ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0080.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Organic Chemistry Keywords: algal oil; green chemistry; green solvents; extraction; biofuel; bio compound
Online: 8 November 2019 (03:16:06 CET)
The procedures for the extraction and separation of lipids and nutraceutics from microalgae using classic solvents have been used many times. However, these production methods usually require expensive and toxic solvents. Based on our studies involving the use of eco-sustainable methodologies and alternative solvents, we select ethanol (EtOH) and cyclopentyl methyl ether (CPME) for extracting bio-oil and lipids from algae. Different percentage of EtOH in CPME favors the production of an oil rich of SFA useful to production biofuel or rich of compounds bioactive. The proposed method for obtain a rich extract of saturated or unsaturated fatty acids from dry algal biomass is disclosed is eco-friendly and allows a good extraction yield. The method is compared both in extracted oil percentage yield and in extracted fatty acids selectivity to extraction by supercritical carbon dioxide.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0486.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Pectin; Food hydrocolloid; Green extraction; Heteropolysaccharide; Citrus; Bioeconomy
Online: 25 November 2021 (16:09:20 CET)
From new understanding of pectin molecular structure and physiological effects on man up to new production methods and new applications, significant new knowledge of pectin has emerged in the last two decades (2010-2020). These developments open the route to new and unexpected applications of this uniquely complex heteropolysaccharide ubiquitous in plants and fruits well beyond its traditional use as food hydrocolloid. This study provides a unified perspective on the new science and technology of pectin. Furthermore, we offer an insight into forthcoming pectin uses from an expanded perspective taking into account selected technology and economic factors that, we argue in this study, will shortly impact the pectin production and uptake in many countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0451.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: AnchoisFert; Fish waste; Green extraction; Limonene; Organic fertilizer
Online: 24 November 2021 (10:32:23 CET)
Is the production of the “AnchoisFert” organic fertilizer via the circular economy process based on omega-3 lipid extraction of milled anchovy fillet leftovers with citrus limonene followed by mild drying economically and technically viable? This study answers this question and identifies the main obstacles, chiefly of economic and organizational nature, to be overcome prior to commercialization of this new organic fertilizer. Along with non-variable and proven efficacy, successful competition with conventional organic and inorganic fertilizers requires affordable cost and regular supply. This, inter alia, requires to establish new and mutually beneficial relationship between bioeconomy firms and fish processing companies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0130.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: biorefining; bran; enzymatic hydrolysis; green-extraction; hydroxycinnamates; sustainability; valorization
Online: 8 November 2021 (12:04:08 CET)
Biorefining by enzymatic hydrolysis (EH) of lignocellulosic waste material due to low costs and affordability has received enormous interest amongst scientists as a potential strategy suitable for the production of bioactive ingredients and chemicals. In the present study, a sustainable and eco-friendly approach to the extraction of bound ferulic acid (FA) has been demonstrated using a single-step EH by a mixture of lignocellulose-degrading enzymes. For comparative purposes of the efficiency of EH, an online SFE-SFC-MS extraction and analysis approach was applied. The experimental results demonstrated up to 369.3 mg 100 g−1 FA released from rye bran after 48 h EH with Viscozyme L. The EH of wheat and oat bran with Viscoferm for 48 h resulted in 255.1 and 33.5 mg 100 g−1 of FA, respectively. The extraction of FA from bran matrix using the SFE-CO2-EtOH delivered up to 464.3 mg 100 g−1 of FA, though the extractability varied depending on the parameters used. The 10-fold and 30-fold scale-up experiments confirmed the applicability of EH as a bioprocessing method valid for industrial-scale. The highest yield of FA in both scale-up experiments was obtained from rye bran after 48 h of EH with Viscozyme L. In purified extracts, the absence of xylose, arabinose, and glucose as final degradation products of lignocellulose was proven by a HPLC-RID system. Up to 94.0% purity of FA was achieved by SPE using the polymeric reversed-phase Strata X column and 50% EtOH as eluent.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0377.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: limonene; green extraction; essential oil; citrus processing waste; p-cymene
Online: 17 February 2021 (10:39:24 CET)
A renewable cyclic monoterpene obtained from citrus peel, limonene is widely used as a fra-grance, nutraceutical ingredient, antibacterial, biopesticide, and green extraction solvent. Indus-trial demand largely exceeds supply. After reviewing recent advances in the recovery of limonene from citrus peel and residues with a particular attention to benign-by-design extractive processes, we focus on the latest results in its dehydrogenation to p-cymene via heterogeneous catalysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0186.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Chaga (Inonotus obliquus); Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE); myconutrients; Swiss water process (SWP); Green extraction; pH; Temperature
Online: 8 July 2021 (10:02:51 CEST)
Mushrooms have long rich history in folk medicine, traditional and functional foods due to high content of dietary myco-nutrients. Currently, there is increased interest in finding appropriate food-grade green ex-traction systems capable of extracting these bioactive compounds from dietary mushrooms for applica-tions in various food, pharmacological or nutraceutical formulations. Herein, we evaluated a modified Swiss water process (SWP) method using alkaline and acidic pH at low and high temperature under pressurized conditions as a suitable green food grade solvent to obtained extracts enriched with my-co-nutrients (dietary phenolics, total antioxidants (TAA), vitamins, and minerals) from Chaga. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution accurate mass tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRAMS-MS/MS) was used to assess the phenolic compounds and vitamin levels in the extracts, while inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to determine the mineral con-tents. Over twenty phenolic compounds were quantitatively evaluated in the extracts and the highest total phenolic content and antioxidant activity was observed at pH11.5 at 100°C. The most abundant phenolic compounds present in Chaga extracts included phenolic acids such as protocatechuic acid 4-glucoside (0.7-1.08µg/mL), syringic acid (0.62-1.18µg/mL), and myricetin (0.68-1.3µg/mL). Vitamins are being reported for the first time in Chaga. pH 2.5 at 100°C treatment shows superior effects in extracting the B vitamins whereas pH 2.5 at 60 and 100°C treatments were outstanding for extraction of total fat-soluble vitamins. Vitamin E content was the highest for the fat-soluble vitamins in the Chaga extract under acidic pH (2.5) and high temp. (100°C) and ranges between 50 to 175 µg/100g Chaga. Antioxidant minerals ranged from 85.94 µg/g (pH7 at 100°C) to 113.86 µg/g DW (pH2.5 at 100°C). High temperature 100°C and a pH of 2.5 or 9.5. The treatment of pH11.5 at 100°C was the most useful for recovering phenolics and antioxidants from Chaga including several phenolic compounds reported for the first time in Chaga. SWP is being proposed herein for the first time as a novel, green food-grade solvent system for the extraction of myco-nutrients from Chaga and have potential applications as a suitable approach to extract nutrients from other matrices. Chaga extracts enriched with bioactive myconutrients and antioxidants may be suitable for further use or applications in the food and nutraceutical industries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0306.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Oil-producing microorganism; Rhodotorula mucilaginosa; liquid fermentation; extraction; green organic solvent
Online: 11 March 2021 (10:45:25 CET)
This study was focused on the development of oil-producing microorganisms to generate lipids. The yeast Rhodotorula mucilaginosa (R. mucilaginosa) was selected for liquid-state cultivation, and the conditions for growth of the yeast cells were assessed. Additionally, the relationships between different nutrient elements and the growth of R. mucilaginosa were explored. The lipid accumulation of R. mucilaginosa is increased under nitrogen-restricted conditions. As the concentration of the carbon source increases, the accumulation of lipids is increased. However, if the carbon source concentration is further increased, the growth of yeast is inhibited. From a large-scale liquid fermentation culture with a fixed inoculation amount of 5%, and from a batch of culture experiments, it was determined that a suitable oil-producing culture was obtained on the 6th day, and the optimum conditions involved a carbon source concentration of 60 g/L, a nitrogen source concentration of 0.5 g/L, and a KH2PO4 concentration of 7.0 g/L. After utilizing different carbon sources in this study, it was found that glucose was the carbon source most conducive to the accumulation of R. mucilaginosa lipids. In addition, the extraction method and solvent for the extraction of R. mucilaginosa lipids were chosen. The acid-heat method using the green organic solvent ethyl acetate exhibited the best performance for extraction of yeast lipids under environmentally friendly and safe conditions. The analysis of lipids showed that the fatty acids obtained primarily contained C16:0, C18:1 and C18:2, and especially C18:1 (41%) lipids, indicating that R. mucilaginosa lipids are a good bio-oil source for the production of biodiesel.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0041.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: ultrasonic wave; microwave; instant green tea; extraction rate; active components; aroma
Online: 3 March 2020 (11:38:20 CET)
The production of instant green tea requires hot-water extraction, which is time consuming and contributes to losses in aromatic compounds. In this study, an ultrasonic-assisted technology was used to improve the extraction efficiency of green tea, thereby shortening extraction time from 45 to 15 min. In pure water, the dissolution of caffeine and theanine did not change significantly, but total catechin dissolution increased by 0.23 mg/mL and total tea polyphenol dissolution decreased by 3.2 mg/mL. In 76.2% ethanol, the dissolution of caffeine and theanine did not change significantly, but total catechin dissolution increased by 1.57mg/mL and total tea polyphenol dissolution decreased by 1.5 mg/mL. Additionally, we used microwave-assisted technology to further improve the extraction efficiency of green tea, which shortened the extraction time to 2 min. However, the extraction rate remained unchanged. In pure water, the dissolution of caffeine and theanine did not change significantly, but the dissolution of total catechins increased by 0.41 mg/mL and the dissolution of tea polyphenols decreased by 2.9 mg/mL. Ultrasonic treatment increased the proportion of 3-hydroxybutan-2-one, (5S)-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-one and 2-phenylethanol, which were the main aroma compounds in tea. Microwave treatment changed the aroma compounds in tea, causing losses in aroma compounds with low boiling point and maintaining (5S)-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-one. The taste and aroma of instant green tea improved based on sensory evaluation results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0236.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: biorefining; by-products; enzymatic hydrolysis; essential fatty acids; green-extraction; lipids; sustainability
Online: 26 April 2022 (10:37:03 CEST)
The main intention of the present work was to investigate the ability of cellulose-degrading enzymes (C-DE) to release fatty acids (FAs) from complex matrices of cereal by-products during enzymatic hydrolysis (EH). For this purpose, three types of cereal bran (CB), i.e., wheat, rye, and oat were used as a lignocellulose substrate for three commercially available hydrolytic enzymes, i.e., Viscozyme L, Viscoferm, and Celluclast 1.5 L. The yield and composition of FAs after EH was assessed and confronted with the yield obtained after either conventional Soxhlet extraction or alkaline-assisted hydrolysis (A-AH) with 10% KOH in 80% MeOH and subsequent liquid-liquid extraction. The experimental results demonstrated that up to 6.3% and 43.7% higher total FAs yield can be achieved within EH of rye bran using Celluclast 1.5 L than by A-AH and Soxhlet extraction, respectively. However, the application of Viscoferm for EH of wheat bran ensured up to 7.7% and 13.4% higher total FAs yield than A-AH and Soxhlet extraction, respectively. The concentration of essential linolenic acid (C18:3) in lipids extracted after EH of rye bran with Celluclast 1.5 L was up to 24.4% and 57.0% higher than in lipids recovered by A-AH and Soxhlet extraction, respectively. In turn, the highest content of linolenic in wheat bran lipids was observed after EH with Viscoferm and Viscozyme L, ensuring 17.0 and 13.6% higher yield than after A-AH, respectively. SEM analysis confirmed substantial degradation of CB matrix promoted by the ability of C-DE to act specifically on 1,4-β-D-glycosidic bonds in cellulose and on 1,2-α-,1,3-α-, and 1,5-α-L- arabinofuranoside and 1,4-β-D-xylosidic bonds in arabinoxylans, arabinans, and other arabinose-containing hemicelluloses. Structural alteration in cells integrity greatly contributed to the release of bound FAs and their better transfer into the extraction solvent. It has been shown that the proposed process of EH can be used for the efficient release of FAs from the CB matrix more sustainably and with a safer profile, thereby representing the further sustainable production of FAs for certain purposes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0055.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: orange peel essential oil; green extraction; liquid whole eggs; biopreservation; shelf-life
Online: 8 January 2018 (09:22:37 CET)
A possible way to valorize citrus peels, which are byproducts of the juice extraction industry, is to use them as natural biopreservatives. In this paper we present early results from a compared Solvent Free Microwave Extraction (SFME) with Hydro-Distillation (HD) and Cold Pressing (CP) of essential oils (EOs) using fresh orange peel (Citrus sinensis L. var. Valencia late), a by-product in the production of orange juice in Algeria. The EOs were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). All extracted C. sinensis EOs were chemotype limonene (94.64 to 95.48%). SFME is performed without added any solvent or water. SFME increases EO yield and eliminate wastewater treatment, resulting in a great progress in terms of time and cost efficiency. In its second part, the present study was conducted to evaluate “in vitro”, the antioxidant activities of Solvent Free Microwave (SFM) extracted orange EO by using the DPPH• (2,2-di-phenyl-1-picrilhydrazyl) free radical scavenging assay. The ability of orange EO to scavenge the free radical DPPH• was high, exceeding 80%. The result of the DPPH assay gives an IC50 range value of 89.25 μg/mL (0.09 mg/mL) for the studied sample. Accordingly to the scientific literature, C. sinensis EO tested in the present study presented strong antioxidant activity, when looking to its values of AAI = 1.12 μg/mL. The feasibility of biopreservation used EOs as an alternative to synthetic techniques for liquid whole egg (LWE) stored under commercial retail conditions was investigated. The orange EO extracted by SFM was screened for its antibacterial and antioxidant activities in LWE at concentrations of 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5%. The TBA-RS results showed that the EO treatments significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the lipid oxidation in LWE. The long term oxidative, microbial and organoleptical stability of the LWE during display was positively influenced by orange EO treatments. Therefore, the results obtained here confirm that EO treatment as a promising technology to extend the commercial shelf-life of liquid egg products during retail/display.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0325.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: biomethane; d-limonene; flavanones; food waste; green extraction; hydrodynamic cavitation; orange waste; pectin; polyphenols
Online: 29 July 2019 (04:04:30 CEST)
Waste orange peel represents a heavy burden for the orange juice industry, estimated in several million tons per year worldwide; nevertheless, this by-product is endowed with valuable bioactive compounds, such as pectin, polyphenols and terpenes. The potential value of the waste orange peel has stimulated the search for extraction processes, alternative or complementary to landfilling or to the integral energy conversion. This study introduces controlled hydrodynamic cavitation processes, as a new route to the integral valorization of this by-product, based on simple equipment, speed, effectiveness and efficiency, scalability, and compliance with green extraction principles. Waste orange peel, in batches of several kg, was processed in more than 100 L of water, absent any other raw materials, in a device comprising a Venturi-shaped cavitation reactor. The extractions of pectin, endowed with a very low degree of esterification, polyphenols (flavanones and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives), and terpenes (mainly d-limonene) were effective and fast (high yield, few min of process time), as well as the biomethane generation potential of the process residues was effectively exploited. The achieved results proved the viability of the proposed route to the integral valorization of waste orange peel, though wide margins exist for further improvements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0167.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: Almond; Almond beverage; Almond skin; Antiradical activity; Green extraction; Hydrodynamic cavitation; Nutritional values; Polyphenols; Proteins; Vitamins
