention, education, and evaluation has been given to handover. There is also paucity of data on the opinions of practitioners on the safety of handover.Objectives: The aim of this study was to measure the perceived risk, degree of patient harm and the systems used to support handover, and to understand how this varied by care setting, type of clinical practice, location, or level of experience. Methods: An open, anonymous and confidential online questionnaire covering: (a) respondent characteristics; (b) peer-to-peer handover; (c) internal referrals; (d) discharges and transfers between organisations; and (e) leading and improving handover was conducted with healthcare practitioners and managers from various settings. Results: We gathered a total of 432 completed responses from 26 countries. The average reported performance of handover was rated as 3.9 out of 5.For each type of handover, 12 - 14% reported errors occurring more than weekly. Of those that knew the outcome of such errors, between 29% and 34% reported that they had witnessed moderate or severe harm. 12% and 17% of respondents believed that handover was high or very high risk (See table 4). These respondents were more likely to have witnessed moderate or severe harm, or to be more senior.A wide combination of handover systems was utilised by respondents. 28% - 32% relied exclusively on EPRs (with or without face-to-face contact). 21% used Office documents such as Word and Excel for peer-to-peer handover, and over 30% used hand-written or manual systems. Conclusions: This study suggests the need to do more — and go further — to improve communication and reduce risk during all types of handovers. Clinical leaders should find ways to train and support handover with effective systems, with less experienced staff being the primary focus. More research is needed to demonstrate the interventions that improve the safety of handover.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0230.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: interprofessional collaboration; nurse; patient safety
Online: 8 April 2021 (10:29:07 CEST)
Patient safety is one of the indicators of the quality of health services in the hospital, for that, it is necessary to have efforts from the hospital to create a system that can minimize the occurrence of errors and unexpected events that can harm patients, nurses as health workers who are the most numerous in the home. sick and with the patient for 24 hours, has an important role in maintaining patient safety. This study aims to explain how the role of nurses and cooperation between health workers in implementing patient safety measures in the hospital. The method used in this study is a literature review by analyzing and exploring relevant articles and focusing on interprofessional collaboration to improve patient safety. The articles used in this study were taken from 3 direct, Proquest, Pubmed science databases published in the last 3 years, namely between 2019-2021, nurses as part of the health team are required to be able to work together with other health professionals in hospitals with various characteristics, including education, gender, age, employment status and length of work, nurses are required to be committed to maintaining patient safety in the hospital.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0263.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: chronic obstructive; patient discharge; patient care team; personalized care; interdisciplinary health team; patient safety; pulmonary disease; pulmonary medicine
Online: 14 July 2021 (09:58:17 CEST)
Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) often require frequent hospitalization due to worsening symptoms. Preventing prolonged hospital stay and readmission becomes a challenge for healthcare professionals treating patients with COPD. Although the integration of health and social care supports greater collaboration and enhanced patient care, organizational structure and poor leadership may hinder the implementation of patient-oriented goals. This paper presents a case of a 64-year-old chronic smoker with severe COPD who was to be discharged on long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT). It further highlights the healthcare decisions made to ensure the patient’s safety at home and further provides a long-lasting solution to the existing medical and social needs. The goal was accomplished through a discharge plan that reflects multidisciplinary working, efficient leadership, and change management using Havelock’s theory. While COPD is characterized by frequent exacerbation and hospital readmission, it was emphasized that most failed discharges could be attributed to bureaucratic organizational workflow which might not be in the patient’s best interest. It was further demonstrated that healthcare professionals are likely to miss the window of opportunity to apply innovative and long-lasting solutions to the patient’s health condition in an attempt to remedy the immediate symptoms of COPD
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0117.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: patient safety, quality improvement, safety culture
Online: 3 July 2023 (15:01:11 CEST)
Background: Falls in hospitalized older patients lead to increased length of stay and poorer discharge outcomes. The Comprehensive Unit-based Safety Program (CUSP) represents a quality improvement intervention for patient safety. Objective: To evaluate CUSP implementation for the prevention of falls at a teaching hospital. Method: An interdisciplinary CUSP team, received a four-hour online module and one-day face-to-face training. The intervention was developed using the WHO implementation science plan-do-study-act framework. Process evaluation was conducted using the UK Medical Research Council framework. The primary outcome measure of patient safety culture was determined using the Safety Attitude Questionnaire (SAQ), while annual fall rates were considered the secondary outcome measure. Results: Safety rounds were conducted during the two-year intervention period, each attended by five to eight HCPs, with nine to 29 patients reviewed each month. Risk factors, plans and actions were administered to individual patients, while local issues were identified and resolved through engagement of senior executives. SAQ domains increased from before (n=39) to after (n=30) the intervention of CUSP. Fall rates reduced from 11.18 per 1,000 bed days pre-implementation to zero falls post-implementation. Conclusion: Improvements in patient safety culture were observed after the implementation of CUSP alongside a reduction in fall rates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0154.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Simulation; Nursing competences; Critical patient; Training; Education; Pandemic
Online: 9 February 2023 (04:47:44 CET)
On 11 March 2020, the COVID-19 emergency was declared and a large number of patients were admitted to the ICUs. Consequently, ICUs had to recruit nurses from other units as well as Nursing students without working experience in critical patients care. Since Critical nursing competence is crucial to avoid medical errors, the aim of this study was, to describe the level of safety and nursing competence in critical patient care of recruited nurses and students, during the COVID-19 pandemic in ICUs. A cross-sectional descriptive study of 66 participants using the validated competency assessment questionnaire for nurses in hospital care (COM-VA©) was performed. Our results showed that the level of safety perceived in critical patients care by the students on placement in ICUs and mentors scored higher than the rest of the participants. Interestingly, whereas the participant’s COM-VA© score indicated a level of competence good enough to work autonomously, the supervisor/mentor’s COM-VA© evaluation showed that only the group of students on placement obtained this level of competency. Altogether, we found that students on placement in ICU possesses a higher level of safety and COM-VA© scores than the rest of participants probably due to the close support of the mentor.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2011.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: healthcare workers; health personnel; risk management; medical error; incident reporting; patient safety; patient security; professional education; safety management
Online: 31 July 2023 (04:48:34 CEST)
Patient safety is a top priority for all healthcare systems globally. Promoting the adoption of policies for reporting and learning from errors is an important strategy for improving care safety. Therefore, the aim of our study was to detect how much patient safety culture influences the reporting of adverse events and the use of the incident reporting tool. The study protocol was developed according to PRISMA guidelines. Articles were searched electronically in PubMed/MEDLINE, the COCHRANE library, and Google Scholar by two independent reviewers, and those that met the eligibility criteria were included. Synthesis of qualitative data from included studies was performed by graphical descriptive statistical analysis. The results of the systematic review showed that health care organizations' increasing focus on staff development of a safety culture has led to a significant increase in incident reporting rates over the years. Moreover, in situations where safety culture is placed at the top of the nations, there is a higher frequency of incident reporting. An efficient incident reporting system should be an essential foundation for healthcare organizations, as it allows them to collect experiences and data and provide feedback to healthcare providers and staff involved in care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0192.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: errors; culture; quality improvement; patient safety; management; clinics; outpatient
Online: 8 July 2021 (10:44:33 CEST)
As many as 20-25% of the population experiences harm in outpatient settings, yet these locations are underrepresented in the literature compared to hospitals. We examined results from the Medical Office Survey on Patient Safety Culture designed by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. The survey administered in 2012 gathered perceptions from 23,679 individuals in 934 unique medical offices. We examined associations of organizational patient safety climate composites on frequency of safety and quality issues, overall quality score, and safety rating. We found organizational patient safety composites are all positively and significantly associated with a higher overall quality score and patient safety rating, and fewer safety and quality issues. Office processes and standardization appeared to have the most consistent influence on perceived quality outcomes. Our results indicate it may be advantageous for medical offices to improve on the factors that contribute to positive safety climate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0130.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Nursing Institutions; Patient Safety; Nursing Students
Online: 15 April 2021 (14:03:43 CEST)
Background: The level of students' understanding of the knowledge of patient safety concepts in infection prevention and control and awareness of treatment is in the low category. Clinical education that provides problem-based learning models in real areas helps students to better understand patient safety. This study is designed to analyze the evaluation and reflection of the role of nursing education institutions in the achievement of patient safety competencies by nursing students.Method: "Searching for articles in research journals is obtained from Sciencedirect, Ebscohost, Garuda, Proquest and Scopus. As many as 228 articles were obtained consisting of nursing journals and health journals with the keywords clinical education, competence, and patient safety. After that, the screening process was carried out based on the inclusion criteria and obtained 25 articles that met the criteria. "Results: the results of the evaluation show that there is a big role in educational institutions in designing curricula, learning models, and clinical education models in an effort to achieve patient safety competencies in nursing students.Conclusion: the learning model about patient safety organized by many educational institutions is considered ineffective in producing the achievement of patient safety competencies for nursing students. This makes it necessary to develop models, reform the patient safety curriculum that is embedded in real areas in clinical education practice
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0103.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Emergency Medicine Keywords: Patient Safety Climate Attitudes, Hospital Emergency Department, Qualitative
Online: 12 February 2019 (11:36:02 CET)
Introduction: The attitudes of doctors and nurses toward patient safety is a significant factor in hospital safety climates and medical error rates. Yet, there are very few studies of patient safety attitudes in Saudi hospitals and none conducted in hospital emergency departments. Aims: The current study aims to investigate the discrepancy between the patient safety attitudes of doctors and nurses in a Saudi hospital emergency department. Materials and Method: The study employed a qualitative research designvia semi-structured interviews with Saudi and non-Saudi doctors and nurses working in a Saudi hospital emergency department to determine their attitudes and experiences about the patient safety climate. Results: The findings showed doctors and nurse held some similar safety attitudes, however, nurses reported issues with doctors with respect to their teamwork, communication, and patient safety attitudes. Moreover, several barriers to the patient safety climate were identified such as limits to resources, teamwork, communication, and incident reporting. Conclusion: The findings provide one of the few research contributions to knowledge on the differential patient safety attitudes of Saudi and non-Saudi doctors and nurses and suggest the application of such knowledge would enhance positive patient outcomes in emergency departments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1879.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: Patient Safety; Organizational Culture; Quality Improvement; Accreditation; Sports Medicine Hospital
Online: 27 July 2023 (10:33:06 CEST)
Background: This study aims to investigate the patient safety culture at a sports medicine hospital and explore quality of healthcare and associated factors. Methods: In a cross-sectional study design, the tool Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPC) was administered online among staff at a sports medicine hospital in Doha, Qatar. About 319 staff participated from 898 staff who received emails (35.5%). Results: The results showed that 49.2% of the staff rated the patient safety grade as excellent and 36.1% as very good, which sums up to 85.3%. Factors associated with better patient safety grade were work climate (OR 10.3 95% CI (3.2 to 33.6); teamwork OR 7.6 95% CI (2.8 to 20.9) and team communication (OR 2.9 95% CI (1.1 to 7.6). Conclusions: Addressing the work climate, enhancing communication, and cohesive work within teams facilitates a culture of trust that improves patient safety grade. Ensuring quick return to play is a team effort involving multiple disciplines, hence a high performance and safety culture can enhance teamwork. Reducing punitive response to error and encouraging staff and supervisors are key areas that can improve safety culture in sports medicine organizations, and efforts should be placed in this area.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0657.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: hypnosis; multimodal monitoring; entropy; qNOX; qCON; bispectral index; surgical plethismographic index; general anaesthesia; patient safety
Online: 25 January 2021 (17:02:57 CET)
With the development of general anesthesia techniques and anesthetic substances, brought new horizons for the expansion and improvement of surgical techniques. Nevertheless, more complex surgical procedures brought a higher complexity and longer duration for general anesthesia that led to a series of adverse events such as hemodynamic instability, under- or overdosage of anesthetic drugs, as well as an increased number of post-anesthetic events. In order to adapt the anesthesia according to the particularities of each patient, the multimodal monitoring of these patients is highly recommended. Classically, general anesthesia monitoring consists of the analysis of vital functions and gas exchange. Multimodal monitoring refers to the concomitant monitoring of the degree of hypnosis and the nociceptive-antinociceptive balance. By titrating anesthetic drugs according to these parameters, clinical benefits can be obtained, such as hemodynamic stabilization, reduction of awakening times, and the reduction of post-operative complications. Another important aspect is the impact on the status of inflammation and the redox balance. By minimizing inflammatory and oxidative impact one can achieve a faster recovery that will lead to both increased patient satisfaction and an increase in patient safety. The purpose of this literature review is to present the most modern multimodal monitoring techniques, respectively to discuss the particularities of each technique.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0787.v5
Online: 1 February 2023 (11:47:37 CET)
Hospital bed shortage is a worldwide concern. Beds unavailability has caused elective surgery cancellations, at our hospital peaking in spring 2016 at over 50%. This is often due to difficult patient step-down from intensive care (ICU) and high-dependency units (HDU). In our general/digestive surgery service admitting approximately 1000 patients yearly, ward rounds were run on a consultant firm basis. We report a quality improvement (ISRCTN13976096) introducing in our service a structured daily multi-disciplinary board round framework (SAFER Surgery R2G) adapted from the “SAFER patient flow bundle” and the "Red to Green days” approaches to enhance flow, comparing the previous year to 2017, when our framework was applied for 12 months.We used a Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) methodology. Our intervention consisted in 1) systematic communication of the key care plan after the afternoon ward rounds to the nurse in charge; 2) 30’ 10AM Monday-to-Friday multidisciplinary board rounds, attended daily by the senior-team and weekly by hospital and site managers, revising the key care plan aiming at safe, early discharges, assessing the appropriateness of each inpatient day and tackling any cause of delay. We measured patient flow by average length of stay (LOS), ICU/HDU step-downs and operation cancellations count, monitoring safety through early 30-day readmissions. Compliance was assessed by board round attendance and staff satisfaction rate surveys.After 12 months (PDSA 2, N=1032), LOS significantly decreased from 7.2(±8.9) to 6.3(±7.4) days (p=0.003); ICU/HDU bed step-down flow increased by 9.3% from 345 to 375 (p=0.197), surgery cancellations dropped from 38 to 15 (p=0.100). 30-day re-admissions increased from 0.9% (N=9) to 1.3% (N=14)(p=0.390). Average cross-specialty attendance was 80%. Satisfaction rates were >75%, regarding enhanced teamwork and faster decisions.The SAFER Surgery R2G framework has shown an increase in patient flow in the context of an enhanced multidisciplinary approach, requiring senior staff commitment to remain sustainable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0036.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: patient engagement; stakeholder engagement; patient group engagement; prioritization tool; patient engagement activities
Online: 3 July 2020 (12:15:23 CEST)
Patient group engagement is increasingly used to inform the design, conduct, and dissemination of clinical trials and other medical research activities. However, the priorities of industry sponsors and patient groups differ, and there is currently no framework to help these groups identify mutually beneficial engagement activities. Methods: We conducted 28 qualitative, semi-structured interviews with representatives from research sponsor organizations (n=14) and patient groups (n=14) to determine: 1) how representatives define benefits and investments of patient group engagement in medical product development and, 2) to refine a list of 31 predefined patient group engagement activities. Results: Patient group and sponsor representatives described similar benefits: engagement activities can enhance the quality and efficiency of clinical trials by improving patient recruitment and retention, reduce costs, and help trials meet expectations of regulators and payers. All representatives indicated that investments include both dedicated staff time and expertise, and financial resources. Factors to consider when evaluating benefits and investments were also identified as were suggestions for clarifying the list of engagement activities. Discussion: Using these findings, we refined the 31 engagement activities to 24 unique activities across the medical product development lifecycle. We also developed a web-based prioritization tool (https://prioritizationtool.ctti-clinicaltrials.org/) to help clinical research sponsors and patient groups identify high priority engagement activities. Use of this tools can help sponsors and patient groups identify the engagement activities that they believe will provide the most benefit for the least investment and may lead to more meaningful and mutually beneficial partnerships in medical product development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0336.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: health literacy; patient health engagement model; Health Care Climate Questionnaire; patient autonomy; PHE-s; Patient Health Engagement Scale; health communication; patient centered communication; patient engagement
Online: 28 January 2020 (10:29:43 CET)
Individuals with low health literacy (HL) are known to have poorer health outcomes and to have higher mortality rates compared to individuals with higher HL: hence, the improvement of HL is a key outcome in modern healthcare systems. Healthcare providers are therefore asked to support patients’ literacy skills by encouraging the implementation of autonomy-supportive patient centered communication (PCC), which in turn requires the enhancement of patient engagement. Our main hypothesis is that the well-known relationship between autonomy-supportive PCC and HL is mediated by patient engagement which is known to play a role in HL promotion and that is related to PCC as well. The purpose of this study was to formulate a hypothetical structural equation model (SEM) linking PCC to patient engagement and HL. A cross-sectional survey design was employed involving 1007 Italian chronic patients. The hypothetical model was tested using SEM to verify the hypothesized mediation of patient engagement between PCC and HL. Results show that the theoretical model has a good fit indexes and that patient engagement fully mediates the relationship between PCC and HL. This finding suggests healthcare systems to implement a new paradigm where patients are supported to play an autonomous role in their own healthcare.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0285.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: patient empowerment; home-administration; patient preferences; adherence; biologics
Online: 17 December 2021 (11:06:55 CET)
Severe asthma patients are at increased risk of major exacerbations and they need to be monitored regularly. The COVID-19 pandemic has impressively impacted on the health care resources. The telemedicine approach applied to the follow-up of asthmatic patients has been proved to be effective in monitoring their disease and adherence to the therapy. The aim of our study was to investigate the satisfaction of severe asthma patients, before the activation of a telemedicine management complemented by a standard of care. An ad hoc questionnaire was developed and sent by e-mail to 180 severe asthma patients. Most of subjects (82%) were confident with the idea of doing self-measurements and self-managing their disease; 77% of subjects favoured to carry out virtual visit and telemedicine. 93% of patients considered easy the self-injection therapy. 94% of subjects felt safe and 93% were not worried while self-administering. Only mild adverse events were reported in 22% subjects after self-administration. Our results showed an agreement between what is considered necessary and practicable by healthcare personnel and what is perceived by the severe asthma patients, in terms of treatment and monitoring of the disease with Telehealth. Biologics have a safety profile and can be easily self-administred at home
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0213.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Toxicity; Diagnosis; Personal care; Patient encounter; Patient-based medicine
Online: 16 May 2022 (14:06:25 CEST)
Clinicians are key in reclaiming the medical arts ceded to clinically irrelevant technology and thereby aligning patient with fast-changing biological realities. Narrowing the chasm between virtual and real perceptions of health hazards requires: 1) becoming acutely aware of the habitat loss aggravating the pervasive dissemination of chemicals via conventional food, air, and consumer products and the proliferation of non-ionizing radiation; and 2) making strategic use of slow, system 2 thinking so as to respond wisely to the rampant epidemics of chronic low-dose toxicity disregarded or misdiagnosed for half a century. To respond adaptively, take a moment during each patient encounter to add chronic ambient poisoning to the differential diagnosis and investigate subtle symptoms and signs of irritation in vulnerable organ systems. Enacting adaptive response across our profession could ease the suffering of millions, help avert the sixth extinction, and contribute to continuation of evolved life as we know it.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0230.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: patient empowerment; patient education; patient information; intensive care unit discharge; intensive care unit transition; nursing interventions, systematic review.
