ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0787.v4
Online: 3 October 2022 (12:14:56 CEST)
Hospital bed shortage is a worldwide concern. Beds unavailability has caused elective surgery cancellations, at our hospital peaking in spring 2016 at over 50%. This is often due to difficult patient step-down from intensive care (ICU) and high-dependency units (HDU). In our general/digestive surgery service admitting approximately 1000 patients yearly, ward rounds were run on a consultant firm basis. We report a quality improvement (ISRCTN13976096) introducing in our service a structured daily multi-disciplinary board round framework (SAFER Surgery R2G) adapted from the “SAFER patient flow bundle” and the "Red to Green days” approaches to enhance flow, comparing the previous year to 2017, when our framework was applied for 12 months.We used a Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) methodology. Our intervention consisted in 1) systematic communication of the key care plan after the afternoon ward rounds to the nurse in charge; 2) 30’ 10AM Monday-to-Friday multidisciplinary board rounds, attended daily by the senior-team and weekly by hospital and site managers, revising the key care plan aiming at safe, early discharges, assessing the appropriateness of each inpatient day and tackling any cause of delay. We measured patient flow by average length of stay (LOS), ICU/HDU step-downs and operation cancellations count, monitoring safety through early 30-day readmissions. Compliance was assessed by board round attendance and staff satisfaction rate surveys.After 12 months (PDSA 2, N=1032), LOS significantly decreased from 7.2(±8.9) to 6.3(±7.4) days (p=0.003); ICU/HDU bed step-down flow increased by 9.3% from 345 to 375 (p=0.197), surgery cancellations dropped from 38 to 15 (p=0.100). 30-day re-admissions increased from 0.9% (N=9) to 1.3% (N=14)(p=0.390). Average cross-specialty attendance was 80%. Satisfaction rates were >75%, regarding enhanced teamwork and faster decisions.The SAFER Surgery R2G framework has shown an increase in patient flow in the context of an enhanced multidisciplinary approach, requiring senior staff commitment to remain sustainable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0036.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: patient engagement; stakeholder engagement; patient group engagement; prioritization tool; patient engagement activities
Online: 3 July 2020 (12:15:23 CEST)
Patient group engagement is increasingly used to inform the design, conduct, and dissemination of clinical trials and other medical research activities. However, the priorities of industry sponsors and patient groups differ, and there is currently no framework to help these groups identify mutually beneficial engagement activities. Methods: We conducted 28 qualitative, semi-structured interviews with representatives from research sponsor organizations (n=14) and patient groups (n=14) to determine: 1) how representatives define benefits and investments of patient group engagement in medical product development and, 2) to refine a list of 31 predefined patient group engagement activities. Results: Patient group and sponsor representatives described similar benefits: engagement activities can enhance the quality and efficiency of clinical trials by improving patient recruitment and retention, reduce costs, and help trials meet expectations of regulators and payers. All representatives indicated that investments include both dedicated staff time and expertise, and financial resources. Factors to consider when evaluating benefits and investments were also identified as were suggestions for clarifying the list of engagement activities. Discussion: Using these findings, we refined the 31 engagement activities to 24 unique activities across the medical product development lifecycle. We also developed a web-based prioritization tool (https://prioritizationtool.ctti-clinicaltrials.org/) to help clinical research sponsors and patient groups identify high priority engagement activities. Use of this tools can help sponsors and patient groups identify the engagement activities that they believe will provide the most benefit for the least investment and may lead to more meaningful and mutually beneficial partnerships in medical product development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0336.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: health literacy; patient health engagement model; Health Care Climate Questionnaire; patient autonomy; PHE-s; Patient Health Engagement Scale; health communication; patient centered communication; patient engagement
Online: 28 January 2020 (10:29:43 CET)
Individuals with low health literacy (HL) are known to have poorer health outcomes and to have higher mortality rates compared to individuals with higher HL: hence, the improvement of HL is a key outcome in modern healthcare systems. Healthcare providers are therefore asked to support patients’ literacy skills by encouraging the implementation of autonomy-supportive patient centered communication (PCC), which in turn requires the enhancement of patient engagement. Our main hypothesis is that the well-known relationship between autonomy-supportive PCC and HL is mediated by patient engagement which is known to play a role in HL promotion and that is related to PCC as well. The purpose of this study was to formulate a hypothetical structural equation model (SEM) linking PCC to patient engagement and HL. A cross-sectional survey design was employed involving 1007 Italian chronic patients. The hypothetical model was tested using SEM to verify the hypothesized mediation of patient engagement between PCC and HL. Results show that the theoretical model has a good fit indexes and that patient engagement fully mediates the relationship between PCC and HL. This finding suggests healthcare systems to implement a new paradigm where patients are supported to play an autonomous role in their own healthcare.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0285.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: patient empowerment; home-administration; patient preferences; adherence; biologics