Online: 10 January 2023 (02:12:56 CET)
Almond beverages are gaining ever-increasing consumer preference in the growing market of non-alcoholic vegetable beverages, ranking in first place among oilseed-based drinks, mainly due to the perceived healthy benefits. However, the high cost of the raw material, time and energy consuming pre-treatments such as soaking, blanching and peeling, and post-treatments such as thermal sterilization, leading also to the loss of valuable macronutrients and micronutrients, hinder the sustainability, affordability and spread of almond beverages. Hydrodynamic cavitation processes were applied, as a single-unit operation, to the extraction in water of almond skinless kernels in the form of flour and fine grains, and to whole almond seeds in the form of coarse grains, up to high concentrations. The results showed full compliance with a high-end commercial product and with the expected levels based on the properties of the raw materials. The concentrated extract obtained from whole almond seeds showed a comparatively much higher antiradical activity, likely due to the contribution of the almond kernel skin. In conclusion, hydrodynamic cavitation could represent a convenient alternative processing route to the production of conventional and new integral almond beverages, avoiding multiple and costly technological steps, while affording fast production cycles of potentially healthier beverages.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0707.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Grape processing waste; Polyphenols; Green extraction; Microwave-hydrodiffusion and gravity, Enocyanin; Resveratrol; Flavonoids; Anthocyanins; Wine pomace
Online: 29 March 2021 (16:06:18 CEST)
The extraction of grape processing waste (wine pomace) via microwave-hydrodiffusion and gravity (MHG) from three different cultivars grown in Sicily (Syrah, Perricone and Nero d’Avola) rapidly affords aqueous extracts highly concentrated in valued biophenols including flavonoids, anthocyanins and phenolic acids. The method does not employ organic solvent, acid or base and does not require grinding or freeze drying of the wine pomace nor separation of the grape skins from seeds and stem. All the extracts have a pronounced stability as shown by their red-violet color fully retained after storage for more than a year (15 months) in freezer under air. Concentrations of phenolics up to 2000 ppm were detected in the aged extracts of Sicily’s local cultivar Perricone, which also has the highest content of flavonoids. These findings provide a simple and economically viable extraction route to biophenol-rich red extracts that can be used as food colorants as well as to formulate nutraceutical, cosmetic and personal care products starting from an agricultural by-product available in >10 million tonne yearly amount.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0085.v2
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: fabric phase sorptive extraction (FPSE); sol-gel; phenols; environmental pollution; sample preparation; microextraction; green analytical chemistry (GAC)
Online: 10 May 2017 (04:37:58 CEST)
The theory and working principle of fabric phase sorptive extraction (FPSE) is presented that eloquently explains the mystery behind this new and powerful sample preparation technique. FPSE innovatively integrates the benefits of sol-gel coating technology and the rich surface chemistry of cellulose/polyester/fiberglass fabric, resulting in a microextraction device with very high sorbent loading in the form of an ultra-thin coating. This porous sorbent coating and the permeable substrate synergistically facilitate very fast extraction equilibrium. The flexibility of the FPSE device allows for direct insertion into original, unmodified samples of different origin. Strong chemical bonding between the sol-gel sorbent and the fabric substrate permits the exposure of FPSE devices to any organic solvent for analyte back-extraction/elution and to highly acidic or basic environments (pH 1-12) if required. A sol-gel derived sorbent, highly polar sol-gel poly(ethylene glycol) coating, was generated on cellulose substrates. Five cm2 segments of these coated fabrics were used as the FPSE devices for sample preparation using direct immersion. An important class of environmental pollutants, substituted phenols, was used as model compounds to evaluate the extraction performance of FPSE. The high primary contact surface area (PCSA) of the FPSE device and porous structure of the sol-gel coatings resulted in very high sample capacities and incredible extraction sensitivities for both the compound classes in a relatively short period of time. Different extraction parameters were evaluated and optimized. The new extraction devices demonstrated part per trillion level detection limits for substituted phenols, a wide range of detection linearity, and good performance reproducibility.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0688.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: grape skins; grape seed oil; fatty acid methyl esters; total phenolic content; antioxidant activity; green extraction; circular bioeconomy
Online: 29 March 2021 (12:18:34 CEST)
The aim of this work was the study and evaluation of winery by-products in the framework of circular bioeconomy. Grape seeds and grape skins from Greek traditional Ionian Islands varieties were analyzed in an attempt to provide the appropriate basis for model development of their sustainable exploitation at a local or regional level. The wastes collected directly from the wineries immediately after the vinification process and analyzed by chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. Also, annual production and yields were estimated. Grape seed oil quality was evaluated based on fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) composition. Grape skins phenolic fraction was extracted by an eco-friendly, non-toxic water-glycerol solvent system and were detected qualitatively. Also, total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity were measured. Based on estimated yields, our results demonstrate that winery by-products have the potential to promote the cyclical bioeconomy in a modern economic growth model that will reduce waste, and environmental costs as they can be reused as whole material in foods, dietary supplements, cosmetic ingredients, food colorants and preservatives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0175.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: Abies Alba Mill.; antioxidant activity; coniferous trees; essential oils; flavonoids; food preservation; green extraction; hydrodynamic cavitation; nutraceutics; polyphenols
Online: 17 December 2018 (07:07:56 CET)
Extracts from parts of coniferous trees have received increased interest due to their valuable bioactive compounds and properties, useful for plenty of experimental and consolidated applications, in fields comprising nutraceutics, cosmetics, pharmacology, food preservation, and stimulation of plant growth. However, the variability of the bioactive properties, the complexity of the extraction methods, and the use of potentially harmful synthetic chemicals, still represent an obstacle to the spreading of such valuable natural compounds. Hydrodynamic cavitation is emerging as a promising innovative technique for the extraction of precious food components and by-products from waste raw material of the agro-food production chain, which can improve processing efficiency, reduce resource consumption, and produce healthy, high-quality products. In this study, a process based on controlled hydrodynamic cavitation was applied for the first time to the production of aqueous solutions of silver fir (Abies Alba Mill.) needles with enhanced antioxidant activity. The observed levels of the in vitro antioxidant activity, comparable or higher than those found for reference substances, pure extracts, and other water extracts and beverages, highlight the very good potential of the HC process for the creation of solvent-free, aqueous solutions endowed with bioactive compounds extracted from silver fir needles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0046.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: InGaN green LEDs; active region non-uniformity; temperature-dependent electroluminescence; internal quantum efficiency; light extraction efficiency; extended defects; modeling
Online: 12 September 2017 (10:06:36 CEST)
External quantum efficiency of industrial-grade green InGaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) has been measured in a wide range of operating currents at various temperatures from 13 K to 300 K. Unlike blue LEDs, the efficiency as a function of current is found to have a multi-peak character, which could not be fitted by a simple ABC-model. This observation correlated with splitting of LED emission spectra into two peaks at certain currents. The characterization data are interpreted in terms of non-uniformity of the LED active region, which is tentatively attributed to extended defects like V-pits. We suggest a new approach to evaluation of temperature-dependent light extraction and internal quantum efficiencies taking into account the active region non-uniformity. As a result, the temperature dependence of light extraction and internal quantum efficiencies have been evaluated in the temperature range mentioned above and compared with those of blue LEDs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0176.v2
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Fabric Phase Sorptive Extraction (FPSE); Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs); Persistent pollutants; Green Analytical Chemistry (GAC); Environmental water; Sorptive microextraction
Online: 19 April 2017 (19:27:27 CEST)
Fabric phase sorptive extraction (FPSE) combines the advanced material properties of sol–gel derived microextraction sorbents and the flexible and permeable fabric support to create a robust, simple and green sample preparation device. It simultaneously improves the extraction sensitivity, and the speed of the extraction by incorporating high volume of sponge-like porous sol–gel hybrid inorganic–organic sorbents into permeable fabric substrates that is capable of extracting target analytes directly from simple to complex aqueous sample matrices. For the first time, this technique was applied to the trace level determination of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in environmental water samples using a non-polar sol–gel C18 coated FPSE media. Several extraction parameters were optimized to improve extraction efficiency and to achieve high detection sensitivity. Validation tests of spiked samples showed good linearity for four selected PAHs (R2 = 0.9983–0.9997) over a wide range of concentrations (0.010-10 ng/mL). Limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs) were measured at pg/mL levels, 0.1–1 pg/mL and 0.3–3 pg/mL, respectively. Inter- and intra-day precision tests showed variations of 1.1–4.1% for four selected PAHs. Average absolute recovery values were in the range of 88.1–90.5% surpassed the recovery prediction model, with relative standard deviations below 5%. The developed FPSE-HPLC-FLD protocol was finally applied to analyze 8 environmental water samples. Out of four selected PAHs, fluoranthene (Flu) and phenanthrene (Phen) were the most frequently detected in four samples, at concentration levels of 5.6–7.7 ng/mL and 4.1-11 ng/mL, respectively followed by anthracene (Anth) and pyrene (Pyr) in two samples. The newly developed FPSE-HPLC-FLD protocol is simple, green, fast and economical, with adequate sensitivity for trace levels of four selected PAHs and seems to be promising in routine monitoring of water quality and safety.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0215.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: COVID-19; green finance; green banking; green economic recovery; financial institutions; Bangladesh.
Online: 16 December 2021 (12:36:55 CET)
The main purpose of study is to identify the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the green financing of banks and non-bank financial institutions (NBFIs) in an emerging economy such as Bangladesh. Also, this study shows the green banking activities of the banks and NBFIs during the pandemic. To analyze the impact of the pandemic on green financing, secondary data were obtained from the quarterly and annual reports of Bangladesh Bank (BB) on green financing as well as the annual reports and websites of 61 banks and 34 NBFIs in Bangladesh for the period 2021–2019. Subsequently, the study deployed dependent t-test statistics, growth rate (year-on-year), descriptive statistics, relative percentage changes, and varying tables and graphs to analyze the obtained secondary data. The empirical findings revealed that during the COVID-19 pandemic, there was an increase in green finance for all banks and NBFIs compared to before the epidemic, indicating that the pandemic had no negative impact on the total green finance growth of all banks and NBFIs. On the other hand, compared to the pre-pandemic period, bank-wise growth in green financing was higher for state-owned commercial banks (SOCBs), specialized banks (SDBs), and private commercial banks (PCBs) but lower for foreign-owned commercial banks (FCBs) during the COVID-19 epidemic. This suggests that the pandemic does not affect the expansion of green finance by SOCBs, SDBs and PCBs but significantly impacted the growth of green financing by FCBs. Furthermore, the research findings showed that the total outstanding and classified loans within the green finance investment decrease for both banks and NBFIs during the COVID-19 pandemic. The results indicated that the Bangladeshi banks’ level of automation towards green banking were satisfactory during the pandemic. Therefore, major policy implications for the green economic recovery by the government, BB, and managers of the banks and financial institutions in emerging economies like Bangladesh were discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0197.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: lean manufacturing; green manufacturing; lean-green manufacturing; sustainability
Online: 17 November 2019 (09:34:54 CET)
The current rapidly changing and highly competitive market has put companies under a great pressure not only to be successful, but also to sustain their success into the future. In addition, in recent years, companies have become more aware of the fact that it is no longer enough to take care of economic aspects, being crucial to also take care of environmental and social aspects in order to actually succeed and lead in the current and future markets. In this context, companies are urged to move towards more innovative manufacturing practices that maintain a healthy balance among economic, environmental and social performances, which are the three pillars of the sustainability performance. To give some insight into this issue, a Systematic Literature Review (SLR) is conducted in this paper regarding the current trends in the field, doing special focus on the link between lean-green manufacturing and the different sustainability aspects. The SLR concluded that lean and green implementations as stand-alone systems are usually not enough to ensure the required balance between the three pillars of sustainability, suggesting further combining them into a single approach. Researchers expect to achieve further improvements in the sustainability performance moving towards the next level of sustainability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0122.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: green innovation; green organizational culture; sustainability; sustainability drivers
Online: 24 November 2016 (11:09:23 CET)
This study aims to examine Turkish companies from a sustainability and green innovation point of view. Through this purpose, this research’s objective is to find out relationship between sustainability drivers and green innovation and also to search for green organizational culture’s mediation effect in this relationship. Survey was carried in companies operating in Turkey which were listed among İstanbul Chamber of Industry (ICI) Top 500 companies for last 3 years successively and have ISO14001 Environmental Management Certificate. According to the survey results, it was manifested that factors directing companies to sustainability having a positive relationship with green organizational culture and green innovation. It is found that there is a partial mediation effect of green organizational culture between motivating factors for sustainability and green innovation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0470.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Inorganic & Nuclear Chemistry Keywords: ionic liquids; liquid-liquid extraction; iron extraction; 8-hydroxyquinoline; acetylacetone; thenoyltrifluoroacetone
Online: 25 November 2021 (11:58:50 CET)
(200 words) Imidazolium ionic liquids containing acetylacetone, thenoyltrifluoroacetone, or 8-hydroxyquinoline, respectively, were used as the extracting agents for the separation of traces of iron (III) from its aqueous solutions with or without citric and oxalic acids. The results show that 8-hydroxyquinoline in imidazolium ionic liquids extract iron quantitatively from all the tested solutions including complexing ones, regardless indications of unexpected iron behavior/speciation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0074.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Green Dam; Green Walls; Desertification; Aleppo pine; Land degradation.