Online: 14 September 2021 (10:05:11 CEST)
Intensive care unit discharge is an important transition which impacts on patient wellbeing. Nurses can play an essential role in this scenario, potentiating patient empowerment. A systematic review was conducted using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses: the PRISMA Statement. Embase, PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) databases were evaluated in May 2021. Two independent reviewers analyzed the studies, extracted the data, and assessed the quality of evidence. Quality of the studies included was assessed using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. Of the 273 articles initially identified, eight randomized controlled trials reported nursing interventions mainly focused on patients’ ICU discharge preparation through information and education. The creation of ICU Nurse-Led and nurses’ involvement in critical care multidisciplinary teams also aimed to support patients during ICU discharge. This systematic review provides an update on clinical practice aimed at improving the patient experience during ICU discharge. The main nursing interventions were based on information and education, as well as the development of new nursing roles. Understanding transitional needs and patient empowerment are key to making the transition easier.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0269.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: patient centered care; physical therapy; professional-patient relations; therapeutic relationship; environment.
Online: 9 November 2020 (10:02:48 CET)
Currently, in the scientific literature there is a great interest on the study of strategies to implement patient-centered care. One of the main tools for this is the therapeutic relationship. Some studies suggest that the perception of the environment in which the physical therapy treatment takes place can influence the perception of its quality. A qualitative study using focus groups was performed. Two researchers conducted the focus groups, using a topic guide with predetermined questions. The focus group discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed thematically using a modified grounded theory approach. The setting was three hospitals and six public health centers located in Spain. The inclusion criteria were patients who had received a minimum of 15 physical therapy sessions and with no communication impairments. Thirty-one participants in four focus groups. Participants described a series of specific experiences relating to the environment, which they felt were influential in the establishment of therapeutic patient-centered relationships, including eight physical factors and five organizational factors. The results of this study highlight environmental factors that affect the quality of the therapeutic patient-centered relationship in physical therapy and emphasize the need for physical therapists and administrators to rethink the situation and propose strategies for improvement.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1305.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: artificial intelligence; patient management
Online: 21 November 2023 (10:00:01 CET)
Dementia is a major issue for healthcare systems worldwide, necessitating the development of creative and effective strategies for its management. This paper examines the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies in caring for and managing people with dementia. AI-driven solutions can improve diagnosis, personalize care, optimize medication management, and reduce the burden on caregivers. This paper discusses the implementation of an AI-based framework for creating videos related to people’s memories to support train-therapy or travel- therapy, a non-pharmacological intervention for Alzheimer’s disease patients
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0680.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: patient activation; patient engagement, behavioral health change; self-administered therapy, oral oncolytic
Online: 28 June 2021 (15:32:14 CEST)
Oncology clinical pharmacists are uniquely positioned to make interventions to increase patient activation and engagement. To accomplish this goal, pharmacists can target health system-related, provider-related, and patient-related factors to help enhance patient-centered care and drive behavioral health changes. Interventions that pharmacists must tackle include educating team members and patients on the medication acquisition process, communicating urgency of treatment, optimizing workflows, facilitating guideline recommendations, preventing, and managing treatment toxicities, and promoting patient self-advocacy through education and shared decision-making. As crucial members of the healthcare team, oncology clinical pharmacists can simplify highly complex treatment regimens to facilitate and optimize patients’ ownership of their care. This review will focus on the example of venetoclax treatment in acute myeloid leukemia to demonstrate the impact that pharmacists provide that leads to behavioral change of patients and clinicians.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0020.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: visual patient; patient monitoring; avatar-based technology; situation awareness; user-centered design
Online: 2 March 2020 (00:56:03 CET)
Visual Patient technology is a situation awareness–oriented visualization technology that translates numerical and waveform patient monitoring data into a new user-centered visual language. Vital sign values are converted into colors, shapes, and rhythmic movements—a language humans can easily perceive and interpret—on a patient avatar model in real time. In this review, we summarize the current state of the research on the Visual Patient, including the technology, its history, and its scientific context. We also provide a summary of our primary research and a brief overview of research work on similar user-centered visualizations in medicine. In several computer-based studies under various experimental conditions, Visual Patient transferred more information per unit time, increased perceived diagnostic certainty, and lowered perceived workload. Eye tracking showed the technology worked because of the way it synthesizes and transforms vital sign information into new and logical forms corresponding to the real phenomena. The technology could be particularly useful for improving situation awareness in settings with high cognitive demand or when users must make quick decisions. This comprehensive review of Visual Patient research is the foundation for an evaluation of the technology in clinical applications, starting with a high-fidelity simulation study in early 2020.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0061.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: HIV; approach; strategies; patient; methodologies
Online: 3 February 2022 (15:44:38 CET)
HIV infection invariably attracts the attention of medical staff in complex medical specialties. To achieve the goal of elimination by 2020, various approaches are required, including the establishment of prevention, diagnosis, monitoring, treatment, control measures. These should be supported by statistical studies that report on restricted or extended geographical areas, to the level of social class and age. Such an approach, combing the medical and social science perspectives (medicosocial) can prove useful for developing control measures. Due to the complexity of this immunodeficiency pathology, the condition also attracts comorbidities (most notably tuberculosis). Hence, prospective strategies need to be developed and oriented towards the goal of eradicating HIV infection. This paper presents strategies for consideration.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: patient; COVID-19; asymptomatic contact
Online: 9 March 2020 (10:34:58 CET)
An outbreak caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) occurred in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China, in December 2019. Up to March 2, 2020, at least 80180 cases have been reported. Most of the patients had a history of visiting Hubei Province or contacting with people who had ever stayed in or passed by Hubei Province, or exposed to symptoms. Some patients got infected only from asymptomatic contacts. This study aimed to report the epidemic features and lab identification of a patient confirmed with COVID-19 infection only from asymptomatic contact.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0015.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: Rehabilitation; Review; Patient-Centered Care
Online: 1 February 2019 (10:53:15 CET)
Objective: To map the literature pertaining to adult Person-Centered Rehabilitation (PCR).Data Sources: Following our previously published scoping review protocol, data were identified through: three major databases, snowball searches and expert consultation.Study Selection: Two independent reviewers identified English-language papers which addressed adult physical rehabilitation and met one or more of the six pre-defined inclusion categories for PCR content. Data Extraction: Two independent reviewers extracted key characteristics of included papers (e.g. aims, methods, participants). Quantitative methods (descriptive statistics, regression analysis) and qualitative content analyses were used to synthesize the results. Data synthesis: Of 5084 unique records initially screened, 145 papers were included: 111 empirical, including 11 systematic reviews. Empirical papers had data from 13498 clients and 3849 providers, in total. Yearly publications grew exponentially from 2000 to 2017 (r²= 0.65; p<0.01). Publications were unevenly distributed by countries (e.g. United States’ publications per population size was 45 times lower than New Zealand’s). Most papers focused in more than one profession, setting-type or health conditions, respectively 57.2%, 66.2%, and 60.7%. Finally, more than half of the empirical papers (53.2%) studied implementation of PCR approaches, including its effect. Conclusion: This scoping review synthesizes key characteristics and publication trends in the PCR literature, which is mainly empirical and growing exponentially over time. Stakeholders can use the identified trends, gaps, and literature map to guide further PCR research, and both clinical and organizational practices. The high prevalence of papers focused on multiple professions, settings-type, or health conditions reinforces the need for developing a transdisciplinary, trans-service model of PCR, which will be derived from a thematic analysis of this body of literature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0825.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: Pediatric anesthesia; situation awareness; user-centered design; patient monitoring; Visual Patient Avatar; qualitative research.