Online: 17 December 2021 (11:06:55 CET)
Severe asthma patients are at increased risk of major exacerbations and they need to be monitored regularly. The COVID-19 pandemic has impressively impacted on the health care resources. The telemedicine approach applied to the follow-up of asthmatic patients has been proved to be effective in monitoring their disease and adherence to the therapy. The aim of our study was to investigate the satisfaction of severe asthma patients, before the activation of a telemedicine management complemented by a standard of care. An ad hoc questionnaire was developed and sent by e-mail to 180 severe asthma patients. Most of subjects (82%) were confident with the idea of doing self-measurements and self-managing their disease; 77% of subjects favoured to carry out virtual visit and telemedicine. 93% of patients considered easy the self-injection therapy. 94% of subjects felt safe and 93% were not worried while self-administering. Only mild adverse events were reported in 22% subjects after self-administration. Our results showed an agreement between what is considered necessary and practicable by healthcare personnel and what is perceived by the severe asthma patients, in terms of treatment and monitoring of the disease with Telehealth. Biologics have a safety profile and can be easily self-administred at home
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0213.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Toxicity; Diagnosis; Personal care; Patient encounter; Patient-based medicine
Online: 16 May 2022 (14:06:25 CEST)
Clinicians are key in reclaiming the medical arts ceded to clinically irrelevant technology and thereby aligning patient with fast-changing biological realities. Narrowing the chasm between virtual and real perceptions of health hazards requires: 1) becoming acutely aware of the habitat loss aggravating the pervasive dissemination of chemicals via conventional food, air, and consumer products and the proliferation of non-ionizing radiation; and 2) making strategic use of slow, system 2 thinking so as to respond wisely to the rampant epidemics of chronic low-dose toxicity disregarded or misdiagnosed for half a century. To respond adaptively, take a moment during each patient encounter to add chronic ambient poisoning to the differential diagnosis and investigate subtle symptoms and signs of irritation in vulnerable organ systems. Enacting adaptive response across our profession could ease the suffering of millions, help avert the sixth extinction, and contribute to continuation of evolved life as we know it.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0263.v3
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: chronic obstructive; patient discharge; patient care team; personalized care; interdisciplinary health team; patient safety; pulmonary disease; pulmonary medicine
Online: 14 July 2021 (09:58:17 CEST)
Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) often require frequent hospitalization due to worsening symptoms. Preventing prolonged hospital stay and readmission becomes a challenge for healthcare professionals treating patients with COPD. Although the integration of health and social care supports greater collaboration and enhanced patient care, organizational structure and poor leadership may hinder the implementation of patient-oriented goals. This paper presents a case of a 64-year-old chronic smoker with severe COPD who was to be discharged on long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT). It further highlights the healthcare decisions made to ensure the patient’s safety at home and further provides a long-lasting solution to the existing medical and social needs. The goal was accomplished through a discharge plan that reflects multidisciplinary working, efficient leadership, and change management using Havelock’s theory. While COPD is characterized by frequent exacerbation and hospital readmission, it was emphasized that most failed discharges could be attributed to bureaucratic organizational workflow which might not be in the patient’s best interest. It was further demonstrated that healthcare professionals are likely to miss the window of opportunity to apply innovative and long-lasting solutions to the patient’s health condition in an attempt to remedy the immediate symptoms of COPD
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0230.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: patient empowerment; patient education; patient information; intensive care unit discharge; intensive care unit transition; nursing interventions, systematic review.
Online: 14 September 2021 (10:05:11 CEST)
Intensive care unit discharge is an important transition which impacts on patient wellbeing. Nurses can play an essential role in this scenario, potentiating patient empowerment. A systematic review was conducted using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses: the PRISMA Statement. Embase, PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) databases were evaluated in May 2021. Two independent reviewers analyzed the studies, extracted the data, and assessed the quality of evidence. Quality of the studies included was assessed using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. Of the 273 articles initially identified, eight randomized controlled trials reported nursing interventions mainly focused on patients’ ICU discharge preparation through information and education. The creation of ICU Nurse-Led and nurses’ involvement in critical care multidisciplinary teams also aimed to support patients during ICU discharge. This systematic review provides an update on clinical practice aimed at improving the patient experience during ICU discharge. The main nursing interventions were based on information and education, as well as the development of new nursing roles. Understanding transitional needs and patient empowerment are key to making the transition easier.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0269.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: patient centered care; physical therapy; professional-patient relations; therapeutic relationship; environment.