Online: 2 June 2021 (12:16:30 CEST)
Abstract: Green walls and green dams are increasingly being considered as part of many nation-al and international desertification initiatives. This paper studies the spatiotemporal evolution of the green dam in the Moudjbara region (Djelfa Province, Algeria) from 1972 to 2019 by using Landsat imagery, Land Change Modeler and Open Land package. The future evolution of pine plantations for the year 2029 was also forecasted, based on an anthropogenic scenario (i.e., an-thropogenic pressure is the main driver of the green dam destruction). Our findings revealed that the green dam project was successful for a few years, but after that, pine plantations deteri-orated significantly due to forest harvesting, livestock overgrazing, and the proliferation of the pine caterpillar processionary, which destroyed most of the reforestation. Land Change Modeler predicted a huge degradation of pine plantations for the year 2029, and if the deforestation con-tinues at the same rate, the green dam will disappear in the Moudjbara region during the next few decades. Aware of this threat, the Algerian authorities are now planning to reforest more than 1.2 million ha under the latest rural renewal policy by introducing new principles related to sustainable development, fighting desertification, and climate change adaptation
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0036.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: carbon credits; green polyethylenes; Braskem; I’m green; BRKM5; patents
Online: 1 December 2020 (15:28:11 CET)
Braskem is the only company in the world that produces green polyethylenes (HDPE – high density polyethylene and LLDPE – linear low density polyethylene) derived from the dehydration of sugarcane ethanol. Although the performance of green and fossil nominally same polyethylenes are equivalent, commercial clients may use blends of up to 51% of green polyethylenes and 49% of fossil polyethylenes and still have the right to use the I’m greenTM label which appeals to environmental conscious consumers and places these companies in a noticeable position. The Annual Income Statement - AISs from 2010, when Braskem started production of green PE, until 2018, show there was growth of revenues. Despite of the production of polyethylenes have continued stable and the number of green polyethylenes patents have decreased since 2014, the profits with the BRKM5 stocks increased. There is no transparency of how carbon credits were gained and in the AIS. Investments in securities in the Brazilian financial market (BRKM5 and carbon credits) are much more attractive than the investment in new patents, because they generate greater gains (268% increase in the average share price of BRKM5 from 2012 to 2018) and do not require large investments in R&D.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0263.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: geoparser; geographic information retrieval; event extraction; argument extraction; information extraction; named entity recognition; conditional random function; semantic gazetteer; topic model
Online: 14 August 2020 (04:00:42 CEST)
One of the most important component of a Geographic Information Retrieval (GIR) is the geoparser, which performs toponym recognition, disambiguation, and geographic coordinate resolution from unstructured text domain. However, news articles which report several events across many place references mentioned in the document is not yet adequately modeled by regular geoparser types where the scope of resolution is either on toponym-level or document-level. The capacity to detect multiple events, geolocate its true locations and coordinates along with their numerical arguments are still missing from modern geoparsers, much less in Indonesian news corpora domain. We propose a novel type event geoparser which integrates an ACE-based event extraction model and provides precise event-level scope resolution. The geoparser casts the geotagging and event extraction as sequence labeling and uses Conditional Random Field with keywords feature obtained using Aggregated Topic Model as a semantic exploration from large corpus, which eventually increases the generalizability of the model. The geoparser also use Smallest Administrative Level feature along with Spatial Minimality-derived algorithm to improve the identification of Pseudo-location entities, resulting 19.4% increase for weighted F1 score. As a side effect of event extraction, the geoparser also extracts various numerical arguments and able to generate thematic choropleth map from a single news story.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0193.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: European Green Deal; Recovery Plan; Green Jobs; Skills; Wellbeing Economics.
Online: 7 June 2021 (15:47:01 CEST)
This is a paper of Political Economy and Economic Policies into the European Green Deal framework to improve the Recovery Plan post-COVID-19. This paper is focused on the green jobs opportunity for Europe, especially for Spain. It is offered a systematization of concepts and calculations in the issue (attending the international institutions and forums proposals) to harmonize the recovery plans, to apply them beyond the energy sector and to align public and private sector, as well other key stakeholders in achieving this goal. The obtained outcome gives the creation of around 350.000 new green jobs and the necessity of a new workforce reskilled. This result makes necessary to coordinate sectoral plans by the policymakers in which all the involved entities might express their needs and views on the best education approach to renewables sector and green jobs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0631.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: pressurized liquid extraction; enzyme-assisted extraction; non-extractable polyphenols; proanthocyanidins; sweet cherry pomace
Online: 28 July 2021 (12:23:41 CEST)
Sweet cherry pomace is a by-product that can be a source of bioactive phenolic compounds. Usually, polyphenols have been extracted using conventional extraction methodologies. However, a significant fraction, called non-extractable polyphenols (NEPs), remains retained in the conventional extraction residues. Therefore, this work is aimed, for the first time, to investigate the release of NEPs from cherry pomace combining pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and enzyme-assisted extraction (EAE) using Promod enzyme. A response surface methodology was employed to study the influence of temperature, time, and pH on the NEPs extraction. The response variables were the total phenolic content (TPC) measured by Folin-Ciocalteu method, total proanthocyanidin (PA) content evaluated by vanillin, DMAC, and butanol/HCl assays, and total antioxidant capacity determined by Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity and inhibition of hydroxyl radical assays. The results indicated that PLE-EAE was more suitable and selective to obtain NEPs from sweet cherry pomace than PLE alone. In fact, the extracts obtained by PLE-EAE displayed higher TPC, PA content, and bioactivity than the extracts obtained by PLE under the same extraction conditions, and those obtained by conventional methods. Moreover, size-exclusion chromatography profiles showed that the combination of PLE and EAE enabled the recovery of NEPs with higher molecular weight than PLE without EAE treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0136.v1
Online: 8 September 2021 (08:48:16 CEST)
Onions are an excellent source of a variety of essential antioxidants, polyphenols, and other phytonutrients. These onions were used to enhance the meal's flavour and aroma. Additionally, onions have long been recognised for their ability to change food texture, making it more pleasant for eating. Among the most significant phenolic compounds identified in onions was Quercetin, which has been proven to be very helpful for maintaining good health by reducing the risk of heart disease, cancer, and a number of other severe conditions. Polyphenol extraction is essential for the effective usage and research of these phytochemicals. Previously, the extraction process was complicated by a variety of traditional methods, but with the aid of contemporary technology, the procedure was simplified. Additionally, it was found that red onions had greater health benefits than yellow onions, which were the most commonly used kind at the time. Apart from their health benefits, polyphenols were well recognised for their industrial use in dyeing, polymer manufacturing, and resin synthesis.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0378.v1
Online: 21 August 2018 (13:49:34 CEST)
Aim: In a human pilot case, we used a root formed temporary prosthetical device (Intra-alveolar Device - IAD), to investigate the effect of mechanical stimulation on hard tissue clinically and radiographically. Background: The extraction of a tooth determines the resorption of the alveolar bone. This determines challenge to place an implant and to integrate the prosthesis in soft tissue. Mechanical stimulation is fundamental for bone tropism but is not understood the effect of mechanical stimulation on post-extraction site. Case presentation: A 24 years old woman was enrolled. The IAD’s were used as expected by protocol. Clinical healing was uneventfully. Vertical radiographical bone resorption measured on CBCT was -0,14mm (5,6%) while horizontal bone resorption was -0,21mm (12,36%). Conclusion: This study demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed model. We need clinical prospectical studies enrolling more patients
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0152.v1
Online: 10 February 2022 (12:10:52 CET)
A microwave assisted method for synthesis of 2-substituted benzimidazoles has been developed. The combination of molar ratio N-phenyl-o-phenylenediamine:benzaldehyde (1:1) using microwave irradiation and only 1% mol of Er(OTf)3 provide an efficient, environmental and mild access to a diversity of benzimidazoles under solvent-free conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0298.v1
Online: 13 August 2020 (10:22:24 CEST)
Green development ensures the socioeconomic development that incorporates environmental issues while remaining economically viable for owners and tenants. Government as the authority of the state should provide favorable incentives, policy and regulatory pressure for green development. The present study aims to investigate the government policies and regulations for green development in Bangladesh and make a critical discussion of the initiatives. The study is descriptive in nature and collects secondary information. Evidence suggests that environmental degradation and climate change related risks and vulnerabilities have intensified in Bangladesh. The government of Bangladesh (GOB) is concerned about green development and formulates various Acts, regulations and policy initiatives since 2010. Major green development initiatives observed in the financial institutions due to the mandatory requirements by Bangladesh Bank but green bond and green insurance in capital market are yet to be developed. The GOB required taking proper policy initiatives for the garments and leather industries to ensure pollution free production system which ensures green trade initiatives. The environmental taxes and ecological compensation mechanisms should be revised. Urban green space and Government green procurement are still less concerning matter. The GOB should make effective collaboration with all related stakeholders to ensure the green development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0207.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Green Initiatives; Economic Growth; Social Development; Green Economic Development Plan; Financial Performance
Online: 5 November 2020 (10:25:02 CET)
This study was conducted to propose the Green Economic Development Plan for Manufacturing S.M.E.s based on financial performance and operations thru Green Initiatives. The descriptive survey method used to gather data to determine the green initiative's implementation of small and medium (S.M.E.s) manufacturing enterprises. Green initiatives use as a basis for crafting a green economic development plan. Document analysis was also employed to obtain data from any available printed materials and records provided by the respondents. Such methods of gathering information used to validate data gathered from local and foreign-related literature. The observation also employed to survey the assets owned and validate any green initiatives practiced, including their implementation. The study's findings show that among the green initiatives implemented by SMMEs, which resulted in the reduction of total costs and expenses, were the proper disposal and segregation of waste materials, water management by recycling wastewater and using water-efficient equipment, natural resources, and raw materials management. SMMEs should encourage active participation and support of suppliers and customers in achieving G.E.D.'s objectives by developing incentive schemes.Furthermore, SMMEs should continue to benchmark with G.E.D. Practitioners are operating locally and abroad to adopt best greening strategies and regularly network with concerned government agencies for continuous updating on G.E.D. Initiatives that may benefit the firm. Further research may be conducted on green initiatives implemented by small and medium enterprises in other industry sectors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0130.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: blue-green infrastracture; nature-based solutions; urban green spaces; invasive trees; trampling
Online: 11 August 2019 (11:24:47 CEST)
Public access to high quality green environments has become a key issue for city managers and a matter of environmental justice. Remnants of natural ecosystems allow citizens a direct contact with nature, but conversely the presence of people contributes further to the existing disturbances. Urban pressures on ecosystem remnants may act to favour the expansion of some invasive species in cities. Whilst the negative impacts of invasive species on ecosystem function is well documented little is known how invasive species influence the use of green spaces by people. Here, we examined one of the few remnants of urban riparian forests in Europe, the Vistula river valley in Warsaw which has recently become an attractive recreation site. Despite their high ecological value, the poplar and willow forests have been increasingly taken over by the invasive tree species Acer negundo. We examined the status of the invasion process and the relationship between recreational ecosystem services and the characteristics of the tree stands – tree species, tree density and age and NDVI values. We found the willow forest to be more susceptible to invasion by A. negundo than the poplar forest, which was revealed in significantly higher share of the maple individuals and their greater volume per unit area. Presence of A. negundo affected biodiversity resulting in decreased undergrowth density and number of species. The use intensity by the public, assessed on the basis of trampling intensity and the density of existing informal tracks, were negatively correlated to the presence of A. negundo. This study highlights the need to integrate invasive species management into green infrastructure planning and management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0002.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Green ICT; Sustainability; Green ICT maturity model; Sustainable ICT maturity model; SME;
Online: 1 September 2018 (13:45:28 CEST)
Green ICT has received significant attention in organizations to reduce global warming since last decade. Several maturity models have been proposed for tracking green ICT practices in organizations. Current literature shows that SMEs around the world try to follow some common strategies such as virtualization, consolidation of devices, energy efficiency and disposal of ICT equipment for greening ICT. The increasing interest for green ICT practices in organizations is not only due to the desire to attain environment-friendly atmosphere but mainly because of sustaining business goals such as cost reduction, competitive advantages and stakeholders’ pressure. Nevertheless, due to the lack of green ICT knowledge, organizations, specially SMEs, tend to ignore those practices. Therefore, this research proposes a framework that provides combination of existing green and sustainable ICT maturity models by mapping them with the strategies the businesses are already following. Out of this framework, a web application has been developed that provides questionnaire for SMEs to identify their present situation of green ICT practices and guidelines for improvement. The results have been analyzed by testing the application in some SMEs of Finland and Bangladesh. Finally, a survey has been conducted to attain SMEs’ perception about the possibility of sustainable development of businesses through this application.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0375.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: melanin; extraction; isolation; animal; plant; microbes
Online: 27 May 2022 (09:07:30 CEST)
Melanins are phenolic biopolymers synthesised by most of the living organism mainly for photoprotection or surviving in harsh conditions. Melanin is localised in different areas or complexed with different other biomolecules when observed from animals to microbes. This makes the melanin extraction procedure different in animal, plant and microbial tissues. Basically, the alkali-acid extraction is used in most protocols of which slight variations are there depending on the tissue used. This review will try to compile melanin extraction procedures from different cells and tissues ranging from animals to bacteria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0029.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: multilingual; open information extraction; parallel corpus
Online: 6 May 2019 (06:14:07 CEST)
The number of documents published on the Web other languages than English grows every year. As a consequence, it increases the necessity of extracting useful information from different languages, pointing out the importance of researching Open Information Extraction (OIE) techniques. Different OIE methods have been dealing with features from a unique language. On the other hand, few approaches tackle multilingual aspects. In such approaches, multilingual is only treated as an extraction method, which results in low precision due to the use of general rules. Multilingual methods have been applied to a vast amount of problems in Natural Language Processing achieving satisfactory results and demonstrating that knowledge acquisition for a language can be transferred to other languages to improve the quality of the facts extracted. We state that a multilingual approach can enhance OIE methods, being ideal to evaluate and compare OIE systems, and as a consequence, to applying it to the collected facts. In this work, we discuss how the transfer knowledge between languages can increase the acquisition from multilingual approaches. We provide a roadmap of the Multilingual Open IE area concerning the state of the art studies. Additionally, we evaluate the transfer of knowledge to improve the quality of the facts extracted in each language. Moreover, we discuss the importance of a parallel corpus to evaluate and compare multilingual systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0156.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: Network Embedding; Neural Network; Relation Extraction
Online: 21 December 2017 (16:39:01 CET)
Network Embedding (NE) is an important method to learn the representations of network via a low-dimensional space. Conventional NE models focus on capturing the structure information and semantic information of vertices while neglecting such information for edges. In this work, we propose a novel NE model named BimoNet to capture both the structure and semantic information of edges. BimoNet is composed of two parts, i.e., the bi-mode embedding part and the deep neural network part. For bi-mode embedding part, the first mode named add-mode is used to express the entity-shared features of edges and the second mode named subtract-mode is employed to represent the entity-specific features of edges. These features actually reflect the semantic information. For deep neural network part, we firstly regard the edges in a network as nodes, and the vertices as links, which will not change the overall structure of the whole network. Then we take the nodes' adjacent matrix as the input of the deep neural network as it can obtain similar representations for nodes with similar structure. Afterwards, by jointly optimizing the objective function of these two parts, BimoNet could preserve both the semantic and structure information of edges. In experiments, we evaluate BimoNet on three real-world datasets and task of relation extraction, and BimoNet is demonstrated to outperform state-of-the-art baseline models consistently and significantly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0005.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: cardamom; supercritical CO2 extraction; β-sitosterol