Online: 12 October 2023 (12:22:41 CEST)
Philips Visual Patient Avatar represents an alternative method of patient monitoring that, according to computer-based simulation studies, enhances diagnostic accuracy, confidence and reduces workload. After its clinical integration, we assessed pediatric anesthesia providers' perspectives on this technology. This is a single-center qualitative study, conducted at the University Hospital Zurich using in-depth individual interviews. We aimed to identify the advantages and limitations of Visual Patient Avatar in pediatric anesthesia and to assess children and parents' reactions from caregivers' perspective. Thematic analysis was used to identify the dominant themes. Fourteen members of the institution's pediatric anesthesia team were interviewed. The most prevalent themes were: children's positive reactions towards the Visual Patient Avatar (92.9%) and enhanced speed in problem identification (71.4%). Additionally, 50% of participants reported finding the Visual Patient Avatar useful for diverting children's attention during anesthesia induction, and 50% suggested that its vital sign thresholds should be adaptable for different age groups. The study revealed that the Visual Patient Avatar was recognized as a valuable tool in pediatric anesthesia, enabling prompt identification of underlying issues and receiving positive feedback from both children and parents. The most commonly voiced wish for improvement in the study was the ability to customize the Visual Patient Avatar's thresholds for different age groups.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0605.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Visual Patient Avatar; patient monitoring; situation awareness; human factors; user-centered design; user perception
Online: 8 September 2023 (16:15:59 CEST)
Visual Patient Avatar ICU is an innovative approach to patient monitoring enhancing the user's situation awareness in intensive care settings. It dynamically displays the patient's current vital signs through changes in color, shape and animation. The technology can also indicate patient-inserted devices, such as arterial lines, central lines and urinary catheters, along with their insertion locations. We conducted an international, multi-center study using a sequential qualitative-quantitative design to evaluate users' perception of Visual Patient Avatar ICU among physicians and nurses. Twenty-five nurses and twenty-five physicians from the ICU participated in the structured interviews. Forty of them completed the online survey. Overall, ICU professionals expressed a positive outlook on Visual Patient Avatar ICU. They described Visual Patient Avatar ICU as a simple and intuitive tool that improved information retention and facilitated problem identification. However, a subset of participants expressed concerns about potential information overload and a sense of incompleteness due to missing exact numerical values. These findings provide valuable insights into user perceptions of Visual Patient Avatar ICU and encourage further technology development before clinical implementation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0066.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: ethics seminar; moral sensitivity; unethical behavior; nurse; Health care; patient; hospital; Patient safety; education
Online: 2 December 2020 (14:11:57 CET)
While nursing is an ethical profession, unethical behavior among nurses is increasing worldwide. This study examined the effects of an ethics seminar on nurses' moral sensitivity and ethical behavior. A total of 37 nurses (17 experimental, 20 control) were recruited. The ethics seminar was held over a 6-month period from May to October, 2018, and comprised six sessions held once a month for two hours. Moral sensitivity and unethical behavior were measured at the start and end of the seminar. Moral sensitivity and unethical behavior showed a negative correlation (r= -.455, p<0.01). After the ethics seminar, the experimental group's moral sensitivity was significantly increased (t = -1.039, p = 0.314). The mean scores of unethical behavior at pre and post-test in the experimental group were 12.59 and 9.47, respectively. This was a statistically significant difference (t = 3.118, p = 0.004). There was no statistically significant difference in the mean score in both moral sensitivity and unethical behavior in the control group. We conclude that ethics seminars can enhance moral sensitivity and reduce the risk of unethical behavior among nurses. Regular ethics seminars and training must be provided to nurses as a matter of policy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0647.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: clinical simulation; web-based intervention; face-to-face intervention; patient deterioration; patient safety; nurses; FIRST2ACT
Online: 11 October 2023 (03:55:31 CEST)
A clinical simulation web-based program, known as FIRST2ACT (Feedback Incorporating Review and Simulation Techniques to Act on Clinical Trends) is designed to increase the efficacy of cli-nicians’ actions in the recognition and immediate response to a patient’s deterioration. This study, which was nested in a larger mixed method project, used ten focus groups (n=65) of graduate, enrolled, registered nurses, Associate Nurse Unit Managers, and general manag-ers/educators/coordinators from four different institutions to investigate whether nurses felt their practice was influenced by participating in either a face-to-face or web-based simulation educa-tional programme about patient deterioration. Results indicate individuals who were less ‘tech-savvy’ appreciated the flexibility of web-based learning, which increased their confidence. Face-to-face students appreciated self-reflection through performance evaluation. While face-to-face simulations were unable to completely duplicate symptoms, they did show nurses' adaptability. Both interventions enhanced clinical practice by improving documentation and re-plies while also boosting confidence and competence. Web learners initially experienced tech-related anxiety, which gradually subsided, demonstrating healthcare professionals' resilience to new learning approaches. Overall, the study highlighted the advantages and challenges of web-based and face-to-face education in clinical practice, emphasising the importance of adapta-bility and reflective learning for healthcare professionals. Further exploration of specific topics is required to improve practice, encourage knowledge sharing among colleagues, and improve early detection of patient deterioration.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: consumer health informatics; E-health; mobile Apps; outpatient follow-up; patient portal; patient-reported outcomes
Online: 2 April 2019 (12:32:10 CEST)
Replacement of fee-for-service with capitation arrangements, forces physicians and institutions to minimize health care costs, while maintaining high-quality care. In this report we describe how patients, their families (and caregivers) can work with members of the medical care team to achieve these twin goals of maintaining (and perhaps improving) high-quality care and minimizing costs. We describe how increased self-management enables patients and their families/caregivers to provide electronic patient-reported outcomes (i.e., symptoms, events) (ePROs) as frequently as the patient or the medical care team consider appropriate. These capabilities also allow greater reliance on the use of mobile technologies (mHealth) to provide ongoing assessments of physiologic measurements/phenomena. Remote surveillance of these communications allows longer intervals between (fewer) visits of patients to the medical-care team when this is appropriate and earlier interventions when that is appropriate. Systems are now available that alert medical care providers to situations when interventions might be needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0869.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: patient flow; lean; communication; complexity; tools
Online: 13 September 2023 (09:37:43 CEST)
Background: Poor patient flow can lead to adverse outcomes for patients and organisational inefficiency. Many hospitals have addressed suboptimal patient flow by increasing resourcing, such as bed stock and staffing, however, this is an unsustainable approach. In determining the nature of poor patient flow issues, it is important to collect data from healthcare professionals who manage patient flow on a daily basis. Doing so provides insights into the current state of patient flow management in its entirety, whilst also helping with the development of sustainable solutions.; Methods: Thirteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with clinicians who were directly involved with patient flow at a tertiary care centre in Tasmania, Australia. Results: Through a thematic analysis method, four major themes were developed: managing patient flow, communication for decisions, tools as enablers and barriers and increasing complexity. Conclusions: The findings of this study provide great insights into patient flow issues, with potential solutions identified to address them.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1690.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: hip-spine; planning; THA; patient-specific
Online: 24 August 2023 (04:01:46 CEST)
Obtaining a proper position for THA’s components is a crucial aspect for the implant perfor-mance and consequently patient outcomes. Patient specific kinematic seems to be a key factor to reach the optimal implant positioning. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy and safety of a computed dynamic analysis system which through patient specific guides tries to improve implant positioning and functional orientation according to patient’s spinopelvic mobility and anatomy.A total of 100 consecutive patients were prospectively enrolled. All patients received an OPS dynamic hip preoperative planning. A TC scan protocol follow up analysis has done at 6 month after surgery.The mean deviation from the planned acetabular inclination and anteversion was 4.3° e 3.8° respectively. The 98% of cases was within +/- 10° of Lewinnek safe zone both for inclination and anterversion. The height of osteotomy deviated on the average of 1.6mm. The 100% cases were included within 4mm of osteotomy. Patient specific and laser guided instru-mentation is safe and accurately reproduce the dynamic planning in terms of components orien-tation, osteotomy level, leg length and offset.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1714.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: obsessive patient; suffering; cognitive patterns; phenomenology
Online: 24 May 2023 (14:36:24 CEST)
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) remains, despite significant scientific progress, a pathological condition that is incomprehensible, due toits paradoxical psychological and behavioral symptoms. The presentwork aims at assessing current phenomenological understandings of this pathology. Among the cognitive models used today, post-rationalist cognitivism and cognitive neuropsychological psychotherapy, which both incorporate a phenomenological approach, seem most effective at grasping OCD patients’ experiences of the world, which are typically characterized by hyper-reflexivity, at the expense of "natural evidence." For OCD patients, the emotional sense of the world becomes a set of sterile rules that determine a suffering life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0411.v2
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: Probabilistic model; Patient safety; Infectious Mononucleosis
Online: 19 April 2023 (04:39:26 CEST)
Infectious mononucleosis (Mono) is mostly caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and can spread through infected people sharing food and drinks with others. Once this virus gets into your system, it is there to stay. The virus can get activated when a person has low immunity and can cause major complications. Furthermore, if physicians miss the diagnosis of this disease, and prescribe penicillin-based antibiotics, it can cause severe rash and adverse reactions that compromise patient safety. This paper develops a simple Hidden Markov Model using which a Viterbi algorithm provides the maximum a posteriori probability estimate for the most likely hidden state path, given a sequence of symptoms arising as observations from a patient with hidden EBV positive or negative states. Apart from bringing awareness to help reduce missed diagnoses and subsequent adverse events, this work provides a tool for health care systems to better incorporate prompts during electronic medical record (EMR) interactions to help physicians catch potential missed diagnoses during a visit. This research demonstrates how statistical models can be used to assess likelihood of underlying conditions that require tests to be offered by physicians in order to make a definitive diagnosis. The model developed and applied herein for estimating likelihood of EBV infection from a series of observations has the potential to alter guidelines within healthcare systems to ensure that the safety of patients, particularly teens, is not compromised due to a lack of definitive diagnosis for Mono at point of care.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0131.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Patient education; health literacy; scientometric analysis
Online: 9 March 2022 (10:06:12 CET)
Therapeutic patient education (TPE) aims to empower the patients and their caregivers to effectively care for and manage their conditions. Such educational programs have been shown to improve health behaviors, disease outcomes and quality of life among different patient populations. The field of TPE has evolved extensively over decades, owing to interdisciplinary research. No study so far has been done to map this field, to identify the stakeholders and gaps requiring future research. By leveraging the theory of co-citation, Citespace was used to visualize the bibliographic data pertaining to TPE research. A total of 54,533 articles published in English language were analyzed to identify influential funders, regions and institutes contributing to this field. Besides these, important theoretical and empirical work that has shaped this field has also been mapped. Our analysis revealed several important insights. Most of the important theories which helped shape TPE were inspired from the social sciences. Five important themes of research were identified including disorders, study designs utilized in TPE research, scope of the TPE literature, and outcomes, and populations. The research focused on improving perceptions, behaviors, and attitudes for health promotion, reducing stigma as well as self-management and medication adherence. Most of the research was developed in the context of high income countries. The future research should more involve patients and use digital technology. Meta-analytical studies need to be done to identify the specificities of TPE interventions across different disorders. More research should involve low and middle income countries (LMIC) to ensure knowledge and technology transfer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0612.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Communication Skills; Dentist; Patient; Attitudes; Learning
Online: 29 October 2020 (12:46:09 CET)
The aim of the study was to determine the attitude of dentist toward learning communication skills and to recognize the factors influencing attitude toward learning communication skills. A cross-sectional study using a self-administered, 26-item, adapted Communication Skills Attitude Scale (CSAS) was carried out among dentist working in a public sector hospital in Qatar. Overall, two scores could be ascertained from the adapted CSAS: the mean positive attitude score (PAS) and negative attitude score (NAS). Non-parametric tests for statistical significance were utilized to assess relation between PAS and NAS scores and demographics. Fifty-nine dentists completed the survey giving an overall response rate of 53.6%. The mean (SD) PAS and NAS scores were 3.98 (SD=0.54) and 3.26 (SD=0.49) respectively. Female dentist was more positive towards learning communication skills than male. No statistically significant correlation was found between both PAS and NAS scores and respondents’ age. Dentists’ had both positive and negative attitudes towards learning communication skills. Considering the high NAS scores, it is recommended to introduce communication skills formal training sessions
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0146.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: pharmacy graduates; preparedness; patient care; Indonesia
Online: 30 December 2016 (06:12:04 CET)
Pharmacists’ roles in providing patient care remain limited in Indonesia, hence this study aimed to determine the preparedness of pharmacy graduates from one university in Indonesia to deliver patient care. Pharmacy graduates (both registered pharmacists  and recent graduates eligible for registration ) were sent a validated self-administered survey. The survey sought their perceptions about whether they had acquired 16 patient care related attributes. Further, it sought their opinion on the desirability of having those attributes. Data were analysed using SPSS version 22.0. Sixteen of 104 (15.4%) registered pharmacists and 40 of 45 (88.9%) recent pharmacy graduates participated in the study. More than 50% of participants in both groups were female and most participants were aged in their 20s. Of the recent pharmacy graduates the majority perceived they had at least partially acquired four of 16 list attributes. Male and female recent graduates had significantly different beliefs about their leadership ability (p=0.004). In comparison, most registered pharmacists perceived they had 10 out of the 16 listed attributes. The findings of this study suggested that pharmacy graduates should be better prepared to deliver patient care, and that curriculum redesign with expansion of experiential learning is required.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0650.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: bidirectional endoscopy; children; propofol; patient time requirements
Online: 8 June 2023 (14:07:20 CEST)
The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of propofol-based sedation and midazo-lam sedation in same-day bidirectional endoscopy (BDE) in children. The charts of children (≤15 years old) who had undergone same-day BDE were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic data, indications, sedatives and their dosages, clinical outcomes, endoscopic findings, adverse events, and patient time requirements were compared in cases with propofol-based and midazolam se-dation. A total of 91 children [51 boys, mean age 13 years (range 9-15)] were enrolled. Propofol alone or in combination with midazolam and/or pentazocine was given in 51 (propofol-based sedation group) while midazolam alone or in combination with pentazocine was given in 40 (midazolam sedation group). The mean doses of propofol, midazolam and pentazocine were 96 mg (range 40–145 mg), 4.1 mg (range 3–5 mg) and 7.5 mg in the propofol group while the mean doses of midazolam and pentazocine were 6.2 mg (range 4–10 mg) and 15 mg in the midazolam group, respectively. The total procedure times and endoscopic findings between the two groups were similar, but the median patient time requirement in the propofol group was significantly shorter than that of the midazolam group (7.3 h vs. 8.4 h, P<0.001). No adverse events occurred in either group. Propofol-based sedation shortened patient time requirements in same-day BDE compared with midazolam sedation in children.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0372.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: IoT; OSA patient rescue system; Beidou indicator
Online: 17 September 2020 (04:19:35 CEST)
This paper presents an OSA patient interactive monitoring system based on the Internet of Things (IoT) framework. This system allows OSA patients to get timely rescue when they are sleepy outside. Because the Beidou position marker has an interactive function, it can reduce the anxiety of the patient while waiting for the rescue. At the same time, if a friend helps the OSA patients to call the doctor, the friend can also report the patient's condition in time. This system uses the popular IoT framework. At the bottom is the data acquisition layer, which uses wearable sensors to collect vital signs from patients, with a focus on ECG and SpO2 signals. The middle layer is the network layer that transmits the collected physiological signals to the Beidou indicator using the Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) protocol. The top layer is the application layer, and the application layer uses the mature rescue interactive platform of Beidou. Since the GPS indicator has not included the communication satellite, So it has no SMS function. OSA patients can only passively wait for a rescue. Moreover, due to the lack of satellites in Asia and the insufficient density of the ground-enhanced system, the positioning error of OSA patients is large. The Beidou system developed by China itself, the main coverage of the satellite is in Asia, and is equipped with a high-density ground-based augmentation system. Therefore, the Beidou model improves the positioning accuracy and is equipped with a special communication satellite, which increases the short message interaction function. Therefore, patients can report disease progression in time while waiting for a rescue. After our simulation test, the effectiveness of the OSA patient rescue monitoring system based on the Internet of Things framework and the positioning accuracy of OSA patients have been greatly improved. Especially when OSA patients work outdoors, the cell phone base station signal coverage is relatively weak. The satellite signal is well covered, plus the SMS function of the Beidou indicator. Therefore, the system can be used to provide timely patient progress and provide data support for the medical rescue team to provide a more accurate rescue plan. After a comparative trial, the rescue rate of OSA patients using the detection device of this system was increased by 15 percentage points compared with the rescue rate using only GPS satellite phones.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0104.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: attitudes; clinicians; hospital; in-patient; obesity; perceptions
