ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0278.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Humanities Keywords: resettlement; psychological risks; development-induced displacement
Online: 30 January 2018 (06:48:20 CET)
In resettlement planning literature, much has been written on economic, land valuation and compensation, infrastructure and services aspects of the land. Psychological risks and stresses of resettled communities, however, have been under-researched. The current research looks at the psychological risks of resettlers in a Development-Induced Displacement and Resettlement (DIDR) project in Sri Lanka. Focusing on the stages of resettlement planning process discussed by Scudder and Colson four-stage model (1980) and the psychological risks discussed by Cernea’s (1990) impoverishment risks and reconstruction (IRR) model. This study evaluates the significant level of the psychological risks faced by the communities in DIDR projects in Sri Lanka relating to before and after resettlement. Moragahakanda Resettlement Project (MRP) was selected as the case study which is located in Naula DS division of Matale District, Central Province, Sri Lanka. A questionnaire survey, documents and field observations were used to evaluate the current psychological risks. The responses received from multiple choice questions were analyzed by Significant Point (SP) index. The research findings point that there are no conspicuous changes of psychological risks related to before/after resettlement has occurred in re-settlers. The findings highlight that the psychological risk levels in transition stage have remained the same level in the potential development stage. This research provides a systematic guidance enabling the physical planners to prioritize the most significant psychological risks which should be considered in the decision-making process of DIDR projects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0634.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Train-induced vibration; Over-track buildings; Sound comfort; Rail transit development
Online: 8 August 2023 (08:36:08 CEST)
Transit-oriented development (TOD), such as metro depot and over-track building complexes, has expanded rapidly in China. Over-track building construction has the advantage of comprehensive utilization of land resources, ease of commuting to work, and provide funds for subway construction. However, there still has a pending problem, disturbance of railway vibration, for TOD. Excessive noise and vibration seriously affect people’s life. To address this challenge, field measurements are used to obtain the vibration source characteristics and vibration propagation of the ground and the superstructure in this study. And the typical metro depot with over-track building in Wuhan was selected. The effects of vibration on the surrounding ground and adjacent buildings caused by the operation of trains have been measured, and the propagation law of train-induced ground vibration acceleration in the time and frequency domains has been analyzed. The distribution and propagation laws of vibration noise, structural noise and secondary structure noise in sensitive areas such as the throat area, depot area, test section and access section of the over-track buildings and their impact laws on the over-track buildings are obtained. And the effectiveness of the vibration and noise reduction methods used were evaluated. Results show that within 43 m from the train running track, the train running induced vertical vibration acceleration level in the high-rise building peak size of 58.8 dB, the average value of 55.62 dB; vibration frequency components are mainly 40-60 Hz. The findings might provide useful insight for designing vibration mitigation systems in new metro depots with over-track buildings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0345.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: O-GlcNAc; primary cilia; neuronal development; cortical neurons; human induced-pluripotent stem cells
Online: 14 April 2023 (04:03:04 CEST)
The primary cilium plays critical roles in homeostasis and development of neurons. Recent studies demonstrate that cilia length is regulated by the metabolic state of cells, as dictated by processes such as glucose flux and O-GlcNAcylation (OGN). The study of cilia length regulation during neuron development, however, has been an area left largely unexplored. This project aims to elucidate the roles of O-GlcNAc in neuronal development through its regulation of the primary cilium. Here, we present findings suggesting that OGN levels negatively regulate cilia length on differentiated cortical neurons derived from human-induced pluripotent stem cells. In neurons, cilia length increased significantly during neurons maturation (after day 35), while OGN levels began to drop. Long-term perturbation of OGN via drugs, which inhibit or promote its cycling, during neuron development also have varying effects. Diminishing OGN levels increases cilia length until day 25, when neural stem cells expand and undergo early neurogenesis, before causing cell cycle exit defects and multinucleation. Elevating OGN levels induces greater primary cilia assembly but ultimately results in the development of premature neurons, which have higher insulin sensitivity. These results indicate that OGN levels and primary cilia length are jointly critical in proper neuron development and function. Understanding the interplays between these two nutrient sensors, O-GlcNAc and the primary cilium, during neuron development is important in paving connections between dysfunctional nutrient-sensing and early neurological disorders.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0591.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: inflammation; atopy; exercise induced asthma; exercise induced bronchoconstriction; sex differences
Online: 27 August 2020 (05:31:38 CEST)
Exercise induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is a common complication of athletes and individuals who exercise regularly. It is estimated that about 90% of patients with underlying asthma experience EIB. Sex differences in the prevalence of asthma have been widely reported, with higher rates in boys vs. girls before puberty, and higher rates in women than men after puberty. Because atopy has been reported to occur at higher rates in athletes than in non-athletes, in this study we investigated sex differences in EIB and atopy in athletes. A systematic literature review identified 60 studies evaluating EIB and/or atopy in post-pubertal adult athletes (n=7501). Collectively, these studies reported: 1) a 23% prevalence of EIB in athletes; 2) a higher prevalence of atopy in male athletes vs. females; 3) a higher prevalence of atopy in athletes with EIB; and 4) a significantly higher rate of atopic EIB in male vs. female athletes. Our analysis indicates that the physiological changes that occur during exercise may differentially affect male and female athletes, and suggest an interaction between male sex, exercise, and atopic status in the course of EIB. Understanding these sex differences is important to provide personalized management plans to athletes with underlying asthma and/or atopy.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1079.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: waterfall development; agile development; hybrid development; development models
Online: 17 July 2023 (08:38:44 CEST)
Diverse development models, including waterfall development, iterative development, and agile development, have been put forth and implemented across real-world contexts. When engaging in discussions on project management, the examination and exploration of development models assume paramount importance and are integral. This paper embarks upon an investigation and scrutiny of these development models, culminating in the proposition of "Quasi" Development Models: Quasi-Waterfall and Quasi-Agile.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0013.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: radiation-induced; sarcoma; brachytherapy; tongue
Online: 1 March 2022 (09:53:27 CET)
Abstract: High-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (HDR-ISBT) has recently come to be considered one of the most effective treatments for oral cancer. On the other hand, it is important to note that radiation therapy has some side effects. Especially, radiation-induced malignancy is probably the most serious complication affecting long-term survivors. We report a case of a radiation-induced undifferentiated spindle cell sarcoma that developed following HDR-ISBT for tongue squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). A 39-year-old woman with right tongue SCC underwent HDR-ISBT (60 Gy, 10 fractions, 8 days) treatment. Five years and one month later, a tumor had developed at the primary site. Surgery was performed for the tumor, which was histopathologically diagnosed as an undifferentiated spindle cell sarcoma. That was distinct from the squamous cell origin of the primary cancer. According to recently established criteria for radiation-induced malignancy, this case was classified as a radiation-induced sarcoma. A search of the literature revealed no previous report of radiation-induced malignancy following HDR-ISBT for tongue cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0648.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: sustainable development; systemic sustainable transport development; systemic development
Online: 26 September 2020 (16:23:05 CEST)
The concept of sustainability and sustainable development, especially systemic sustainable development, still raises controversy in literature. The article makes an attempt to re-examine these concepts from a systems perspective, seeking foundations and applications in the selected sector. It is becoming increasingly clear that sustainability and sustainable development are aimed at integrated economic, social, cultural, political, and ecological factors [1[, (pp.641-642). This causes that the constructive approach to the issue is required, taking into account all the actors, areas and dimensions involved in the pursuit of systemic sustainable development. As a result, both local and global dimensions and the way they interact must be explored in a multi-faceted manner in order to offer a perspective more useful than other analytical approaches, because the systems view is a way of thinking in terms of connectedness, relationships, and context . The article aims to review selected publications and studies so as to form the general idea of systemic sustainable development and define the systemic development of sustainable transport, including in particular the perspective of the actors of the sector, transport providers (passenger, urban) and transport development program, implemented both by local governments and on the European scale. An attempt was made to identify elements of the systemic sustainable development model, setting it in the reality of the following subcategories: “Society”, “Economy” and “Environment” in sectoral terms. It is supposed that, systemic sustainable development is a conglomerate of public administration entities, companies operating in the sector, individual and corporate customers, acting in certain conditions for economic, social and environmental well-being, and a number of their initiatives of major or minor significance, grouped in six sub-areas, undertaken to achieve systemic value in the examined sector, with a positive or negative business/economic, social and environmental impact.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0311.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: cannabis; Δ⁹-THC; induced psychosis; schizophrenia
Online: 6 October 2023 (11:10:47 CEST)
Psychosis can be defined as a combination of psychopathological symptoms including delusions and/or hallucinations without insight. Psychotic disorders may configure a primary psychiatric illness or represent the result of a functional/structural brain damage induced by substance use, neurological diseases or other medical conditions. They are multifactorial disorders in which genetic, environmental and gene-environment interaction factors contribute to the expressiveness of the symptoms. Among the environmental factors, psychotropic substances represent the most important removable facilitators of psychosis. In our study, we compared the prevalence of substance induced psychosis between a sample of patients affected by cannabis use disorder and a sample of patients affected by cocaine use disorder analyzing retrospectively the data of outpatients with no personal or family history of psychiatric illnesses.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0705.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Drug-induced liver injury; ocrelizumab; hepatotoxicity
Online: 21 April 2023 (09:41:29 CEST)
Drug induced liver injury (DILI) is the most common cause of acute liver failure and 5-10% of patients hospitalized for jaundice are diagnosed with DILI. For a diagnosis of DILI to be made, there should be exclusion of other etiologies of liver injury and the use of a precipitator drug, latency of symptoms, and resolution of liver injury once the offending drug is identified and discontinued. In our case report, we present a patient with idiosyncratic hepatocellular pattern DILI after two doses of ocrelizumab for treatment of multiple sclerosis. Ocrelizumab was given 16 and 27 days prior to the onset of icterus, jaundice, and fatigue, in a patient without the evidence of prior exposure to hepatitis B virus. At presentation labs revealed severe acute hepatocellular liver injury with R factor of 30.42, marked hyperbilirubinemia, and transient hypoalbuminemia. No evidence of latent or active hepatitis B infection was detected. Drug dechallenge led to return of liver chemistries to near-normal levels 31 days after the onset of her symptoms. This case indicates DILI diagnosis associated with the use of ocrelizumab, and warrants careful monitoring of liver functions in patients even in the absence of hepatitis B.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0108.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: contrast induced nephropath; acute myocardial infarction
Online: 21 November 2016 (12:13:30 CET)
Background: The morbidity of myocardial infarction is keeping raise in this decade. Because of high safety and operability , percutaneous coronary intervention(PCI) has been used to conquer this disease for more than 20 years.An important complication of PCI is contrast induced nephropathy(CIN), which raises our attention. Previously, we started a study to explore the correlation between acute kidney injury and myonecrosis after scheduled percutaneous coronary intervention. Our study showed that the rate of CI-AKI in patients with post-procedural myocardial injury and undergoing elective PCI was higher than that in patients free of injury. Methods: In this study,forty male rats were randomly divided into four groups: control group (n=8), CM group (n=12), AMI group (n=8) and AMI+CM group (n=12), then velocity of renal artery blood flow (VRABF), computer tomography (CT), serum creatinine(Scr), reactive oxidative species (ROS), periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and TUNEL were used to estimate the injury of kidney. We analyzed 327 non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome subjects undertaking elective PCI. Serum levels of creatinine (SCr) and the eGFR before coronary angiography, and 24–72 h after contrast administration were recorded to assess the renal function. Results: The data showed that VRABF was lower in AMI+CM group than CM group from 0 minute to 24h and CT number in cortex was higher in AMI+CM group than CM group at 4-hour. As well as the level of Scr in AMI+CM group displayed a significantly increase at 24-hour compared with CM group. The histopathologic scores and percentage of tubular cell apoptosis were higher in AMI+CM group at 24-hour. In 327 patients, we found that CI-AKI occurred more often in subjects with post-procedural myonecrosis (PMN) than in those without PMN (20.8% versus 5.8%, respectively, P=0.001). Conclusion: Compared to the elective patient, the injury of CIN exhibited a higher severity in AMI patient.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Islamic development; economic development; waqf
Online: 7 March 2020 (02:38:25 CET)
Muslim countries witnessed outstanding intellectual and socio-economic prosperity up to the 18th century when they fell into a period of regression following the Ottoman’s global decline. Currently, economically Muslim societies lags behind the modern western world. Scholars hold different views, including the radical notion that Islam is inherently anti-development and thus resists progress. This study discusses the Islamic philosophy and principles of development in the context of institutional economics. The basic principles of Islamic economic development drawn from the Islamic sources and historical experiences will be explored for a better understanding of Muslims’ current condition. This study addresses questions including whether basic religious precepts caused Muslims’ economic underdevelopment, while examining the development process according to Muslim perspectives. The institutions, the organizations, rules, and applications will also be explored in addition to the impact of those institutions on development. The context of development will also be evaluated according to Western value perspective. A model of Islamic economic development will be discussed in addition to the discussions of institutions that contributed to the early development of the Islamic world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1650.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Tension cable-supported power transmission structure; Wind-induced vibration; Nonlinear finite element; Wind-induced fatigue damage
Online: 25 September 2023 (09:32:35 CEST)
The tension cable-supported power transmission structure (TC-PTS) is a new type of power transmission structure suitable for mountainous terrain, which is sensitive to wind load. In this regard, a nonlinear finite element analysis model of wind-induced vibration is proposed for the TC-PTS, and the wind-induced vibration response of the structure is analyzed. Firstly, the tangent stiffness matrix of the three-dimensional truss element for the supporting suspension cable and transmission line, considering the geometric nonlinearity of structures, is derived through the relationship between the element elastic energy and its displacement. Subsequently, the element mass matrix and damping matrix of the supporting suspension cable and transmission line, as well as the element nodal load vector obtained from wind load equivalence are given. Then, based on the nonlinear finite element theory, the nonlinear dynamic equation of wind-induced vibration is established for the TC-PTS and solved by Newmark-β method combined with Newton-Raphson iterative method. Furthermore, the rain-flow counting method and Miner's linear fatigue cumulative damage theory were used for wind induced fatigue damage assessment. Finally, a two-span TC-PTS is selected as an example, and the wind-induced nonlinear vibration and fatigue damage assessment are analyzed through the proposed model. The results show that the proposed model has high computational accuracy and efficiency. With the increase of wind speed and wind direction angle, the maximum lateral displacement and tension of the supporting suspension cable and transmission line increase, and their degree of increase shows a nonlinear trend. In terms of the wind-induced fatigue analysis results of TC-PTS, the fatigue damage at the end of the supporting-conductor suspension cable is greater than the fatigue damage at its midpoint. Compared to the fatigue damage at the midpoint of the conductor, the fatigue damage at the end of the conductor is less affected by wind direction angle, and both are more significantly affected by the wind speed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0179.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Neutrino-Induced Fission; Neutron-Induced Fission; Neutrino-Environments; Neutrino-Zeta; Fission Fragments; Supernova; High Energy Physics
Online: 4 November 2020 (09:21:48 CET)
This paper presents Mathematical Formulation for Neutrino-Fission of a heavy nuclei in Neutrino-environments. It has been proposed that neutrino fission is a dynamic two-process reaction, where more than one neutrino can be captured by target nucleus. A quantity named Neutrino-Zeta with units of eV-1 has been defined to represent Neutrino-environments. Neutrino-zeta with assumed excited energy states for heavy nuclei A∼230-270 is estimated to be 0.0212 MeV-1, with the probability of fission Barrier energy state P(Ex,f)= 0.169064014 with Ex,f =6MeV. P(Ex,f)=0.222664 is highest at zeta=0.1MeV-1 . It has been shown that probabilities of certain excitation energy states and their corresponding decay reactions at those excitation energies can be equal for two neutrino-zetas. Neutron induced fission for different neutrinos hypothesize that probability of symmetric fission channels is higher at low neutrino-zetas, which can be tested experimentally.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0478.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Software Keywords: Software development; SDLC; Secure software development challenges; security development lifecycle
Online: 20 September 2020 (14:48:42 CEST)