Online: 1 November 2017 (04:54:35 CET)
Cardamom is plant of the Zingiberaceae family. It has been used for the treatment of many diseases such as migraine, bronchitis, stomach and intestinal disorders. Cardamom contains triterpenes, resins, starch and fatty compounds. Phytosterols (stigmasterol, campesterol and β-sitosterol) are a group steroid alcohol in plants. They are used food, medicine and cosmetic industry. They are protective effects against some types of cancer too. Phytosterols are found in the vegetable oil such as the spindle, corn and soybean oil. This paper deals with the maximum oil and β-sitosterol yield were investigated by means of the supercritical CO2 extraction of cardamom. The effect of operating parameters as temperature, pressure and CO2 flow rate were investigated on oil yield. The amount of β-sitosterol was analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) at optimized conditions. The optimized conditions were recorded as temperature of 40oC, pressure of 200 bar and CO2 flow rate of 4 L/min. The maximum oil yield and amount of β-sitosterol were found as 74.83 mg oil/g seed and 4.73 mg β-sitosterol/g seed cardamom under these conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0074.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: solar energy; solar green roof; energy transition; biosolar roof; green roof; air pollution
Online: 7 February 2019 (13:02:10 CET)
Solar green roofs, namely rooftops functionalized with properly selected living vegetation and photovoltaic modules, achieve an ideal symbiotic relationship in which promotion of biodiversity and onsite renewable energy production are both enhanced whereas the roof provides a wide range of environmental, health, aesthetic and economic benefits. This study provides a unified outlook of this eminent sustainable technology at the dawn of its uptake across the world, especially in polluted urban areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0071.v1
Online: 6 January 2022 (10:35:42 CET)
The paper is an investigation on the impact of financial markets on the volatility of green bonds credit risk component, measured by the option-adjusted spread/swap curve (OAS) of the Global Bloomberg Barclays MSCI Green Bond Index, for both the non and pandemic periods. For these purpose, after observing the dynamic joint correlations between all the variables through a DCC-GARCH, we adopt GARCH(1,1) and EGARCH(1,1) models, putting the OAS as dependent variable. Our main results show that the conditional variance parameters are significant and persistent in both times, testifying the overall impact of the other markets on the OAS. In more detail, we highlight that the gamma in the two EGARCH models is positive: so the “green” credit risk volatility is more sensitive to positive shocks than negative ones. With reference to the conditional mean, we note that if during the non pandemic time only the stock market is significant, during the pandemic also conventional bonds and gold are impacting. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study that analyzes the specific credit risk component of green bond yields: we deem our findings useful to observe the change of green bonds creditworthiness in a complex market context.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0201.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: green credit policy; heavily polluted industries; green innovation efficiency; financing cost; R&D investment
Online: 9 August 2021 (15:02:50 CEST)
Green credit policy as an important tool to guide China's sustainable economic development, how to effectively play the function of capital deployment and improve the efficiency of industrial green innovation is an important issue facing the construction of ecological civilization. This paper uses China's Green Credit Guideline introduced in 2012 as a quasi-natural experiment , based on relevant panel data of industries from 2007 to 2018, uses the Super-SBM model including non-expected output to measure the green innovation efficiency of 35 industries in China, and constructs the PSM-DID model to explore how green credit policy impact on the green innovation efficiency of heavily polluted industries, the results show that : green credit policy significantly contributes to green innovation efficiency of heavily polluted industries with a lag. Further study finds that green credit policy pushes heavily polluted industries to improve green innovation efficiency by increasing financing cost and R&D investment; meanwhile, the heterogeneity test shows that the higher the state-owned share of industry, the greater the promoted effect of green credit policy on green innovation efficiency of heavily polluted industries. Finally, in order to accelerate the implementation of green credit policy and promote the green innovation efficiency of heavily polluted industries, relevant countermeasures are proposed from three aspects: banks, enterprises and government.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0384.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Biodegradable plastic; Biodegradation; Characterization; Extraction; Kinetics; Production.
Online: 15 March 2021 (13:12:28 CET)
The present study was aimed to evaluate the suitability of agro-wastes and crude vegetable oils for the cost effective production of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB), to evaluate growth kinetics and PHB production in Alcaligenes faecalis RZS4 and Pseudomonas sp. RZS1 with these carbon substrates and to study the biodegradation of PHB accumulated by these cultures. Alcaligenes faecalis RZS4 and Pseudomonas sp. RZS1 accumulate higher amounts of PHB corn (79.90% of dry cell mass) and rice straw (66.22% of dry cell mass) medium respectively. The kinetic model suggests that the Pseudomonas sp. RZS1 follows the Monod model more closely than A. faecalis RZS4. Both the cultures degrade their own PHB extract under the influence of PHB depolymerase. Corn waste and rice straw appear as the best and cost-effective substrates for the sustainable production of PHB from Alcaligenes faecalis RZS4 and Pseudomonas sp. RZS1. The biopolymer accumulated by these organisms is biodegradable in nature. The agro-wastes and crude vegetable oils are good and low cost sources of nutrients for the growth and production of PHN and other metabolites. Their use would lower the production cost of PHN and the low cost production will reduce the sailing price of PHB based products. This would promote the large scale commercialization and popularization of PHB as ecofriendly bioplastic/biopolymer.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0683.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: DNA extraction; normal; patients; protocol; frozen blood
Online: 28 September 2020 (10:52:59 CEST)
Herein, we describe a highly efficient, non-complicated, and non-organic procedure to overcome the negative effect of chemotherapeutic drugs on the quality of the extracted DNA by applying several modulations in cell washing, suspension, and lysis of cells treated with these drugs. In this protocol, 500µl were extracted from patients who received systemic sessions of chemotherapy. The validity of this protocol for digestion with restriction endonucleases and both conventional and real-time polymerase chain reaction were tested. This protocol proved obvious purity (1.8±0.02 and 2.1±1.2, for A260/280 and A260/230, respectively) and adequate yields (10±2.24) µg/100 ml. The positive results of validation experiments proved the validity of the extracted DNA for downstream applications of molecular biology. In addition to the proven efficiency of this protocol to extract DNA from normal samples, its validity was also confirmed from patients who were exposed to chemotherapy. This entails a novel approach to extract a molecular biology grade DNA without having inhibitors against enzymes used in digestion, amplification, and subsequent sequencing even after the systemic sessions with several doses of chemotherapy.
Online: 28 August 2020 (15:06:48 CEST)
Tooth bud removal called Ibyinyo is the practice of removing the developing tooth buds, usually done on an infant, typically performed by traditional healers who believe that this practice will reduce fever and diarrhea in children. This practice is most prevalent in East-African countries, including Rwanda. These procedures are mostly performed in non-sterile conditions using basic sharp instruments. We will discuss the case of a 10-year-old female patient who was presented at the dental clinic, with two malformed permanent canine teeth. Clinical examination revealed malformed enamel and elongated permanent right maxillary canine tooth left mandibular canine tooth with crown malformation. She was also presented with retained (primary) left maxillary lateral incisor tooth and missing left maxillary canine tooth. In addition, the ectopic eruption of left maxillary central incisor tooth and missing permanent right mandibular canine tooth were noted. All these complications resulted from tooth bud removal that the patient had experienced in her early childhood. Her malformed right maxillary and left lower mandibular canine teeth were reshaped, using composite filling materials, to improve her appearance aesthetically. Ibyinyo is preventable damage, done out of ignorance and superstitious practices that can be stopped by growing social awareness. Therefore, educating parents through community-based campaigns on the detrimental consequences of early childhood tooth bud removal through Ibyinyo practice might be helpful to eradicate this harmful and unnecessary practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0553.v1
Subject: Keywords: bioavailability, heavy metals, BCR extraction, lagoon, sediments
Online: 23 July 2020 (11:47:24 CEST)
Heavy metals have been implicated as Lagoon pollutants from sources such as agriculture, mining and manufacturing industries and waste water treatment works. A study was carried out in the University of Lagos lagoon to investigate the seasonal bioavailability of the heavy metal contaminants Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn. The physical parameters pH, redox potential, temperature, TDS and conductivity were measured on site. Dried sediment samples were extracted using the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential procedure and analysed by ICP-OES. A certified reference material (CRM), BCR 701 (lake sediment) was used for quality assurance with recoveries ranging between 80-120%. Statistical analysis (ANOVA) showed that there was a significant difference between metal distribution in the dry and wet seasons. Cu, Pb and Zn were in the available fractions (carbonate, Fe/Mn oxide and organic). Cu was highest in the Fe/Mn oxide and organic fractions. This indicated that an increase in organic matter and reducing agents will avail the Cu. Zn was distributed in all fractions while Pb was found in the Fe/Mn oxide fraction (3.93- 21.3 %). Results showed that the bioavailability of Cu, Pb and Zn was high. Metal bioavailability by BCR indicates a potential risk of pollution in lagoon sediments as the available metals exceeded the permissible Sediment Quality Assessment Guidelines (SQAG’s) from Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0213.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: chlorogenic acid; extraction; coffee silverskin; analytical method
Online: 18 September 2019 (17:21:05 CEST)
Chlorogenic acid or 5-Caffeoylquinic acid is a polyphenolic component present in coffee and its by-products. Chlorogenic acid has been shown to exert biological properties, particularly in relation to glucose and lipid metabolism, including antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory activities, among others. Due to its importance, it is necessary to evaluate the reliability of the analytical method for its determination in complex matrices such as food. In this work, different methods of chlorogenic acid extraction in coffee Silverskin were studied, as well as its quantification by HPLC. The results showed that the method of extraction with a mixture of methanol:water (3:1 v/v) in an ultrasonic bath, favored the recovery of chlorogenic acid with a recovery of 77.44%. The instrument detection limit for chlorogenic acid was 3.311 µg/mL and the quantification limit was 11.037 µg/mL. For coffee Silverskin, the concentration obtained of chlorogenic acid by the three extraction methods evaluated was in the range of 57 to 224 mg/kg of coffee silverskin (dry basis).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0268.v1
Subject: Keywords: Soybeans, Soxhlet extraction, Oil extract, solvent, Yield
Online: 26 August 2019 (13:54:14 CEST)
This work is aimed at promoting a healthier means of livelihood by investigating insignificant areas of pollution. In this work, soy candles produced from soybeans were proven as healthier alternatives to paraffin candles. Soxhlet extraction method was used with hexane as solvent. The extracted oil were then solidified. The wax was moulded into candle and tests were carried out to prove its claims as a safer alternative to paraffin wax. The results supported this claims that soy candles is more economical and produced lesser soot than the paraffin candles.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0562.v1
Online: 24 October 2018 (09:37:38 CEST)
In recent years, demand for consumption of marine foods, and especially fish, has substantially increased worldwide. The majority of collagen available is sourced from mammalian-derived products. Although fish derived gelatine is a viable alternative to mammalian sourced gelatine, there are some challenges related to the use of fish gelatine including odour, colour, gelling and film forming properties as well as consistency in gelatine amino acid composition. Chemicals used for pre-treatment, as well as extraction conditions such as temperature and time, can influence the length of polypeptide chains that result and the functional properties of the gelatine. Compared to mammalian sources, gelatines derived from fish show notable differences in physical and chemical properties, and great care should be paid to optimization of the production process in order to obtain a product with the best properties for intended applications. The focus of this review is to explore the feasibility of producing gelatine sourced from marine processing by-products using different pre-treatment and extraction strategies with the aim of improving the techno-functional properties of the final product and improving the clean-label status of gelatines. The bioactivities of gelatine hydrolysates are also discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0174.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: gelatine; marine; by-products; fish; industry; extraction
Online: 9 October 2018 (05:54:23 CEST)
In recent years, demand for consumption of marine foods, and especially fish, has substantially increased worldwide. The majority of collagen available is sourced from mammalian-derived products. Although fish derived gelatine is a viable alternative to mammalian sourced gelatine, there are some challenges related to the use of fish gelatine including odour, colour, gelling and film forming properties as well as consistency in gelatine amino acid composition. Chemicals used for pre-treatment, as well as extraction conditions such as temperature and time, can influence the length of polypeptide chains that result and the functional properties of the gelatine. Compared to mammalian sources, gelatines derived from fish show notable differences in physical and chemical properties, and great care should be paid to optimization of the production process in order to obtain a product with the best properties for intended applications. The focus of this review is to explore the feasibility of producing gelatine sourced from marine processing by-products using different pre-treatment and extraction strategies with the aim of improving the techno-functional properties of the final product and improving the clean-label status of gelatines. The bioactivities of gelatine hydrolysates are also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0060.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: neonatal MRI; brain structure segmentation; volume extraction
Online: 10 December 2016 (08:44:55 CET)
1) Introduction: Brain parcellation is an important processing step in the analysis of structural brain MRI. Existing software implementations are optimized for fully developed adult brains, and provide inadequate results when applied to neonatal brain imaging. 2) Methods: We developed a semi-automated pipeline, NeBSS, for extracting 50 discrete brain structures from neonatal brain MRI, using an atlas registration method that leverages the existing ALBERT neonatal atlas 3) Results: We demonstrate a simple linear workflow for neonatal brain parcellation. NeBSS is robust to variation in imaging acquisition protocol and magnet field strength. 4) Conclusion: NeBSS is a robust pipeline capable of parcellating neonatal brain MRIs using a simple processing workflow. NeBSS fills a need in clinical translational research in neonatal imaging, where existing automated or semi-automated implementations are too rigid to be successfully applied to multi-center neuroprotection studies and clinically heterogeneous cohorts. The software is open source and freely available.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0415.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Economics; SFC; Growth imperative; Steady state economy; Money stock; Money supply; Green economy; Green Growth
Online: 2 July 2021 (13:51:03 CEST)
“Money has always been something of an embarrassment to economic theory. Everyone agrees that it is important; indeed, much of macroeconomic policy discussion makes no sense without reference to money. Yet, for the most part theory fails to provide a good account for it.” (Banerjee and Maskin, 1996, p. 955)The debate about whether or not a growth imperative exists in debt based, interest bearing mone- tary systems has not yet been settled. It is the goal of this paper to introduce a new perspective in this discussion.For that purpose an SFC computational model is constructed which simulates a post Keynesian Endogenous Money system without including economic parameters such as production, wages, consumption and savings. A case is made that isolating the monetary system allows for better analysis of the inherent properties of such a system.Loan demands, which are assumed to happen, are the driving force of the model. Simulations can be run in two modes, each based on a different assumption. Either the growth rate of the money stock is assumed to be constant or the loan rate, expressed as a percentage of the money stock, is assumed to be constant.Simulations with varying parameters are run in order to determine the conditions under which the model converges to stability, which is defined as converging to a bounded debt rate.The analysis shows that stability of the model is dependent on net bank profit ratios, expressed relative to their debt assets, remaining below the growth rate of the money stock. Based on these findings it is argued that the question about the existence of a growth imperative in debt based, interest bearing monetary systems needs to be reframed. The question becomes whether a steady state economy can realistically support such a system without destabilising it. In order to answer this question real world behavior of economic actors must be included in the model.It is concluded that there are indications that it might not be feasible for a steady state economy to support a stable debt based, interest bearing monetary system without strong interventions. However, more research is necessary for a definite answer. Real world observable data should be analysed through the lens of the presented model to bring more clarity.