Online: 9 November 2020 (10:02:48 CET)
Currently, in the scientific literature there is a great interest on the study of strategies to implement patient-centered care. One of the main tools for this is the therapeutic relationship. Some studies suggest that the perception of the environment in which the physical therapy treatment takes place can influence the perception of its quality. A qualitative study using focus groups was performed. Two researchers conducted the focus groups, using a topic guide with predetermined questions. The focus group discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed thematically using a modified grounded theory approach. The setting was three hospitals and six public health centers located in Spain. The inclusion criteria were patients who had received a minimum of 15 physical therapy sessions and with no communication impairments. Thirty-one participants in four focus groups. Participants described a series of specific experiences relating to the environment, which they felt were influential in the establishment of therapeutic patient-centered relationships, including eight physical factors and five organizational factors. The results of this study highlight environmental factors that affect the quality of the therapeutic patient-centered relationship in physical therapy and emphasize the need for physical therapists and administrators to rethink the situation and propose strategies for improvement.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0680.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: patient activation; patient engagement, behavioral health change; self-administered therapy, oral oncolytic
Online: 28 June 2021 (15:32:14 CEST)
Oncology clinical pharmacists are uniquely positioned to make interventions to increase patient activation and engagement. To accomplish this goal, pharmacists can target health system-related, provider-related, and patient-related factors to help enhance patient-centered care and drive behavioral health changes. Interventions that pharmacists must tackle include educating team members and patients on the medication acquisition process, communicating urgency of treatment, optimizing workflows, facilitating guideline recommendations, preventing, and managing treatment toxicities, and promoting patient self-advocacy through education and shared decision-making. As crucial members of the healthcare team, oncology clinical pharmacists can simplify highly complex treatment regimens to facilitate and optimize patients’ ownership of their care. This review will focus on the example of venetoclax treatment in acute myeloid leukemia to demonstrate the impact that pharmacists provide that leads to behavioral change of patients and clinicians.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0020.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Anesthesiology Keywords: visual patient; patient monitoring; avatar-based technology; situation awareness; user-centered design
Online: 2 March 2020 (00:56:03 CET)
Visual Patient technology is a situation awareness–oriented visualization technology that translates numerical and waveform patient monitoring data into a new user-centered visual language. Vital sign values are converted into colors, shapes, and rhythmic movements—a language humans can easily perceive and interpret—on a patient avatar model in real time. In this review, we summarize the current state of the research on the Visual Patient, including the technology, its history, and its scientific context. We also provide a summary of our primary research and a brief overview of research work on similar user-centered visualizations in medicine. In several computer-based studies under various experimental conditions, Visual Patient transferred more information per unit time, increased perceived diagnostic certainty, and lowered perceived workload. Eye tracking showed the technology worked because of the way it synthesizes and transforms vital sign information into new and logical forms corresponding to the real phenomena. The technology could be particularly useful for improving situation awareness in settings with high cognitive demand or when users must make quick decisions. This comprehensive review of Visual Patient research is the foundation for an evaluation of the technology in clinical applications, starting with a high-fidelity simulation study in early 2020.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0202.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Clinical handover; Patient Handoff; Patient transfer; Referral and Consultation; Medical Records Systems; Computerized; Patient Safety; Risk Management; Attitude; Institutional Practice
Online: 31 May 2022 (07:14:42 CEST)
Background: Handover is a critical process for ensuring quality and safety in healthcare. Considerable research suggests that poor handover results in significant morbidity, mortality, dissatisfaction, and excess financial costs. Despite this, little formal attention, education, and evaluation has been given to handover. There is also paucity of data on the opinions of practitioners on the safety of handover.Objectives: The aim of this study was to measure the perceived risk, degree of patient harm and the systems used to support handover, and to understand how this varied by care setting, type of clinical practice, location, or level of experience. Methods: An open, anonymous and confidential online questionnaire covering: (a) respondent characteristics; (b) peer-to-peer handover; (c) internal referrals; (d) discharges and transfers between organisations; and (e) leading and improving handover was conducted with healthcare practitioners and managers from various settings. Results: We gathered a total of 432 completed responses from 26 countries. The average reported performance of handover was rated as 3.9 out of 5.For each type of handover, 12 - 14% reported errors occurring more than weekly. Of those that knew the outcome of such errors, between 29% and 34% reported that they had witnessed moderate or severe harm. 12% and 17% of respondents believed that handover was high or very high risk (See table 4). These respondents were more likely to have witnessed moderate or severe harm, or to be more senior.A wide combination of handover systems was utilised by respondents. 28% - 32% relied exclusively on EPRs (with or without face-to-face contact). 21% used Office documents such as Word and Excel for peer-to-peer handover, and over 30% used hand-written or manual systems. Conclusions: This study suggests the need to do more — and go further — to improve communication and reduce risk during all types of handovers. Clinical leaders should find ways to train and support handover with effective systems, with less experienced staff being the primary focus. More research is needed to demonstrate the interventions that improve the safety of handover.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0061.v1