The main focus of this paper is to analyze and discuss the secure software development practices currently being adopted in the industry along with their significance, as well as to identify the challenges faced by developers when undertaking measures and techniques in writing secure software. It is a well-known fact that software security has been the top priority of many software companies such as Google and Facebook to thwart attackers and protect user data in this world full of cybercriminals. Understanding how most software companies in the industry operate to ensure security helps developers to identify strengths and weaknesses in their current security frameworks. Hence, by researching into previous literature and papers that are relevant to the topic and by conducting an interview with a professional in the field, this paper provides insights on the most popular secure software development framework and practices in the world as well as problems faced by companies when adopting these practices. Several security practices and activities that are required to create secure software are discovered alongside the problems that arise when companies are trying to apply these practices. This paper also proposes a few solutions that can be used to resolve these problems, which can be easily understood and implemented by software companies to transition into a truly secure software development environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0156.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Atomic And Molecular Physics Keywords: molecular spectroscopy; diatomic spectroscopy; Abel transform; plasma spectroscopy; laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy; laser-induced plasma; plasma dynamics
Online: 11 July 2019 (09:30:23 CEST)
Spatially resolved, line-of-sight measurements of aluminum monoxide emission spectra in laser ablation plasma are used with Abel inversion techniques to extract radial plasma temperatures. Contour mapping of the radially deconvolved signal intensity shows a ring of AlO formation near the plasma boundary with the ambient atmosphere. Simulations of the molecular spectra were coupled with the line profile fitting routines. Temperature results are presented with simultaneous inferences from lateral, asymmetric radial, and symmetric radial AlO spectral intensity profiles. This analysis indicates that we measured shockwave phenomena in the radial profiles, including a temperature drop behind the blast wave created during plasma initiation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0473.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: team development; society development; maturity models
Online: 7 November 2022 (03:45:56 CET)
There are different Maturity, Motivation, and Development models. The models can be applied to the development of organizations, businesses, information technology infrastructure, human resources, and so on. This paper discusses society patterns that can be used in modeling society and team development. The model discussed has many advantages over existing ones. It assumes the Age of Creativity and the Creative Society Pattern as the upmost level of development. The patterns are juxtaposed with the 16 levels Simple Learning Motivation Hierarchy Model that allow modeling of dynamic processes with Expansion and Totality as the upmost levels. This approach eliminates the limitations of existing models and allows detailed modeling and planning. Explanation of the future development of humanity (up to the Age of Creativity) is one of the advantages of the model. The paper contains the description of the main peculiarities of society patterns and creates a basis for practical implementation of the model for society and team development. Organizations and teams can benefit from this model through its implementation in consulting and coaching processes. The model can be used in regional/organizational development and investment planning.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0311.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Parenting; brain; development; fmri; child development
Online: 14 October 2020 (15:22:41 CEST)
Parenting has been robustly associated with offspring psychosocial development, and these effects are likely reflected in brain development. However, the claim that parenting influences offspring brain development in humans, as measured by structural and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), is subject to numerous methodological limitations. To interpret the state of the parenting and brain development literature, we review these limitations. Four limitations are common. First, most literature has been cross-sectional. Where longitudinal, studies rarely included multiple assessments of brain structure or function, precluding measurement of actual brain development. Second, parenting has largely been measured via selfor parent-report, as opposed to observational assessment. Third, there has been a focus on extreme forms of developmental adversity which do not necessarily lie on a continuum with normative parenting. Fourth, although not a limitation per se, studies have generally focused on negative as opposed to positive parenting behaviours. While not all studies are subject to all these limitations, the study of parenting in relation to offspring brain development is in its infancy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0260.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Community Radio; Holistic Development; Integrated Development; Sustainable Development; Community Radio Practices
Online: 10 December 2020 (12:59:05 CET)
Community radios play a paramount role in the development of the community. Community radio stations have been highly engaged in addressing social, economic, cultural, educational, health, environmental, sanitation, and disaster issues effectively and strategically using local languages in context. Community radios are also used to express, and share indigenous views, thoughts, ideas, problems, and perspectives of local people. The purpose of this analysis is to explore the role of community radio for integrated and sustainable development in Ethiopia. It used a systematic narrative review. Nine research works and five assessments report were selected purposively and analyzed in a quantitative approach. Currently, in Ethiopia, there are 50 community radio stations that received broadcast licenses from Ethiopian Broadcast Authority with four types of licensing and broadcasting in 29 local languages. Community radio helps the community to identify their common goals, create holistic plans, monitor the progress of their developmental activities, and guide on sustainable development. It contributes to integrated and sustainable development in a collaborative and creative process that cultivates the social, economic, and political conditions needed for the community to succeed which aimed to improve and sustain the livelihoods of the community. However, the media can’t achieve its target goal to support the development activities and bring holistic development of the community. As a result; this review paper focuses on reviewing how Ethiopians use community radios for holistic development. And it suggested the way how we can use community radios for the prospective holistic development in Ethiopia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0468.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: hydrophobin; elicitor; Trichoderma; induced systemic resistance; tobacco
Online: 9 October 2023 (07:04:00 CEST)
Trichoderma spp. are widely used in plant disease control as biocontrol agents. Inducing plant disease resistance is an important biocontrol mechanism of Trichoderma. It is of great significance to explore the factors involved in the surface recognition and interaction of Trichoderma with plants. Hydrophobin is a small molecular protein rich in cysteine in higher filamentous fungi and has been found to participate in the morphogenesis and interaction of fungi with other organisms. In this study, the type II hydrophobic protein-coding gene Thfb6 from T. harzianum TH33 was cloned and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The purified recombinant protein Thfb6 induced a hypersensitive response in tobacco leaves, a burst of reactive oxygen species, and an accumulation of callose, phenolic substances, and lignin in tobacco, indicating that Thfb6 can induce an early defense reaction in tobacco. Thfb6 also enhanced the systemic resistance of tobacco against tobacco mosaic virus. The rate of lesion number reduction by treatment with Thfb6 could be up to 36.02%. Thfb6 increased the activity of tobacco defense-related enzymes, including phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), polyphenol oxidase, and peroxidase, which were all more than three times the control after 3–5 days post treatment of Thfb6. The transcription of resistance-related genes, including the PAL gene, non-expresser of pathogenesis-related gene1 (NPR1), and basic pathogenesis-related gene 1 (PR1-b), were upregulated after Thfb6 treatment. The relative expression levels of the PAL and NPR1 genes were highest on the third and fourth days after Thfb6 treatment, at 5.5 times and 8.3 times that of the control, respectively. The relative expression level of PR1 on the sixth day after Thfb6 treatment was 5.3 times that of the control. These results indicate that the improvement of defense-related enzyme activity and the induced expression of disease-resistance-related genes were the main mechanisms by which Thfb6 induced systemic resistance in tobacco.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2002.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: fusarium wilt; bacillus; quercetin; antagonism; induced resistance
Online: 28 September 2023 (11:48:48 CEST)
Fusarium wilt diseases severely influence the growth and productivity of numerous crop plants. The consortium of antagonistic rhizospheric Bacillus strains and quercetin were evaluated imperatively as a possible remedy to effectively manage the Fusarium wilt disease of tomato plants. The selection of Bacillus strains was made based on in-vitro antagonistic bioassays against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycoprsici (FOL). Whereas, quercetin was selected after screening a library of phytochemicals during in-silico molecular docking analysis using tomato LysM receptor Kinases “SILKY12” based on its dual role in symbiosis and plant defense responses. After the selection of test materials, pot trials were conducted where tomato plants were provided consortium of Bacillus strains as soil drenching and quercetin as a foliar spray in different concentrations. The combined application of consortium () and quercetin (1.0 mM) reduced the Fusarium wilt disease index up to 69% also resulting in increased plant growth attributes. Likewise, the imperative application of the Bacillus consortium and quercetin (1.0 mM) significantly increased total phenolic contents and activities of the enzymes of the phenylpropanoid pathway. Non-targeted metabolomics analysis was performed to investigate the perturbation in metabolites. FOL pathogen negatively affected a range of metabolites including carbohydrates, amino acids, phenylpropanoids, and organic acids. Thereinto, combined treatment of Bacillus consortium and quercetin (1.0 mM) ameliorated the production of different metabolites in tomato plants. These findings prove the imperative use of Bacillus consortium and quercetin as an effective and sustainable remedy to manage Fusarium wilt disease of tomato plants and to promote the growth of tomato plants under pathogen stress conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2103.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: ESV; estimated; change; induced; loss; western Ethiopia
Online: 29 June 2023 (11:32:49 CEST)
Land use/land cover (LULC) changes have a substantial influence on ecosystem services. The objective of this study is to estimate LULC dynamics induced ecosystem service values (ESV) changes in Western Ethiopia. Data were acquired from Landsat images of the area for four periods (1990-2020), and 221 sample households. The areas of LULC classes and the improved ESV coefficients of Costanza et al (1997) were used estimate ESV changes in 1990-2020. Forest provides diverse provisions, regulatory, supportive and cultural services. Analysis of the Landsat images showed that forest, farmland, settlement, water body and bare-land were the major LULC classes in the study area. While forest ESV had accounted 46.1% (US$ 4.95 million) of the ESV of Wayu-Tuka district in 1990, farmland ESV constituted the largest share (63.3%, US$ 5.21 million) of the ESV of the area after 30 years (2020). The ESV of forest and bare-land showed decreasing trends in three decades (1990-2020) but the farmland service value revealed an increasing trend in the same periods. Forest ecosystem exhibited the largest service value loss (US$ 3.91 million) in 1990-2020; whereas, the service value gain of farmland was only US$ 2.2 million although farmland was responsible for the conversion of the largest area size (9,766.5 ha) from other land covers in 30 years. LULC change induced net ESV loss of the district in three decades (1990-2020) was 23.4% (US$ 2.51 million). Land conversion due to expansion of farmland (by 9,766.5 ha) and settlement (by 4,061.3 ha) was the main cause for the LULC dynamics and the significant ESV loss in 1990-2020. Thus, the government and local people should cooperate so as to curb the steady degradation of forest and its ecosystem services in Wayu-Tuka district, Western Ethiopia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1936.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: Switchable; Tunable; THz; Electromagnetically induced transparency; Absorber
Online: 27 June 2023 (15:44:15 CEST)
A switchable and tunable terahertz (THz) metamaterial based on photosensitive silicon and Vanadium dioxide (VO2) was proposed. By using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, the transmission and reflective properties of the metamaterial were investigated theoretically. The results imply that, the metamaterial can realize a dual electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) or two narrow-band absorption depending on the temperature of the VO2. Additionally, the magnitude of the EIT and two narrow-band absorption can be tuned by varying the conductivity of photosensitive silicon (PSi) via pumping light. Correspondingly, the slow light effect accompanying the EIT can also be adjusted.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0081.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Phytocytokines; Induced resistance; Priming; Plant Immunity; Peptides
Online: 4 January 2023 (12:07:11 CET)
The plant immunity system is more and more revisited and new elements and roles are attributed to participate in the response to biotic stress. New terminology is also applied trying to identify different players in the whole scenario of immunity: Phytocytokines are one of those elements that are gaining more attention due the characteristics of processing and perception, and showing they are part of a big family of compounds that can amplify the immune response. This review aims to highlight the last findings about the role of phytocytokines in the whole immune response on biotic stress, including basal and adaptive immunity, and to expose the complexity in their action in plant perception and signaling events.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0293.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: marine intrusion; induced polarisation; polarizability; decay time
Online: 16 November 2022 (02:34:59 CET)
This study presents the developments regarding the time-domain-induced polarisation method, as a supporting tool for resistivity soundings during investigations of coastal detrital aquifers that are salinised by marine intrusion. The interpretation of resistivity measurements in such aquifers, which have variable hydrochemistry and lithology, involves uncertainties owing to the presence of low-resistivity lithologies, such as clays. To reduce these uncertainties, the use of other geophysical parameters is necessary; hence, this study focuses on induced polarisation, since it can be measured simultaneously with resistivity. In detail, we propose the determination of induced polarisation using 1D techniques, while developing a different algorithm for processing the induced polarisation data. The aim is to extend the results of this phenomenon, using instead of chargeability, the concepts of polarisability and decay time, which are extracted from the decay curve, given that they represent more intrinsic properties of the various analysed subsurface media. We present results obtained by applying this methodology to a Quaternary aquifer of the Costa del Sol in the SE Iberian Peninsula (in the province of Almería) during two different campaigns, one before and one after winter (i.e., in October and February, respectively). The results reveal the position of the saline front during each campaign, while reflecting the seasonal movement of the marine intrusion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0214.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: laser–induced breakdown; ultrasound; spectroscopy; sea water
Online: 11 November 2022 (03:51:15 CET)
This paper develops the study of the effect of powerful ultrasound on the laser breakdown of liquids and a comparative study of the possibilities of acoustic and optical diagnostics of breakdown. The method of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for elemental analysis of liquids, along with high efficiency, continues to be less sensitive compared to traditional chemical methods. The paper develops a method of using additional ultrasound irradiation of the laser breakdown area in order to increase the efficiency of LIBS. Using the developed technique, spectral lines of chemical elements such as potassium, manganese, sodium, calcium, etc. were obtained for the first time depending on the frequency and power of ultrasound. It is shown that a sharp increase in the intensity of spectral lines of elements in water during laser breakdown is observed in the field of high-power ultrasound. It indicates an increase in the sensitivity of the combined method of ultrasonic LIBS. Along with the optical spectrum, the spectral and energy characteristics of acoustic emission were studied. An automated complex for hydrophysical and spectral studies is described, which was tested in the Sea of Japan during the voyage No. 81 of the research vessel RV "Professor Gagarinsky" in August 2022.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0290.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Complex terrain; Terrain-induced turbulence; CFD; LES
Online: 22 May 2018 (06:10:59 CEST)
We have developed an unsteady and non-linear wind synopsis simulator called RIAM-COMPACT (Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, COMputational Prediction of Airflow over Complex Terrain) in order to simulate the airflow on a microscale, i.e., a few tens of km or less. In RIAM-COMPACT, the large-eddy simulation (LES) has been adopted for turbulence modeling. LES is a technique in which the structures of relatively large eddies are directly simulated and smaller eddies are modeled using a sub-grid scale model. In the present study, we have conducted the numerical wind diagnoses for Taikoyama Wind Farm nacelle separation accident in Japan. The simulation results suggest that all six wind turbines at the Taikoyama Wind Farm are subject to significant influence from separated flow (terrain-induced turbulence) which is generated due to the topographic irregularities in the vicinity of the wind turbines. A proposal has been also made on reconstruction of the wind farm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1319.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: attention development; socioeconomic status; bilingualism; cognitive development
Online: 5 June 2023 (08:01:58 CEST)
Abstract: For decades, researchers have suggested the existence of a bilingual cognitive advantage, especially in tasks involving executive functions such as inhibition, shifting, and updating. Recently, an increasing number of studies have questioned whether bilingualism results in change in executive functions, highlighting conflicting data published in the literature. The present study compared the performance of third-, fourth-, and fifth-grade bilingual and monolingual children on attentional and cognitive tasks. Participants were 61 monolingual and 74 bilingual children (M = 114.6 months; SD = 8.48 months) who were tested on two versions of the Attention Network Task (ANT), with and without social stimuli, as well as tests investigating working memory, short-term memory, narrative memory, and receptive vocabulary. Data on families’ socioeconomic status and children’s reasoning abilities were also collected. The results showed that bilingualism and socioeconomic status affected attentional networks in tasks involving social stimuli. In tasks involving non-social stimuli, socioeconomic status only affected the alerting and executive conflict networks. Consistent with the literature, a positive relationship emerged between socioeconomic status and executive control in the context of social stimuli, and a negative relationship emerged between socioeconomic status and the alerting network in the context of non-social stimuli. Interestingly, neither socioeconomic status nor social attentional networks correlated with working memory. Therefore, although more investigations are required, the results suggest that differences in social contexts mainly affect attentional functions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0256.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Education; Mozambique; Quality; Development; Millennium Development Goals.