Online: 4 September 2020 (12:27:25 CEST)
While obesity is recognized as a key global public health issue, there has been no research to date on the perceptions of care for people with this condition held by individuals in positions of organizational power. The aim of this study was therefore to describe the perceptions and experiences of clinical leaders and managers of providing care to inpatients with obesity at a metropolitan public health service. This study applied an interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) approach to qualitative research, conducting interviews with 17 participants. Their perceptions of care for inpatients with obesity encompassed both their personal understanding as an individual, and their observations about the organizational, patient and carer perspectives. Three overall themes were identified: 1) The problem of inpatients with obesity, 2) Inpatients with obesity as sources of risk and 3) Personal and professional perceptions of inpatients with obesity. While clinical leaders and managers were aware of potential impact of stigma and weight bias on the care given to this cohort, elements of implicit bias, stereotyping, ‘othering’ and ambivalence were frequently present in the data. Ongoing efforts to improve care for patients with obesity must therefore include efforts to address perceptions and attitudes at all organisational levels of the workforce.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0231.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: patient confidentiality; privacy; data protection; Saudi Arabia
Online: 22 August 2019 (10:50:10 CEST)
The concept of patient confidentiality is nearly as old as the practice of health professions and, has evolved and transformed over the years, from one jurisdiction to the other. Patient confidentiality can be a fundamental human right, an ethical duty or, a legal duty. The Saudi laws have evolved around its Shari’ah-based legal culture, its history and the international human right laws (IHRLs). These elements have moulded the Saudi Arabia’s unique perspective on patient confidentiality. Its confidentiality laws are found scattered in several legislations. Is the Saudi patient confidentiality law able to adequately deal with the contemporary challenges? The study reviewed the relevant Saudi laws in the light the International Humana Rights Laws. Findings suggest that there are issues bordering on the lack of quality comprehensive data protection laws, on clarity and foreseeability of the existing laws, and on the accessibility of the courts. Furthermore, the lack of a system of law reporting and stare decisis potentially gave the judges a wider latitude of discretion in interpreting the laws. Therefore, the study recommends for a comprehensive data protection law with a clear definition of “confidential information”, of data controllers and their role, and of specific safeguards against potential abuses. Others include defining legitimate purposes for using the patient’s data, and his role, and the extent to which he can control the use of his own data. Consistency in legal interpretations, and an improved law reporting system could positively enhance the overall outcome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0513.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Tropical Medicine Keywords: Malawi, HIV, tuberculosis, anti-retroviral therapy, surveillance, patient monitoring, epidemic trends, drug supply, unique patient identifiers, data analysis
Online: 27 September 2018 (15:29:43 CEST)
Malawi has developed an excellent, nation-wide system for monitoring people infected with HIV and keeping track of key epidemic markers. Their success lies in two things: the focus on simplicity and the use of data collection not only to track the epidemic and identify problems but also to give regular feedback and support to every clinic in the country. This achievement is the more remarkable given that Malawi is one of the poorest countries in the world, ranking 190 out of 194 countries by GDP, but has one of the most severe epidemics of HIV in the world, ranking 9th out of 168 countries by HIV prevalence. We first discuss the current state and likely future epidemic trends in Malawi: unless we know where we are and where we are going we cannot decide what to do or how to do it to in order to achieve a better outcome. We then discuss the history and development of Malawi’s patient monitoring system, as reported in their Integrated HIV Program Reports,ix which have been published quarterly since the beginning of 2004. We consider the current state of patient monitoring and support as reflected in the most recent report for the third quarter (Q3) of 2016 and comment on some of the questions that this raises. Finally, we consider ways in which the current system could be improved by strengthening Malawi’s analytical capacity and making better use of this unique data set. The focus here is on HIV in adultsv because if ART is initiated early in all adults living with HIV this should include testing all pregnant women for HIV and starting them on treatment immediately. However, PMTCT is especially important and care must be given to reducing MTCT and identifying the long-term child survivors of mother-to-child transmission and this demands a complementary assessment. There is an ongoing debate about the relative merits of treatment and prevention in reducing transmission and it should be made clear that the primary reason for starting people on treatment early is that it is in the best interest of the individual patient to start treatment as soon as possible after becoming infected. Allowing a person’s immune system to deteriorate to any degree is not consistent with the clinician’s commitment to ‘first do no harm’ and even those with the highest CD4+ cell count are at a substantially increased risk of death. What matters, therefore, is to get as many people as possible onto ART, ensure that they remain virally suppressed, and consider prevention in this context.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0228.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: Hospital management; Tertiary care; healthcare; Administration; Patient experience
Online: 13 December 2022 (06:45:10 CET)
Patients satisfaction with fast and high-quality services is the most important in the healthcare settings and specially in outpatient departments and private clinics. High quality services on health sector are indicated by continuous quality improvement (CQI). CQI is a progressive incremental process focused on safety of all participants, outcomes, systematic process, regulated and improved working environment at the later than earlier stages. Among the various suggested strategies, we adopted the patents feedback to improve the quality of services our clinic. All of the patient visited hospital were sent a massage on mobile and requested to provide their feedback on our services. Roughly around 5% of all visitors responded and filled up questionnaire. Majority of them were satisfied with the services in various department. However, they provided us some suggestions to identify the further gaps and improve the services in improving patients experience at our clinic. We considered their feedback, identified problems, redesigned the policies and implemented. After implementation of new strategies, we preliminary again evaluated the patients’ feedback on our services. Patients feedback explores that optimized methods of services for the has considerably increased the patients’ satisfaction. Taken together, our this shows that patients’ feedback is very important factor to improve patients’ experience at outpatient clinics using continuous quality improvement tools. For that reason, this study would serve as reference for public health stack holders, administrators and researchers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0009.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: hypovitaminosis D; cholecalciferol; calcifediol; vitamin D; older patient
Online: 1 November 2021 (11:31:26 CET)
The aim of this single-center, open-label, non-controlled randomized study was to evaluate which formulation of vitamin D between cholecalciferol and calcifediol is most effective in the treatment of hypovitaminosis D in older adults. Demographic characteristics, clinical history and comprehensive geriatric assessment were recorded at admission. Eligible patients randomly received an equivalent vitamin D supplement either with cholecalciferol or calcifediol from hospital admission to three months after discharge. Among the 140 older patients included (mean age 83±6.6, 57.8% females), 69 received cholecalciferol and 71 calcifediol. The mean plasma values of 25OH-Vitamin D3 found at the enrollment were 16.8 ± 9.9 ng/mL in patients receiving cholecalciferol and 18.8 ± 13.3 ng/mL in those treated with calcifediol (p =0.31). At the 3-month follow up, the mean concentration of 25OH-Vitamin D3 was significantly higher in patients treated with calcifediol than in patients treated with cholecalciferol (respectively, 30.7 ± 8.4 vs 45.4 ± 9.8 ng/mL, p <0.001). Supplementation with cholecalciferol or calcifediol results in both cases effective in reaching optimal circulating values of 25OH-VitaminD3 in the older patients suffering from hypovitaminosis D. However, supplementation with calcifediol led to average circulating values of 25OH- VitaminD3 significantly higher (over 50%) than those obtained with cholecalciferol.
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Validation; communication; questionnaire; healthcare attention; patient satisfaction; nursing.
Online: 25 March 2019 (10:40:45 CET)
Background: Healthcare attention is sometimes considered purely technical, but communication has proven to be closely related to clinical results and patient satisfaction. Therefore, evaluation of communication in the scope of healthcare is a priority. The purpose of this study was to validate and adapt, if necessary, the Spanish version of the Communication Styles Inventory (CSI) in a sample of nursing professionals. (2) Methods: The sample was made up of 2313 nursing professionals selected at random from various medical centers in Spain, and is therefore a sample actively employed at the time data were acquired. We started out from the Communication Style Inventory, a questionnaire for evaluating the predominance of certain individual communication behaviors on six scales (expressiveness, preciseness, verbal aggressiveness, questioningness, emotionality and impression manipulativeness). (3) Results: Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the model proposed showed god fit indices. The reliability of the model shown by the Cronbach’s alpha of α=.81 was adequate, and so was single-level and aggregate consistency. Finally, in the analysis of variance by type of contract, configural, metric and scalar invariance was acceptable, but not strict invariance. (4) Conclusions: This instrument progresses in measuring non-technical attributes, such as communication styles, in nursing personnel.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0164.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: pre-hospital emergency; review; qualitative study; patient satisfaction
Online: 25 December 2017 (06:41:26 CET)
Objective. To describe patient satisfaction with pre-hospital emergency knowledge and determine if patients and professionals share a common vision on the satisfaction predictors. Methods. A qualitative study conducted in two phases. First, a systematic review following the PRISMA protocol was carried out searching publications between January 2000 and July 2016 in Medline, Scopus, and Cochrane. Second, three focus groups involving professionals (advisers and healthcare providers) and a total of 79 semi-structured interviews involving patients were conducted to obtain information about what dimensions of care were a priority for patients. Results. Thirty-three relevant studies were identified. A majority conducted in Europe using questionnaires. They pointed out a very high level of satisfaction of callers and patients. Delay with the assistance and the ability for resolution of the case are the elements that overlap in fostering satisfaction. The published studies neither reviewed the overall care process nor related the measurement of the real time in responding to an emergency with the satisfaction. The patients and professionals concurred in their assessments about the most relevant elements for patient satisfaction, although safety was not a predictive factor for patients. Response capacity and perceived capacity for resolving the situation were crucial factors for satisfaction. This qualitative approach yielded assistance targets to be improved. Conclusions. Published studies have assessed similar dimensions of satisfaction. Furthermore, despite the fact that few explanations may be given due to the no face to face attention, taking into account the patient’s emotional needs or maintaining contact with the patient until the emergency services arrive are high predictors of the satisfaction.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0254.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: dental care; emotions; health personnel; health services; human needs; motivation; patient reported outcome measures; patient satisfaction; personal satisfaction; theory of satisfaction
Online: 11 September 2020 (09:44:11 CEST)
There is little understanding of patients' experiences and perceptions with satisfaction by health professionals such as medical and dental clinicians. Furthermore, patient satisfaction is not well understood. The objective of this article is to better understand patients' satisfaction with their medical and dental care. The methods of the current article are based on a narrative review of the literature strategy. Patient satisfaction's multidimensional nature has been established since the perceived reasons for satisfaction varied widely among patients. Many aspects of the treatment influence participant satisfaction at different stages of the intervention's process. An improved understanding of the basis for managing patients' expectations with information reiteratively and efficiently may ultimately reduce patients' potential for negative feelings toward the medical and dental treatment experience. The consumerist method may misrepresent the concept of satisfaction in health service.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1668.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: post-stroke; hyperbaric oxygen therapy; sequelae; feasibility; out-patient
Online: 25 October 2023 (16:14:17 CEST)
Keywords: Post-Stroke; Hyperbaric oxygen therapy; Sequelae; Feasibility; Out-patient.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1381.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Radiation And Radiography Keywords: patient dose; CT guided biopsy procedures; Diagnostic Reference Levels
Online: 21 October 2023 (17:40:38 CEST)
ABSTRACT Objectives: Typical Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRL) in terms of Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI) and patient dose in terms of Effective Dose (ED ) and Size Specific Dose Estimate (SSDE) were estimated in Computed Tomography (CT) guided biopsy procedures. Materials and Methods: A total of 226 CT biopsy procedures - Iliac bone, liver, lung, mediastinum and para-aortic tissue - were retrospectively analyzed and Typical DRL extracted based on ICRP 135 instructions. Results: For helical mode acquisitions, DRLs in terms of CTDIvol were 9.7 mGy for Iliac bone, 8.9 mGy for liver, 8.8 mGy for lung, 7.9 mGy for mediastinal mass and 9 mGy for para-aortic lymph nodes biopsy procedures. For biopsy acquisitions, DRL values were 7.3 mGy, 7.7 mGy, 5.6 mGy, 5.6 mGy and 7.4 mGy respectively. Also, SSDE median values ranged from 7.6 mGy to 10 mGy for biopsy acquisitions and 11,3 mGy to 12,6 mGy for helical acquisitions, as well as the median values for effective dose ranged from 1.6 mSv to 5,7 mSv for biopsy scans and 3.9 to 9.3 mSv for helical scans. Conclusions: The use of DLR as an optimization tool for CT-guided biopsy procedures revealed that helical scans across the entire anatomical region greatly affect radiation dose compared to biopsy acquisitions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0018.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: hospital; quality; patient safety; perceptions of care; financial performance
Online: 1 October 2023 (08:35:28 CEST)
Hospitals are perpetually challenged by the dual requirements of concurrently improving the quality of healthcare and maintaining financial solvency. Both issues are among the top concerns for hospital executives across the United States, yet some have questioned if the efforts to enhance quality are financially sustainable. led us to examine if improving quality in the hospital setting impacts revenue. Using multivariate regression, we assessed if numerous quality measures were associated with our targeted measure of hospital profitability: the net patient revenue per adjusted discharge. The independent variables included the HCAHPS Summary Star Rating, Hospital Compare Overall Rating, All-Cause hospital-wide Readmission Rate, Total Performance Score, Clinical Outcomes Domain Score, Safety Domain Score, Person and Community Engagement Domain Score, and the Efficiency and Cost Reduction Score. Our results indicated that improving quality was significantly associated with improved net patient revenue per adjusted discharge for seven of the eight of these quality measures at the hospital level. It is clear that failing to address quality and patient safety issues is costly for US hospitals, thus we believe our findings support the premise that increased attention to the quality of care delivered as well as patients’ perceptions of care may allow hospitals to accentuate profitability and advance a hospital’s financial position.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2012.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Sjogren’s syndrome; ESSPRI; patient-reported outcomes; ClinTrialsESSDAI, glandular dysfunction
Online: 30 August 2023 (08:13:02 CEST)
The EULAR Sjögren's Syndrome Disease Activity Index (ESSDAI), EULAR Sjogren’s Syndrome Patient Reported Index (ESSPRI), and other patient-reported outcomes (PROs), such as the visual analog scale (VAS) for symptoms and EULAR sicca score (ESS), are used to assess the disease activity of primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS). Recently, Clinical ESSDAI (ClinESSDAI) and Clinical Trials ESSDAI (ClinTrialsESSDAI) were developed for objective clinical disease activity indexes. However, the relationship of ClinESSDAI and ClinTrialsESSDAI with PROs as well as that between ESSPRI and other PROs and the objective parameters of glandular function in pSS have not been established. Herein, we investigated the correlation of ESSPRI and other PROs with the objective parameters of glandular function and the relationship of PROs with ClinESSDAI and ClinTrialsESSDAI in 66 patients with pSS. Correlations were calculated with Spearman’s correlation coefficient. ClinTrialsESSDAI was correlated with ESSPRI, dryness (ESSPRI-Dryness), fatigue, and pain domains of ESSPRI, VAS for oral dryness (oral-VAS), and patient’s global assessment. Although ESSPRI did not correlate with the objective parameters of glandular function, ESSPRI-Dryness, ESS, and oral- and ocular-VAS did. These results suggest that ESSPRI-Dryness, ESS, and VAS for symptoms, but not ESSPRI, reflect the glandular dysfunction and that ClinTrialsESSDAI correlates with PROs for dryness in pSS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1569.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Cervical Pain; Patient-Reported Outcome Measure; Validation Study; Poland
Online: 22 August 2023 (11:33:55 CEST)