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Green roof; Sheet metal; Thermal insulation
Online: 15 March 2021 (11:28:53 CET)
The purpose of this study was to arrange a green roof on a sheet metal house to achieve winter heat preservation and summer thermal insulation using different plants and soil media, and to maintain the advantage of cost-saving and quick installation of sheet metal houses. In terms of the research method, the roof insulation, heat preservation and plant growth index were tested. Plants were grown in 10 container-type green roofs on the sheet metal house roof, and the physical environment of the building was monitored for one year. Five containers of commercially-available culture soil and five containers of sustainable composite were used as the media for growing five kinds of plants, respectively. The control group only had a sheet metal house roof. There were 11 experimental modules for testing whether the green roofs had thermal insulation, heat preservation and plant growth effects on a general sheet metal house. The results showed that, regarding the thermal insulation benefit assessment, the Sedum acre cv. robustum of green roof Groups B to D caused the temperature to be 38.29°C lower than the surface of the simple sheet metal house roof in August, showing a temperature difference of 54%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0445.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Obesity; Garcinia cambogia; Green Coffee; Pakistan
Online: 21 October 2020 (16:52:38 CEST)
Introduction: Various studies have widely documented how weight (being overweight, underweight or obese) plays a significant role in increasing health problems and adversely affects the quality of life. Out of all the weight-related issues, obesity is the number one contributing factor for causing health problems. To overcome this factor, a trial was conducted where a drug 'Lite plus’ (Garcinia Cambogia and Green Coffee bean) was given to a select number of people for a period of three months. Materials and Methods: 'Lite Plus' is a drug which contains Garcinia cambogia 500 mg + Green Coffee Bean Extract 400 mg, with a recommended dosage of 2 tablets/day with or before meals for 3 months. Most of the patients included in our study were females suffering from obesity-related problems such as PCOs and Infertility. During the trial, all patients were given the recommended dosage of 'Lite plus', while those with diabetes had the dose amended accordingly. Results: As a result of this trial, it was found that the use of 'Lite Plus' was very effective in decreasing weight/BMI with continuous use. After 6 weeks, out of the 250 respondents participating in the trial, 232 got a reduction in their BMI, and after 12 weeks (end of the trial), 29 respondents (11.6%) reached the desired level of BMI. Conclusion: Garcinia cambogia and Green Coffee bean are effective and safe in weight reduction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0171.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: adaptation; climate change; green economy; agriculture
Online: 15 April 2019 (12:30:46 CEST)
An opinion dependent cross sectional survey was conducted among charland peoples of Noakhali, Bangladesh with a view to identify the factors that affect green economy. Nijhumdwip Island and Tamaruddi union are highly affected by cyclone and soil salinity. Unpredictable rainfall is the most acute in Nijhumdwip. Lack of information the main problem in Nijhumdwip Island. Farmers are found less interest in integrated farming and crop diversification. Few farmers from Sonadia Union are involved in homestead gardening. Regression analysis have shown a negative relationship (p<0.001) between education of stockholders and decrease of crop production. On the other hand education level of stockholders is to be found positively (p<0.05) varied with decrease of food insecurity. So it can be said that educated farmers are more adaptive against climate change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0312.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: green business models; decarbonization; SMEs; Size
Online: 23 May 2018 (05:36:46 CEST)
The purpose of this paper is to analyze how Green Business Models (BMs) established by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) can incorporate product and process decarbonization in their components (value proposition, creation and capture) and to what extent this incorporation is affected by SME size. We use a database comprising 1,161 observations of SMEs, 466 in 2014 and 695 in 2016. The results show that SMEs’ value propositions give an intermediate valuation to both legally required and voluntary reduction of environmental impact, irrespective of SME size and the year analyzed. Regarding value creation, SMEs adopt practically no environmental practices, and there are significant differences according to size, with more difficulties than advantages stemming from small size. The study also shows that such environmental practices are not effective in reducing carbon. This diagnosis indicates that SMEs need help from the administration if they are to play a key role in the process of transformation toward a low-carbon economy. Legislative actions involving harsher environmental protection measures might help shape value propositions that place greater importance on reducing environmental impact, whereas training actions on available environmental techniques, promotion of research on how to adapt such techniques to SMEs and the development of specific practices for SMEs might enhance environmental value creation and capture in their BMs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0144.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Green Space; NDVI; Per Capita; Urbanization
Online: 29 December 2016 (16:04:18 CET)
Green spaces take part a vital role in reducing the harmful effects occurred through the process of rapid urbanization. This study focuses on evaluating the change of green space and per capita green space in Colombo District, Sri Lanka in between 2008 and 2015 using Landsat images. The NDVI differencing method and classification method were used to detect the change of land cover. According to the results, a gradual decline of green space from 629.1km2 to 591.16km2 with a rate of 6.03% can be depicted. The change is considerable in Kaduwela, Moratuwa and Maharagama DSDs and quite better in the areas such as Avissawella, Homagama and Padukka. The per capita green space has been decreased from 272.361 m2 to 248.811 m2. Though these rates are very well higher than the UN, EU and WHO standards for the district, Colombo DSD do not comply with UN and EU standards. The case would turn into worst in 2025, as the predictions with current rates. Therefore, the study recommends taking immediate actions to make a greener city. Further, a tax system is proposed to get the attraction of the general public.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0167.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: green hotel; environmental awareness; environmental knowledge
Online: 18 August 2016 (05:12:57 CEST)
There has been a growing awareness of the need to implement environmentally friendly operations in the hotel industry, but most studies focus on guest behaviors. Only a few studies investigate employees’ willingness to comply with hotels’ green practices. This study seeks to further the investigation from the human resource perspective. Using alumni from a tourism and hospitality programs, this study collected 233 responses. The study hypothesizes that the employees’ green ability consisting of environmental awareness, environmental knowledge, and environmental skill creates a positive impact on hotels’ green ability. The results indicate that employees contribute approximately a fifth of hotels’ ability to implement greener practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0243.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Political Economy; Economic Policies; European Green Deal; Recovery Plan; Green Jobs; Wellbeing Economics; Tourism & Hospitality Sector
Online: 12 July 2021 (11:20:01 CEST)
This is a paper on Political Economic and Economic Policies into the European Green Deal framework and the Spanish recovery plan, with special attention to the tourism sector. First, there is a literature review, combining the scientific production with professional and institutional literature, to understand the topic development, from the former restrictive point to the current view at large. Second, it is offered a case study about the green jobs opportunity, according to wellbeing economics, for the Spanish tourism sector renewal. The paper provides valuable information to improve sectorial recovery plan, to coordinate the policymakers and the business managers and entrepreneurs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0066.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: chitin; chitosan; cosmetics; biodegradability; biomaterials; polysaccharides; green technology; marine cosmetic ingredients; marine green source; marine resources
Online: 6 May 2019 (12:37:44 CEST)
Huge amounts of chitin and chitosans can be found in the biosphere as important constituent of the exoskeleton of many organisms, as well as waste by worldwide seafood companies. Nowadays, politicians, environmentalists, and industrialists encouraged the use of these marine polysaccharides as renewable source, particularly when developed by alternative eco-friendly processes, especially in the production of regular cosmetics. The aim of this review is to outline the physicochemical and biological properties and the different bioextraction methods of chitin and chitosans sources, focusing on enzymatic deproteinization, bacteria fermentation, and enzymatic deacetylation methods. Thanks to their biodegradability, non-toxicity, biocompatibility, and bioactivity, the application of these marine polymers is widely used in the contemporary manufacturing of biomedical and pharmaceutical products. In the end, advanced cosmetic products based on chitin and chitosans are presented, analyzing different therapeutic aspects about skin, hair, nail, and oral care. The innovative formulations described can be considered as excellent solutions regarding problems in the various body anatomical sectors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0232.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: green entrepreneurial orientation; supply chain learning; green innovation entrepreneurship; inter-organizational learning; learning capacity; technology innovation
Online: 16 May 2018 (11:09:08 CEST)
As a combination of both concepts of innovation and environmental development, green innovation is of great significance to the sustainable development of the country and industry. Previous literatures have found the separate roles of green entrepreneurial orientation and inter-organizational learning in understanding green innovation issues. However, few studies have done a comprehensive analysis of integrating three streams of research: green entrepreneurial orientation, green innovation and supply chain learning capability. Based on the resource-based view and dynamic capability theory, we examine the direct of green entrepreneurial orientation on green innovation as well as indirect effect through the mediation of supply chain learning capability. Meanwhile, an empirical data set of 228 manufacturing companies in China (Shaanxi, Guangdong, Hebei, Jiangsu, and Shandong) was used to test our hypotheses. Findings from our empirical study suggest that supply chain learning capability partially mediates the positive relationships between green entrepreneurial orientation and its two consequences—green incremental innovation and green radical innovation. In addition, this research implies that when enterprise has a strong green entrepreneurial orientation, the enterprise should make an effort to enhance the level of supply chain learning capability so as to fully develop their green innovation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0199.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: human milk; DNA extraction; PCR; DNA quality, microbiota
Online: 14 October 2022 (03:19:46 CEST)
Recent advances in DNA sequencing technology have shown that the human milk microbiota of healthy women varies substantially. The gDNA extraction method may influence the observed variation, biasing the microbiological reconstruction after all. In this study, a genomic DNA extraction method for DNA isolation from human milk samples was standardized and compared with commercial and standard hose make methods. Spectrophotometric measurements, gel electrophoresis, and PCR amplifications were used as criteria for evaluating the quantity, quality, and functionality of the extracted DNA. Furthermore, the standardized method of extracting gDNA from human milk was evaluated for its ability to isolate functional DNA from gram-positive, and gram-negative bacteria and fungi, to improve the reconstruction of microbiological profiles. The novel DNA extraction method increased the quantity and quality of the gDNA extracted compared with commercial and standard house-make protocols. This method even allowed PCR amplification of the V3-V4 regions of the 16S ribosomal gene in all samples, and the ITS-1 region of the fungal 18S ribosomal gene in 95 % of the samples as well. It is concluded that the proposed method provides better performance for the extraction of gDNA from complex samples such as human milk.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0254.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: multi-target tracking; DeepSORT; feature extraction; target detection
Online: 27 April 2022 (09:01:45 CEST)
Pedestrian multi-target tracking technology plays an important role in artificial intelligence, driverless, virtual reality and other fields. The pedestrian multi-target tracking algorithm DeepSORT based on detection is widely used in industry. It mainly tracks multiple pedestrian targets continuously and keeps their ID unchanged. In order to improve the applicability and tracking accuracy of DeepSORT algorithm, this paper improved the IOU distance measurement in the matching process. At the same time, ResNet50 is used as the feature extraction backbone network, and combined with FPN (Feature Pyramid Network), the appearance features of multi-layer pedestrians are fused to improve the tracking accuracy of DeepSORT algorithm. The proposed algorithm is verified on the public data set MOT-16 and it’s tracking accuracy is enhanced to 4.1%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0236.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Spam Detection; Feature extraction; N-grams; Machine Learning
Online: 14 September 2021 (11:36:36 CEST)
Recently, spam emails have become a significant problem with the expanding usage of the Internet. It is to some extend obvious to filter emails. A spam filter is a system that detects undesired and malicious emails and blocks them from getting into the users' inboxes. Spam filters check emails for something "suspicious" in terms of text, email address, header, attachments, and language. However, we have used different features such as word2vec, word n-grams, character n-grams, and a combination of variable length n-grams for comparative analysis in our proposed approach. Different machine learning models such as support vector machine (SVM), decision tree (DT), logistic regression (LR), and multinomial naïve bayes (MNB) are applied to train the extracted features. We use different evaluation metrics such as precision, recall, f1-score, and accuracy to evaluate the experimental results. Among them, SVM provides 97.6 \% of accuracy, 98.8\% of precision, and 94.9\% of f1-score using a combination of n-gram features.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0386.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: Clove essential oil; biological activity; chemical composition, extraction.
Online: 18 August 2021 (14:19:49 CEST)
Clove (Syzygium aromaticum L. Myrtaceae) is an aromatic plant widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical countries, rich in volatile compounds and antioxidants such as eugenol, β-caryophyllene, and α-humulene. Clove essential oil has received considerable interest due to its wide application in the perfumery, cosmetic, health, medical, flavoring, and food industries. Clove essential oil has relevant biological activities to human health, including antimicrobial, antioxidant, and insecticide. This review describes the effect of the extraction method (hydrodistillation, steam distillation, ultrasound-assisted extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, cold pressing, and supercritical fluid extraction) on the chemical composition of essential oil and its correlation with their biological activities. Likewise, are summarized the main compounds and their reported biological activities. Furthermore, the main applications in clove essential oil in the food industry are presented. Finally, this review presents the new biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anesthetic, antinociceptive and anticancer, which are beneficial for human health. This review aims to compile the effect of different methods of extracting clove essential oil on chemical composition, food applications, as well as a current description of biological activities of interest to human health. Biological activities have increased interest in research into this essential oil and its future applications in the food or pharmaceutical industry.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0398.v1
Online: 17 July 2020 (16:02:28 CEST)
The pandemic respiratory disease COVID-19, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), emerged in Wuhan in December 2019 and then spread throughout the world; Italy was the most affected European country. Despite the close pet-human contact, little is known about the predisposition of pets to SARS-CoV-2. Among these, felines are the most susceptible. In this study, a domestic cat with clear symptoms of pneumonia, confirmed by Rx imaging, was found to be infected by SARS-CoV-2 using quantitative RT–qPCR from a nasal swab. This is the first Italian study reporting on the request of the scientific community to focus attention on the possible role of pets as a SARS-CoV-2 reservoir. An important question remains unanswered: did the cat die from SARS-CoV-2 infection?