Online: 18 October 2021 (15:39:48 CEST)
In order to meet the Millennium Development Goals set forth by the United Nations’ Millennium Summit that took place in 2000, in New York, particularly in the area of education, the Mozambican Government decided that, from 2003 onwards, during their primary school formation, students should be passed automatically even if they do not have enough intellectual capacities that justify their progress. In fact, this decision was made during a period when there were many pupils being failed, due to various reasons. After more than 15 years of its implementation, this paper aims to analyzing the results acquired from this decision, from the point of view of the quality of education. This will be done taking into account the prevailing situation of education in Mozambique. Having considered these aspects, the paper will move on to presenting some of the challenges and opportunities that the country should consider in the area of education, as a way to bring about better outcomes and promote development, in the country.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0358.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: Landslide susceptibility; Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS); GIS; earthquake; earthquake-induced landslides; rainfall-induced landslides; El Salvador; Central America
Online: 19 January 2023 (11:54:14 CET)
In January and February 2001, El Salvador was hit by two strong earthquakes that triggered thousands of landslides, causing 1,259 fatalities and extensive damage. The analysis of aerial and SPOT-4 satellite images taken a few days after the events allowed us to map 6,491 coesismic landslides, which occurred in 14 study areas extending for about 400 km2. Four different Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) models were produced by using different covariate sets and landslide inventories, the latter containing the slope failures triggered by an extreme rainfall event of November 2009 and those induced by the earthquakes of 2001. Moreover, two validation scenarios were employed, including the 25% and 95% of the mapped landslides, respectively. The results of our experiment revealed that: (i) MARS algorithm provides reliable predictions of coesismic landslides; (ii) models calibrated with rainfall-induced landslides predict with acceptable accuracy landslides caused by deep earthquakes and distributed over vast areas; (iii) the best accuracy is achieved by models trained with both preparatory and trigger variables; (iv) a small portion of the landslides produced by an earthquake can be used to calibrate MARS predictive models that help to identify slopes where yet unreported landslides may have occurred.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0038.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Positive youth development, youth sport, realist evaluation, life skills, personal development, psychosocial development.
Online: 5 January 2022 (12:39:46 CET)
Sport has the potential to support psychosocial development in young people. However, extant studies have tended to evaluate purpose-built interventions, leaving regular organised sport relatively overlooked. Moreover, previous work has tended to concentrated on a narrow range of outcomes. To address these gaps, we conducted a season-long ethnography of a youth performance sport club based on a novel Realist Evaluation approach . We construed the club as a social intervention within a complex system of agents and structures. In this - Part 1 - account we detail the perceptions of former and current club parents, players and coaches, using them to build a set of programme theories. The resulting network of outcomes (i.e. self, emotional, social, moral and cognitive) and generative mechanisms (i.e., the attention factory, the greenhouse for growth, the personal boost, and the real-life simulator) spanning across multiple contextual layers provides a nuanced understanding of stakeholders’ views and experiences. This textured perspective of the multi-faceted process of development provides new insights for administrators, coaches and parents to maximise the developmental properties of youth sport, and signposts new avenues for research in this area.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1361.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: induced pluripotent stem cells; disease modeling, neurodegenerative diseases
Online: 22 November 2023 (09:39:09 CET)
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) are derived from reprogrammed adult somatic cells. These adult cells are manipulated in vitro to express genes and factors essential for acquiring and maintaining embryonic stem cell (ESC) properties. This technology is widely applied in many fields, and there has been much attention to developing iPSC-based disease models to validate drug discovery platforms and study pathophysiological molecular processes underlying disease onset. Especially in neurological diseases, there is a great need for iPSC-based technological research, as these cells can be obtained from each patient and carry the individual’s bulk of genetic mutations and properties. Moreover, iPSC can differentiate into multiple cell types. These are essential characteristics since the study of neurological diseases is affected by limited access to injured sites, in vitro models composed of various cell types, the complexity of reproducing the brain’s anatomy, ethical issues, and the fact that post-mortem cell culture is challenging. Neurodegenerative diseases enormously impact global health due to their high incidence, symptoms severity, and usually lack of effective therapies. Recently, analyses using disease-specific iPSC-based models confirmed their efficacy for testing multiple drugs. This review summarizes the advances in iPSC technology used in disease modeling and drug testing with a primary focus on neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1048.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: drug induced autoimmune hepatitis; AIH; DILI; acute hepatitis
Online: 15 September 2023 (10:56:37 CEST)
Idiosyncratic drug induced liver injury (DILI) is an unpredictable reaction of exposed individual on a certain drug, and the drug-induced autoimmune hepatitis (DIAIH) presents a DILI phenotype that mimics idiopathic autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) when considering the clinical, biochemical, serological and histological parameters. We present a case of a 48-year-old male that was hospitalized due to severe hepatocellular liver injury two months after the self-treatment with the muscle-building dietary supplement based on arginine-alpha-ketoglutarate, L-citrulline, L tyrosine, creatine malate and beet extract. His immunology panel was positive with increased IgG levels, and the radiologic methods showed no signs of chronic liver disease. He underwent corticosteroid treatment with adequate response. After the therapy withdrawal, a clinical relapse occurred. Seven months after the initial presentation liver MR suggested the initial cirrhotic changes of the right liver lobe. Liver biopsy revealed abundant lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate with piecemeal necrosis and grade 2 fibrosis. He responded well on the corticosteroid treatment again, and was further treated with low dose prednisone without additional relapses. Several years later, further management confirmed presence of liver cirrhosis with no histological or biochemical signs of the disease activity. DIAIH is a DILI phenotype difficult to distinguish from idiopathic AIH despite a wide armamentarium of diagnostic methods. Regular patient monitoring and clinical open-mindedness with the adjustment of therapeutic approaches according to the disease course are more important than strict labelling of the disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0592.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Toxicology Keywords: anti-inflammatory assays; murine model; rodent-induced edema
Online: 8 June 2023 (07:34:51 CEST)
Background: Pteropodine (PT) is a component of some plants with potentially useful pharmaco-logical activities for humans. This compound has biomedical properties related to the modulation of the immune system, nervous system, and inflammatory processes. This study addresses the an-ti-inflammatory and antioxidant capacity of pteropodin in a murine model of arthritis and induced edema of the mouse ear. Methods: To evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity, we used the reversed passive Arthus reaction (RPAR), which includes the rat paw edema test, the rat pleurisy test, and a mouse ear edema model. The antioxidant effect was evaluated by determining the myeloperoxidase enzyme activity. Results: PT showed an anti-inflammatory effect in the different specific and non-specific tests. We found a 52 to 74% of inhibitory effect of PT in the rat paw edema test, 52% of reduction of the pleural exudate volume, and low neutrophil count (28%), when compared to the control group. We also found a 81% of inflammatory inhibition of the ear edema, and a significant myeloperoxidase enzyme inhibition by the three doses of PT. Conclusions: PT exerted a potent an-ti-inflammatory effect in the acute inflammation model in rodents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0291.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Induced resistance; Watermelon; Fusarium; Root-knot nematode; Micronutrients
Online: 16 August 2022 (11:59:40 CEST)
The soil-borne pathogens, particularly Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (FON) and southern root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) are the major threat to watermelon production in the south-eastern United States. The role of soil micronutrients on induced resistance (IR) to plant diseases is well-documented in soil-based mediums. However, soil-based mediums limit the determination of the role(s) of individual micronutrients in IR. In this manuscript, we utilized hydroponics to assess the effect of controlled application of micronutrient, including iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn) on the expression of some IR genes (PR1, PR5, and NPR1 from salicylic acid (SA) pathway, and VSP, PDF, and LOX genes from jasmonic acid (JA) pathway) in watermelon seedlings upon inoculation with either FON or RKN or both. Plants were treated with higher (3X) or lower (0.5X) concentrations of micronutrients in Steiner solution (X= standard dose of micronutrient) for 7 days in a hydroponics system under greenhouse conditions. A subset of micronutrient-treated plants was inoculated (on the 8th day of micronutrient application) with FON and RKN (single and mixed). The expression of the IR genes in treated and control samples were evaluated using qRT-PCR. Although, significant phenotypic differences were not observed with respect to the severity of wilt symptoms or RKN galling with any of the micro-nutrient treatments within the 30 day-experimental-period, differences in the induction of IR genes were observed. However, the level of gene expression varied with sampling period, type and concentration of micro-nutrients ap-plied, and pathogen-inoculation. In the absence of pathogens, no significant changes were observed in the expression level of IR genes on 7th day of micronutrient treatment. However, pathogen inoculation affected the expression levels of the IR genes at 3-day post-inoculation. In FON inoculated plants, PDF was upregulated in high Fe treatment, whereas in RKN inoculated plants, low Mn treatment resulted in up-regulation of VSP. In the case of mixed inoculation with FON and RKN, the plants with low Zn treatment resulted in the upregulation of PR1. These observations suggest that the type and concentration of micronutrients in watermelon may potentially induce systemic resistance against FON and RKN through SA and JA pathways.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0349.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: microRNA; SNP’s; breast cancer; RNA induced silencing complex
Online: 25 October 2021 (12:50:03 CEST)
MiRNAs are 20-22 nucleotide long single-stranded non-coding RNA sequences, which can regulate post transcriptional activity of mRNA by binding with it at 3’UTR region (untranslated region). Thus deregulation of miRNA expression is responsible for dysregulating mRNA function which contributes in developing various diseases as well as cancerous phenotypes. Alteration of single nucleotide in miRNA sequence is one of the reasons behind deregulation of miRNA expression. The most frequent carcinoma in current day is breast cancer which causes a high mortality among women around the world as well as India. Despite of the advancement of diagnostic tools, strategies and treatment, the cases of breast cancer is increasing every year. There are plenty of biomarkers like ER, PR, Her2, Ki-67, etc available which are frequently used in diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. After the discovery of MiRNA in 1993 in Caenorhabiditis elegans, it is attracting all the limelight in diagnosis and treatment of different carcinomas as well as breast cancer. In this review we will discuss on involvement of different types of MiRNAs and miR SNPs in breast cancer occurrence and susceptibility in a detailed manner.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0286.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: heat-induced; wood discoloration; Eucalyptus; lignin; chromophore system.