This study aimed to translate and psychometrically validate the Neck Outcome Score (NOOS) in the Polish population according to the recommendations of American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons (AAOS) for the Cross-Cultural Adaptation of Health Status Measures. Participants completed the NOOS, Neck Disability Index (NDI), and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for pain assessment. The questionnaires were completed by 57 women and 32 men with cervical spine ailments. A retest was performed in all patients after 48 hours. The analysis confirmed the high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha of 0.95) of the Polish NOOS. No floor / ceiling effects were observed. The Polish NOOS showed a significant correlation with NDI (0.87; p<0.001) and VAS (0.79; p<0.001). The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for the test-retest was found to be high (0.97). The Polish version of NOOS can be used for clinical and research purposes as an equivalent to the original English version. This study contributes to the area of patient-reported outcome measures available in the Polish language.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0566.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: patient-derived xenograft; humanized mice; targeted therapy; immunotherapy; melanoma
Online: 10 July 2023 (10:59:13 CEST)
Current methodologies for developing patient-derived xenografts (PDX) in humanized mice in preclinical trials to test response to immune-based therapies are limited by graft versus host disease. Here we compared two approaches for establishing PDX tumors in humanized mice: 1) PDX are first established in immune-deficient mice; 2) PDX are initially established in humanized mice, before transplanting established PDX’s to a larger cohort of humanized mice for preclinical trials. With the first approach, there was rapid wasting of PDX-bearing humanized mice with high levels of activated T cells in the circulation and organs, indicating immune-mediated toxicity. In contrast, with the second approach, toxicity was less of an issue and long-term human melanoma tumor growth and maintenance of human chimerism was achieved. Pre-clinical trials from the second approach revealed that rigosertib, but not anti-PD-1, increased CD8/CD4 T cell ratios in spleen and blood and inhibited PDX tumor growth. Resistance to anti-PD-1 was associated with limited infiltration of CD8+ T cell into the tumor. Our findings suggest that it is essential to carefully manage immune editing by first establishing PDX tumors in the presence of human immune cells before expanding PDX tumors into a larger cohort of humanized mice to evaluate therapy response.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0541.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: high-fidelity patient simulation; problem-solving; clinical reasoning; healthcare
Online: 10 July 2023 (04:48:42 CEST)
High-fidelity patient simulation (HFPS) is widely used in professional training to enhance students’ competence in clinical management. Problem-solving (PS) and clinical reasoning (CR) skills are essential to developing students in professional competence in safe and effective care. These two skills should be initiated at the early training. However, little is known about the effects of HFPS on developing PS and CR skills in first year undergraduate students. Therefore, this pre- and post-experimental study aimed to investigate the effects of HFPS on development of PS and CR skills in first-year nursing students. The students were required to go through four sessions, preparation, pre-briefing and orientation, simulation role-playing, and debriefing, for the HFPS. The study utilized the Problem-Solving Inventory (PSI) and the Nurses Clinical Reasoning Scale (NCRS) to measure problem-solving and clinical reasoning abilities before and after HFPS. Bivariate analysis, one-sample t-test, and independent t-test were performed to evaluate the performance of the PS and CR skills at the two study periods. One hundred eighty-nine students were recruited, with a mean age of 20.56 years, and 73% were female students. The analytic results showed that the PSI, particularly in domains of Problem-Solving Confidence (PSC) (p<0.001) and overall PS (p<0.001), and the CR (p<0.001) had significant improvement after HFPS. The study concluded that HFPS is an effective innovative method to significantly improve students’ problem-solving and clinical reasoning abilities. Nurse educators play an important role in providing explicit learning instructions in a simulation guideline that directs and guides students to learn at each stage of HFPS. Students should take more initiative and engage in their learning through HFPS to enhance their competence in knowledge and higher intellectual skills for personal and professional developments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0311.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: Rural; Telemedicine; Telehealth; Patient-Centered; Attitudes; Perceptions; Audio-only
Online: 5 June 2023 (10:51:10 CEST)
Purpose: This study aims to provide a foundational understanding of patient-centric perceptions of telemedicine implementation in rural Minnesota. Methods: This retrospective cohort study utilized a mail questionnaire to assess patient attitudes and behaviors regarding telemedicine during the emergency response to COVID-19. The target population was patients of a Primary Care clinic in eastern Minnesota. Descriptive statistics were used to assess respondents’ level of agreement with survey items scored on a 0-10 scale. Results: A majority of the respondents indicated that they were satisfied with using telemedicine (73.96%); that they gained an additional sense of control over their health condition due to the availability of telemedicine (52.08%); that they would support the use of telemedicine in the future (61.05%); that telemedicine increased access to care (65.63%); telemedicine was preferred over the clinic (61.46%), and that they would purchase new equipment to increase the utility of telemedicine services (54.17%). 51.04% of the respondents indicated a 10/10 level of satisfaction with telemedicine services. 48.96% indicated the strongest level of disagreement related to difficulty using telemedicine or a preference for in-person clinical appointments. Conclusions: Patients were found to have favorable perceptions of telemedicine overall. Though providers continue to recognize the benefit of face-to-face visits, their patients show an increased predilection for virtual care and telemedicine will likely remain an essential tool for providers to reach patients who would otherwise choose not to seek care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0318.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Treatment adherence; child; adolescent; trend; outpatient clinic; new patient
Online: 14 May 2021 (08:48:07 CEST)
This study analysed trends of first-time patients visiting the paediatric psychiatry clinic in a university hospital. The medical records from 2009 to 2016 of first-time patients visiting the Kyung Hee university hospital were reviewed, focusing on children in grades 1–12. We analysed the prevalence rate of psychiatric disorders per 100,000 general populations by gender and grade, and the characteristics of patients who sought outpatient care more than three times. The study included 1,467 participants, of which 931 were males (63.5%). The number of male patients per 100,000 populations significantly decreased from 4.14 in 2009 to 2.03 in 2016. While hyperkinetic disorders had the highest prevalence in males, neurotic disorders were most frequent in females. Prevalence of disruptive behaviour disorders in males and mental retardations in females decreased significantly during the study period. The factors affecting continuity were being female, studying in grades 7–12, and diagnosis of depressive, hyperkinetic, and tic disorders. Physicians should consider the new paediatric patients’ gender, grade, and expected diagnosis from their first visit to improve treatment compliance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0167.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Heart arrest; optic nerve sheath diameter; Patient outcome assessment
Online: 10 May 2021 (10:51:42 CEST)
Optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) can help predict the neurologic outcome of patients with post-cardiac arrest (CA) return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). We aimed to investigate the effect of ONSD changes before and after CA on neurologic outcomes in patients with ROSC after CA using brain computed tomography (CT). The study included patients hospitalized after CA, who had undergone pre- and post-CA brain CT from January 2001 to September 2020. The patients were divided into good and poor neurologic outcome (GNO and PNO, respectively) groups based on the neurologic outcome at hospital discharge. We performed between-group comparisons of the amount and rate of ONSD changes on brain CT and calculated the area under the curve (AUC) to determine their predictive value for neurologic outcomes. Among the 96 enrolled patients, 25 had GNO. Compared to the GNO group, the PNO group showed significantly higher amount (0.30 vs. 0.63 mm; p=0.030) and rate of change (5.26 vs. 12.29 %; p=0.041). The AUC for predicting PNO was 0.64 (95% CI=0.53–0.73; p=0.04) and patients with a rate of ONSD change >27.2% had PNO with 100% specificity and positive predictive value. Hence, ONSD changes may predict neurologic outcomes in patients with post-CA ROSC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0257.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: information media; video; patient’ knowledge; antibiotic use; antibiotic resistance
Online: 9 April 2021 (10:23:20 CEST)
Irrational use or misuse of antibiotics, particularly by outpatients, increases antibiotic resistance. A lack of public knowledge about ‘Responsible use of antibiotics’ and ‘How to obtain antibiotics’ is a major cause of this. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of an educational video about antibiotics and antibiotics use to increase outpatient's knowledge in two public hospitals in East Java, Indonesia. A quasi-experimental research setting was used with a one-group pretest-posttest design, carried out from November 2018 to January 2019. The study population consisted of outpatients, to whom antibiotics were prescribed, in two public hospitals in East Java, Indonesia. Participants were selected using a purposive sampling technique; 98 outpatients at MZ General Hospital in S regency and 96 at SG General Hospital in L regency were included. A questionnaire was used to measure the respondents’ knowledge and consisted of five domains, i.e. definition of infections and antibiotics, obtaining the antibiotics, directions of use, storage instructions, antibiotic resistance. The knowledge test score was the total score of the Guttman scale (a dichotomy of ‘yes’ or ‘no’ answers). To determine the significance of the difference in knowledge before and after providing the educational video and in the knowledge score between hospitals, the (paired) Student’s t-test was applied. The educational videos significantly improved outpatients' knowledge, which increased with 41% in MZ General Hospital and 42% in SG General Hospital. An educational video is a useful method to improve the knowledge of the outpatients regarding antibiotics.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: communication; patient safety; obstetrics; midwifery; intervention; training; interprofessional; learning
Online: 24 December 2020 (07:59:04 CET)
(1) Background: Obstetric work requires good communication, which can be trained in interventions targeting health care providers and pregnant women/ patients. This systematic review aims to aggregate the current state of research on communication interventions in obstetrics. (2) Methods: Using the PICOS scheme, studies published in peer-reviewed journals in English or German between 2000 and 2020 were searched. Out of 7,018 results, 71 studies were included in this synthesis and evaluated using the Oxford Level of Evidence Scale. (3) Results: 63 studies, including a communication component, revealed a positive effect on different proximal outcomes (i.e., communication skills). Three studies evaluating the effect of communication training on distal performance indicators (i.e., patient safety) proved to be beneficial to some extent. Most studies included different groups at the same time; those addressing health care providers were more common than those with students (61 vs. 12). Expectant mothers were targeted only in 9 studies. Overall, the evidence level of studies was low (only 11 RCTs), with 24 studies evidence level of I-II, 35 of III, and 10 of IV. (4) Conclusions: Communication training should be applied more often to improve communication of staff, students, and pregnant women, and thereby improve patient safety.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0130.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: state entropy; response entropy; general anaesthesia; patient safety; recovery.
Online: 10 February 2020 (15:24:34 CET)
Study background and aims: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is one of the most frequently performed interventions in departments of general surgery. One of the most important aims in achieving perioperative stability of these patients is diminishing the impact of general anesthesia on the hemodynamic stability and the optimization of anesthetic drug doses based on the individual clinical profile of each patient. The objective of this study is the evaluation of the impact monitoring the depth of anesthesia through Entropy (state entropy – SE and response entropy -RE) has on the hemodynamic stability and on the doses of volatile anesthetic. Material and Methods: This is a prospective, observational, randomized, monocentric study carried out between January 2019 and December 2019 in the Clinic of Anesthesia and Intensive Care from the “Pius Brînzeu” Emergency County Hospital in Timișoara, Romania. The patients included in the study were divided in two study groups; patients in Group A (target group) received multimodal monitoring that included monitoring of standard parameters and of Entropy (SE and RE), while patients in Group B (control group) only received standard monitoring. Anesthetic dose in group A were optimized to achieve a target entropy of 40-60. Results: 68 patients met the inclusion criteria and were allocated to one of the two study groups, Group A (N=43) and Group B (N=25). There were no statistically significant differences identified between the two groups for both demographical and clinical data (p>0.05). Statistically significant differences have been identified for the number of hypotensive episodes (p = 0.011, 95% CI 0.1851 to 0.7042) and for the number of episodes of bradycardia (p < 0.0001, 95% CI 0.3296 to 0.7923). Moreover, there was a significant difference in the Sevoflurane consumption between the two study groups (p = 0.0498, 95% CI -0.3942 to 0.9047). Conclusions: The implementation of the multimodal monitoring protocol that includes the standard parameters and the measurement of Entropy for determining the depth of anesthesia (SE and RE) lead to a considerable improvement in perioperative hemodynamic stability. Optimizing the doses of anesthetic drugs based on the individual clinical profile of each patient leads to a considerable decrease in drug consumption as well as to a lower incidence of hemodynamic side-effects.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1426.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Complementary medicine; alternative medicine; integrative medicine; cancer care; oncology; nutritional supplements; natural products; dietary supplements; unmet needs; patient centered care; Patient doctor communication
Online: 23 November 2023 (17:26:32 CET)
Dietary supplements are widely embraced by cancer patients seeking complementary and integrative approaches to their care. Unfortunately, many patients do not discuss supplement use with physicians, often due to perceptions of physician indifference or negativity toward supplements. This communication gap exposes patients to unreliable information sources and, potentially, unnecessary risk. As the healthcare landscape evolves, patients increasingly value physicians who recognize their pivotal role in shaping healthcare decisions. This patient-centered perspective emphasizes the provision of evidence-based information tailored to individual needs, open discussions on potential risks, and shared decision-making. It underscores the importance of respecting patient autonomy, offering alternative options, documenting preferences, and ensuring ongoing support while coordinating with the healthcare team. To address these needs, healthcare providers should transform their perspectives and become expert guides who embrace patients as informed, empowered participants. This approach prioritizes open dialogue that considers both facts and uncertainties regarding dietary supplement use, allowing for mutually informed decision-making. Here, we review the literature and present a practical approach emphasizing open discussions, transparency, and respect for patient autonomy. Following this approach, healthcare providers can empower patients to navigate the complexities of dietary supplement use in the context of cancer care, ultimately safeguarding patient safety and well-being.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0526.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: familial hypercholesterolemia; LDLR; patient-specific iPSCs; directed differentiation; endothelial cells
Online: 8 November 2023 (16:14:59 CET)
Defects in low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) are associated with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), manifested by atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Defective LDLR in hepatocytes leads to increased blood cholesterol level that damage vascular cells, especially endothelial cells, through oxidative stress and inflammation. However, the distinctions between endothelial cells from individuals with normal and defective LDLR are not yet fully comprehended. In this study, we obtained and examined endothelial derivatives of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) generated previously from conditionally healthy donors and compound heterozygous FH patients carrying pathogenic LDLR alleles. In normal iPSC-derived endothelial cells (iPSC-EC), we detected the LDLR protein predominantly in its mature form, while iPSC-EC from patients with FH display reduced level of mature LDLR and show abolished low-density lipoprotein uptake. RNA-seq of iPSC-EC with mutant LDLR revealed a unique transcriptome profile comprising downregulated genes related to monocarboxylic acid transport, exocytosis and cell adhesion, as well as upregulated signaling pathways of cell secretion and leukocyte activation. Overall, these findings suggest that LDLR defects increases susceptibility of endothelial cells to inflammation and oxidative stress. This, combined with elevated extrinsic cholesterol levels, may result in accelerated endothelial dysfunction, contributing to early progression of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular pathologies related to FH.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1122.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Nurse-doctor communication; quality; patient care; concept mapping; nursing; medicine
Online: 15 August 2023 (12:47:34 CEST)
There is some evidence that aspects of nurse-doctor communication are associated with the quality of care and treatment patients receive whilst they are in hospital. To date, no studies have examined stakeholder perceptions of how patient care is influenced by clinical communication between nurses and doctors. We conducted a concept mapping study to generate a deep understanding of how clinical communication impacts patient care. Concept mapping has six phases: preparation, idea generation, structuring, representation, interpretation, and utilization. Twenty patients, 21 nurses, and 21 doctors participated in the study. Brainstorming generated 69 discreet statements about how nurse-doctor communication impacts patient care. The structuring (rating and clustering) phase was completed by 48 participants. The data interpretation workshop selected a five-cluster solution: effective communication, trust, patient safety, impediments to patient care, and interpersonal skills. On the final concept map, the five clusters were arranged in a circle around the center of the map. Clusters were relatively equal in size suggesting, each concept makes a broadly equal contribution to how nurse-doctor communication influences patient care. Our study suggests that there are multiple aspects of clinical communication that impact patient care. Candidate interventions to enhance nurse-doctor communication may need to consider the complex nature of interprofessional working. Registration: This study was prospectively registered with the Open Science Framework (OSF) (https://osf.io/9np8v/) prior to recruiting the first participant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0606.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: patient values; clinical decision-making; personalized therapy; recommendation model; argumentation
Online: 10 July 2023 (10:15:57 CEST)
Patient value is an important factor in clinical decision-making, but conventionally, it is not incorporated in the decision processes. In this paper, a value-based therapy recommendation comprehensive model is proposed. A literature analysis is conducted to collect value-based evidence. Categorized values and candidate therapies are used in combination as filtering keywords to build this evidence. Then a formalism model is put forward to integrate the value-based evidence with clinical evidence. The relative importance of two evidence can be adjusted dynamically by decision-makers during the decision-making processes. A prototype system was implemented using a case study for breast cancer and validated for feasibility and effectiveness.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1898.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: chronic lymphocytic leukemia; older patient; ibrutinib; acalabrutinib; zanubrutinib; venetoclax; sustainabiity