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0234.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: cannabis; THC; CBD; microwave assisted extraction; continuous flow
Online: 11 July 2020 (09:04:17 CEST)
Cannabis is a flowering plant that has long been used for medicinal, therapeutic, and recreational purposes. Cannabis contains more than 500 different compounds, including a unique class of terpeno-phenolic compounds known as cannabinoids; Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) are the most prevalent cannabinoids and have been associated with the therapeutic and medicinal properties of the cannabis plant. In this paper, continuous flow microwave assisted extraction (MAE) is presented and compared with other methods for commercial cannabis extraction. The practical issues of each extraction method are discussed. The main advantages of MAE are: continuous-flow method which allows for higher volumes of biomass to be processed in less time than existing extraction methods, improved extraction efficiency leading to increased final product yields, improved extract consistency and quality because the process does not require stopping and restarting material flows, and ease of scale-up to industrial scale without the use of pressurised batch vessels. Moreover, due to the flexibility of changing the operation conditions, MAE eliminates additional steps required in most extraction methods, such as biomass decarboxylation, winterisation, which typically adds at least a half day to the extraction process. Another factor that sets MAE apart is the ability to achieve high extraction efficiency even at the industrial scale. Whereas the typical recovery of active compounds using supercritical CO¬2 remains around 70-80%, via MAE up to 95% of the active compounds from cannabis biomass can be recovered at the industrial scale.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0048.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Pattern Recognition; Feature extraction; SVM; HOG; Zonal density
Online: 5 June 2020 (14:03:45 CEST)
Significant progress has made in pattern recognition technology. However, one obstacle that has not yet overcome is the recognition of words in the Brahmi script, specifically the recognition of characters, compound characters, and word because of complex structure. For this kind of complex pattern recognition problem, it is always difficult to decide which feature extraction and classifier would be the best choice. Moreover, it is also true that different feature extraction and classifiers offer complementary information about the patterns to be classified. Therefore, combining feature extraction and classifiers, in an intelligent way, can be beneficial compared to using any single feature extraction. This study proposed the combination of HOG +zonal density with SVM to recognize the Brahmi words. Keeping these facts in mind, in this paper, information provided by structural and statistical based features are combined using SVM classifier for script recognition (word-level) purpose from the Brahmi words images. Brahmi word dataset contains 6,475 and 536 images of Brahmi words of 170 classes for the training and testing, respectively, and the database is made freely available. The word samples from the mentioned database are classified based on the confidence scores provided by support vector machine (SVM) classifier while HOG and zonal density use to extract the features of Brahmi words. Maximum accuracy suggested by system is 95.17% which is better than previously suggested studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0110.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: partial extraction; mineral phases; uranium; disequilibrium; retardation factor
Online: 10 November 2019 (13:26:04 CET)
A partial extraction procedure was used to study the distribution of uranium in the mineral phases of rocks of an aquifer of sandy-clay deposits of the Vendian in the northwest of Russia. This work is a part of a research project to develop a method for combined radiocarbon and uranium-isotope dating of groundwater. Representative aliquots of each core sample were subjected to five "partial" extractions by treatment with: distilled water, low mineralized fresh natural groundwater, minopolycarboxylic acid chelating agent (0.05M EDTA), 0.5M HCl, 15M HNO3, and a total digestion, with U isotopes reported in this study for each procedure. The following mineral phases of core samples: adsorbed material, carbonate minerals, amorphous iron oxides, aluminosilicates partial digestion and a crystalline iron oxides, aluminosilicates total digestion and a clay/quartz resistate were characterized. Red-colored siltstones depleted in uranium in relatively readily soluble mineral phases. The concentration of adsorbed uranium was established in the amount of 15.8±2.1 - 30.5±3.9 μg/kg. Carbonate minerals contain even less of this element. In iron hydroxides and the most readily soluble aluminosilicates, its concentrations are in the range 168±24 - 212±28 μg/kg. The most insoluble fraction contains 1.65±0.21 - 4.32±0.45 mg/kg of uranium. In green-colored siltstones, the concentration of adsorbed uranium is much higher: 106±14 - 364±43 μg/kg. Carbonate minerals and amorphous iron oxides contain 1.91±0.21 - 2.34±0.26 mg/kg of uranium. In aluminosilicates and a clay/quartz resistate, uranium concentrations are 5.6±0.5 - 16.8±1.4 mg/kg. Elevated values of 234U:238U activity ratio prevail in the adsorbed material and iron hydroxides. In aluminosilicates and clay/quartz resistate, the values decrease. This indicates the replacement of primary sedimentogenic uranium by secondary hydrogenic uranium adsorbed on the surface of minerals and coprecipitated with iron hydroxides. The results obtained made it possible to carry out preliminary quantitative estimates of the retardation factor and recoil loss factor of uranium in the groundwater of siltstones of the studied Vendian aquifer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0050.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Semen Allii Fistulosi; protein; extraction; characterization; antioxidant activity
Online: 4 December 2018 (09:32:34 CET)
Semen Allii Fistulosi is the seed of Allium fistulosum L. of the Liliaceae family. The purpose of this study was to extract, characterize, and evaluate the antioxidant activity in vitro of proteins from Semen Allii Fistulosi (PSAF). Using single factor and orthogonal design, the optimum conditions of extraction were determined to be as follows: extraction time 150 min, pH 8.5, temperature 60℃, and ratio (v/w, mL/g) of extraction solvent to raw material 35. The isoelectric point of the pH was determined to be about 4.4 and 10.2, by measuring the protein content of PSAF solutions at different pH. The amino acid composition of PSAF was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the results suggested that the species of amino acids contained in the PSAF was complete. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS–PAGE) analysis showed the molecular weight was mainly between 40 and 55 kDa, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) characterized prevalent protein absorption peaks. PSAF exhibited potent scavenging activities against DPPH assays, via targeting of hydroxyl and superoxide radicals, while chelating Fe2+ activity, and demonstrating weak reducing power. This work revealed that PSAF possessed potential antioxidant activity in vitro, suggesting potential for use of PSAF as a natural antioxidant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0599.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: 4-Methylacetophenone; Refractory metals; Solvent extraction; Selective recovery
Online: 30 July 2018 (22:03:33 CEST)
A study has been carried out on Ta and Nb recovery by liquid-liquid extraction process using 4-methylacetophenone (4-MAcPh) as organic phase. The 4-MAcPh was compared to methylisobutylketone (MIBK) with respect to extraction efficiencies (kD values) at different concentrations of H2SO4 in the aqueous phase. The results showed a similar extraction of Nb for both solvents. However, for Ta extraction efficiency is increased by a factor of 1.3 for 4-MAcPh. In addition, the MIBK solubilized completely after 6 mol L-1 of H2SO4 against only a loss of 0.14 to 4% for 4-MAcPh between 6 and 9 mol L-1 of H2SO4. The potential of 4-MAcPh has also been studied to selectively recover Ta from a model capacitor waste solution. The results showed a selectivity for Ta in the presence of impurities such as Fe, Ni, Mn. The 4-MAcPh also presents the advantage of having physicochemical properties adapted to its use in liquid-liquid extraction technologies such as mixer-settlers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0439.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: neem leaves; sequential pressurized liquid extraction; antiproliferative activity
Online: 30 May 2018 (07:45:25 CEST)
Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem) extracts have been used in pharmaceutical applications as antitumor agents, due to their terpenes and phenolic compounds. To obtain extracts from neem leaves with potential antiproliferative effect, a sequential process of pressurized liquid extraction was carried out in a fixed bed extractor at 25 ºC and 100 bar, using hexane (SH), ethyl acetate (SEA) and then ethanol (SE) as solvents. An extraction using only ethanol (EE) was also conducted to compare the characteristics of the fractionated extracts. The results obtained by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry suggested the highest concentration of terpenes for SEA extract in comparison to SH, SE and EE extracts. Therefore, antiproliferative activity showed SEA extracts were the most efficient inhibitors to human tumor cells MCF-7, NCI-H460, HeLa, and HepG2 between all other extracts studied. However, hepatocellular normal cells were more resistant to SH, SEA, SE, and EE compared to malignant cells of breast, lung, hepatocellular, and cervical. Neem fractioned extracts obtained in the present study seem to be more selective for malignant cells compared to the normal cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0075.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: BCI; recognition; feature extraction; ACCLN network; RBF network
Online: 19 October 2016 (10:09:19 CEST)
The electroencephalogram (EEG) is a record of brain activity. Brain Computer Interface (BCI) technology formed by the EEG signal has become one of the hotspots at present. How to extract the feature signal of EEG is the most basic research of BCI technology. In this paper, A new method of recognizing fatigue, conscious, concentrated state of human brain is proposed by the combination of discrete wavelet transform and the neural network based on EEG signal. First of all, the law signal is preprocessed by the wavelet denoising method because the law EEG signal contains a large number of high frequency noise, which is decomposed into multi-layer high frequency signal and low frequency signal. thus, δ wave, θ wave, α wave, β wave are obtained by the wavelet transform. And then, frequency band energy of the different wave is regards as the feature signal of EEG. In the experiment, the feature signal is classified by radial basic function (RBF) and annealed chaotic competitive learning network (ACCLN). RBF and ACCLN networks are trained with 500 sets of sample data and are tested by 100 sets of samples in different mental states. The experimental results show that the average accuracy of RBF network under three conditions are 88.75%, 88.25%, 88.5%, respectively, and the correct rate of ACCLN network is 97%, 98%, 98%, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0013.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: green infrastructure; riparian restoration; green corridor; drainageway; urban valley; stormwater management; flooding; arid landscape; sustainability; urban ecosystem
Online: 3 September 2018 (07:57:32 CEST)
This paper describes the feasibility and probable benefits associated with greening the Tahliah Channel, a concrete drainage channel that was originally built to relieve urban flooding in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia. It includes an estimation of irrigation needs for channel greening based on a standardized planting specification. The study also demonstrates alternative strategies for meeting the required irrigation demand, including water harvesting and graywater reuse on a residential scale. The study shows that greening Tahliah Channel is possible relying mainly on graywater reuse from the surrounding buildings. Also, the study shows that rainwater harvesting is not a reliable source for irrigation. Rather, it can cover only part of the irrigation needs (6%) and so can be used as a secondary supporting source. The positive results of this case study will be of interest to those in arid countries who are looking to upgrade and replace traditional, single function drainage infrastructure with more sustainable, green infrastructure systems. More specifically, the objectives of the study are consistent with the goals of the Saudi government’s ongoing initiative that advocates for more resilient and sustainable cities. (Vision 2030 year).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0009.v1
Online: 1 December 2022 (04:00:13 CET)
Glyphosate (GLYP) is a broad-spectrum, non-selective, organic phosphine post emergence herbicide registered for use on many food and non-food field. Herein, we developed a biosensor (Mbs@dsDNA) based on carboxylated modified magnetic beads incubated with NH2-polyA and then hybridized with polyT-glyphosate aptamer and complementary DNA. Afterward, a quantitative detection method based on qPCR was established. When the glyphosate aptamer on Mbs@dsDNA specifically recognized glyphosate, a complementary DNA is released and then enters the qPCR signal amplification process. The linear range of the method was 0.1-5 μg/mL, and the detection limit was set at 0.1 μg/mL. The recoveries in tap water were ranged from 103.4 ~ 104.9%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were < 1%. The aptamer proposed in this study has a good potential for recognizing glyphosate. The detection method combined with qPCR might have a good application prospect in detecting and supervising other pesticide residues.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0400.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Jerusalem artichoke; green mass; tubers; feed value
Online: 24 December 2021 (10:58:03 CET)
Being a valuable source of inulin, fructose and pectin, Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) is one of the most promising bioenergy crops for common usage. Animals have been reported to eat both Jerusalem artichoke green mass and tubers with pleasure. On the one hand, Jerusalem artichoke is cultivated on the area of about 3 thousand hectares in Russia. On the other hand, there are more than 200 crop species. So it is critical to choose a proper variety suitable both for soil and climatic conditions. The purpose of the research is to study Jerusalem artichoke, taking into account varietal characteristics appropriate for forage production. Research objects – varieties of Jerusalem artichoke: early ripening Skorospelka (RF); mid-early Vylgortskiy (RF); mid-season Dieticheskiy (RF), Kaluzhskiy (RF), Korenevskiy (RF), Nadezhda (RF), Nakhodka (RF), Podmoskovniy (RF), Sireniki (RB), Blank Brekos (France), Violet de Rense (France); late ripening Interest (RF), Interest 21 (RF), Novosti VIRa (RF), Tadzhikskiy Krasniy (USSR), Spindle (Germany). The soil for evaluating Jerusalem artichoke varieties was from experimental plot base "Korenevo". It is characterized as sod-slightly podzolic sandy loam. The field trial was established and the records and observations were carried out in accordance with the requirements of the field experiment methodology (1985), and the Program and methodology for evaluating Jerusalem artichoke varieties in test nurseries (2014). The varieties Vylgortskiy, Dieticheskiy, Nadezhda, Nakhodka, Sireniki, Skorospelka, Blank Brekos and Kaluzhskiy were found to reach due height of 155 - 170 cm at the end of the growing season; the varieties Podmoskovniy, Interest reached proper height of 175 - 208 cm; the varieties Interest 21, Tadzhikskiy and Violet de Rense were about 220 - 235 cm in hight; as for the varieties Korenevskiy, Novost VIRa, Spindlу their hight was 270 - 280 cm. According to aggregate amount of feed units per 1 ha, the following varieties have been shown to be the most reasonable for fodder production: Novost VIRa (22,438 fodder units), Nadezhda (19,928 fodder units), Korenevskiy (17,798 fodder units), Shpindle (16,887 fodder units), Dieticheskiy (16,395 fodder units), and Interest (16,116 fodder units). The highest total coefficient of energy efficiency has been found in the following varieties: Novost VIRa – 3.09, Tadzhikskiy – 2.78; Spindle – 2.68; Korenevskiy – 2.43; Interest – 2.10; Skorospelka – 1.98. The results of experimental and theoretical studies obtained were verified on-the-farm conditions based on a seed-speciality farm LLC Kaluga-Agro (the Kaluga region) and demonstrated beneficial effect.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0216.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Organic Chemistry Keywords: antivirals; green chemistry; selectivity; asymmetric synthesis; organocatalysis
Online: 14 October 2021 (11:05:51 CEST)
Viral infections inflict many serious human diseases, being responsible for remarkably high mortality rates. In this sense, both the academy and the pharmaceutical industry are continuously searching for new compounds with antiviral activity, and in addition, face the challenge of developing greener and more efficient methods to synthesize these compounds. This becomes even more important with drugs possessing stereogenic centers as highly enantioselective processes are required. In this minireview, the advances achieved to improve synthetic routes efficiency and sustainability of important commercially antiviral chiral drugs are discussed, highlighting the use of organocatalytic methods.