Online: 3 February 2022 (15:44:38 CET)
HIV infection invariably attracts the attention of medical staff in complex medical specialties. To achieve the goal of elimination by 2020, various approaches are required, including the establishment of prevention, diagnosis, monitoring, treatment, control measures. These should be supported by statistical studies that report on restricted or extended geographical areas, to the level of social class and age. Such an approach, combing the medical and social science perspectives (medicosocial) can prove useful for developing control measures. Due to the complexity of this immunodeficiency pathology, the condition also attracts comorbidities (most notably tuberculosis). Hence, prospective strategies need to be developed and oriented towards the goal of eradicating HIV infection. This paper presents strategies for consideration.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0230.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: interprofessional collaboration; nurse; patient safety
Online: 8 April 2021 (10:29:07 CEST)
Patient safety is one of the indicators of the quality of health services in the hospital, for that, it is necessary to have efforts from the hospital to create a system that can minimize the occurrence of errors and unexpected events that can harm patients, nurses as health workers who are the most numerous in the home. sick and with the patient for 24 hours, has an important role in maintaining patient safety. This study aims to explain how the role of nurses and cooperation between health workers in implementing patient safety measures in the hospital. The method used in this study is a literature review by analyzing and exploring relevant articles and focusing on interprofessional collaboration to improve patient safety. The articles used in this study were taken from 3 direct, Proquest, Pubmed science databases published in the last 3 years, namely between 2019-2021, nurses as part of the health team are required to be able to work together with other health professionals in hospitals with various characteristics, including education, gender, age, employment status and length of work, nurses are required to be committed to maintaining patient safety in the hospital.
Online: 9 March 2020 (10:34:58 CET)
An outbreak caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) occurred in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China, in December 2019. Up to March 2, 2020, at least 80180 cases have been reported. Most of the patients had a history of visiting Hubei Province or contacting with people who had ever stayed in or passed by Hubei Province, or exposed to symptoms. Some patients got infected only from asymptomatic contacts. This study aimed to report the epidemic features and lab identification of a patient confirmed with COVID-19 infection only from asymptomatic contact.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0015.v1
Online: 1 February 2019 (10:53:15 CET)
Objective: To map the literature pertaining to adult Person-Centered Rehabilitation (PCR).Data Sources: Following our previously published scoping review protocol, data were identified through: three major databases, snowball searches and expert consultation.Study Selection: Two independent reviewers identified English-language papers which addressed adult physical rehabilitation and met one or more of the six pre-defined inclusion categories for PCR content. Data Extraction: Two independent reviewers extracted key characteristics of included papers (e.g. aims, methods, participants). Quantitative methods (descriptive statistics, regression analysis) and qualitative content analyses were used to synthesize the results. Data synthesis: Of 5084 unique records initially screened, 145 papers were included: 111 empirical, including 11 systematic reviews. Empirical papers had data from 13498 clients and 3849 providers, in total. Yearly publications grew exponentially from 2000 to 2017 (r²= 0.65; p<0.01). Publications were unevenly distributed by countries (e.g. United States’ publications per population size was 45 times lower than New Zealand’s). Most papers focused in more than one profession, setting-type or health conditions, respectively 57.2%, 66.2%, and 60.7%. Finally, more than half of the empirical papers (53.2%) studied implementation of PCR approaches, including its effect. Conclusion: This scoping review synthesizes key characteristics and publication trends in the PCR literature, which is mainly empirical and growing exponentially over time. Stakeholders can use the identified trends, gaps, and literature map to guide further PCR research, and both clinical and organizational practices. The high prevalence of papers focused on multiple professions, settings-type, or health conditions reinforces the need for developing a transdisciplinary, trans-service model of PCR, which will be derived from a thematic analysis of this body of literature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0066.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: ethics seminar; moral sensitivity; unethical behavior; nurse; Health care; patient; hospital; Patient safety; education
Online: 2 December 2020 (14:11:57 CET)
While nursing is an ethical profession, unethical behavior among nurses is increasing worldwide. This study examined the effects of an ethics seminar on nurses' moral sensitivity and ethical behavior. A total of 37 nurses (17 experimental, 20 control) were recruited. The ethics seminar was held over a 6-month period from May to October, 2018, and comprised six sessions held once a month for two hours. Moral sensitivity and unethical behavior were measured at the start and end of the seminar. Moral sensitivity and unethical behavior showed a negative correlation (r= -.455, p<0.01). After the ethics seminar, the experimental group's moral sensitivity was significantly increased (t = -1.039, p = 0.314). The mean scores of unethical behavior at pre and post-test in the experimental group were 12.59 and 9.47, respectively. This was a statistically significant difference (t = 3.118, p = 0.004). There was no statistically significant difference in the mean score in both moral sensitivity and unethical behavior in the control group. We conclude that ethics seminars can enhance moral sensitivity and reduce the risk of unethical behavior among nurses. Regular ethics seminars and training must be provided to nurses as a matter of policy.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: consumer health informatics; E-health; mobile Apps; outpatient follow-up; patient portal; patient-reported outcomes