Online: 27 June 2023 (12:04:57 CEST)
Keywords: chronic lymphocytic leukemia; older patient, Bruton tyrosine kinase, BCL2, cost-effectiveness Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitors (BTKi) and the BCL2 inhibitor venetoclax, with or without the anti CD20 monoclonal antibody Obinutuzumab, represent the preferred options for the first-line therapy of CLL because they are more effective and may improve quality of life. However, pa-tient’s inclusion criteria were heterogeneous across trials designed for older patients and the identification of CLL-specific parameters identifying unfit patients at risk of developing drug-specific adverse events are required to guide treatment choice. Due to inclusion/exclusion criteria in trials, higher discontinuation rates with BTKi were reported in real-world studies and registry analyses provided useful information on factors predicting for earlier discontinuation in a real-world setting. Though targeted agents were shown to be cost-effective treatments in high-income countries, the out-of-pocket expenses may limit accessibility to these drugs and the overall expenditure for new drugs in CLL is projected to increase substantially posing an issue for sustainability. This being said, the choice of a finite duration treatment based on venetoclax containing regimens or treatment until progression with BTKi is today possible in high- income countries and the therapy choice drivers are represented by coexisting medical conditions rather than age, by patient expectations, logistics and sustainability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1584.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: Body temperature; Elderly patient; Orthopedic surgery; Zero-Heat-Flux thermometer
Online: 23 May 2023 (05:32:17 CEST)
Thermoregulation is important for maintaining homeostasis of our body. It can be easily broken under anesthesia. An appropriate method to measure the core body temperature is needed, especially for elderly patients because the efficiency of thermoregulation gradually decreases with age. The aim of this study was to examine the accuracy and feasibility of using of SpotOn® sensor in lower extremity orthopedic surgery in elderly patients aged over 80 years by comparing a SpotOn® sensor with two other reliable minimal-invasive methods: a tympanic membrane thermometer and a bladder thermometer. This study enrolled 45 patients aged over 80 years who were scheduled to undergo a lower extremity surgery. Body temperature was measured using a SpotOn® sensor, tympanic membrane thermometer and bladder thermometer. Agreements between the SpotOn® sensor and the other two methods were assessed using Bland and Altman plots for repeated measures adjusted for unequal numbers of measurements per patient. Compared with TempBladder, bias and limits of agreement for TempZHF were 0.07℃ ± 0.58℃. Compared with TempTympanic, bias and limits of agreement for TempZHF were -0.28℃ ± 0.61℃. 3M SpotOn® sensor using ZHF method for patients aged over 80 years undergoing lower extremity surgery shows feasible measurement value and sensitivity.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0081.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; micrometastatic niche; Patient with Cancer
Online: 3 August 2022 (10:22:20 CEST)
In previous clinical studies, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in patients with cancer has a high risk of aggravation and mortality than in healthy infected individuals. The inoculation with the COVID-19 vaccine reduces the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID- 19 severity. However, vaccination-induced production of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies is said to be lower in patients with cancer than in healthy individuals. Additionally, the rationale for why patients with cancer become more severe with COVID-19 is not well understood. Therefore, we examined the infection status of SARS-CoV-2 in primary tumor and micrometastasis tissues of patients with cancer and COVID-19. In this study, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) expression was observed, and SARS-CoV-2 particles were detected in ovarian tissue cells in contact with the micrometastatic niche of high-grade serous ovarian cancer. We believe that more severe COVID-19 cases in patients with cancer may be attributed to these pathological features.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0342.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Artificial Intelligence; Data Science; HealthCare Applications; Machine Learning; Patient Attitudes
Online: 20 September 2021 (15:51:54 CEST)
Today, across the most critical problems faced by hospitals and health centers are those caused by the existence of patients who do not attend their appointments. Among others, this practice generates waste of resources and increases the patients’ waiting list. To handle these problems, hospitals are actively trying to implement methods to reduce the idle time caused by patient no-shows. Many scheduling systems developed require predicting whether a patient will show up for an appointment or not. Although, a challenging problem resides in obtaining these estimates precisely. The goal of this work is to analyze how objective factors influence a patient not to attending their appointment, to identify the main causes that contribute to a patient’s decision, and to be able to predict whether or not the patient will attend the scheduled appointment. As a result, the obtained model is tested on a real dataset collected in a health center linked to the University of Vale do Itajaí (UNIVALI), which includes 25 features and about 5000 samples. The algorithm that produced the best results for the available dataset is the Random Forest classifier. It reveals the best recall rate (0.91), since it measures the ability of a classifier to find all the positive instances and achieves a receiver operating characteristic curve rate of 0.969.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0108.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Acute Cystitis Symptom Score; cystitis; patient-reported outcome; questionnaire; women
Online: 6 September 2021 (17:02:05 CEST)
The Acute Cystitis Symptom Score (ACSS) is a patient self-reporting questionnaire for the clinical diagnosis and patient-reported outcome (PRO) in women with acute uncomplicated cystitis (AC). The aim of the current study (part II) was the clinical validation of the Greek ACSS questionnaire. After linguistic validation according to internationally accepted guidelines and cognitive assessment (part I), the clinical validation was performed after ethical approval by using the Greek ACSS study version in 92 evaluable female participants including 53 patients with symptoms suspicious of AC and 39 controls. The clinical outcome using the ACSS questionnaire at different time points after the start of treatment was demonstrated as well. The age (mean±SD) of the 53 patients (44.7±17.0) and 39 controls (49.3±15.9) and their additional conditions at baseline visits, such as menstruation, premenstrual syndrome, pregnancy, menopause, diabetes mellitus, were comparable. There was, however, a significant difference (p<0.001) between patients and controls at baseline visit regarding sum score of the ACSS domains, such as typical symptoms and quality of life. The clinical outcome of up to 7 days showed a fast reduction of the symptom scores and improvement of quality of life. The optimal thresholds for the patient-reported outcome of successful therapy could be established. The linguistically and clinically validated Greek ACSS questionnaire can now be used for clinical or epidemiological studies and also for patient’s self-diagnosis of AC and as a PRO measure tool.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0384.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: quality; just culture; patient safety; nurses; hospital; measuring instrument validation
Online: 26 March 2020 (07:24:55 CET)
Purpose: "Just culture" is an element of safety culture, and in a broader sense – a part of quality culture. It is the subject of studies, especially in healthcare. This phenomenon is almost unknown in Polish medical facilities. For this reason, the aim of the article is to present the essence and significance of "just culture" in healthcare. The other aim of the research is to present the results of the validation of "just culture" assessment instrument used to recognize the "just culture" maturity level and evaluate the nurses’ beliefs and behaviours in the light of "just culture" criteria. Methodology/Approach: The verified questionnaire consisted of 28 statements in relation to which respondents expressed their opinion on a 5-point Likert scale. The questionnaire was distributed among nurses in one of the largest hospitals in Pomorskie Voivodeship, in Poland. The results based on 68 responses were statistically processed with Statistica 13.1 software. Findings: The obtained results allowed to confirm the reliability of the assessment tool, to recognize the level of „just culture” as wisdom (68%) and to indicate strengths and weaknesses of observed beliefs and behaviours. On this basis, improvement actions were proposed. Originality/Value: We use the original, own prepared questionnaire. This is the first study on "just culture" in healthcare in Poland. There are only few studies devoted to patient safety culture in Poland and no research addressed to "just culture" phenomenon, as well in Poland as in Central Europe. The results in this area allow to recommend the assessment tool for other hospitals and seem to help in understanding the essence of "just culture" implementation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0995.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: artificial intelligence; primary care; AI acceptance; patient-centered care; eXplainable AI
Online: 15 November 2023 (09:57:14 CET)
Artificial intelligence (AI) has grown in healthcare in recent years. The UK government recognises AI’s potential to enhance NHS services, yet research on AI in primary care (PC) has received limited attention. AI acceptance presents unique challenges in PC, characterised by fragmented structures, heterogeneous data sources, and multiple government departments. The organisational levels within PC are categorised as macro, meso, and micro levels. Existing research has predominantly focused on micro-level stakeholders. Our online survey addressed this research gap by encom-passing stakeholder perspectives at all levels. The results demonstrate the critical role of me-so-level stakeholders in facilitating AI acceptance. Importantly, a lack of understanding of AI terminology and concepts, concerns over potential job displacement, and the importance of em-pathy in patient care are highlighted as key challenges. Stakeholders also express the need for standardised AI terminology, comprehensive training, and regulatory standards to ensure equi-table and effective AI utilisation. This study lays the foundation for future in-depth interviews and further exploration of AI's role in PC. Observations in secondary care indicate that practitioners have substantial concerns about AI, how it works, and its limitations. Explainable AI can help technologists address such concerns, but first, we need to understand primary care's information needs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0249.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: avatar; machine learning; monitoring; predictive models; visual patient; vital sign predictions
Online: 5 October 2023 (07:53:31 CEST)
Background: Machine learning can analyze vast amounts of data and make predictions for events in the future. Our group created machine learning models for vital sign predictions. To transport the information of these predictions without numbers and numerical values and make them easily usable for human caregivers, we aimed to integrate them into the Philips Visual-Patient-avatar, an avatar-based visualization of patient monitoring. Methods: We conducted a computer-based simulation study with 70 participants in three European university hospitals. We validated the vital sign prediction visualizations by testing their identification by anesthesiologists and intensivists. Each prediction visualization consisted of a condition (e.g., blood pressure low) and an urgency (a visual indication of the timespan in which the condition is expected to occur). To obtain qualitative user feedback, we also conducted standardised interviews and derived statements that participants later rated in an online survey. Results: The mixed logistic regression model showed 77.9% (95%CI 73.2-82.0%) correct identification of prediction visualizations (i.e. condition and urgency both correctly identified) and 93.8% (95%CI 93.7-93.8%) for conditions only (i.e. without considering urgencies). Forty-nine of 70 participants completed the online survey. The online survey participants agreed that the prediction visualizations were fun to use (32/49, 65.3%), and that they could imagine working with them in the future (30/49, 61.2%). They also agreed that identifying the urgencies was difficult (32/49, 65.3%). Conclusions: This study found that care providers correctly identified >90% of the conditions (i.e. without considering urgencies). The accuracy of identification decreased when considering urgencies in addition to conditions. Therefore, in future development of the technology, we will focus on either only displaying conditions (without urgencies) or improve the visualizations of urgency to enhance usability for human users.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1095.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: quality of medical services; medical personnel; Patient Satisfaction Survey; Public hospitals
Online: 15 June 2023 (07:51:45 CEST)
The patient's satisfaction level concerning hospitalization has certain particularities, related to the geographical area, medical/non-medical assistance, the age, incomes, morbidity and mortality of the population. The objective of this study is to emphasize the degree of patients' satisfaction, depending on the specialty of the hospitalization department: surgical, medical, oncological, psychiatry, and to evidence the factors influencing the reliability and accuracy of patients' answers, such as: the patient's health condition upon admission, the duration of the admission, the level of physical pain and the emotional state. Patients and methods: The research was conducted between April and December 2021 on patients hospitalized in two public hospitals from the north-west of Romania, both of them being independent Legal Entities: the Municipal Clinical Hospital of Oradea (MCHO) and the County Clinical Emergency Hospital of Oradea (CCEHO). Results: The lowest score of PSS recorded in these two analyzed public hospitals from the north-western of Romania was appointed for the Pharmaceutical availability of patients medical treatment (2.24), attitude of the staff (2.56) and the quality of nursing care offered (2.58). Conclusions: The hospital management’s focus has been set to improve the communication skills among medical staff, to evidence their compassion, politeness, and to ensure the availability of essential drugs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0123.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: chronic pain; patient education; vulnerable populations; low income; quality of life
Online: 14 March 2023 (01:42:07 CET)
Chronic pain is a source of major alterations in quality of life. It represents significant costs for health systems, and reduces the competitiveness of the working population. Vulnerability can drive the incidence of chronic pain, through its influence on modifiable risk factors, and reduced utilization of health care systems. But vulnerability can also be the consequence of a chronic pain: illness can push people into precariousness. We analysed the factors associated with pain intensity among vulnerable persons with a chronic condition, in five European countries (N=1,364). Pain was, among the whole set of variables, the main predictor of sleep problems, fatigue, depression, self-perceived health, physical and mental quality of life. This is in line with other studies showing the major impact of pain on an individual’s health and life. Multivariable analyses, adjusting for the whole set of variables, showed that women had more intense pain, as well as participants with a lower education level. These results confirm the social component in the complex etiology of pain and clearly plaid in favor of integrated care, taking into account individual characteristics and environment.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0127.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Febrile patient; Kolda; Circulation; Sylvatic Dengue virus 2; 2021; One health
Online: 10 October 2022 (11:24:46 CEST)
A human case of dengue virus 2 was detected from a febrile patient living in the Sare yoba, Kolda region (Southern Senegal). Phylogenetic analysis based on the partial sequence of the NS5 gene reveals that the virus belongs to the DENV2 Sylvatic genotype and is closely related to a strain (JF260983/ 98.98% identity) detected in Spain from a tourist who travelled to Guinee Bissau (bordering Kolda region) in 2009. This highlights a potential recent underreported circulation of sylvatic Dengue in the southern part of Senegal and calls for re-enforced integrated surveillance among humans, non-human primates and arboreal mosquitoes throughout a one-health approach.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0201.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: diabetes mellitus; obesity; meta-analysis; patient education; self-management; disease management
Online: 13 July 2022 (15:19:53 CEST)
Diabetes mellitus (DM) and obesity account for the highest burden of non-communicable diseases. There is increasing evidence showing therapeutic patient education (TPE) as a clinically and cost-effective solution to improve biomedical and psychosocial outcomes among people with DM and obesity. The present systematic review and meta-analysis presents a critical synthesis of development of TPE interventions for DM and obesity and the efficacy of these interventions across a range of biomedical, psychosocial and psychological outcomes. A total of 54 of these RCTs were identified among patients with obesity and diabetes and were thus, qualitatively synthesized. Out of these, 47 were included into quantitative synthesis. There was substantial heterogeneity in reporting of these outcomes (I2= 88.35%, Q= 317.64), with significant improvement (SMD=0.36, 95% CI: 0.23 to 0.49) noted in biomedical outcomes in the intervention group. The effect sizes were comparable across interventions delivered by different modes and delivery agents. These interventions can be delivered by allied health staff, doctors or electronically as self-help programs, with similar effectiveness (P < 0.001). These interventions should be implemented in healthcare and community settings to improve health of patients suffering from DM and obesity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0230.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: COVID-19; Patient isolation; Self-quarantine; Reliability and validity; Psychosocial assessment
Online: 15 October 2021 (14:46:23 CEST)
Background: The cumulative number of patients during the COVID-19 pandemic led to a significant shortage of hospital beds. Many patients may not require hospitalization and can be clinically observed in home settings. However, some psychosocial factors are correlated with unsuccessful home isolation (HI), which might negatively affect the transmission control in the community. Therefore, we developed a new psychosocial screening tool (CCPHIET) for assessing HI suitability and examined its validity and reliability.Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study included COVID-19 patients who were deemed to be medically safe for 14 days of HI. The CCPHIET is comprised of 8 clinical domains pertinent to HI behavioral compliance and risk. We explored its statistical validity and reliability and discussed the potential utility of this tool. Results: A total of 65 COVID-19 patients participated in this study. Most patients (58.5%) were evaluated as good candidates for HI. The CCPHIET has an acceptable content validity (IOC index > 0.5), moderate internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.611) and substantial to excellent inter-rater reliability (Intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.944, Cohen’s kappa= 0.627).Conclusions: To compromise between strict and costly absolute institutional quarantine and the potentially unsuccessful absolute HI, the CCPHIET may help to identify good candidates for HI in mild and asymptomatic COVID-19 patients. This psychosocial information would support the physicians in matching each patient to the most suitable setting. Therefore, safe medical care is provided, unnecessary use of medical resources is spared, and local transmission is contained.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0449.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: vision rehabilitation; review of systems; traumatic brain injury; concussion; patient advocacy.