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: bee pollen; nanofiber; biomaterial; green production; electrospinning
Online: 7 May 2021 (15:37:46 CEST)
Green electrospun materials are gaining popularity in the quest for a more sustainable environment for human life. Bee pollen (BP) is a valuable apitherapeutic product, and has many beneficial features such as, antioxidant and antibacterial properties. Alginate is a natural and low-cost polymer. Both natural materials show good compatibility with human tissues for biomedical applications and have no toxic effect on the environment. In this study, bee pollen-loaded sodium alginate and polyvinyl alcohol (SA/PVA) nanofibrous mats were fabricated by the electrospinning technique. The green electrospun nanofibrous mats were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). According to the findings of the study, the toxin-free electrospinning method is suitable for producing green nanomaterial. Because of the useful properties of the bee pollen and the favorable biocompatibility of the alginate fibers, the bee pollen-loaded SA/PVA electrospun mats have the potential for use in a variety of biomedical applications
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0304.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Cypermethrin; green chemistry; photocatalysis; sunlight; flat plate
Online: 26 July 2019 (17:37:11 CEST)
In this research, the photocatalytic degradation of cypermethrin using Fe-TiO2 nanoparticles supported in a biomaterial was evaluated. The nanoparticles of TiO2 were synthesized by the green chemistry method assisted by ultrasound and doped by chemical impregnation using molar ratios Fe:Ti of 0, 0.05, 0.075 and 0.1, to make efficient use of direct sunlight (λ>310 nm). All nanoparticles were immobilized on the surface of spathe of coconut palm (Cocos nucifera). The degradation was carried out at room temperature and natural pH in a flat plate solar reactor, on which the composite material was subjected. The concentration of cypermethrin was determined after 12000 J/m2 of accumulated radiation from GC-MS and the resulting material was characterized by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image and selected area electron diffraction (SAED), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-Vis spectrophotometry of diffuse reflectance and BET surface area BET surface area. The best results were achieved with the use of Degussa TiO2 P-25, Fe:Ti=0 and Fe:Ti=0.05 in suspension, with percentages of degradation of cypermethrin of 99.84, 99.62, and 100%, respectively. However, the materials supported on the biomaterial of coconut, they allowed to reach degradation percentages higher than 80% with the advantage that it minimizes operating costs, since they are not necessary filtering or centrifuging processes to separate the catalyst.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0282.v1
Online: 16 September 2018 (10:02:14 CEST)
Background. Nanotechnology is promising field for generating new applications. A green synthesis of nanoparticles through biological methods using plant extract have a reliable and ecofriendly approach to improve our global environment. Methods. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using aqueous extract of Anagalis arvensis L and silver nitrate and were physicochemically characterized. Results. The stability of AgNPs toward acidity, alkalinity, salinity and temperature showed that they remained stable at room temperature for more than two months. The SEM and TEM analysis of the AgNPs showed that they have a uniform spherical shape with an average size in the range of 40–78 nm. Further 1-Dibhenyl-2-Picrylhydrazl radical in Anagalis arvensis L.mediated AgNPs showed a maximum activity of 98% at concentration of 200μg/mL. Hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay in Anagalis arvensis L. mediated AgNPs showed a maximum activity of 85% at concentration of 200μg/mL. Reducing power of Anagalis arvensis L.Ag NPs exhibited a higher activity of 330 μg/mL at concentration of 200 μg/mL. These NPs have cytotoxic effects against brine shrimp (Artemia salina) nauplii with a value of 53% LD 178.04μg/mL. Conclusion. The AgNPs synthesized using Anagalis arvensis L. extract demonstrate a broad range of applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0043.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: DPSIR model; green mine; principal component analysis
Online: 8 June 2017 (16:29:56 CEST)
Strategic researches on green mine construction are of great theoretical and practical significance to the sustainable development of China's mining industry as well as the great-leap-forward development strategies of China. Strategies of green mine construction in China are methods summarized to solve all potential problems from mine production to ecological restoration. At present, strategies of green mine construction in China are not fully evaluated and studied yet. Therefore, on the basis of green mine construction related literatures carried out by researchers in China and abroad, this study took the green mine of Yongcheng City in China as the research object to evaluate the current situation of green mine construction in Yongcheng City and put forward corresponding countermeasures. First of all, driving force-pressure-state-impact-response (DPSIR) model was introduced for the construction of evaluation index system; construction principles and selection methods of indexes and the index system based on driving force, pressure, state, impact and response were constructed. Secondly, principal component analysis (PCA) was adopted to calculate and evaluate data of green mine of Yongcheng City in recent years, and construction state of green mine in Yongcheng City was analyzed concretely according to the evaluation results. Empirical results showed that, the evaluation system constructed in this study was feasible, which could be applied to evaluate construction of green mine effectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0224.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Thorium; speciation; toxicity; green algae; Chlorella pyrenoidosa
Online: 31 March 2017 (08:18:20 CEST)
Thorium (Th) is a natural radioactive element present in the environment and has a potential to be used as a nuclear fuel. Relatively little is known about the influence and toxicity of Th in the environment. In the present study, the toxicity of Th to the green algae Chlorella pyrenoidosa (C. Pyrenoidosa) was evaluated by algal growth inhibition, biochemical assays and morphologic observations. In the cultural medium (OECD TG 201), Th(NO3)4 was transformed to amorphous precipitation of Th(OH)4 due to hydrolysis. Th was toxic to C. Pyrenoidosa, with a 96 h half maximum effective concentration (EC50) of 10.4 μM. Scanning electron microscopy shows that Th-containing aggregates were attached onto the surface of the algal cells, and transmission electron microscopy indicates the internalization of nano-sized Th precipitates and ultrastructural alterations of the algal cells. The heteroagglomeration between Th(OH)4 precipitation and alga cells and enhanced oxidative stress might play important roles in the toxicity of Th. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the toxicity of Th to algae with its chemical species in the exposure medium. This finding provides useful information on understanding the fate and toxicity of Th in the aquatic environment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0275.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: biodiversity; human health; green space; urban green space; microbiome; urban microbiome; COVID-19; EcoHealth; planetary health; nature connectedness
Online: 19 October 2022 (09:55:39 CEST)
Mounting evidence supports the connections between exposure to environment types––such as green spaces and biodiversity––and human health. However, the mechanistic links that connect biodiversity (the variety of life) and human health, plus the level of supporting evidence, are less clear. Here, we undertook a scoping review to map the links between biodiversity and human health and summarise the levels of associated evidence using an established weight of evidence framework. Distinct from other reviews, we provide additional context regarding the environment-microbiome-health axis, evaluate the environmental buffering pathway (e.g., biodiversity impacts on air pollution), and draw upon expert opinion to provide case studies on three underrepresented linkages. The case studies include (1) biodiversity and Indigenous Peoples’ health, (2) biodiversity and urban social equity, and (3) biodiversity and COVID-19. We observed a moderate level of evidence to support the environmental microbiota-human health pathway and a moderate-high level of evidence to support broader nature pathways (e.g., green space) to various health outcomes, from stress reduction to enhanced wellbeing and improved social cohesion. However, studies of broader nature pathways did not typically include specific biodiversity metrics, indicating clear research gaps. Further research is required to understand the connections and causative pathways between biodiversity (e.g., using metrics such as taxonomy, diversity/richness, structure, and function) and health outcomes. There are well-established frameworks to assess the effects of broad classifications of nature on human health. These can assist future research in linking biodiversity metrics to human health outcomes. Our case studies on underrepresented linkages highlight the roles of biodiversity and its loss on urban lived experiences, infectious diseases, and Indigenous Peoples’ sovereignty and livelihoods. More research and awareness of these socioecological interconnections are needed.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0560.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: MIGI; microbiome-inspired green infrastructure; microbiome; urban microbiome; nature-based intervention; biodiversity; greenspace; green infrastructure; multispecies urbanism; EcoHealth
Online: 21 April 2021 (09:01:13 CEST)
Background: Microbiome-Inspired Green Infrastructure (MIGI) was recently proposed as an integrative system to promote healthy urban ecosystems, through multidisciplinary design. Specifically, MIGI is defined as nature-centric infrastructure restored and/or designed and managed to enhance health-promoting interactions between humans and environmental microbiomes, whilst sustaining microbially-mediated ecosystem functionality and resilience. MIGI also aims to stimulate a research agenda that focuses on considerations for the importance of urban environmental microbiomes. Objectives: In this paper we provide details of what MIGI entails from a bioscience and biodesign perspective, highlighting the potential dual benefits for human and ecosystem health. We present ‘what is known’ about the relationship between urban microbiomes, green infrastructure and environmental factors that may affect urban ecosystem health (ecosystem functionality and resilience as well as human health). We discuss how to start operationalising the MIGI concept based on current available knowledge, and present a horizon scan of emerging and future considerations in research and practice. We conclude by highlighting challenges to the implementation of MIGI and propose a series of workshops to discuss multi-stakeholder needs and opportunities. Discussion: This article will enable urban landscape managers to incorporate initial considerations for the microbiome in their development projects to promote human and ecosystem health. However, overcoming the challenges to operationalising MIGI will be essential to furthering its practical development. Although the research is in its infancy, there is considerable potential for MIGI to help deliver sustainable urban development driven by considerations for reciprocal relations between humans and the foundations of our ecosystems –– the microorganisms.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0464.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: wheat aleurone; dietary fibre; extraction process; antioxidant; bread; arabinoxylans
Online: 29 September 2022 (09:00:46 CEST)
The wheat aleurone layer is, according to millers, the main bran fraction. It is a source of nutritionally valuable compounds, such as dietary fibres, proteins, minerals and vitamins, that may exhibit health benefits. Despite these advantages, the aleurone layer is scarce on the market, probably due to issues related to its extraction. Many processes exist with some patents, but a choice must be made between the quality and quantity of the resulting product. Nonetheless, its potential has been studied mainly in bread and pasta. While the nutritional benefits of aleurone-rich flour addition to bread agree, opposite results have been obtained concerning its effects on end-product characteristics (namely loaf volume and sensory characteristics), thus ensuing different acceptability responses from consumers. However, the observed negative effects of aleurone-rich flour on bread dough could be reduced by subjecting it to pre- or post-extracting treatments meant to either reduce the particle size of the aleurone’s fibres or to change the conformation of its components.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0183.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: hexane; toxicity; 2,5-hexanedione; food industry; alternative extraction methods
Online: 14 September 2022 (02:36:04 CEST)
Hexane is a solvent used extensively in the food industry for the extraction of various products such as vegetable oils, fats, flavours, fragrances, colour additives or other bioactive ingredients. As it is classified as a "processing aid", it does not have to be declared on the label under current legislation. Therefore, although traces of hexane may be found in final products, especially in processed products, its presence is not known to consumers. However, hexane, and in particular the n-hexane isomer, has been shown to be neurotoxic to humans and has even been listed as a cause of occupational diseases in several European countries since the 1970s. In order to support the European strategy for a toxic-free environment (and toxic-free food), it seemed important to collect scientific information on this substance by reviewing the available literature. This review contains valuable information on the nature and origin of the solvent hexane, its applications in the food industry, its toxicological evaluation and possible alternatives for the extraction of natural products. Numerous publications have investigated the toxicity of hexane, and several studies have demonstrated the presence of its toxic metabolite 2,5-hexanedione (2,5-HD) in the urine of the general, non-occupationally exposed population. Surprisingly, a tolerable daily intake (TDI) has apparently never been established by any food safety authority. Since hexane residues are undoubtedly found in various foods, it seems more than necessary to clearly assess the risks associated with this hidden exposure. A clear indication on food packaging and better information on the toxicity of hexane could encourage industry to switch towards one of the numerous other alternative extraction methods already developed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0067.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Feature extraction; independent component analysis; 3D inversion; physical properties
Online: 3 August 2021 (09:45:30 CEST)
A major problem in the post-inversion geophysical interpretation is the extraction of geological information from inverted physical property models, which do not necessarily represent all underlying geological features. No matter how accurate the inversions are, each inverted physical property model is sensitive to limited aspects of subsurface geology and is insensitive to other geological features that are otherwise detectable with complementary physical property models. Therefore, specific parts of the geological model can be reconstructed from different physical property models. To show how this reconstruction works, we simulated a complex geological system that comprises an original layered earth model that has passed several geological deformations and alteration overprints. Linear combination of complex geological features comprised three physical property distributions: Electrical resistivity, induced polarization chargeability, and magnetic susceptibility models. This study proposes a multivariate feature extraction approach to extract information about the underlying geological features comprising the bulk physical properties. We evaluated our method in numerical simulations and compared three feature extraction algorithms to see the tolerance of each method to the geological artifacts and noises. We show that the fast-independent component analysis (fast-ICA) algorithm by negentropy maximization is a robust method in the geological feature extraction that can handle the added unknown geological noises. The post-inversion physical properties are also used to reconstruct the underlying geological sources. We show that the sharpness of the inverted images is an important constraint on the feature extraction process. Our method successfully separates geological features in multiple 3D physical property models. This methodology is reproducible for any number of lithologies and physical property combinations and can recover the latent geological features, including the background geological patterns from overprints of chemical alteration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0209.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: remote sensing imagery; building extraction; super-resolution; deep learning.