Online: 16 July 2018 (12:45:03 CEST)
The color changes corresponding to chromophore structures in lignin caused by exposure of Eucalyptus（Eucalyptus grandis and E. urophylla）to heat were investigated. Eucalyptus wood samples were heated in saturated steam atmospheres for 10 h at 110℃, 130℃, and 150℃. The lignin was isolated before and after heat treatment. The physicochemical properties of the lignin and changes in chromophore structures during heat treatment was evaluated through wet chemical analysis, FTIR, UV-Vis, GPC, XPSand 13C-NMR. The color of the wood became darker and redder with the increase in pressure and temperature. Depolymerization and dehydration reactions occurred via demethoxylation with heat treatment in saturated steam at 110℃ or 130℃. Lignin condensed to form insoluble compounds after heat treatment in saturated steam at 150℃. G units increased and S units decreased through demethylation during heat treatment, as revealed by FTIR and 13C-NMR analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0077.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: complex terrain; terrain-induced turbulence, LES, spectral analysis
Online: 4 July 2018 (15:49:06 CEST)
In the present study, field observation wind data from the time of the wind turbine blade damage accident on Shiratakiyama Wind Farm were analyzed in detail. In parallel, high-resolution LES turbulence simulations were performed in order to examine the model’s ability to numerically reproduce terrain-induced turbulence. The comparison of the observed and simulated time series (1 second average values) from a 10 minute period from the time of the accident led to the conclusion that the settings of the horizontal grid resolution and time increment are important to numerically reproduce the terrain-induced turbulence that caused the wind turbine blade damage accident on Shiratakiyama Wind Farm. A spectral analysis of the same set of observed and simulated data revealed that the simulated data reproduced the energy cascade of the actual terrain-induced turbulence well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0362.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: complex terrain; CFD; terrain-induced turbulence; economic effects
Online: 25 May 2018 (11:02:46 CEST)
At the Atsumi Wind Farm in Aichi Prefecture, Japan, damage to wind turbines occurred frequently due to terrain-induced turbulence. In the present study, numerical analyses of terrain-induced turbulence were conducted by reproducing the topography in the vicinity of the wind turbine sites in high resolution and using RIAM-COMPACT natural terrain version, which is based on large eddy simulation (LES). The results of the diagnoses indicated that, in the case of south-easterly wind, terrain-induced turbulence is generated at a small terrain feature located upstream of Wind Turbine (WT) #2, which serves as the origin of the turbulence. At the Atsumi Wind Farm, a combination of the series of wind diagnoses and on-site operation experience led to a decision to adopt an "automatic shutdown program" for WTs #1 and #2. Here, "automatic shutdown program" refers to the automatic suspension of wind turbine operation upon the wind speed and direction meeting the conditions associated with significant effects of terrain-induced turbulence at a wind turbine site. The adoption of the "automatic shutdown program" has successfully resulted in a large reduction in the number of occurrences of wind turbine damage, thus, creating major positive economic effects. 1) a reduction in the repair costs by 9.322 million yen per year per wind turbine, 2) an increase in the availability factor by 8.05%, and 3) an increase in the capacity factor by 1.7%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0026.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: seismic hazard; openquake; GMPE; basin-induced amplification; SPECFEM2D
Online: 4 January 2018 (10:04:35 CET)
We use earthquake ground motion modelling via Ground Motion Prediction Equations (GMPEs) and numerical simulation of seismic waves to consider the effects of site amplification and basin resonance in Jakarta, the capital city of Indonesia. While spectral accelerations at short periods are sensitive to near-surface conditions (i.e., Vs30), our results suggest that, for basins as deep as Jakarta’s, available GMPEs cannot be relied upon to accurately estimate the effect of basin depth on ground motions at long periods (>1 s). Amplitudes at such long periods are influenced by entrapment of seismic waves in the basin, resulting in longer duration of strong ground motion, and interference between incoming and reflected waves as well as focusing at basin edges may amplify seismic waves. In order to simulate such phenomena in detail, a basin model derived from a previous study is used as a computational domain for deterministic earthquake scenario modeling in a 2-dimensional cross-section. A Mw 9.0 megathrust, a Mw 6.5 crustal thrust and a Mw 7.0 instraslab earthquake are chosen as scenario events that pose credible threats to Jakarta, and the interactions with the basin of seismic waves generated by these events were simulated. The highest PGV amplifications are recorded at sites near the middle of the basin and near its southern edge, with maximum amplifications of PGV in the horizontal component of 200% for the crustal, 600% for the megathrust and 335% for the deep intraslab earthquake scenario, respectively. We find that the levels of ground motion response spectral acceleration fall below those of the 2012 Indonesian building Codes's design response spectrum for short periods (< 1 s), but closely approach or may even exceed these levels for longer periods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1876.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Sustainable regional development; EU funds; Development projects; Absorption
Online: 28 June 2023 (04:04:18 CEST)
The research paper comprehensively and consistently addresses all relevant theoretical areas related to the topic and includes an extensive empirical analysis of the absorption of EU funds and their impact on the sustainable development of Croatia, Slovenia, Hungary, and Poland. The analysis aims to investigate the efficiency of the absorption of funds from the EU, the impact of these funds on regional development of countries, as well as the reasons for such impacts. The "Regional Development Model Based on EU Funds" was tested with the aim of applying the model to the Republic of Croatia, countries in the region, and other European countries to achieve a higher level of absorption of financial resources from the available EU funds. Data for the empirical analysis were collected using a highly structured survey questionnaire on a sample of 244 respondents involved in the preparation and implementation of EU-funded projects. The contribution of economic science in theoretical terms arises from the development of scientific knowledge and ideas about the importance of increasing the number of development projects that will increase the absorption of funds from the European Union, thereby increasing economic activities in Croatia and the region. The expected contribution of economic science in the applied sense is based on the formulation of the "Regional Development Model Based on EU Funds," which is based on the application of knowledge, good practices, and stakeholder experiences, considering relevant indicators from available sources. The greatest contribution is demonstrated through testing the "Regional Development Model Based on EU Funds," which is applicable to the Republic of Croatia, countries in the region, and other European countries over a longer period. Finally, research of the impact of EU funds on the regional development of recipient countries is considerably less represented and very modest, only in the "upswing" of systematic scientific research. The research aims to fill the gaps in research and encourage thinking of key stakeholders responsible for regional development, who should eventually realize the importance of defining a regional policy aimed at EU funds as a key to regional development and reducing regional disparities within countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0958.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: rural development; sustainable development; planning; working with people
Online: 12 May 2023 (13:48:27 CEST)
The contribution of academics and researchers to the discussion around sustainable rural development planning and its impact on rural communities has grown exponentially in recent years. Understanding trends in sustainable rural development research requires considering the different factors involved and affecting people from a holistic approach. This review examines, through bibliometric studies, the scientific knowledge generated on sustainable rural development planning in the last 50 years, analyzing 6,895 articles published in journals between 1970 and 2020. The results reveal the existence of three clusters and an important growth is observed to respond to the continuous needs in relation to sustainable rural development. This research shows the evolution of a new approach for the planning of sustainable rural development projects in postmodernity: Working with People (WWP). This WWP model, as a conceptual framework from social learning has been validated as a novel proposal in numerous contexts. The bibliometric analysis shows an evolution "From Putting the Last first" to "Working with People in Rural Development" research and the contributions of influential teachers such as Chambers and Cernea. These bibliometric analyses demonstrate the correct approach of WWP model, and open new fields of research in the planning of sustainable rural development projects.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0210.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Obesity; gut microbiota; placenta; brain development; fatal development
Online: 14 October 2022 (10:15:21 CEST)
Obesity in pregnancy induces metabolic syndrome, low-grade inflammation, altered endocrine factors, placental function, and the maternal gut microbiome. All these factors impact fetal growth and development, including brain development. The lipid metabolic transporters of the maternal-fetal-placental unit are dysregulated in obesity. Consequently, the transport of essential long-chain PUFAs for fetal brain development is disturbed. The mother’s gut microbiota is vital in maintaining postnatal energy homeostasis and maternal-fetal immune competence. Obesity during pregnancy changes the gut microbiota, affecting fetal brain development. Obesity and a high-fat diet in pregnancy can induce placental and intrauterine inflammation and thus influence the neurodevelopmental outcomes of the offspring. Several epidemiological studies observed an association between maternal obesity and adverse neurodevelopment. This review discusses the effects of maternal obesity and gut microbiota on fetal neurodevelopment outcomes. In addition, the possible mechanisms of the impacts of obesity and gut microbiota on fetal brain development are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0204.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Metals, Alloys And Metallurgy Keywords: metastable Ti alloy; high temperature deformation; stress-induced ω; stress-induced α˝ martensite; transmission electron microscopy; slip; X-ray diffraction.
Online: 22 January 2018 (17:17:03 CET)
A metastable β-Ti alloy, Ti–10V–3Fe–3Al (wt.%), was subjected to thermos-mechanical processing including the compression test at 725°C, which is below the β transus temperature (780°C), and at strain rate of 10-3s-1. The presence of phases was determined using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Although the dynamic recovery took place together with slip, both deformation-induced α˝ martensite and ω were detected as other operating mechanisms for the first time in metastable-β Ti alloys deformed in α+β region. The volume fraction of stress-induced α˝ was higher than that of the same alloy deformed at room temperature due to higher strain applied. Stress-induced twinning was not operational, which could be related to the priority of slip mechanism at high temperature resulted from thermally-assisted nucleation and lateral migration of kink-pairs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0216.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Nuclear; nuclear energy; nuclear reactors; nuclear waste management; iMAGINE; strategic development; vision development; mission development
Online: 13 February 2023 (11:26:53 CET)
Nuclear technologies have the potential to play a major role in the transition to a global net-zero society. Their primary advantage is the capability to deliver controllable 24/7 energy on demand. However, as a prerequisite for successful worldwide application, significant innovation will be required to create the nuclear systems of the 21st century, the need of the hour. The pros and cons of nuclear are discussed and analysed at different levels – the societal and public recognition as well as the scientific/engineering and economic level – to assure a demand driven development. Based on the analysis of the different challenges a vision for the nuclear system of the 21st century is synthesised consisting of three pillars – unlimited nuclear energy, zero waste nuclear, and accident free nuclear. These three combined visions are then transformed into dedicated and verifiable missions which are discussed in detail regarding challenges and opportunities. In the following a stepwise approach for the development of such a highly innovative nuclear system is described. Essential steps to assure active risk reduction and the delivery of quick progress are derived as answer to the critique on the currently observed extensive construction time and cost overruns on new nuclear plants. The 4-step process consisting of basic studies, experimental zero power reactor, small scale demonstrator, and industrial demonstrator is described. The 4 steps including sub-steps deliver the pathway to a successful implementation of such a ground breaking new nuclear system. The potential sub-steps are discussed with the view not only onto the scientific development challenges, but also as an approach to reduce the regulatory challenges of a novel nuclear technology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0033.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Atomic And Molecular Physics Keywords: laser-induced plasma; atomic spectroscopy; laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy; 29 atomic spectroscopy; principal component analysis; partial least-square regression; gypsum; Mars
Online: 2 July 2019 (08:03:52 CEST)
The first detection of gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O) by the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity in the Gale Crater, Mars created a profound impact on planetary science and exploration. The unique capability of plasma spectroscopy involving in situ elemental analysis in extraterrestrial environments, suggesting the presence of water in the red planet based on phase characterization and providing a clue to Martian paleoclimate. The key to gypsum as an ideal paleoclimate proxy lies in its textural variants, and in this study terrestrial gypsum samples from varied locations and textural types have been analyzed by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) technique. Petrographic, sub-microscopic and powder X-ray diffraction characterizations confirm the presence of gypsum (hydrated calcium sulphate; CaSO4.2H2O), bassanite (semi-hydrated calcium sulphate; CaSO4.1/2H2O) and anhydrite (anhydrous calcium sulphate; CaSO4) along with accessory phases (quartz and jarosite). The principal component analysis of LIBS spectra from texturally varied gypsums can be differentiated from one another because of the chemical variability in their elemental concentrations. The concentration of gypsum is determined from the partial least-square regressions model. Rapid characterization of gypsum samples with LIBS is expected to work well in extraterrestrial environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0260.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: sustainable development; SMEs; competitiveness, enterprises development; innovation; emerging economy
Online: 30 March 2018 (06:29:48 CEST)
Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are the biggest group of enterprises in the European Union (EU); they are also characteristic for emerging economies. Given this situation, there is a need to provide instruments such as processes, which allows them to realize a model of sustainable development. The ability to classify processes and occurrences happening inside these processes often affects the condition of the enterprises. The implementation of innovations, as identified process, enables the directions of SME development towards sustainable development. The purpose of this article is to find out if the identification of processes such as innovations, have any influence on the competitiveness and sustainable development of SMEs. This study was based on pilot research, which examined small and medium enterprises at the regional level, at the example of Polish emerging economy region. It was researched under the angle of the identification of processes and changes happening inside enterprises in terms of understanding the sustainable development concept. Research composition allows to present an understanding by the SMEs of the problems analyzed. The novelty was in the new questionnaire, the definition of sustainable development, and matching those processes identified by the enterprises analyzed with the particular sustainable development dimensions suggested by the authors. In light of the analysis of the literature and the results of this research the important contributions of this study are as follows. This approach pointed the understanding and practical meaning of the identification of processes to be understood. The most important finding was that there is a need to make entrepreneurs aware of the fact that innovations are also processes in themselves, which often constitutes the sum of other supporting processes occurring in the enterprise. Support in the form of knowledge transfer from experts to SMEs would also be recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1587.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: lichen; UV-induced melanization; melanin; topography; hydrolytic enzymes; microscopy
Online: 22 June 2023 (10:14:23 CEST)