Online: 17 March 2021 (16:05:12 CET)
Treating a patient with traumatic brain injury requires an interdisciplinary approach because of the pervasive, profound and protean manifestations of this condition. In this review, key aspects of the medical history and review of systems will be described in order to highlight how the role of any provider must evolve to become a better patient advocate. Although this review is written from the vantage point of a vision care provider, it is hoped that patients, caregivers and providers will recognize the need for the team approach; it truly takes a village.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0459.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Emergency Medicine Keywords: emergency department; crowding; return visit; admission; patient satisfaction; quality of healthcare
Online: 25 April 2020 (10:45:25 CEST)
This study was conducted to determine whether overcrowding in the emergency department (ED) affects the occurrence of a return visit (RV) within 72 hours. The crowding indicator of index visit was the average number of total patients, patients under observation, and boarding patients during the first 1 and 4 hours from ED arrival time and the last 1 hour before ED departure. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine whether each indicator affects the occurrence of RV and post-RV admission. Of the 87,360 discharged patients, 3,743 (4.3%) returned to the ED within 72 hours. Of the crowding indicators pertaining to total patients, the last 1 hour significantly affected decrease in RV (p=0.0046). Boarding patients were found to increase RV occurrence during the first 1 hour (p=0.0146) and 4 hours (p=0.0326). Crowding indicators that increased the likelihood of admission post-RV were total number of patients during the first 1 hour (p=0.0166) and 4 hours (p=0.0335) and evaluationg patients during the first 1 hour (p=0.0059). Overcrowding in the ED increased the incidence of RV and likelihood of post-RV admission. However, overcrowding at the time of ED departure was related to reduced RV.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Novel coronavirus pneumonia; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; Pathology; Critical patient
Online: 9 March 2020 (10:31:10 CET)
Background Critical patients with novel coronavirus pneumonia ( COVID-19) have worse outcome and high mortality. However, the histopathology of critical patient with COVID-19 remains undisclosed. Methods We performed the whole lung biopsy, and described the pathological changes of critical COVID-19 patient done with transplant by HE staining, immunohistochemistry and special staining observed under the microscopy. Findings The whole lungs displayed diffuse congestive appearance and partly haemorrhagic necrosis on gross examination. The haemorrhagic necrosis was prominently present in outer edge of the right lower lung. The cut surfaces of the lung displayed severe congestive and haemorrhagic changes. The main pathological changes showed massive pulmonary interstitial fibrosis, and partly hyaline degeneration, variable degrees of hemorrhagic pulmonary infarction. Small vessels hyperplasia, vessel wall thickening, lumen stenosis, occlusion and microthrombosis formation. Focal monocytes, lymphocytes and plasma cells infiltrating into pulmonary interstitium. Bronchiolitis and alveolitis with proliferation, atrophy, desquamation and squamous metaplasia of epithelial cells. Atrophy, vacuolar degeneration, proliferation, desquamation and squamous metaplasia in alveolar epithelial cells. Alveolar cavity congestion was prominent, and contained mucus, edema fluid, desquamated epithelial cells, and inflammatory cells. We also found several multinucleate giant cells and intracytoplasmic viral inclusion bodies. Special stains including Masson stain, sirius red staining, reticular fibers staining indicated massive pulmonary interstitial fibrosis. Immunohistochemistry showed positive for immunity cells including CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20, CD79a, CD5, CD38 and CD68. Interpretation We demonstrate the pathological findings of critical patient with COVID-19, which might provide a deep insight of the pathogenesis and severity of this disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0218.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: head and neck cancer; radiation therapy; radiation; patient-derived models; cancer
Online: 10 February 2020 (10:45:23 CET)
Patient derived model systems are important tools for studying novel anti-cancer therapies. Patient derived xenografts (PDXs) have gained favor over the last 10 years as newer mouse strains have improved the success rate of establishing PDXs from patient biopsies. PDXs can be engrafted from head and neck cancer (HNC) samples across a wide range of cancer stages, retain the genetic features of their human source, and can be treated with both chemotherapy and radiation, allowing for clinically relevant studies. Not only do PDXs allow for study of patient tissues in an in vivo model, they can also provide a renewable source of cancer cells for organoid cultures. Herein, we review the uses of HNC patient derived models for radiation research including approaches to establishing both orthotopic and heterotopic PDXs, approaches and potential pitfalls to delivering chemotherapy and radiation to these animal models, biological advantages and limitations, and alternatives to animal studies that still use patient-derived tissues.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0016.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: patient engagement; consumer health; recommendation; consensus conference; guidelines; health services research
Online: 3 February 2020 (05:31:43 CET)
Patient engagement is receiving a growing attention in the healthcare context. However, although worldwide healthcare stakeholders agree that patient engagement is a priority for quality and effective care, no shared recommendations on how to promote patient engagement are currently available. Based on these premises, a Consensus Conference (CC) was promoted to address four main issues: What is the definition of Patient Engagement? How measuring Patient Engagement? What are the most recommended methodologies and the tools to promote Patient Engagement? What is the role of new technologies in promoting of Patient Engagement? The consensus was obtained through an iterative process that began with a systematic synthesis of the available literature in each domain followed by plenary expert discussions. This CC - including the systematic analysis of internationals scientific evidences (2749 sources across the major international scientific databases) together with experiences of a multi-disciplinary consortium of investigators and key stakeholders - attempted to provide the first evidence-based Expert Consensus Statement for the promotion of Patient Engagement in chronic care. These recommendations should be envisaged as inspirational principles to promote a real eco-system of engagement and might orient health services research and interventions.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: patient care; pharmacists; pharmacy curriculum; pharmacy education; public health; qualitative method
Online: 2 November 2018 (10:34:46 CET)
1) Public health remains a tiny portion of the undergraduate pharmacy curriculum and the material is integrated into other modules. The objective of this study is to describe the UK undergraduate pharmacy curriculum, including its public health content; 2) Methods: A qualitative method (content analysis of websites) was used to describe the UK undergraduate pharmacy curriculum and teaching and learning policy. This involved selecting relevant concepts and then quantifying their presence and the relationships between them. The NVivo software was used to carry out ‘group queries’ and visualisation of results; 3) Results: Public health remains an optional module in the curricula of many UK schools of pharmacy. Several public health-related topics are often integrated into other modules, but UK undergraduate pharmacy curricula are still dominated by traditional pharmacy modules; and 4) Conclusions: Most of the curricula analysed were dominated by traditional pharmacy modules designed to enhance students' knowledge and skills. The skill set of UK pharmacy students with respect to macro-level public health activities needs to be improved in order to enhance pharmacists’ contribution to public health.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0071.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: precision medicine; next generation sequencing; oncology, patient outcomes; health insurance coverage
Online: 4 July 2018 (11:06:43 CEST)
Precision medicine seeks to use genomic data to help provide the right treatment to the right patient at the right time. Next-generation sequencing technology allows for the rapid and accurate sequencing of many genes at once. This technology is becoming more common in oncology, though the clinical benefit of incorporating it into precision medicine strategies remains under significant debate. In this manuscript, we discuss the early findings of the impact of next-generation sequencing on cancer patient outcomes. We investigate why not all patients with genomic variants linked to a specific therapy receive that therapy and describe current barriers. Finally, we explore the current state of health insurance coverage for individual genome sequencing and targeted therapies for cancer. Based on our analysis, we recommend increased transparency around the determination of “actionable mutations” and a heightened focus on investigating the variations in health insurance coverage across patients receiving sequencing-matched therapies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0821.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: Anti-VEGF; patient perspective; attitude; psychology; health care; fear; vision loss; blindness
Online: 13 November 2023 (15:38:21 CET)
Background: Retinal diseases such as neovascular age related macular degeneration (nAMD), diabetic macular edema (DME) or branch-/central retinal vein occlusion (B/CRVO) have significant implications for patients' social and psychological well-being. To gain a comprehensive understanding of patients' backgrounds and attitudes, we developed an exploratory questionnaire, the Basic Care and Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire (BPZ-9). Methods: The ALBATROS study aimed to assess the care situation of treatment-naïve patients diagnosed with either nAMD, DME or B/CRVO. The data collection took place at the beginning of treatment and after twelve months of anti-VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) therapy. The BPZ-9 instrument comprises nine questions to evaluate patients’ psychological and social situation and their satisfaction with treatment. Results: Data were collected from 1.478 nAMD (mean 78 years), 445 DME (67 years), 233 BRVO (70 years) and 144 CRVO (71 years) patients at 102 study centers throughout Germany. Approximately one third of the patients was living alone and six percent were in organized care. One in four patients had difficulties to walk and one in five needed accompany for treatment. Anxiety to lose vision was present in three out of four patients at the beginning and slightly decreased to two out of three over the 12-month treatment preriod. The distress of having a retinal disease was generally higher than the distress related to treatment. Most patients reported high treatment satisfaction (73%) and felt well informed (81%). Conclusion: Patients receiving anti-VEGF therapy commonly experience impaired mobility, dependency on others, distress and the fear of vision loss.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0933.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: small mitral annulus; chimney technology; redo-mitral valve replacement; patient-prosthesis mismatch
Online: 16 October 2023 (10:15:05 CEST)
Outcome of redo-mitral valve replacement in the small mitral annulus with the use of the chimney technology is not well documented. From 2019 to 2020, 77 consecutive patients underwent redo-mitral valve replacement with the use of the chimney technology because of a small mitral annulus. To evaluate heart structural integrity and clinical outcomes, postoperative clinical data and echocardiograms were examined. Mean age was 56.7 ± 15.98 years. All patients underwent mitral valve surgery of which 62 were mitral valve replacements, 7 mitral valve repairs, and 8 double valve replacements. Preoperative Mitral valve mean gradient was 18.07 ± 9.40 mmHg. Postoperative mitral prosthesis size 28.51 ± 1.22 mm. The median increment of mitral size enlargement was 4 (0, 6) valve sizes. Mean mitral gradient coming out of the operating room was 10.34 ± 2.12 mmHg and at follow-up echocardiogram performed at 3 years after the procedure was 10.36 ± 1.70 mmHg. One-year survival was 93.3%, while 4-year survival was 89.3% with no reoperation. Use of the chimney technology in small mitral valve re-mitral valve replacement results in larger valve sizes. Moreover, the mean gradients over the mitral valve are acceptable intraoperatively and over time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0268.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Patient safety; Safety I; Safety II; Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU); Nurse
Online: 6 September 2023 (14:37:36 CEST)
The intensive care unit is characterized by the critical care of the infants and children who access it, as well as the high complexity of care. This implies and requires optimal integration among the various professionals working there and their ability to work as a team. The purpose of the study was to describe how nurses perceive clinical risk and how they relate to it and to identify adverse events and related risk factors. Nine nurses, two moderators and one external observer partici-pated in the focus group. In the qualitative analysis, 9 themes describing the perception of clinical risk in PICU were identified, including teamwork, specific training, time management, team communication, management, individual errors, structural criticality, patient fac-tors/characteristics, and standardization. Safety culture can be fostered by hospital management to involve PICU nurses in promoting patient safety, which could improve breaking down barriers that prevent nurses from fulfilling their roles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1870.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); Patient Reported Outcome Measures; Health Care Surveys
Online: 29 August 2023 (03:31:15 CEST)
Introduction: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a common, preventable and treatable disease. The first PREM (Patient Reported Outcome Measure) type questionnaire that has been dedicated to asses experience of care in COPD is the PREM-C9. Aim: To create a Polish version of the PREM-C9 and determine its the psychometric characteristics. Methods: The validation procedure involved forward and back translation and included 42 COPD patients. The psychometric properties were assessed using Cronbach's alpha, Bartlett's test, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin and Spearman correlation coefficient. The validity of the questionnaire was assessed using Principal Component Analysis for the extracted principal components. The validity of the factor analysis was demonstrated by the Bartlett's sphericity test and the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO). Factor analysis was performed using the Oblimin and Varimax rotation. The reliability of the questionnaire was assessed using the Cronbach's alpha. Results: The Polish version of the PREM-C9 questionnaire met all validation criteria: face, translation, psychometric, functional and reconstruction equivalence. The Spearman correlation results between Polish PREM-C9&CAT: rho= 0,44, p=0,003539; HADS-Anxiety: rho= 0.370864, p=0,015612, HADS-Depression: rho= 0,387405, p=0,011253. Conclusion: The developed Polish PREM-C9 questionnaire is a reliable and valid tool that assesses Polish COPD patients' experiences of their disease and the care they receive.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1761.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: type 1 diabetes mellitus; qualitative research; patient experience; self-management; diabetes care
Online: 26 July 2023 (10:54:04 CEST)
Type 1 diabetes imposes a complex and challenging routine on patients and caregivers. Therefore, considering individual experiences and personal facilitators to promote assertive interventions is crucial. However, no studies have addressed these perspectives in the Brazilian adult population. We aimed to identify psycho-behavioral characteristics perceived as facilitators for coping with the condition. We used a biographical method to conduct semi-structured, face-to-face, in-depth interviews for each participant. Transcripts were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. Participants (n = 22) were aged 18–57 years (mean: 30.2, standard deviation (SD): 8.7), and the duration since diagnosis was approximately 20.6 years (SD: 4.6). Twelve (54.4%) were women, 13 (59.1%) used insulin pumps, 14 (63.6%) had at least a college degree, and 13 (59.1%) had HbA1C (glycated hemoglobin) levels above 58 mmol/mol (7.5%). Five major themes emerged: 1) peer learning, 2) ownership, 3) welcoming experiences, 4) equity, and 5) reframe the path (P.O.W.E.R.). All themes appeared in the lived experiences shared by participants with HbA1C levels below 58 mmol/mol (7.5%). Improved glycemic control can be achieved, and the challenges encountered in diabetes care within similar socioeconomic contexts can be addressed, by an interdisciplinary care team that takes P.O.W.E.R into consideration when providing person-centered care strategies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1650.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Esophageal cancer; Targeted drug therapies; Pathway targeting; Drug resistance; Patient survival rates
Online: 23 June 2023 (09:44:00 CEST)