Online: 29 July 2021 (11:08:09 CEST)
Existing methods for building extraction from remotely sensed images strongly rely on aerial or satellite-based images with very high resolution, which are usually limited by spatiotemporally accessibility and cost. In contrast, relatively low-resolution images have better spatial and temporal availability but cannot directly contribute to fine- and/or high-resolution building extraction. In this paper, based on image super-resolution and segmentation techniques, we propose a two-stage framework (SRBuildingSeg) for achieving super-resolution (SR) building extraction using relatively low-resolution remotely sensed images. SRBuildingSeg can fully utilize inherent information from the given low-resolution images to achieve high-resolution building extraction. In contrast to the existing building extraction methods, we first utilize an internal pairs generation module (IPG) to obtain SR training datasets from the given low-resolution images and an edge-aware super-resolution module (EASR) to improve the perceptional features, following the dual-encoder building segmentation module (DES). Both qualitative and quantitative experimental results demonstrate that our proposed approach is capable of achieving high-resolution (e.g. 0.5 m) building extraction results at 2×, 4× and 8× SR. Our approach outperforms 8 other methods with respect to the extraction result of mean Intersection over Union (mIoU) values by a ratio of 9.38%, 8.20% and 7.89% with SR ratio factors of 2, 4, and 8, respectively. The results indicate that the edges and borders reconstructed in super-resolved images serve a pivotal role in subsequent building extraction and reveal the potential of the proposed approach to achieve super-resolution building extraction. Our code is available at https://github.com/xian1234/SRBuildSeg.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0203.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: hexane-isopropanol extraction; omega-3 fish oil; Atlantic salmon
Online: 8 December 2020 (14:55:54 CET)
Atlantic salmon (Salmo Salar) is one of the fish species that rich in omega-3 fatty acids. Consumption of omega-3 fatty acids can lower down the risk of cardiovascular disease and coronary heart disease. The extraction of omega-3 fish oil from Atlantic salmon by using hexane and isopropanol was conducted in this research. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used to study the impact of parameters which were temperature (50-90°C), centrifuge speed (1000-3000rpm) and solvent ratio of hexane to isopropanol (0.5-1.5) to the percentage of oil yield. The results obtained shows that 15.23%± 0.61 of oil yield from Atlantic salmon under an optimum condition of 70°C, 3000 rpm and solvent ratio of hexane to isopropanol of 1.5. The acid value, peroxide value and p-anisidine value of the fish oil obtained were 7.48 mg KOH/g, 1.94 meq/kg and 5.56 respectively which were all within the acceptable limit which stipulated by Global Organization for EPA and DHA (GOED) and Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO). The FTIR analysis proved the presence of alkane and carboxylic acid in the fish oil. Furthermore, GC-MS analysis showed that the fish oil contains higher monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) contents followed by polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and 4.5525% of total omega-3 fatty acids.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0450.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: COVID-19; rRT-PCR; dilution; viral diagnosis; RNA extraction
Online: 16 October 2020 (11:48:36 CEST)
Although rRT-PCR is the gold standard method for SARS-CoV-2 detection, some factors, such as amplification inhibitors presence, lead to false-negative results. Here we describe differences between rRT-PCR results for SARS-CoV-2 infection in normal and diluted samples, simulating the need for dilution due to amplification inhibitors presence. Viral RNA extraction of nasopharyngeal swabs samples from 20 patients previously detected as 'Negative' and 21 patients detected as 'Positive' for SARS-CoV-2 was realized with the EasyExtract DNA-RNA (Interprise®). rRT-PCR was realized with OneStep/COVID-19 (IBMP) kit with normal and diluted (80µl of H₂O RNAse free) samples, totaling 82 tests. The results indicate that there is an average variation (ɑ < 0.05) delaying Cq between the amplification results of internal control (IC), N Gene (NG), and ORF-1ab (OF) of 1.811 Cq, 3.840 Cq, and 3.842 Cq, respectively. The extraction kit does not completely purify the inhibitor compounds, therefore non-amplification by inhibitors may occur. In this study, we obtained a 19.04% false-negative diagnosis after sample dilution, and this process reduces the efficiency of rRT-PCR to 29.80% for detecting SARS-CoV-2. Knowing the rRT-PCR standards of diluted samples can help in the identification of false-negative cases, and consequently avoid a wrong diagnosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0123.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: static features extraction; dynamic environments; 3D reconstruction; monocular SLAM
Online: 12 January 2020 (15:12:52 CET)
Many classic visual monocular SLAM systems have been developed over the past decades, however, most of them will fail when dynamic scenarios dominate. DM-SLAM is proposed for handling dynamic objects in environments based on ORB-SLAM. The article mainly concentrates on two aspects. Firstly, DLRSAC is proposed to extract static features from the dynamic scene based on awareness of nature difference between motion and static, which is integrated into initialization of DM-SLAM. Secondly, we design candidate map points selection mechanism based on neighborhood mutual exclusion to balance the accuracy of tracking camera pose and system robustness in motion scenes. Finally, we conduct experiments in the public dataset and compare DM-SLAM with ORB-SLAM. The experiments verify the superiority of the DM-SLAM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0245.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: feature extraction; corner detection; FAST algorithm; Harris detector; UAV
Online: 25 June 2019 (08:27:29 CEST)
Many corner detector techniques have already been used in extracting information from UAV images to perform various photogrammetric and mapping activities. Among these techniques is the Feature from Accelerated Segment Test (FAST) and the Harris corner detector. It is widely agreed that the evaluation of detectors is of great importance because it evaluates and enhances the accuracy of the detected features. This research evaluates the performance of FAST-9 and FAST-12 as well as the Harris detector in terms of the repeatability rate, completeness, and correctness under different threshold values. Each method is evaluated in terms of its ability for detection UAV objects (crowd and cars features). Then the common detected features between both FAST versions and the Harris detector are extracted. This is to determine which method performs best under different image conditions (e.g., illumination variations, camera position and orientation, and image noise). The results show that the size of the threshold plays a crucial role in determining the number of detected feature points. An increase in the threshold value leads to a decrease in the number of detected points and vice versa. Thus, the correctness decreases whereas the completeness increases as a function of the threshold values. Furthermore, the relationship between the FAST-9 and the Harris detector is slightly better than those between the FAST-12 and the Harris detector. This is because the number of common features between the FAST-9 and the Harris detector are relatively higher than those between the FAST-12 and the Harris detector.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0342.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: cadastral boundaries; automation; feature extraction; object based image analysis
Online: 29 May 2019 (04:37:50 CEST)
The objective to fast-track the mapping and registration of large numbers of unrecorded land rights globally, leads to the experimental application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in the domain of land administration, and specifically the application of automated visual cognition techniques for cadastral mapping tasks. In this research, we applied and compared the ability of rule-based systems within Object Based Image Analysis (OBIA), as opposed to human analysis, to extract visible cadastral boundaries from Very high resolution (VHR) World View-2 image, in both rural and urban settings. From our experiments, machine-based techniques were able to automatically delineate a good proportion of rural parcels with explicit polygons where the correctness of the automatically extracted boundaries was 47.4% against 74.24% for humans and the completeness of 45% for machine, as against 70.4% for humans. On the contrary, in the urban area, automatic results were counterintuitive: even though urban plots and buildings are clearly marked with visible features such as fences, roads and tacitly perceptible to eyes, automation resulted in geometrically and topologically poorly structured data, that could neither be geometrically compared with human digitised, nor actual cadastral data from the field. These results provide an updated snapshot with regards to the performance of contemporary machine-drive feature extraction techniques compared to conventional manual digitising.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0159.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Keywords: Taguchi method; experimental design; optimization; scandium; extraction; sulfuric acid
Online: 15 March 2019 (09:34:01 CET)
Bauxite residue is the voluminous by-product of alumina production after Bayer process. Its high alkalinity causes disposal problems and harmful environmental impacts. However, the residue contains significant amounts of valuable elements such as rare earth elements including scandium. Greek bauxite residue contains a high amount of scandium close to its main resources. Taking into account scandium limited availability coupled with its high demand in modern technology, bauxite residue could be considered as a potential resource for scandium recovery. In this study, the optimization of scandium extraction from bauxite residue with sulfuric acid is investigated using Taguchi methodology. Based on previous studies acid molarity, leaching time, solid/liquid ratio and reaction temperature were selected as control parameters for the selective Sc recovery. Method optimization targeted the highest concentration of scandium combined with the lowest concentration of iron without taking into account applications constraints. The predicted values resulted by Taguchi methodology were affirmed by a confirmation experiment conducted at optimal conditions. Regression analysis provided the respective equations to be applied on several conditions depending on different applications.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0244.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: robotic surgery, da Vinci Xi, rectal cancer, vaginal extraction
Online: 20 December 2018 (09:47:08 CET)
Introduction: Novel robotic surgery systems (da Vinci Xi) are superior to classical open and laparoscopic techniques with its clear and three-dimensional view. We aimed to present the first case low anterior resection of rectal cancer and vaginal specimen extraction with Da Vinci Xi.Case: A 75-year-old female patient with rectum adenocarcinoma was undergone robotic-assisted low anterior resection (LAR) of the rectum, vaginal removal of the specimen, colorectal anastomosis and loop ileostomy. The operation time was 190 minutes. There were no postoperative complications. Pathological tumor stage was stage pT1N0 with negative proximal, distal and radial resection margins. The patient was discharged on the third postoperative day.Conclusion: Robot-assisted LAR, total mesorectal excision, vaginal removal of the specimen, colorectal anastomosis, and loop ileostomy can be performed easily and safely with Da Vinci Xi at early stage rectal cancer. And the vaginal extraction of the specimen avoids us from a traditional abdominal incision.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0189.v1
Online: 17 December 2018 (10:41:28 CET)
Numerous protocols have been published for extracting DNA from phlebotomines. Nevertheless, their small size is generally an issue in terms of yield, efficiency, and purity, for large-scale individual sand fly DNA extractions when using traditional methods. Even though this can be circumvented with commercial kits, these are generally cost-prohibitive for developing countries. We encountered these limitations when analysing parasite infection in Lutzomyia spp. by PCR  and, for this reason, we evaluated various modifications on a previously published protocol ( and Acardi personal communication). The most significant variation was the use of a different lysis buffer  to which added Ca2+ (buffer TESCa), because this ion protects proteinase K against autolysis, increases its thermal stability, and could have a regulatory function for its substrate-binding site . Individual sand fly DNA extraction success was confirmed by amplification reactions using internal control primers that amplify a fragment of the cacophony gene [5,6]. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time a lysis buffer containing Ca2+ has been reported for the extraction of DNA from sand flies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0718.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: event-driven processing; ECG; cardiac diseases; features extraction; classification
Online: 30 October 2018 (09:15:43 CET)
The aim of this paper is to develop an intelligent event-driven Electrocardiogram (ECG) processing module in order to achieve an efficient solution for diagnosis of the cardiac diseases. The suggested method acquires the signal with an event-driven A/D converter (EDADC). The output of EDADC is passed through the activity selection and interpolation blocks. It allows focusing only on the important signal parts and resampling it uniformly. Later on, the signal is de-noised. The autoregressive (AR) method is used to extract the classifiable features of the de-noised signal. Afterwards, the output is classified by employing different robust classification techniques such as support vector machines (SVMs), K- Nearest Neighbor (KNN) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The event-driven feature enables to adapt the system processing load according to the signal temporal variations. This interesting feature of the devised system aptitudes a drastic reduction in its processing activity and therefore in the power consumption as compared to the traditional ones. A comparison of the performance of different classifiers is also made in terms of accuracy. Results show that the proposed system is a potential candidate for an automatic diagnosis of the cardiac diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0013.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General & Theoretical Computer Science Keywords: line extraction; morphological image processing; player tracking; sport videos
Online: 2 June 2017 (06:04:57 CEST)
Sports video analysis is an interesting and emerging field in the domain of computer vision. It has become a very popular subject among scholars all over the world in the last decade due to the need of automated classification of events such as offsides, in/out situations, goals and so on. The most important problem in sports video analysis is detection and tracking of ball and players. Extraction of court lines is also another important problem since it is necessary in the classification of aforementioned events. In this study, considering some of the previous work on the subject, we develop a method for tracking the ball and players in tennis videos where the camera position and orientation is supposed fixed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0165.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: synthetic aperture radar; features extraction; saliency detection; image fusion
Online: 26 April 2017 (06:06:19 CEST)
Saliency detection in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image is a difficult problem. This paper proposed a multitask saliency detection (MSD) model for the saliency detection task of SAR image. Firstly, we extract four features of SAR image as the input of the MSD model, which include the intensity, orientation, uniqueness and global contrast. Then, the saliency map is generated by the multitask sparsity pursuit (MTSP) which integrates the multiple features collaboratively. Subjective and objective evaluation of the MSD model verifies its effectiveness. Based on the saliency maps of the source images, an image fusion method is proposed for the SAR and color optical image fusion. The experimental results of real data show the proposed image fusion method is superior to the presenting methods in terms of several universal quality evaluation indexes, as well as in the visual quality. The salient areas in the SAR image can be highlighted and the spatial and spectral details of color optical image can also be preserved in the fusion result.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0439.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: acetylcholine binding protein; acetylcholinesterase; green pesticide, molecular docking
Online: 26 August 2022 (03:21:21 CEST)
2-Methylquinazolin-4(3H)-one was prepared by reaction of anthranilic acid, acetic anhydride and ammonium acetate. The reaction of 2-methylquinazolin-4(3H)-one with N-aryl-2-chloroacetamides in acetone in the presence of potassium carbonate gave nine N-aryl-2-(2-methyl-4-oxoquinazolin-3(4H)-yl)acetamide compounds. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of their IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and HR-MS spectral data. These synthesized compounds containing the 2-methyl-3,4-dihydroquinazolin-4-one moiety exhibited excellent activity against Aedes aegypti mosquito larvae with LC50 values in the range of 2.085-4.201 μg/mL after 72 h exposure. Interestingly, these compounds did not exhibit toxicity to the non-target organism Diplonychus rusticus. In silico molecular docking revealed acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) to be potential molecular targets. These data indicated the larvicidal potential and environmental friendliness of these N-aryl-2-(2-methyl-4-oxoquinazolin-3(4H)-yl)acetamide derivatives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0088.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: ecological corridors; green infrastructure; protected areas; landscape components
Online: 7 May 2022 (03:21:34 CEST)
An important set of Ecosystem services (ES) provided by Green infrastructures (GI) consists of habitats and species protection and improvement, which coincides with biodiversity conservation and enhancement. From this perspective, one of the most outstanding features of GI is its attitude towards addressing the negative impacts of habitat fragmentation on the supply of ES related to biodiversity by strengthening the effectiveness of connections between protected areas. Building on a methodological approach defined in previous studies by Cannas, published in a set of articles between 2017 and 2018 [1–4], this study identifies ecological corridors (EC) with reference to the spatial layout of a set of protected areas. Moreover, such methodological approach is implemented into the context of the Sardinian region to map EC, which form, together with protected areas, a network representing the spatial framework of a regional GI. Finally, the relation between the EC and the spatial taxonomy of the landscape components featured by environmental relevance (LCFER), identified by the Regional Landscape Plan is analyzed, in order to assess if, and to what extent, the present regional spatial zoning code can be used as a basis to implement regulations aimed at protecting EC.