Online: 2 April 2019 (12:32:10 CEST)
Replacement of fee-for-service with capitation arrangements, forces physicians and institutions to minimize health care costs, while maintaining high-quality care. In this report we describe how patients, their families (and caregivers) can work with members of the medical care team to achieve these twin goals of maintaining (and perhaps improving) high-quality care and minimizing costs. We describe how increased self-management enables patients and their families/caregivers to provide electronic patient-reported outcomes (i.e., symptoms, events) (ePROs) as frequently as the patient or the medical care team consider appropriate. These capabilities also allow greater reliance on the use of mobile technologies (mHealth) to provide ongoing assessments of physiologic measurements/phenomena. Remote surveillance of these communications allows longer intervals between (fewer) visits of patients to the medical-care team when this is appropriate and earlier interventions when that is appropriate. Systems are now available that alert medical care providers to situations when interventions might be needed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0131.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Patient education; health literacy; scientometric analysis
Online: 9 March 2022 (10:06:12 CET)
Therapeutic patient education (TPE) aims to empower the patients and their caregivers to effectively care for and manage their conditions. Such educational programs have been shown to improve health behaviors, disease outcomes and quality of life among different patient populations. The field of TPE has evolved extensively over decades, owing to interdisciplinary research. No study so far has been done to map this field, to identify the stakeholders and gaps requiring future research. By leveraging the theory of co-citation, Citespace was used to visualize the bibliographic data pertaining to TPE research. A total of 54,533 articles published in English language were analyzed to identify influential funders, regions and institutes contributing to this field. Besides these, important theoretical and empirical work that has shaped this field has also been mapped. Our analysis revealed several important insights. Most of the important theories which helped shape TPE were inspired from the social sciences. Five important themes of research were identified including disorders, study designs utilized in TPE research, scope of the TPE literature, and outcomes, and populations. The research focused on improving perceptions, behaviors, and attitudes for health promotion, reducing stigma as well as self-management and medication adherence. Most of the research was developed in the context of high income countries. The future research should more involve patients and use digital technology. Meta-analytical studies need to be done to identify the specificities of TPE interventions across different disorders. More research should involve low and middle income countries (LMIC) to ensure knowledge and technology transfer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0130.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Nursing Institutions; Patient Safety; Nursing Students
Online: 15 April 2021 (14:03:43 CEST)
Background: The level of students' understanding of the knowledge of patient safety concepts in infection prevention and control and awareness of treatment is in the low category. Clinical education that provides problem-based learning models in real areas helps students to better understand patient safety. This study is designed to analyze the evaluation and reflection of the role of nursing education institutions in the achievement of patient safety competencies by nursing students.Method: "Searching for articles in research journals is obtained from Sciencedirect, Ebscohost, Garuda, Proquest and Scopus. As many as 228 articles were obtained consisting of nursing journals and health journals with the keywords clinical education, competence, and patient safety. After that, the screening process was carried out based on the inclusion criteria and obtained 25 articles that met the criteria. "Results: the results of the evaluation show that there is a big role in educational institutions in designing curricula, learning models, and clinical education models in an effort to achieve patient safety competencies in nursing students.Conclusion: the learning model about patient safety organized by many educational institutions is considered ineffective in producing the achievement of patient safety competencies for nursing students. This makes it necessary to develop models, reform the patient safety curriculum that is embedded in real areas in clinical education practice
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0612.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Communication Skills; Dentist; Patient; Attitudes; Learning
Online: 29 October 2020 (12:46:09 CET)
The aim of the study was to determine the attitude of dentist toward learning communication skills and to recognize the factors influencing attitude toward learning communication skills. A cross-sectional study using a self-administered, 26-item, adapted Communication Skills Attitude Scale (CSAS) was carried out among dentist working in a public sector hospital in Qatar. Overall, two scores could be ascertained from the adapted CSAS: the mean positive attitude score (PAS) and negative attitude score (NAS). Non-parametric tests for statistical significance were utilized to assess relation between PAS and NAS scores and demographics. Fifty-nine dentists completed the survey giving an overall response rate of 53.6%. The mean (SD) PAS and NAS scores were 3.98 (SD=0.54) and 3.26 (SD=0.49) respectively. Female dentist was more positive towards learning communication skills than male. No statistically significant correlation was found between both PAS and NAS scores and respondents’ age. Dentists’ had both positive and negative attitudes towards learning communication skills. Considering the high NAS scores, it is recommended to introduce communication skills formal training sessions
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0146.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: pharmacy graduates; preparedness; patient care; Indonesia
Online: 30 December 2016 (06:12:04 CET)