Lichens are unique extremophilic organisms due to their phenomenal resistance to adverse environmental factors, including ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Melanization plays a special role in the protection of lichens from UV-B stress. In present study, we analyzed the binding of melanins with the components of cell walls of mycobiont of upper cortex in the melanized lichen thalli Lobaria pulmonaria. Using scanning electron and atomic force microscopy, the morphological and nanomechanical characteristics of melanized layer of mycobiont cells were visualized. Melanization of lichen thalli led to the smoothing the surface relief and thickening mycobiont cell walls and resulted in the increase of deformation values and reduction of adhesion properties of lichen thallus. Treatment of thalli with hydrolytic enzymes, especially chitinase and lichenase, enhanced the yield of melanin from melanized thalli and release of carbohydrates, while treatment with pectinase increased the release of carbohydrates and phenols. Our results suggest that melanin by firmly binding with hyphal cell wall carbohydrates, particularly chitin and 1,4-β-glucans, can form associations, strengthen the melanized upper cortex of lichen thalli, and thereby can contribute to lichen survival under UV stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0392.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: Laser induced forward transfer; high entropy alloys; micro-particles
Online: 26 September 2022 (10:32:29 CEST)
Controlled deposition of CoCrFeNiMo0.2 high entropy alloy (HEA) micro-particles was achieved using laser induced forward transfer (LIFT). Ultra-short laser pulses, 230 fs of 515 nm wavelength, were tightly focused into ∼ 2.4 μm focal spots on the ∼50 nm thick plasma-sputtered films of CoCrFeNiMo0.2. The HTA films were transferred onto glass substrates by magnetron sputtering in vacuum (10−8 atm) from the thermal spray coated substrates. The absorption coefficient of CoCrFeNiMo0.2 α ≈ 6 × 105 cm−1 was determined at 600 nm wavelength. The real and imaginary parts of refractive index (n + iκ) of HEA were determined from reflectance and transmittance using nano-films.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0209.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: defect-induced superconductivity; graphite; stacking faults; magnetic force microscopy
Online: 22 April 2022 (03:43:45 CEST)
Granular superconductivity at high temperatures in graphite can emerge at certain two-dimensional (2D) stacking faults (SFs) between regions with twisted (around the c-axis) or untwisted crystalline regions with Bernal (ABA...) and/or rhombohedral (ABCABCA...) stacking order. One way to observe experimentally such 2D superconductivity is to measure the frozen magnetic flux produced by a permanent current loop that remains after removing an external magnetic field applied normal to the SFs. Magnetic force microscopy was used to localize and characterize such a permanent current path found in one natural graphite sample out of ∼50 measured graphite samples of different origins. The position of the current path drifts with time and roughly follows a logarithmic time dependence similar to the one for flux creep in type II superconductors. We demonstrate that a ≃10nm deep scratch on the sample surface at the position of the current path causes a change in its location. A further scratch was enough to irreversibly destroy the remanent state of the sample at room temperature. Our studies clarify some of the reasons for the difficulties of finding a trapped flux in remanent state at room temperature in graphite samples with SFs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0056.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: Aggregation-induced emission; quinones; fluorescence; TD-DFT; quantum yield
Online: 5 July 2020 (08:38:20 CEST)
Since the discovery of the aggregation-induced emission effect in 2001, diaminodicyanoquinone derivatives (DADQs) have presented interesting fluorescence properties, allowing them to be considered fluorescent dyes capable of showing quantum yields above 90%. Besides, the diaminodiacyanoquinone core represents a versatile building block propense either to modification or integration into different systems to obtain and provide them unique photophysical features. Herein, we carried out a theoretical study on the fluorescence properties of three different diaminodicyanoquinodimethane systems. Therefore, time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) was used to obtain the values associated with the dipole moments, oscillator strengths, and the conformational energies between the ground and the first excited states of each molecule. The results suggest that only two of the three studied systems possess significant luminescent properties. In a further stage, the theoretical insights were confirmed by means of experimental measurements, which not only retrieved the luminescence of the DADQs, but also suggest a preliminary and promising antibacterial activity of these systems.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0357.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: NLRP3; inflammation; preeclampsia; pregnancy induced hypertension; HELLP syndrome; immunothrombosis
Online: 23 May 2020 (05:15:54 CEST)
Pregnancy-induced hypertension and preeclampsia are associated with significant maternal and fetal mortality. A better understanding of those diseases, delineation of molecular pathomechanism, and efficient treatment development are some of the most urgent tasks in obstetrics and gynecology. Recent findings indicate a crucial role of inflammation in the development of hypertension and preeclampsia. Although the mechanism is very complex and needs further explanation, it appears that high levels of cholesterol, urate, and glucose activates NLRP3 inflammasome, which produces IL-1β, IL-18 and gasdermin D. Production of these proinflammatory chemokines is a beginning of local and general inflammation, what results in sympathetic outflow, angiotensin II production, proteinuria, hemolysis, liver damage, immunothrombosis, and coagulopathy. NLRP3 inflammasome is a critical complex in the mediation of inflammatory response, which makes it crucial for the development of pregnancy-induced hypertension and preeclampsia, as well as its complications, such as placental abruption and HELLP syndrome. Herein presented the article delineate molecular mechanisms of those processes, indicating directions of future advance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0754.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: forest pest; control effeciency; pest-induced losses; spatially differentiated
Online: 2 November 2018 (09:32:22 CET)
China historically exhibits spatial differentiation from population distribution to ecological or economic development, and the forest pest control work is an epitome of this tendency. In recent times, global warming, man-made monoculture tree plantations, increasing human population density and intensified international trade aggravate forest pest outbreaks. Although Chinese government has complied with the internationally recommended practices, few stones remain unturned due to existing differential regional imbalance of forest pest distribution and control abilities. Evidence shows that the high-income provinces in the south have taken advantage of economic and technological superiority, resulting in the adoption of more efficient pest-control measures. To the contrary, in economically underdeveloped provinces of the northwest, a paucity of financial support has led to serious threats of pest damage that almost mirrored the demarcations of the Hu Huanyong Line. In this paper, we propose introducing public-private partnership (PPP) model into forest pest control and combining the national strategies to enact regional prevention measures in order to break the current spatially differentiated trends in China.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0426.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: riser; vortex-induced vibration; fatigue damage prediction; empirical method
Online: 21 September 2018 (04:04:01 CEST)
To gain insight into riser motions and associated fatigue damage due to vortex-induced vibration (VIV), data loggers such as strain sensors and/or accelerometers are sometimes deployed on risers to monitor their motion in different current velocity conditions. Accurate reconstruction of the riser response and empirical estimation of fatigue damage rates over the entire riser length using measurements from a limited number of sensors can help in efficient utilization of the costly measurements recorded. Several different empirical procedures are described here for analysis of the VIV response of a long flexible cylinder subjected to uniform and sheared current profiles. The methods include weighted waveform analysis (WWA), proper orthogonal decomposition (POD), modal phase reconstruction (MPR), a modified WWA procedure, and a hybrid method which combines MPR and the modified WWA method. Fatigue damage rates estimated using these different empirical methods are compared and cross-validated against measurements. Detailed formulations for each method are presented and discussed with examples. Results suggest that all the empirical methods, despite different underlying assumptions in each of them, can be employed to estimate fatigue damage rates quite well from limited strain measurements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0041.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Bioinformatics; Ionizing radiation; Microarrays; Radiation-induced bystander effects; Transcriptomics
Online: 6 November 2017 (15:02:00 CET)
Ionizing radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE) encompass a number of effects with potential for a plethora of damages in adjacent non-irradiated tissue. The cascade of molecular events is initiated in response to the exposure to ionizing radiation (IR), something that may occur during diagnostic or therapeutic medical applications. In order to better investigate these complex response mechanisms, we employed a unified framework integrating statistical microarray analysis, signal normalization and translational bioinformatics functional analysis techniques. This approach was applied to several microarray datasets from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) related to RIBE. The analysis produced lists of differentially expressed genes, contrasting bystander and irradiated samples versus sham-irradiated controls. Furthermore, comparative molecular analysis through BioInfoMiner, which integrates advanced statistical enrichment and prioritization methodologies, revealed discrete biological processes, at the cellular level. For example, negative regulation of growth, cellular response to Zn2+- Cd2+, Wnt and NIK/NF-kappaB signalling, which refine the description of the phenotypic landscape of RIBE. Our results provide a more solid understanding of RIBE cell-specific response patterns, especially in the case of high-LET radiations like α-particles and carbon-ions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1228.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: development; nudibranch; acidification
Online: 19 September 2023 (04:21:39 CEST)
The body of knowledge on ocean acidification gives a better understanding of biological sensitivity to low pH. Key parameters such as life-history strategies or local adaptation were identified as keys to predict species sensitivity and resolve previously some of the unexplained species- and population-specific differences. Encapsulation has been suggested as one of these keys as it exposed the embryo to low pH conditions, or ontogenetic hypercapnia, leading to physiological adaptation. We tested this hypothesis on the nudibranch Aeolidiella glauca by exposing their egg-strings containing large number of eggs to two different pH (8.1 and 7.3). The fertilized eggs developed 1 egg-cell, over early cleavage up to morula, blastula, gastrula, rhomboid-shaped rotating gastrula, early rotating veliger larvae with developed shell, to free-swimming well developed veliger larvae. Despite a corrosive environment, the exposure to low pH had no significant effect on the developmental rate. The only significant effects were a slightly smaller and narrower shell in larvae raised at low pH as compared to the high pH. Our results showed a remarkable resilient to low pH in a calcifying mollusc and support the idea that ontogenic hypercapnia is leading to low sensitivity to ocean acidification.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0071.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis; precision medicine; new treatment; drug development; method development
Online: 25 May 2022 (04:59:01 CEST)
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, systemic, abnormal inflammatory immune response. It is characterized by the involvement of the synovium and multiple organs and the destruction of joints and articular cartilage. Over the past 30 years, several promising novel compounds and antibodies have been developed for the treatment of RA. The introduction of new drugs and precision medicine for all forms of RA raises several issues related to access to novel treatments by patients, optimal regimen selection, cost-effectiveness, prognosis monitoring and outcome surveillance, particularly with regarding to the development of low drug response rates, drug resistance and adverse side effects. Tremendous attention has been given to the identification of optimized drug combinations for the treatment of RA, particularly in early high-risk vulnerable and early individuals. Addressing these issues requires novel therapeutic approaches with new mechanisms and the establishment of accurate guidelines for drug selection, drug recombination, and non-chemical therapeutic efforts. In this study, we reviewed the most exciting recently established or ongoing novel drugs and methods according to the clinical trial database maintained by the United States National Library of Medicine and discussed the trends in RA drug development and challenges in the treatment, providing a reference significant for the accurate treatment of RA and the research direction in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0628.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Sustainable Development; Sustainable Development Goals; Public Policy; Agrarian Policy; Ecuador
Online: 2 February 2021 (10:29:00 CET)
This study reviews how policy and agricultural laws relate to Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 2 and 12, sustainability and rural development, in Ecuador. Policy aligns itself with goals 2 in terms of increased productivity and income (target 2,3) to interna-tional markets (targets 2b y 2c), rural infrastructure, research, agricultural extension and technological development (target 2a), agrobiodiversity and traditional knowledge (target 25). It is related with SDG 12 to sustainable production and consumption targets 12.1, 12.2 and 12a). Laws highlight public procurement, research, seeds, and efficient resource management through sustainable practices. It is concluded that policy is aligned with SDGs 2 and 12 but is necessary to establish others that surpass the emphasis on produc-tivity towards export markets that leave AFC production and achieve a transition to sus-tainable production and consumption. The study of laws indicates that it is necessary to strengthen local governance for food sovereignty, including the peasant sectors within the framework of existing laws with participation in spaces of debate and formulation of ac-tions.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: global learning; global learning for sustainable development; South/North perspectives; sustainability; sustainable development; education for sustainable development
Online: 24 September 2020 (07:59:39 CEST)
Despite continued efforts by educators, UN declarations and numerous international agreements, progress is still limited in handling major global challenges such as ecosystem collapse, accelerating climate change, poverty and inequity. The capacity to collaborate globally on addressing these issues remains weak. This systematic review of research on global learning for sustainable development (GLSD) aims to clarify the diverse directions research on GLSD has taken, to present the historical development of the research area, and highlight emerging research issues. The review summarises key findings of the English language literature in the period 1994-2020 identified with the search terms “global learning” and “sustainable development”, sustainability or GLSD, respectively. The review documented a gradually growing knowledge base, mostly authored by scholars located in the global North. Conclusions point to what we might achieve if we could learn from one another in new ways, moving beyond Northern-centric paradigms. It is also time to re-evaluate core assumptions that underlie education for sustainable development more generally, such as a narrow focus on formal learning institutions. The review provides a benchmark for future reviews of research on GLSD, reveals the emerging transformative structure of this transdisciplinary field, and offers reference points for further research
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0614.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: sustainability; sustainable development; education for sustainable development; sociology of education; sustainability literacy; higher education; sustainable development goals
Online: 25 October 2018 (16:31:16 CEST)
Sustainability, sustainable development and education for sustainable development are increasingly central concepts, both in social practice and in the field of scientific knowledge. Sociology, and in particular Sociology of Education as a specialised Sociology, can provide relevant contributions in its promotion. This article aims to explore the importance of Sociology of Education in promoting sustainability literacy in higher education, using the Sustainable Development Goals and key competencies (United Nations and UNESCO) as the central reference in this field, and intends, thus, to become an added contribution for this discussion. The article seeks to demonstrate that the learning of sustainability literacy would benefit from the use of a sociological stance throughout this whole process that considers dimensions that are often not directly emphasised and articulated between each other, such as: interconnection of scale levels, sociological imagination, multi-paradigmatic nature, heuristic interdisciplinarity, reflexivity and use of Sociology for action.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1938.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: drug-induced allergy; anaphylaxis; antibiotics; local anesthetics; cyclooxygenase (COX)-inhibitors
Online: 30 November 2023 (04:21:45 CET)