Esophageal cancer is a formidable challenge in the realm of cancer treatment. Conventional methods such as surgery, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy have demonstrated limited success rates in managing this disease. In response, targeted drug therapies have emerged as a promising strategy to improve outcomes for patients. These therapies aim to disrupt specific pathways involved in the growth and development of esophageal cancer cells. This review explores various drugs used to target specific pathways, including cetuximab and monoclonal antibodies (gefitinib) that target the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), trastuzumab that targets human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2), drugs targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), mTOR inhibitors, and cMET inhibitors. Additionally, the article discusses the impact of drug resistance on the effectiveness of these therapies, highlighting factors such as cancer stem cells, cancer-associated fibroblasts, immune-inflammatory cells, cytokines, hypoxia, and growth factors. While drug targeting approaches do not provide a complete cure for esophageal cancer due to drug resistance and associated side effects, they offer potential for improving patient survival rates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1010.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Adherence; patient compliance; ketogenic diet; epilepsy; Glut1 deficiency; Treatment Adherence and Compliance
Online: 14 June 2023 (07:58:49 CEST)
Ketogenic dietary therapies (KDTs) are an effective and safe non-pharmacological treatment for drug-resistant epilepsy, but adherence can be challenging for both patients and caregivers. In Europe, there are no adequate tools to measure it other than monitoring ketosis. This study aimed to adapt and validate the Brazilian adherence questionnaire, Keto-check, into the Italian version: iKetoCheck. Using the Delphi technique, 12 judges validated the contents through agreement rate and the Content Validity Index (CVI). The iKetocheck was self-completed electronically by drug-resistant epilepsy or GLUT1 deficiency patients within an interval of 15 days to measure its reproducibility. Test-retest reliability was evaluated using Pearson correlation and relative significance test. Exploratory and confirmatory factorial analyses were made using Factor software. The final tool, iKetoCheck, consists of 10 questions with 5-point Likert scale answers. It evaluates various aspects such as informing caregivers about the diet, organization of meals, measurement of ketosis, weighing food consumed, diet negligence, use of carbohydrate-free medications, attending follow-up visits, reading food labels, consulting an expert for dietary concerns, and cooking at home. The factorial analysis resulted in three factors: "attention," "organization," and "precision," with satisfactory results for indices in exploratory and confirmatory analyses. Although higher mean values of ketonemia measurement were observed in patients with a higher adherence score, these values were not statistically significant (p=0.284). In conclusion, iKetoCheck is a valid tool for evaluating KDTs' adherence in Italian drug-resistant epilepsy or GLUT1 deficiency patients. It can provide valuable information to improve patient management and optimize the effectiveness of KDTs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1904.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: internet-delivered therapy; depression; anxiety; cultural adaptation; patient-oriented research; digital health
Online: 26 May 2023 (09:46:55 CEST)
There has been limited research on improving Internet-delivered Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (ICBT) in routine online therapy clinics that serve people from diverse ethnocultural groups (PDEGs). This article describes a patient-oriented adaptation approach used to address this gap in research. A working group consisting of people with lived experience, community stakeholders, ICBT clinicians, managers, and researchers, was formed. The working group examined archival feedback on ICBT from past clients who self-identified as being from diverse ethnocultural back-grounds (N=278) and results of interviews with current patients (N=16), community stakeholders (N=6), and clinicians (N=3). The archival data and interviews revealed the majority of the pa-tients reported being satisfied with and benefitting from ICBT. Suggestions for improvement were not related to the cognitive-behavioural model and techniques, but rather to making treatment materials more inclusive. Consequently, the ICBT adaptation focused on adding content related to cultural influences on mental health, addressing stigma, diversifying case stories, examples and imagery, adding audiovisual introductions, and replacing English idioms with more descriptive language. Moreover, further training was offered to clinicians and efforts were made to improve community outreach. This study demonstrates a process for using patient-oriented research to improve ICBT within routine care serving patients of diverse backgrounds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0416.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: Cloud Architecture; Data Privacy; Data Confidentiality; Information Sharing; Health Information; Patient Records
Online: 6 May 2023 (10:27:41 CEST)
Cloud computing appears to be the dreamed vision of the healthcare industry; it refers to means of storing and accessing data and programs over the internet instead of the computer’s hard drive. However, the adoption of cloud computing requires solving several issues and infor-mation privacy is a major one. This work proposes a cloud architecture design for the healthcare information system. The proposed architecture enables for storing and sharing information in a privacy-preserving manner. Patients’ information in the proposed architecture is divided into four categories identified in the case study data analysis. User identity management protocol (U-IDM) is employed for controlling the access to patients’ information, and patients have means of control over who can access their information. A scenario-based instantiation validated the proposed architecture's privacy-preserving patient data exchange. The instantiation proved that the proposed architecture allows sharing healthcare information without violating the privacy of patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0009.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; artificial intelligence; omics; patient stratification; risk management
Online: 1 March 2023 (03:37:48 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemic has presented an unprecedented challenge to the healthcare system. Identifying the genomics and clinical biomarkers for effective patient stratification and management is critical to controlling the spread of the disease. Omics datasets provide a wealth of information that can aid in understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms of COVID-19 and identifying potential biomarkers for patient stratification. Artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) algorithms have been increasingly used to analyze large-scale omics and clinical datasets for patient stratification. In this manuscript, we demonstrate the recent advances and predictive accuracies in AI and ML-based patient stratification modeling linking omics and clinical biomarker datasets, focusing on COVID-19 patients. Our ML model not only demonstrates that clinical features are enough an indicator of COVID-19 severity and survival but also infers what clinical features are more impactful, which makes our approach a useful guide for clinicians for prioritization of best-fit therapeutics for a given cohort of patients. Moreover, with weighted gene network analysis, we are able to provide insights into gene networks that have a significant association with COVID-19 severity and clinical features. Finally, we have demonstrated the importance of clinical biomarkers in identifying high-risk patients and predicting disease progression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0662.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: maintenance cost; patient related outcome measurements; quality of life; mandibular overdentures; edentulism
Online: 26 November 2020 (10:40:14 CET)
Denture wearers often complain about jeopardized function and reduced quality of life due to lack of prosthesis’ retention. Implant retained mandibular overdentures, on 2 non-connected implants (2IOD) are well-proven solutions to overcome these issues. We prospectively assessed 69 patients and scrutinized clinical records until at least 7 years of function. Thirty-six were retained on Locator ® Abutments (LA) and thirty-tree on Ball Abutments (BA). Both systems were compared regarding the type, amount and total cost of required maintenance. One implants was lost, yielding 98.7% survival after 7 years. In total 438 technical issues occurred: 121 (27.35%) in BA and 317 (72.4%) in LA. Out of these, 343 events (78%) were solved chairside: 191 (43.6%) were replacements of retention caps, 113 (25.8%) were minor acrylic repairs, in 26 (5.9%) pressure ulcers had to be relieved and 13 (3%) related to abutments. LA required 179 insert replacements compared to 12 in the BA group. The overall initial treatment cost was 3850 euro. The average total maintenance cost in relation to the initial cost for the LA and BA groups was 19.11% (range 0% - 82.24%) and 18.91% (range 0% - 113.26%) respectively (P=0.540). Conclusions: The 7-years maintenance costs for a 2IOD is acceptable when the patient is regularly checked and professionally maintained. Most events are easily solvable chairside, but a few patients required more expensive interventions, regardless of the type of attachment used.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0200.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: critical care nurses; critical care setting; experiences; patient advocacy; systematic review; understanding
Online: 12 March 2020 (04:42:24 CET)
Objectives: The purpose of this systematic review was to ascertain critical care nurses’ understanding and experiences of patient advocacy in adult critical care settings. The specific objectives were to identify how critical care nurses define patient advocacy, to explore the understanding and experiences of critical care nurses regarding patient advocacy, to explore critical care nurses’ role in patient advocacy, and to ascertain the barriers to encouraging advocacy in the critical care setting. Research design: Systematic literature search of CINAHL and Medline databases, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, as well as grey literature search, was conducted. Search dates were restricted from January 2005 to 2015 in both CINAHL and Medline. Findings: 62 studies were identified, of which 6 qualitative research papers were included. Nurses gave varied definitions of patient advocacy, which were categorized into three themes: communication, protection, and doing. Nurses perceive advocacy as truly listening to patients and their families. Conclusion: For critical care nurses to be effective advocates, there must be support, collaboration, and improved working relationship between professional groups. Moreover, nurses must be empowered to be able to give power to patients and family.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0002.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: patient-derived xenograft; immunocompromised mice; precision medicine; drug screening; cancer; cell line
Online: 3 June 2019 (04:47:14 CEST)
Patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models are created by engraftment of patients’ tumor tissues into immunocompetent mice. Since PDX model keep the characteristics of primary patient’s tumor such as gene expression profiles and drug sensitivity, it now becomes most reliable in vivo human cancer model. The engraftment rate are increased with the introduction of NOD/Scid based immunocompromised mice, especially, NK cell defective NOD strains such as NOD/Scid/IL2Rγnu (NOG/ NSG) mice and NOD/Scid/Jak3null (NOJ) mice. Success ratio differs from the origin of tumor: Gastrointestinal tumors tend to higher success rate and breast cancer is lower. Subcutaneous transplantation is most popular method to establish PDX, but some tumor needs orthotropic or renal capsule transplantation, and human hormone treatment is needed to establish hormone dependent cancers such as prostate and breast cancer. PDX library with patient’s clinical data, gene-expression patterns, mutational status, drug responsiveness and tumor architecture will be the powerful tool for developing specific biomarker and novel individualized therapy and establishing precision cancer medicine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0058.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: pediatric patient with T1DM; physical activity; muscle strength exercise; self-rated health
Online: 5 June 2018 (10:00:16 CEST)
Background: Even though a number of studies have verified the positive effect of physical activity (PA) on self-related health (SRH) no previous research has examined this association among pediatric patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between regular physical activity (PA) and self-rated health (SRH) in pediatric patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) who lacked diabetes care. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study among pediatric patients with T1DM who lacked diabetes care and were enrolled in a diabetes education program between January 2011 to January 2015 at the endocrinology clinic of Seoul National University Children’s Hospital in South Korea. The eligible participants for this study were 37 pediatric patients with T1DM aged 9 to 17 years. PA was divided into regular PA and muscle strength exercise to analyze the relationship with SRH using binomial logistic regression analysis. Results: The results showed SRH of pediatric patients with T1DM who did not engage in regular PA was significantly lower than those who did (OR in regular PA = .199 [95% CI: .040, .995]; OR in regular muscle strength exercise = .097 [95% CI: .023, .825]). Conclusions: In conclusion, regular PA and muscle strength exercise in pediatric patients with T1DM who lacked diabetes care were effective in improving their SRH. A systematic plan is required to enhance regular PA for pediatric patients with T1DM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0013.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Rheumatoid Arthritis; thematic analysis; Outcomes assessment; Qualitative Research; Patient reported outcome measures
Online: 3 January 2017 (11:32:52 CET)
Background. The Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ) is widely used to measure functional ability in persons with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). The instrument was developed with limited involvement from persons with RA, and their perception of the instrument has not been studied in depth. The aim of this study was to explore how persons with RA experience the use of the HAQ in care. Methods. Forty persons with RA were purposefully recruited to participate in semi-structured interviews. The interviews were then analyzed qualitatively using thematic analysis. Results. The participants questioned the relevance of the HAQ but nevertheless experienced that the instrument had a profound effect on their understanding of health and how care is delivered. The analysis resulted in three themes: Problems with individual items, meaning of the summative score, and effects on care and health perceptions. Conclusions. To make the HAQ relevant to persons with RA, it needs to be revised or to include an option to select items most meaningful to the respondent. To ensure relevance, the HAQ update should preferably be co-created by researchers, clinicians and persons with RA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0766.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: mathematical modeling; non-small cell lung cancer; tumor microenvironment; patient-derived tumor organoids
Online: 12 October 2023 (05:05:42 CEST)
Mathematical models of non-small cell lung cancer are powerful tools that use clinical and experimental data to describe various aspects of tumorigenesis. The developed algorithms capture phenotypic changes in the tumor and predict changes in tumor behavior, drug resistance, and clinical outcomes of anti-cancer therapy. The aim of this study was to propose a mathematical model that predicts the changes in the cellular composition of patient-derived tumor organoids over time with a perspective of translation of these results to the parental tumor, and therefore to possible clinical course and outcomes for the patient. Using the data on specific biomarkers of cancer cells (PD-L1), tumor-associated macrophages (CD206), natural killer cells (CD8), and fibroblasts (αSMA) as input, we proposed a model that accurately predicts the cellular composition of patient-derived tumor organoids at a desired time point. Combining the obtained results with “omics” approaches will improve our understanding of the nature of NSCLC. Moreover, their implementation into clinical practice will facilitate a decision-making process on treatment strategy and develop a new personalized approach in anti-cancer therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0505.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: cochlear implant; patient-reported outcomes; pure tone average; speech in noise; music perception
Online: 7 September 2023 (11:22:04 CEST)
Electric stimulation via a Cochlear Implant (CI) enables people with severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss to regain speech understanding and music appreciation and thus allowing them to actively engage in social life. Three main manufacturers (Cochlear, MED-EL and Advanced Bionics “AB”) have been offering CI systems, thus challenging CI recipients and Otolaryngologists with a difficult decision, as currently no comprehensive overview or meta-analyses on performance outcome following CI implantation is available. The main goal of this scoping review is to provide evidence that data and standardized speech and music performance tests are available for performing such comparisons. To this end, a literature search was conducted to find studies that address speech and music outcomes in CI recipients. From a total of 1592 papers, 188 paper abstracts were analyzed and 147 articles were found suitable for examination of full text. From which, 42 studies were included for synthesis. A total of 16 studies used the consonant-nucleus-consonant (CNC) word recognition test in quiet at 60db SPL. We found that aside from technical comparisons, only very few publications compare speech outcomes across manufacturers of CI systems. Evidence suggests though, that these data are available in large CI centers in Germany and US. Future studies should therefore leverage large data cohorts to perform such comparisons that could provide critical evaluation criteria and assist both CI recipients and Otolaryngologists to make informed performance-based decisions.