Pharmacists’ roles in providing patient care remain limited in Indonesia, hence this study aimed to determine the preparedness of pharmacy graduates from one university in Indonesia to deliver patient care. Pharmacy graduates (both registered pharmacists  and recent graduates eligible for registration ) were sent a validated self-administered survey. The survey sought their perceptions about whether they had acquired 16 patient care related attributes. Further, it sought their opinion on the desirability of having those attributes. Data were analysed using SPSS version 22.0. Sixteen of 104 (15.4%) registered pharmacists and 40 of 45 (88.9%) recent pharmacy graduates participated in the study. More than 50% of participants in both groups were female and most participants were aged in their 20s. Of the recent pharmacy graduates the majority perceived they had at least partially acquired four of 16 list attributes. Male and female recent graduates had significantly different beliefs about their leadership ability (p=0.004). In comparison, most registered pharmacists perceived they had 10 out of the 16 listed attributes. The findings of this study suggested that pharmacy graduates should be better prepared to deliver patient care, and that curriculum redesign with expansion of experiential learning is required.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0372.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: IoT; OSA patient rescue system; Beidou indicator
Online: 17 September 2020 (04:19:35 CEST)
This paper presents an OSA patient interactive monitoring system based on the Internet of Things (IoT) framework. This system allows OSA patients to get timely rescue when they are sleepy outside. Because the Beidou position marker has an interactive function, it can reduce the anxiety of the patient while waiting for the rescue. At the same time, if a friend helps the OSA patients to call the doctor, the friend can also report the patient's condition in time. This system uses the popular IoT framework. At the bottom is the data acquisition layer, which uses wearable sensors to collect vital signs from patients, with a focus on ECG and SpO2 signals. The middle layer is the network layer that transmits the collected physiological signals to the Beidou indicator using the Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) protocol. The top layer is the application layer, and the application layer uses the mature rescue interactive platform of Beidou. Since the GPS indicator has not included the communication satellite, So it has no SMS function. OSA patients can only passively wait for a rescue. Moreover, due to the lack of satellites in Asia and the insufficient density of the ground-enhanced system, the positioning error of OSA patients is large. The Beidou system developed by China itself, the main coverage of the satellite is in Asia, and is equipped with a high-density ground-based augmentation system. Therefore, the Beidou model improves the positioning accuracy and is equipped with a special communication satellite, which increases the short message interaction function. Therefore, patients can report disease progression in time while waiting for a rescue. After our simulation test, the effectiveness of the OSA patient rescue monitoring system based on the Internet of Things framework and the positioning accuracy of OSA patients have been greatly improved. Especially when OSA patients work outdoors, the cell phone base station signal coverage is relatively weak. The satellite signal is well covered, plus the SMS function of the Beidou indicator. Therefore, the system can be used to provide timely patient progress and provide data support for the medical rescue team to provide a more accurate rescue plan. After a comparative trial, the rescue rate of OSA patients using the detection device of this system was increased by 15 percentage points compared with the rescue rate using only GPS satellite phones.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0104.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: attitudes; clinicians; hospital; in-patient; obesity; perceptions
Online: 4 September 2020 (12:27:25 CEST)
While obesity is recognized as a key global public health issue, there has been no research to date on the perceptions of care for people with this condition held by individuals in positions of organizational power. The aim of this study was therefore to describe the perceptions and experiences of clinical leaders and managers of providing care to inpatients with obesity at a metropolitan public health service. This study applied an interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) approach to qualitative research, conducting interviews with 17 participants. Their perceptions of care for inpatients with obesity encompassed both their personal understanding as an individual, and their observations about the organizational, patient and carer perspectives. Three overall themes were identified: 1) The problem of inpatients with obesity, 2) Inpatients with obesity as sources of risk and 3) Personal and professional perceptions of inpatients with obesity. While clinical leaders and managers were aware of potential impact of stigma and weight bias on the care given to this cohort, elements of implicit bias, stereotyping, ‘othering’ and ambivalence were frequently present in the data. Ongoing efforts to improve care for patients with obesity must therefore include efforts to address perceptions and attitudes at all organisational levels of the workforce.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0231.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: patient confidentiality; privacy; data protection; Saudi Arabia
Online: 22 August 2019 (10:50:10 CEST)
The concept of patient confidentiality is nearly as old as the practice of health professions and, has evolved and transformed over the years, from one jurisdiction to the other. Patient confidentiality can be a fundamental human right, an ethical duty or, a legal duty. The Saudi laws have evolved around its Shari’ah-based legal culture, its history and the international human right laws (IHRLs). These elements have moulded the Saudi Arabia’s unique perspective on patient confidentiality. Its confidentiality laws are found scattered in several legislations. Is the Saudi patient confidentiality law able to adequately deal with the contemporary challenges? The study reviewed the relevant Saudi laws in the light the International Humana Rights Laws. Findings suggest that there are issues bordering on the lack of quality comprehensive data protection laws, on clarity and foreseeability of the existing laws, and on the accessibility of the courts. Furthermore, the lack of a system of law reporting and stare decisis potentially gave the judges a wider latitude of discretion in interpreting the laws. Therefore, the study recommends for a comprehensive data protection law with a clear definition of “confidential information”, of data controllers and their role, and of specific safeguards against potential abuses. Others include defining legitimate purposes for using the patient’s data, and his role, and the extent to which he can control the use of his own data. Consistency in legal interpretations, and an improved law reporting system could positively enhance the overall outcome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0513.v1