(1) Background: National health system databases represent one of the most obvious sources of information about epidemiology of adverse drug reactions including drug-induced allergy and anaphylaxis. (2) Methods: Retrospective analysis of data from national database of pharmacovigilance in the Russian Federation (analyzed period 02.04.2019 - 21.06.2023) was performed. The prevalence of anaphylactic reactions (ARs) was determined, the structure of drugs involved was estimated together with patients’ characteristics. (3) Results: ARs were reported in 8.3% of drug-induced allergic reactions (2304/27,727), mean age of patients was 48.2 ± 15.8 years, 53.2% were females. Main causative groups of drugs were antibiotics, ABs (44.62%), local anesthetics, (19.97%), and cyclooxygenase (COX)-inhibitors (10.07%). Fatal ARs was reported in 9.5% (218/2304), mean age 48.0 ± 16.7 years, 56.2% females. Pediatric population accounted for 5.8% (133/2304), mean age 11.8± 4.5 years, 51.9% females. Elderly population accounted for 2.8% (65/2304), mean age 73.0±5.3 years, 43.5% (27/65) females. ABs were the leading causative groups of ARs in the elderly (40%), children (42.86%), and among fatal cases (50%). (4) Conclusions: ARs accounted for 8.3% of all drug-induced allergic reactions, and ABs were the most common causative agents. Females predominated in all groups except elderly patients.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1607.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Vortex-Induced vibration; Wake oscillator equation; Numerical simulation; Nonlinear modeling
Online: 25 September 2023 (13:04:13 CEST)
The oscillation of an elastically mounted rigid cylinder excited by steady fluid flow is investigated. Regarding the nonlinearity of real practical structures like marine risers and the stay cable of a long-span bridge, the dynamic behavior of the circular cylinder is described by double Duffing equations and the aerodynamic force performance of the wake flow is expressed by wake oscillator equation. Unlike previous studies, in the present investigation, attention is focused on coupling the wake oscillator equations, taking into account quadratic terms. Following this approach, the cylinder's combined cross-flow and in-line Vortex-Induced Vibrations (VIV) are modeled more accurately. Empirical coefficients are adjusted through comparison with previous credible experimental studies and the effects of changing coefficients of the quadratic terms on major VIV parameters are investigated. The oscillating amplitude calculated by the present model is close to that of the experiment. The relative error of results obtained by the present coupled model is lower than the previous model. Moreover, the present model successfully predicts the moving trajectories of a circular cylinder under VIV in a figure-of-eight shape.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1519.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: colchicine; drought stress; legumes; morphological traits; physiological traits; induced polyploidy
Online: 22 September 2023 (06:15:52 CEST)
Legumes play a significant role in the alleviation of food insecurity, maintaining soil fertility and achieving sustainable crop production under adverse environmental conditions. The increased demand in legume production contemplates that attention on the genetic improvement of these crops through various means such as genetic engineering and mutation breeding should take a centre stage in global agriculture. Therefore, this paper provides succinct analysis of currently available literature on morphological and physiological traits in polyploidised leguminous plants to counter the adverse effects of drought stress. The effects of colchicine on various morphological and physiological traits of polyploidised legumes compared to their diploid counterparts were examined. Numerous reports revealed variations in these traits such as improved root and shoot growth, plant biomass, chloroplastidic content, protein, RNA and DNA. The differences observed were also associated with the strong relationship between plant ploidy-induction and colchicine application. Furthermore, the analysis indicated that polyploidisation remains dose-dependent, and may be achievable at a shorter space of time as this antimitotic chemical interferes with chromosome separations in somatic plant cells. The efficiency of this process also depends on the advancement of treatment conditions (in vitro, in vivo or ex vitro) and successful regeneration of polyploidised plants for adaptation under drought stress conditions. As such, the improvement in metabolite profile and other essential growth characteristics serves as a clear indication that induced polyploidy needs to be further explored to confer resilience to environmental stress, and improve crop yield under drought stress conditions in leguminous plants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2123.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: Breast tumor; exercise training; gastrocnemius; soleus; cancer-induced muscle wasting
Online: 31 August 2023 (09:36:52 CEST)
Background: Muscle wasting is a common phenomenon in oncology and appears to be alleviated by exercise training. This study aims to determine the degree of aggressiveness of cancer-induced muscle wasting in two different phenotypic muscles, and whether exercise training can attenuate this muscle dysfunction. Methods: Fifty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to four experimental groups, two control groups (sedentary and exercised) and two breast cancer model groups (sedentary and exercised) induced by 1-methyl-1-nitrosoureia (MNU). After 35 weeks of endurance training the animals were sacrificed and the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were harvested for morphometric analysis. Results: A significant reduction in cross-sectional area (P < 0.05) was found in both muscles of sedentary tumor-bearing animals. Interstitial fibrosis was significantly higher in the gastrocnemius of sedentary tumor-bearing animals (P < 0.05), but not in the soleus. A shift from large to small fibers was observed in the gastrocnemius of sedentary tumor-bearing animals. Long-term exercise training was able to prevent this cancer-related mus-cle dysfunction. Conclusions: The Gastrocnemius muscle showed a very pronounced reduction in cross-sectional area and marked interstitial fibrosis in sedentary animals with tumors. The soleus muscle showed a less pronounced but significant reduction in cross-sectional area, and collagen deposition did not differ between tumor groups. These contrasting results confirm that can-cer-induced muscle wasting can affect specific fiber types, and specific muscles, namely fast glycolytic muscles, and that exercise training can act to improve it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2147.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: FUT8 knockdown; core fucosylation; TRAIL-induced apoptosis; DR4; colorectal cancer
Online: 30 June 2023 (02:17:17 CEST)
Epithelial cells can undergo apoptosis by manipulating the balance between pro-survival and apoptotic signals. In this work, we show that TRAIL-induced apoptosis can be differentially regulated by the expression of α(1,6)fucosyltransferase (FucT-8), the only enzyme in mammals that transfers the (1,6)fucose residue to the pentasaccharide core of complex N-glycans. Specifically, in the cellular model of colorectal cancer (CRC) progression formed using the human syngeneic lines SW480 and SW620, knockdown of the FucT-8-encoding FUT8 gene significantly enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis in SW480 cells. However, FUT8 repression did not affect SW620 cells, which suggests that core fucosylation differentiates TRAIL-sensitive premetastatic SW480 cells from TRAIL-resistant metastatic SW620 cells. In this regard, we provide evidence that phosphorylation of ERK1/2 kinases can dynamically regulate TRAIL-dependent apoptosis and that core fucosylation can control the ERK/MAPK pro-survival pathway in which SW480 and SW620 cells participate. Moreover, the depletion of core fucosylation sensitises primary tumour SW480 cells to the combination of TRAIL and low doses of 5-FU, oxaliplatin, irinotecan or mitomycin C. In contrast, combination of TRAIL and oxaliplatin, irinotecan or bevacizumab reinforces resistance of FUT8-knockdown metastatic SW620 cells to apoptosis. Consequently, FucT-8 could be a plausible target for increasing apoptosis and drug response in early CRC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1691.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mining And Mineral Processing Keywords: key strata; mining-induced stress; DOFS; 3DEC; large-scale mining
Online: 23 June 2023 (14:09:45 CEST)
When there are multiple key strata in the overburden of deep coal seam and the surface subsid-ence coefficient after mining is small, it indicates that the overlying key strata fail to break com-pletely after mining. On this occasion, the stress concentration on the working face occurs easily, which in turn leads to the occurrence of dynamic disasters such as rock burst. This study adopted a comprehensive analysis method of field monitoring and numerical simulation to explore the in-fluence of key stratum on the evolution law of mining-induced stress in the working face. Dis-tributed optical fiber sensor (DOFS) and surface subsidence GNSS monitoring system were re-spectively arranged inside and at the mouth of the ground observation borehole. According to the monitoring results of strain obtained from DOFS, the height of broken stratum inside the overlying strata was obtained; according to the monitoring results of surface subsidence, the sur-face subsidence coefficient was proved to be less than 0.1, indicating that the high key stratum does not break completely, but enters a state of bending subsidence instead. In order to reveal the influence of key stratum on the mining-induced stress of working face, two 3DEC numerical models with and without key stratum were established for comparative analysis. As the numeri-cal simulation results show, when there are multiple key strata in the overburden, the stress in-fluence range and stress concentration coefficient of coal seam after mining are relatively large. The study revealed the working mechanism of rock burst accidents after large-scale mining and predicted the potential area of rock burst risk after the mining of the working face, which has been verified by field investigation. The research results are of great guiding significance for the revelation of the working mechanism of rock burst in deep mining condition and its prevention and control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0859.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: chitosan; foliar application; lignin; potato; suberin polyphenolics; wound-induced suberization
Online: 11 May 2023 (13:35:44 CEST)
Potato tubers are susceptible to wounding during post-harvest processes, leading to quality decline, perishability and large economic losses. In this study, the potato cultivar, ‘Longshu No.7’, was foliar-sprayed with 3% chitosan (w/v) three times during the pre-harvest period after flowering to evaluate the effect of foliar spraying with chitosan on suberization processing at wounds of harvested potato tubers. Our results demonstrate that foliar-sprayed with chitosan significantly reduced wound-induced fresh weight loss and dry rot disease index by 37.34% and 41.60% on the 28 day after wounding, respectively. Foliar-sprayed with chitosan accelerated the deposition of suberin polyphenolics and lignin at the wound sites of potato tubers with the formation of thicker cell layers. This occurred with increased localized activities of key enzymes in the suberin polyphenolics and lignin pathways, including phenylalanine ammonia lyase, 4-coumaryl-coenzyme A ligase, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase and peroxidase (33.90–64.32%), as well as the contents of cinnamic acid, sinapic acid, flavonoids, lignins and total phenolics (19.70–23.46%) at wound sites of potato tubers on the 7 day after wounding. Our results indicated that foliar application of chitosan accelerated wound-induced suberization of potato tubers and could mitigate post-harvest product damages.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0160.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Exercise; IL-17; IL-10; Interleukin. Exercise-Induced Inflammatory State
Online: 9 March 2023 (02:11:14 CET)
Here we investigated the acute effects of an exhaustive intermittent exercise session on immunological parameters of the elderly and the subsequent incidence of upper respiratory tract infections and compare with the moderate-intensity. To do so, ixty-three old subjects were divided into three groups HIIT (n=21) submitted at one High-intensity interval training, SCG (n=21) kept in a sedentary state, and MICT (n=21) submitted at moderate intensity walking. Blood were collected at 5 time points, before, immediately after, 2h, 24h, and 48h after the intervention. In result the IL-6 and TNF-α were overexpressed immediately after the IL-10 stood overexpressed and correlated with IL-17, denoting an inflammatory process, and evidencing an immunologic competence without enhancement of the prevalence of upper respiratory infection tract (URTIs). So a modulation in the balance of Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines and leukocytes, these modifications did not cause the effect characterized as an immunological window. Perhaps, the typical inflammation process, with IL-10 and IL-17 participation could also produce benefits to combat infections, a pertinent discussion during a post-pandemic time; we consider it a safe exercise program for older adults.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0219.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: personalized psychiatry; psychiatric disorders; induced pluripotent stem cells; brain organoids
Online: 14 July 2022 (11:46:51 CEST)
The polygenic and multifactorial nature of many psychiatric disorders has hampered the personalized medicine approach implementation in clinical practice. However, induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology has emerged as an innovative tool for patient-specific disease modeling to expand the pathophysiology knowledge and treatment perspectives in the last decade. Current technologies enable adult human somatic cell reprogramming into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to generate neural cells and direct neural cell conversion to model organisms that exhibit phenotypes close to human diseases, thereby effectively representing relevant aspects of neuropsychiatric disorders. iPSCs reflect patient pathophysiology and pharmacological responsiveness, particularly when cultured under conditions that recapitulate spatial tissue organization in brain organoids. Recently, the application of iPSCs has been frequently associated with gene editing that targets the disease-causing gene to deepen the illness pathophysiology and conduct drug screening. Moreover, gene editing has provided a unique opportunity to repair the putative causative genetic lesions in patient-derived cells. Here, we review the use of iPSC technology to model and potentially treat neuropsychiatric disorders by illustrating the key studies on a series of mental disorders, including schizophrenia, major depression disorder, bipolar disorder, and autism spectrum disorder. The future perspective will involve the development of organ-on-a-chip platforms that control the microenvironmental conditions to reflect individual pathophysiological by adjusting physiochemical parameters according to personal health data. This strategy could open new ways to build a disease model that considers individual variability and tailors personalized treatments.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0068.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy; pain management; target therapy; immuno-therapy
Online: 6 May 2022 (09:14:17 CEST)
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) develops as a challenging nerve-damaging adverse effect of anticancer drugs used in chemotherapy. The disorder may require a dose reduction of chemo-therapy and its most common sensory symptoms are severe pain, tingling, and numbness in the hands and feet. CIPN affects dramatically the patient's quality of life (QoL). Pain and sensory abnormalities may occur for months, or even years after the termination of chemotherapy. This disease has complicated pathophysiology featured by underlying mechanisms not completely known. Although many pharmaco-logical and non-pharmacological therapeutic approaches have been tested to overcome these symptoms, there is currently no standardized cure to prevent or treat CIPN. According to current guidelines, Duloxe-tine is the only recommended agent for painful neuropathic symptoms. Therefore, finding effective thera-pies for CIPN is mandatory. The purpose of this review is to dissect CIPN, the target and immunothera-py-based approaches to this disorder, as well as to offer new insights for novel therapeutic perspectives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0361.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: Induced seismicity Monitoring; seismic arrays; sensor network technology; microearthquake detection
Online: 28 March 2022 (11:12:18 CEST)
Seismic monitoring in areas where induced earthquakes could occur is a challenging topic for seismologists due to generally very low signal to noise ratio. Therefore, the seismological com-munity is devoting several efforts to the development of high-quality networks around the areas where fluid injection and storage and geothermal activities take place, also following the national induced seismicity monitoring guidelines. The use of advanced data-mining strategy, such as template matching filters, auto-similarity search and deep-learning approaches is recently further fostering such a monitoring enhancing the seismic catalogues and lowering the magnitude of completeness of these areas. In this framework, we carried out an experiment where a small-aperture seismic array was installed around the gas reservoir of Collalto, in North Italy. The continuous velocimetric data, acquired for 25 days, were analysed through the application of the optimized auto-similarity search technique FAST. The array was conceived as a cost-effective network, aimed at integrating, right above the gas storage site, the permanent high-resolution Collalto Seismic Network. The analysis allowed to detect micro-events down to magnitude Ml=-0.4 within a distance of ~15km from the array. Our results confirmed that the system based on the array installation and the FAST data-analysis might contribute to lower the magnitude of completeness around the site of about 0.7.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0408.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Embryogenesis; Cobalt-60 radiation-induced mutagenesis; Temporary immersion systems (TIS).