Subject: Keywords: Malawi, HIV, tuberculosis, anti-retroviral therapy, surveillance, patient monitoring, epidemic trends, drug supply, unique patient identifiers, data analysis
Online: 27 September 2018 (15:29:43 CEST)
Malawi has developed an excellent, nation-wide system for monitoring people infected with HIV and keeping track of key epidemic markers. Their success lies in two things: the focus on simplicity and the use of data collection not only to track the epidemic and identify problems but also to give regular feedback and support to every clinic in the country. This achievement is the more remarkable given that Malawi is one of the poorest countries in the world, ranking 190 out of 194 countries by GDP, but has one of the most severe epidemics of HIV in the world, ranking 9th out of 168 countries by HIV prevalence. We first discuss the current state and likely future epidemic trends in Malawi: unless we know where we are and where we are going we cannot decide what to do or how to do it to in order to achieve a better outcome. We then discuss the history and development of Malawi’s patient monitoring system, as reported in their Integrated HIV Program Reports,ix which have been published quarterly since the beginning of 2004. We consider the current state of patient monitoring and support as reflected in the most recent report for the third quarter (Q3) of 2016 and comment on some of the questions that this raises. Finally, we consider ways in which the current system could be improved by strengthening Malawi’s analytical capacity and making better use of this unique data set. The focus here is on HIV in adultsv because if ART is initiated early in all adults living with HIV this should include testing all pregnant women for HIV and starting them on treatment immediately. However, PMTCT is especially important and care must be given to reducing MTCT and identifying the long-term child survivors of mother-to-child transmission and this demands a complementary assessment. There is an ongoing debate about the relative merits of treatment and prevention in reducing transmission and it should be made clear that the primary reason for starting people on treatment early is that it is in the best interest of the individual patient to start treatment as soon as possible after becoming infected. Allowing a person’s immune system to deteriorate to any degree is not consistent with the clinician’s commitment to ‘first do no harm’ and even those with the highest CD4+ cell count are at a substantially increased risk of death. What matters, therefore, is to get as many people as possible onto ART, ensure that they remain virally suppressed, and consider prevention in this context.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0228.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Hospital management; Tertiary care; healthcare; Administration; Patient experience
Online: 13 December 2022 (06:45:10 CET)
Patients satisfaction with fast and high-quality services is the most important in the healthcare settings and specially in outpatient departments and private clinics. High quality services on health sector are indicated by continuous quality improvement (CQI). CQI is a progressive incremental process focused on safety of all participants, outcomes, systematic process, regulated and improved working environment at the later than earlier stages. Among the various suggested strategies, we adopted the patents feedback to improve the quality of services our clinic. All of the patient visited hospital were sent a massage on mobile and requested to provide their feedback on our services. Roughly around 5% of all visitors responded and filled up questionnaire. Majority of them were satisfied with the services in various department. However, they provided us some suggestions to identify the further gaps and improve the services in improving patients experience at our clinic. We considered their feedback, identified problems, redesigned the policies and implemented. After implementation of new strategies, we preliminary again evaluated the patients’ feedback on our services. Patients feedback explores that optimized methods of services for the has considerably increased the patients’ satisfaction. Taken together, our this shows that patients’ feedback is very important factor to improve patients’ experience at outpatient clinics using continuous quality improvement tools. For that reason, this study would serve as reference for public health stack holders, administrators and researchers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0009.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: hypovitaminosis D; cholecalciferol; calcifediol; vitamin D; older patient
Online: 1 November 2021 (11:31:26 CET)
The aim of this single-center, open-label, non-controlled randomized study was to evaluate which formulation of vitamin D between cholecalciferol and calcifediol is most effective in the treatment of hypovitaminosis D in older adults. Demographic characteristics, clinical history and comprehensive geriatric assessment were recorded at admission. Eligible patients randomly received an equivalent vitamin D supplement either with cholecalciferol or calcifediol from hospital admission to three months after discharge. Among the 140 older patients included (mean age 83±6.6, 57.8% females), 69 received cholecalciferol and 71 calcifediol. The mean plasma values of 25OH-Vitamin D3 found at the enrollment were 16.8 ± 9.9 ng/mL in patients receiving cholecalciferol and 18.8 ± 13.3 ng/mL in those treated with calcifediol (p =0.31). At the 3-month follow up, the mean concentration of 25OH-Vitamin D3 was significantly higher in patients treated with calcifediol than in patients treated with cholecalciferol (respectively, 30.7 ± 8.4 vs 45.4 ± 9.8 ng/mL, p <0.001). Supplementation with cholecalciferol or calcifediol results in both cases effective in reaching optimal circulating values of 25OH-VitaminD3 in the older patients suffering from hypovitaminosis D. However, supplementation with calcifediol led to average circulating values of 25OH- VitaminD3 significantly higher (over 50%) than those obtained with cholecalciferol.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Validation; communication; questionnaire; healthcare attention; patient satisfaction; nursing.