Online: 24 December 2021 (14:47:29 CET)
The development of gamma rays mutant rice lines would be a solution for introducing variability in already farmer using varieties. In vitro gamma (60Co) mutagenesis reduces chimeras and allows a faster selection of desired traits but requires laboratory process optimization. The objective of the present work was the in vitro establishment of a recalcitrant rice embryogenic calli, the determination of its sensitivity to gamma radiation (Co-60), sequencing MATK and Rubisco for identification purposes, as well as generation optimization. The radiosensitivity of embryogenic calli resulted in an LD50 of 110Gy, while the 20% lethal dose was 64Gy. All sequenced genes matched perfectly with already reported MATK and Rubisco O. sativa genes with a clear SNP that identifies the local variety related to the southeast Asia Region. Callus induction improves with an MS with 2mg/L 2,4D, and the regeneration was achieved with an MS medium with 3mg/L BAP and 0,5mg/L NAA. The optimized radiation condition was 60Gy with an 83% regeneration in a semisolid medium, allowing a balance between mutation and regeneration. When increased to 80Gy, the regeneration rate falls to 29%. An immersion system (RITA®) of either 60 or 120 seconds every 8hours allowed a systematic and homogeneous total regeneration of the recalcitrant line, in contrast with the semisolid medium that resulted in positive but irregular regeneration. Other well-known recalcitrant cultivars, CR1821, CR1113 also had an improving regeneration in the immersion system, demonstrating its potential use for recalcitrant materials. To our knowledge, this is the first report on using an immersion system to allow regeneration of gamma-ray mutants from recalcitrant rice materials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0082.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Avian olfaction; foraging; herbivore-induced plant volatiles; defence against herbivory
Online: 6 December 2021 (15:21:49 CET)
The tri-trophic interactions between plants, insects, and insect predators and parasitoids are often mediated by chemical cues. The attraction to Herbivore-Infested Plant Volatiles (HIPVs) has been well documented for arthropod predators and parasitoids, and more recently for insectivorous birds. The attraction to plant volatiles induced by the exogenous application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA), a phytohormone typically produced in response to an attack of chewing herbivores, have provided controversial results, both in arthropod and avian predators. In this study, we aimed to examine whether potential differences in the composition of bouquets of volatiles produced by Herbivore-infested and MeJA-treated Pyrenean oak trees (Quercus pyrenaica) were related to differential avian attraction, as results from a previous study suggested. Results showed that the overall emission of volatiles produced by MeJA-treated and Herbivore-infested trees did not differ, and were higher than emissions of Control trees, although MeJA treatment showed more significant reaction and released several specific compounds in contrast to Herbivore-induced trees. These slight differences in the volatile composition may explain why avian predators were not so attracted to MeJA-treated trees as observed in a previous study in this plant-herbivore system. Unfortunately, the lack of avian visits to the experimental trees in the current study does not allow us to confirm this result and points out the need to perform more robust predator studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0031.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: primary fatty acid amides; microfluidics; laser induced fluorescence, bioactive lipids
Online: 2 October 2020 (09:16:13 CEST)
The inherent trace quantity of primary fatty acid amides found in biological systems presents challenges for analytical analysis and quantitation, requiring a highly sensitive detection system. The use of microfluidics provides a green sample preparation and analysis technique through small-volume fluidic flow through micron-sized channels embedded in a PDMS device. Microfluidics provides the potential of having a micro total analysis system where chromatographic separation, fluorescent tagging reactions, and detection are accomplished with no added sample handling. This study describes the development and optimization of a microfluidic-laser indued fluorescence (LIF) analysis and detection system that can be used for the detection of ultra-trace levels of fluorescently tagged primary fatty acid amines. A PDMS microfluidic device was designed and fabricated to incorporate droplet-based flow. Droplet microfluidics have enabled on-chip fluorescent tagging reactions to be performed quickly and efficiently, with no additional sample handling. An optimized LIF optical detection system provided fluorescently tagged primary fatty acid amine detection sub-fmol (436 amol) LODs. The use of this LIF detection provides unparalleled sensitivity, with detection limits several orders of magnitude lower than currently employed LC-MS techniques and might be easily adapted for use as a complementary quantification platform for parallel MS-based -omics studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0052.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: 3D laser lithography; laser induced damage threshold; micro-optics; photonics
Online: 4 October 2019 (11:56:36 CEST)
Direct laser writing based on non-linear 3D nanolithography (also known as 3D laser lithography, 3DLL) is a powerful technology to manufacture polymeric micro-optical components. However, practical applications of these elements are limited due to the lack of knowledge of their optical resilience and durability. In this work, we employ 3DLL for the fabrication of bulk (i.e. fully filled) and woodpile structures out of different photopolymers. We then characterize them using S-on-1 laser induced damage threshold (LIDT) measurements. In this way, quantitative data of LIDT values can be collected. Furthermore, this method permits to gather damage morphologies. The results presented in this work demonstrate that LIDT values depend on the material and the geometry of the structure. Bulk non-photosensitized hybrid organic-inorganic photopolymer SZ2080 structures are found to be the most resilient with a damage threshold being of 169±15 mJ/cm2.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0001.v1
Subject: Engineering, Aerospace Engineering Keywords: Variable cant angle; Winglets; Drag reduction; Lift-induced drag; CFD
Online: 1 July 2019 (11:02:29 CEST)
Traditional winglets are designed as fixed devices attached at the tips of the wings. The primary purpose of the winglets is to reduce the lift-induced drag, therefore improving aircraft performance and fuel efficiency. However, because winglets are fixed surfaces, they cannot be used to control lift-induced drag reductions or to obtain the largest lift-induced drag reductions at different flight conditions (take-off, climb, cruise, loitering, descent, approach, landing, and so on). In this work, we propose the use of variable cant angle winglets which could potentially allow aircraft to get the best all-around performance (in terms of lift-induced drag reduction), at different flight phases. By using computational fluid dynamics, we study the influence of the winglet cant angle and sweep angle on the performance of a benchmark wing at Mach numbers of 0.3 and 0.8395. The results obtained demonstrate that by adjusting the cant angle, the aerodynamic performance can be improved at different flight conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0264.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Fluids And Plasmas Physics Keywords: laser-induced plasma; atomic spectroscopy; molecular spectroscopy; cyanide; hydrogen; carbon
Online: 26 June 2019 (07:49:09 CEST)
This work examines atomic and molecular signatures in laser-induced plasma in standard ambient temperature and pressure environments, including background contributions to the spectra that depend on the laser pulse-width. Investigations include solids, gases, and nano-particles. Abel inversions of measured line-of-sight data reveal insight into the radial plasma distribution. For nominal 6 nanosecond laser pulses and for pulse-energies in the range of 100 to 800 mJ, expansion dynamics and turbulence due to shock phenomena are elucidated to address local equilibrium details that are frequently assumed in spatially averaged emission spectroscopy. Chemical equilibrium computations reveal temperature dependence of selected plasma species. Specific interests include atomic hydrogen (H) and cyanide (CN). Atomic hydrogen spectra indicate axisymmetric shell structures and isentropic expansion of the plasma kernel over and above the usual shockwave. The recombination radiation of CN emanates within the first 100 nanoseconds for laser-induced breakdown in a 1:1 CO2:N2 gas mixture when using nanosecond laser pulses to create the micro-plasma. The micro-plasma is generated using 1064 nm, 150 mJ, 6 ns Q-switched Nd:YAG laser radiation. Measurements of the optical emission spectra utilize a 0.64 m Czerny-Turner type spectrometer and an intensified charge-coupled device.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0175.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: vibration-induced flow; micro-pillar; numerical analysis; micro-PIV; acoustofluidics
Online: 7 November 2018 (14:57:56 CET)
The steady streaming (SS) phenomenon is gaining increased attention in the microfluidics community, because it can generate net mass flow from the zero-mean vibration. We developed numerical simulation and experimental measurement tools to analyze this vibration induced flow, which has been challenging due to its unsteady nature. Validity of these analysis methods is confirmed by comparing the three-dimensional (3D) flow field induced around a cylindrical micropillar under circular vibration. In the numerical modeling, we directly solved the flow in the Lagrangian frame so that the substrate with a micropillar becomes stationary, and the result was converted to the Eulerian frame to compare them with the experimental results. The present approach enables to avoid the introduction of moving boundary or small perturbation approximation. The flow field obtained by the micro particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurement supported the three-dimensionality observed in the numerical results, which could be important for controlling the mass transport and manipulating particulate objects in the microfluidic systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0376.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Atomic And Molecular Physics Keywords: laser-induced plasma; atomic spectroscopy; self-absorption; nanoparticles; silver; hydrogen
Online: 20 July 2018 (05:49:30 CEST)
The resonance spectra of neutral silver indicate self-absorption for the studied Ag I lines at the wavelengths of 327.9 nm and 338.2 nm. The center dip is associated with self-reversal due to self-absorption in the plasma. The Q-switched radiation of 355 nm, 532 nm, or 1064 nm from a Nd:YAG laser device generates the plasma at the surface of silver nano-material targets, with experiments conducted in standard ambient temperature and pressure laboratory air. Procedures for recovery of the spectral line shapes confirm that over and above the effects of self-reversal, line shape distortion are important in the analysis. The work discusses parameters describing self-absorption when using fluence levels of 2 to 33 J/cm2 to generate the plasma. Furthermore, subsidiary calibration efforts that utilize the hydrogen alpha line of the Balmer series show that the Ag I lines at 827.35 nm and 768.7 nm are optically thin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0282.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: hydraulic fracturing; hollow cylinder; single fracture; fault activation; induced seismicity
Online: 22 May 2018 (05:04:47 CEST)
Pre-existing fracture and secondary cracks in rock mass are formed by natural power, such as magma condensed to igneous rocks and tectonic movement. The orientation and inclination of these fractures obey certain laws relating to the stress, temperature, minerals, water and so on. Therefore, cracks react differently under the same external loading on the condition of various inclination, fissure apertures, stiffness and joint roughness. To simulate the crack propagation, experiments on hollow cylinder cut by one oblique interface mimicking single fracture accumulated numerous data discovering the failure criterion in accordance with the Mohr-Coulomb criterion. And theory on the Terzaghi’s effective principle take an essential role in controlling the behavior of triggering fault. This paper introduced a series of oblique plane cutting the cylinder regarded as fractures at different inclination to concentrate on how the fracture characteristics effect the stress and strain distribution inside the specimen, especially, the relationship between displacement and water head. The key point of this numerical simulation is coupling the solid phase and the fluid phase, specifically, the mechanic and seepage field. According to the statics, curves referring to deformation and water head could be described as increasing lines. Besides, simulation on coupling solid phase and fluid phase can supply crucial evaluation on activating existing fault, and thus predicting induced seismicity in reservoirs or estimating damage in shale gas exploration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0195.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: sustainable product development; sustainable design; product development practice; corporate sustainability practices
Online: 13 July 2022 (09:12:47 CEST)
There is a growing recognition of the need to incorporate sustainability considerations early-on in the product development (PD) process (PDP). As part of a case study at an engineering consultancy firm, this paper identifies considerations that influence the integration of sustainable design practices into real-world PD practices. This is informed by the first author getting embedded in the firm as an intern, and closely observing the PD workflow across various projects, conducting interviews and group discussions with a wide range of practitioners, and iteratively designing and testing various potential interventions. From literature and observation, we find that designers and engineers often struggle to identify and apply the right sustainable design methods and tools (SDMTs) to tackle the environmental impacts associated with their products. Through a human-centered design process, we co-created a reusable, modular framework of practices that aids the selection of relevant strategies, based on the environmental hotspots, stage of the PD process, and the client’s sustainability priorities. The paper further presents insights related to the framework’s real-world application and impacts in the firm, based on results of longitudinal engagement with the firm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0039.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Positive youth development, youth sport, realist evaluation, life skills, personal development.
Online: 5 January 2022 (12:40:59 CET)
Part 1 of this 2-paper series identified a wide and deep network of context, generative mechanisms and outcomes responsible for psychosocial development in a performance basketball club. In this – part 2 – study, the stakeholder’s programme theories were tested during a full-season ethnography of the same club. The findings confirm the highly individualised nature of each young person’s journey. Methodologically, immersion in the day-to-day environment generated a fine-grain analysis of the processes involved, including: i) sustained attentional focus; ii) structured and unstructured skill building activities; iii) deliberate and incidental support; and iv) feelings indicating personal growth. Personal development in and through sport is thus shown to be conditional, multi-faceted, time-sensitive and idiosyncratic. The findings of this two-part study are considered to propose a model of psychosocial development in and through sport. This heuristic tool is presented to support sport psychologists, coaches, club administrators and parents to deliberately create and optimise developmental environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0554.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: Pilot; competency; competency development; competency development model; Indonesian Naval Aviation Center
Online: 21 November 2020 (10:44:23 CET)
The Indonesian Navy's military condition in facing the globalization era of the industrial revolution 4.0 underwent many significant changes, both in policies and coaching practices that were implemented in regulating developments over the past decade. The competency model was an important basis of human resource functions such as recruitment, training and development, and performance management. The purpose of this study was to identifying and analyzing the pilot competency development model in the Naval Aviation Center. This research was a descriptive study with a qualitative approach. The results of this study concluded that the pilot of the Indonesian Naval Aviation Center requires the development of competency models that were quite significant in various areas of competence such as 1.) Interpersonal Pilot Communication Competencies; 2.) Competence of Aviation Security Personnel; 3.) Competency Constraint Satisfaction Optimization Problem; 4.) Competency of Flight Control Systems that have been tested, licensed, and well implemented.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0354.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: maternal mortality; Pakistan; Millenium development goals; sustainable development goals; antenatal care
Online: 30 June 2020 (07:15:28 CEST)
Background: Maternal mortality (MM) is a matter of serious concern in low income developing countries (LDCs). Perspective: A great reduction has been observed regarding the maternal deaths globally after huge efforts since 1990 todate. However, the situation continues to be either stagnant or worsening in developing countries, suggesting that the efforts to cope with this issue are either insufficient or not properly implemented. We need to first diagnose the problem areas that are a great hurdle in the road to success towards the reduction of MM. Postpartum haemorrhage and preeclampsia are one of the most common causes of MM. Malnutrition, neurological dysfunction and cancer are among the non-obstetric causes. Trained medical and paramedical staff can be of great help in this regard by increasing awareness among masses at grass root level. Target set by Millennium Development goal has minimized the MM by 44%. But it has not met the target set by Millenium Development Goals 5 and a lot of measures need to be taken in this regard. Conclusions: Majority of the MDs are preventable and can be avoided by adopting appropriate frameworks, linked data sets, surveillance, birth attendants training, preparation for births, etc. Delay in decision to get healthcare, access to healthcare center and receiving these facilities are the main factors in MM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0210.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: coordinated development degree; agricultural water resources; socio-economy development; Shanxi Province
Online: 20 August 2019 (10:20:33 CEST)
Conflict between agricultural water resources and socio-economy development is a global problem. Accurate evaluation of coordinated development of agricultural water resources and socio-economy and risk mitigation is necessary for sustainable development. An evaluation method, including selection of criteria, data collection, determination of weight, evaluation of coordinated development, prediction of parameters, and judgment of coordinated development state, has been proposed to study coordinated development degree. To deal with uncertainties, Monte Carlo method and fuzzy set method were used. The method is demonstrated to solve a real-world evaluation problem in Shanxi Province in the middle of China. Results show that coordinated development degrees were (0.7, 0.8) for most of the cities of Shanxi in 2015, indicating that coordinate development state was intermediate coordinate. To achieve balanced development, more attention should be put on socio-economic development in Taiyuan and Yanquan, and agricultural water resources utilization in Jinzhong, Yuncheng and Xinzhou. The average coordinated development degree is 0.758, and coordinate development state was intermediate coordinate from 2006 to 2015. Coordinated development degree has a trend of decreasing markedly, coordinate development state will be barely coordinated, and agricultural water resources utilization lags behind socio-economic development in 2020. The study demonstrates the practicability of the improved method, by evaluating coordinated development degree under uncertainty and forecasting future risks, which will conduce to promote sustainable development of agricultural water resources and socio-economy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0475.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: sustainable development goals, urban sustainable development, indicators, evolution of sustainability assessment
Online: 28 June 2018 (15:20:59 CEST)
With growing urbanisation the sustainability of cities has become increasingly important. Although cities have been using indicators for a long time it is only in the last decades that attempts have been made to collate indicators into indicator sets with the aim of reflecting the many different aspects that need to be covered to assess the sustainability of a city. The aim of this paper is to review how indicators for monitoring sustainable urban development have evolved over time and compare them to the indicators suggested by the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The review reveals that previous indicator sets emphasised environmental sustainability, health and economic growth. It is also shown that indicator sets that pre-date the SDGs lacked dimensions such as gender equality and reduced inequalities. In all, the SDG indicators provide the possibility of a more balanced and integrated approach to urban sustainability monitoring. At the same time, a methodology is needed to facilitate the adaptation process of localising the SDGS, targets and indicators. Challenges of local application include their large number, their generic characteristics and the need to complement them with specific indicators that are more relevant at the city level.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0354.v1
Online: 4 August 2023 (03:15:26 CEST)
Notch signaling is a highly conserved pathway which occurs between adjacent cells to distinguish them. The Notch signaling cascade operates in a simple mechanism, yet Notch plays remarkably diverse roles in development to regulate cell fate determination, organ growth and tissue patterning. Originally isolated and characterized in the model insect Drosophila melanogaster, recent studies in various insect species have revealed that Notch signaling is broadly involved in the construction of insect tissues. This review focuses on providing a molecular mechanistic and developmental picture regarding the roles of Notch pathway in insects. The functions of Notch in the formation and patterning of insect embryo, wing, leg, ovary and several specific structures as well as in stress responses are summarized. These results are discussed in developmental context with an eye toward understanding the functionality of Notch signaling pathway in different insect species.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0330.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: digital marketing; sustainable development
Online: 6 July 2023 (10:38:41 CEST)
A Digital marketing allows brands to disseminate information in a targeted way towards their clients and consumers, making bidirectional communication and interactions between organizations and audiences feasible. This reality not only allows companies to pass on messages about sustainability associated with processes and products with the aim of launching trends and shaping behaviour, but also allows consumers to share their experiences, needs, preferences and expectations. In this sense, the techniques used in the context of digital marketing make it possible not only to communicate products and services but also to show that brands are working to be more sustainable and to disseminate new sustainable trends that help to change consumer mindsets. This research paper employs a Systematic Literature Review with Bibliometric Analysis (SLBA) methodology to explore and synthesize data about how digital marketing can be used to promote and communicate sustainability. In this study, the results show that digital marketing strategies contribute to promoting sustainable development by encouraging sustainable consumption patterns. This scenario is possible by understanding consumer behavior, communicating key messages through the best channels and effectively evaluating green marketing campaigns on consumer attitudes and purchasing decisions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0490.v2
Online: 1 February 2022 (12:50:50 CET)
Simple Learning Motivations Hierarchy Model (SLMHM) is a theory that attempts to structure the path of learning “growth” with 16 levels where each next level corresponds to higher aims, motives, results, and satisfaction of needs. The SLMHM has been developed to simplify design, control, and evaluate the learning processes. The SLMHM was first presented at IES-2020 Conference (Gakh, 2020). More detailed research including analysis of internal structure shows that the model should be corrected. The “Plan-Do-Check-Act” cycle (PDCA Cycle) is popular in management. This paper describes the SLMHM improvements based on analyses of its similarities with the PDCA Cycle. The description of this research makes SLMHM more comprehend.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0147.v2
Online: 17 December 2020 (11:39:14 CET)
Postdocs who land faculty jobs at research-intensive institutions need to juggle several new large-scale tasks: identifying space and equipment needs for their lab, negotiating the hiring package, outfitting the lab with supplies, building a team, and learning to manage time in ways that can promote productivity and happiness. Here we share tips to help new hires think clearly about each of these tasks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0298.v1
Online: 13 August 2020 (10:22:24 CEST)
Green development ensures the socioeconomic development that incorporates environmental issues while remaining economically viable for owners and tenants. Government as the authority of the state should provide favorable incentives, policy and regulatory pressure for green development. The present study aims to investigate the government policies and regulations for green development in Bangladesh and make a critical discussion of the initiatives. The study is descriptive in nature and collects secondary information. Evidence suggests that environmental degradation and climate change related risks and vulnerabilities have intensified in Bangladesh. The government of Bangladesh (GOB) is concerned about green development and formulates various Acts, regulations and policy initiatives since 2010. Major green development initiatives observed in the financial institutions due to the mandatory requirements by Bangladesh Bank but green bond and green insurance in capital market are yet to be developed. The GOB required taking proper policy initiatives for the garments and leather industries to ensure pollution free production system which ensures green trade initiatives. The environmental taxes and ecological compensation mechanisms should be revised. Urban green space and Government green procurement are still less concerning matter. The GOB should make effective collaboration with all related stakeholders to ensure the green development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0144.v1
Online: 13 March 2019 (09:36:39 CET)
This lecture aims to survey the existing literature on the dynamic urban growth. Theapplication in this lecture is a small step in the long iterative process between theconstruction of a model and its use for practical purposes. In this lecture, we follow thenotion of urban development and conduct an analysis of conceptual modeling phases ofurban development by Paeliuck (1970).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0180.v1
Online: 9 August 2018 (08:25:45 CEST)
We present three studies which investigated the relations between cognition and personality from 7 to 20 years of age. All three studies showed that general cognitive ability and the general factor of personality are significantly related throughout this age span. This relation was expressed in several ways across studies. The first investigated developmental relations between three reasoning domains (inductive, deductive, and scientific) and Eysenck’s four personality dimensions in a longitudinal-sequential design where 260 participants received the cognitive tests three and the personality test two times, covering the span from 9-16 years. It was found that initial social likeability significantly shapes developmental momentum in cognition and vice-versa, especially in the 9 to 11 years period. The second study involved 438 participants from 7 to 17 years, tested twice on attention control, working memory, reasoning in different domains, and once by a Big Five Factors inventory. Extending the findings of the first, this study showed that progression in reasoning is affected negatively by conscientiousness and positively by openness, on top of attention control and working memory influences. The third study tested the relations between reasoning in several domains, the ability to evaluate one’s own cognitive performance, self-representation about the reasoning, the Big Five, and several aspects of emotional intelligence, from 9 to 20 years of age (N=247). Network, Hierarchical Network, and Structural Equation modeling showed that cognition and personality are mediated by the ability of self-knowing. Emotional intelligence was not an autonomous dimension. All dimensions but emotional intelligence influenced academic performance. A developmental model for mind-personality relations is proposed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0170.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: evolution; development; physiology; structure
Online: 8 August 2018 (15:02:58 CEST)
That form and function relates, is the maxim to anatomy and physiology. Yet form-function relations can be difficult to establish. Human subjects with excessive trabeculated myocardium in the left ventricle, for example, are diagnosed with non-compaction cardiomyopathy, but the extent of trabeculations may be without relation to ejection fraction. Rather than rejecting a relation between form and function, we may ask whether the salient function is assessed; is there a relation to electrical propagation, mean arterial blood pressure, propensity to form blood clots, or all? And how should extent of trabeculated muscle be assessed? While reviewing literature on trabeculated muscle, we applied Tinbergen’s four types of causation - how does it work, why does it work, how is it made, and why did it evolve - to better parse what is meant by form and function. The paper is structured around cases that highlight advantages and pitfalls of applying Tinbergen’s questions. It further uses the evolution of lunglessness in amphibians to argue lung reduction can impact on chamber septation, and it considers the evolution of an arterial outflow in fishes to argue that reductions in energy consumption may drive structural changes with little consequences to function. Concerning trabeculations, we argue they relate to pump function in the embryo in the couple of weeks before the onset of coronary circulation. In fetal and postnatal stages, a spectrum of trabeculated-to-compact myocardium makes no difference to cardiac function and in this period form and function may appear unrelated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0484.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: public finance; sustainable development
Online: 29 June 2018 (12:13:05 CEST)
The striving for sustainable development has become the goal of actions undertaken not only by representatives of public authorities and institutions representing this sector, but also representatives of private entities who are increasingly recognizing the benefits and sources of long-term development based on the principles and objectives of sustainable development. These are mainly based on the pursuit of synergy in the three basic areas of activities, i.e., in the economic, social, and environmental dimensions as well as in the maintenance of natural resources. The implementation of these activities is connected with the necessity of incurring financial expenditures, which the government (public sector) does not have in the required value. Therefore, in the process of sustainable development for which the government is responsible, the active participation of the financial sector (banks) is necessary. Achieving results within the alliance of the concept of sustainable development requires the setting of a kind of contract, the parties of which are the government, society, and financial institutions. The purpose of the conducted research is to indicate by which means the government can stimulate economic growth towards its sustainable development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0395.v1
Subject: Area Studies, Social Sciences Keywords: Marginalized Areas; Failure Development; Socioeconomic Conditions; Community Engagement; Policy Recommendations; Sustainable Development
Online: 6 December 2023 (10:22:14 CET)
This study examines the dynamics of failure development in marginalized communities, investigating the interplay of socioeconomic, environmental, and community engagement factors. The research aims to uncover underlying causes, provide policy recommendations, and elucidate the challenges faced by these communities. However, limitations include a restricted focus on marginalized areas, data limitations, and an exclusive emphasis on socioeconomic factors. The analysis reveals gaps in addressing political influences, limited coverage of success stories, and potential biases in the methodology. The conclusion emphasizes the transformative power of community-led initiatives to address challenges, foster inclusivity, and create sustainable change. These initiatives prioritize capacity building, social cohesion, economic development, and access to education and healthcare. Implications for policy and practice underscore the need for comprehensive interventions, collaboration, empowerment, and sustainable development. Future research directions include exploring the long-term impact of historical failures, intersectionality, the role of technology, mental health implications, and comparative analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0230.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Women Leadership; leadership development; identity; experience; role model; narrative; social; culture development
Online: 12 April 2023 (03:07:14 CEST)
This qualitative research study explores the experiences of three Emirati women who have achieved significant success in their higher education institutes in the (UAE). The study aims to understand how childhood and adolescent experiences shape the leadership development of these women, both positively and negatively. The study also includes interviews with family members and close colleagues of the participants to gain additional perspectives. The findings the importance of family support, role models, and mentors in shaping the leadership development of women in the UAE. The study also sheds light on the challenges and barriers that women face in leadership positions, including gender bias and discrimination. Overall, the study contributes to a deeper understanding of the experiences of Emirati women in leadership positions and provides insights into how to support their leadership development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0158.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: Sustainable Development; Sustainability; Sustainable development goals; Environmental Sustainability; Economic Sustainability; Social Sustainability
Online: 9 February 2023 (08:30:18 CET)
“Sustainable development” (SD) is a term that has gained prominence in the international dia-logue around development. Many, however, continue to misunderstand the concept, its principles, its development, and its operationalization. The wide variety of definitions and interpretations of SD lean toward institutional and social prerogatives rather than unifying the essence of the con-cept, which is rooted in conventional ideas and values. By delving deeper into the paradigm, its history, and its potential, this research sought to contribute to ongoing discussions about sus-tainable development. The literature was thoroughly analyzed using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) 2020. This historical and conceptual analysis sought to update the body of knowledge on sustainability and sustainable development by examining the metaphorical and epistemological underpinnings of SD’s various definitions, evolutions, and principles. The research concludes and argues that intergenerational justice, based on the environment, economy, and society, is the central tenet of the entire sustainable develop-ment argument. The focus and consideration of interested parties are moving from the protection of the environment to social sustainability. The future of SD is likely to continue to focus much more on the social pillar and integrate digitalization in implementing the SD concept, especially in the fourth industrial revolution. To promote ethical human behavior and activities worldwide, at national and local levels, decision-makers must be continuously cognizant of the interdepend-encies, direct interactions, and balance between the three core constructs of SD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0302.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aquatic Science Keywords: Development economics; China’s fishery industry; development quality; spatio-temporal differentiation; panel data
Online: 20 January 2022 (11:14:26 CET)
By reviewing the research of development economics in recent years, five key terms of ‘innovation, coordination, green, openness and sharing’ are extracted, corresponding to the five dimensions of the New Development Concept advocated by China. Based on this, an evaluation index system of the development quality of China's fishery industry is constructed. The spatio-temporal characteristics of China's fishery industry development quality were analyzed by using the provincial panel data from 2007 to 2017. The results show that: i) China's fishery industry overall development quality continues to grow, while the variation of provincial quality is also increasing, and the contribution of innovation quality and sharing quality is increasing, becoming an important sub-dimension leading the overall development quality.ii) there is a significant spatial dependence among provincial quality, and the significance is further strengthening. The Hangzhou Bay area and Bohai Bay area have gradually become a dual-core area where the high-quality development of China's fishery industry agglomeration, and the radiation from the dual-core area to the peripheral areas may still be in the process of enhancement. The spatial and temporal distribution of China’s fishery industry development quality keeps the trend of ‘from northeast to southwest’, which is almost parallel to Hu Huanyong line. The gravity center of its distribution is close to the gravity center of Chinese population and economy, and the development quality experienced a process from relatively concentrated to dispersed and then returned to concentrated, and the development speed in the later period was higher than that in the earlier period. iii) Capital accumulation level is the dominant positive influencing factors, while government support level is the dominant negative influencing factors respectively, and both have significant spatial differentiation among provinces.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0342.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Energy; Sustainable Development Goal 7; Sustainable Development Goals; Paris Agreement; 2030 agenda.
Online: 13 April 2021 (10:50:10 CEST)
Accessing energy in the world is crucial nowadays. Energy is an essential factor to achieve other SDGs including SDG7. However, the determination and evaluation of the relationship between different energy scenarios to achieve SDG 7 and other SDGs have not done yet. This paper seeks to fill this gap by investigating how energy seniors can contribute to achieving SDG 7 and other SDGs. Web of Science, ScienceDirect and Scopus databases were utilized for conduction a systematic review. A total finial 25 from 249 papers were filtered from 2015 to December 2020 via inclusion and exclusion criteria. This review involves six seniors of energy which primary linked to achieving the SDG 7 and other SDGs: modern energy 20% (n = 5/25), energy access 16% (n = 4/20), energy efficiency 8% (n= 2/16), renewable energy 28% (n= 7/14), energy services 8% (n= 2/7), and miscellaneous energy 20% (n= 5/5). This systematic review explores the opportunities, constraints and limitations, recommendations, and new directions. The results show that different energy scenarios contribute to achieving mainly (SDG7) and other SDGs. The outcomes from this systematic review provide a sense of direction for future researchers for future studies in this domain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0207.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: Green Initiatives; Economic Growth; Social Development; Green Economic Development Plan; Financial Performance
Online: 5 November 2020 (10:25:02 CET)
This study was conducted to propose the Green Economic Development Plan for Manufacturing S.M.E.s based on financial performance and operations thru Green Initiatives. The descriptive survey method used to gather data to determine the green initiative's implementation of small and medium (S.M.E.s) manufacturing enterprises. Green initiatives use as a basis for crafting a green economic development plan. Document analysis was also employed to obtain data from any available printed materials and records provided by the respondents. Such methods of gathering information used to validate data gathered from local and foreign-related literature. The observation also employed to survey the assets owned and validate any green initiatives practiced, including their implementation. The study's findings show that among the green initiatives implemented by SMMEs, which resulted in the reduction of total costs and expenses, were the proper disposal and segregation of waste materials, water management by recycling wastewater and using water-efficient equipment, natural resources, and raw materials management. SMMEs should encourage active participation and support of suppliers and customers in achieving G.E.D.'s objectives by developing incentive schemes.Furthermore, SMMEs should continue to benchmark with G.E.D. Practitioners are operating locally and abroad to adopt best greening strategies and regularly network with concerned government agencies for continuous updating on G.E.D. Initiatives that may benefit the firm. Further research may be conducted on green initiatives implemented by small and medium enterprises in other industry sectors.