Online: 25 March 2019 (10:40:45 CET)
Background: Healthcare attention is sometimes considered purely technical, but communication has proven to be closely related to clinical results and patient satisfaction. Therefore, evaluation of communication in the scope of healthcare is a priority. The purpose of this study was to validate and adapt, if necessary, the Spanish version of the Communication Styles Inventory (CSI) in a sample of nursing professionals. (2) Methods: The sample was made up of 2313 nursing professionals selected at random from various medical centers in Spain, and is therefore a sample actively employed at the time data were acquired. We started out from the Communication Style Inventory, a questionnaire for evaluating the predominance of certain individual communication behaviors on six scales (expressiveness, preciseness, verbal aggressiveness, questioningness, emotionality and impression manipulativeness). (3) Results: Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the model proposed showed god fit indices. The reliability of the model shown by the Cronbach’s alpha of α=.81 was adequate, and so was single-level and aggregate consistency. Finally, in the analysis of variance by type of contract, configural, metric and scalar invariance was acceptable, but not strict invariance. (4) Conclusions: This instrument progresses in measuring non-technical attributes, such as communication styles, in nursing personnel.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0103.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Patient Safety Climate Attitudes, Hospital Emergency Department, Qualitative
Online: 12 February 2019 (11:36:02 CET)
Introduction: The attitudes of doctors and nurses toward patient safety is a significant factor in hospital safety climates and medical error rates. Yet, there are very few studies of patient safety attitudes in Saudi hospitals and none conducted in hospital emergency departments. Aims: The current study aims to investigate the discrepancy between the patient safety attitudes of doctors and nurses in a Saudi hospital emergency department. Materials and Method: The study employed a qualitative research designvia semi-structured interviews with Saudi and non-Saudi doctors and nurses working in a Saudi hospital emergency department to determine their attitudes and experiences about the patient safety climate. Results: The findings showed doctors and nurse held some similar safety attitudes, however, nurses reported issues with doctors with respect to their teamwork, communication, and patient safety attitudes. Moreover, several barriers to the patient safety climate were identified such as limits to resources, teamwork, communication, and incident reporting. Conclusion: The findings provide one of the few research contributions to knowledge on the differential patient safety attitudes of Saudi and non-Saudi doctors and nurses and suggest the application of such knowledge would enhance positive patient outcomes in emergency departments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0164.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: pre-hospital emergency; review; qualitative study; patient satisfaction
Online: 25 December 2017 (06:41:26 CET)
Objective. To describe patient satisfaction with pre-hospital emergency knowledge and determine if patients and professionals share a common vision on the satisfaction predictors. Methods. A qualitative study conducted in two phases. First, a systematic review following the PRISMA protocol was carried out searching publications between January 2000 and July 2016 in Medline, Scopus, and Cochrane. Second, three focus groups involving professionals (advisers and healthcare providers) and a total of 79 semi-structured interviews involving patients were conducted to obtain information about what dimensions of care were a priority for patients. Results. Thirty-three relevant studies were identified. A majority conducted in Europe using questionnaires. They pointed out a very high level of satisfaction of callers and patients. Delay with the assistance and the ability for resolution of the case are the elements that overlap in fostering satisfaction. The published studies neither reviewed the overall care process nor related the measurement of the real time in responding to an emergency with the satisfaction. The patients and professionals concurred in their assessments about the most relevant elements for patient satisfaction, although safety was not a predictive factor for patients. Response capacity and perceived capacity for resolving the situation were crucial factors for satisfaction. This qualitative approach yielded assistance targets to be improved. Conclusions. Published studies have assessed similar dimensions of satisfaction. Furthermore, despite the fact that few explanations may be given due to the no face to face attention, taking into account the patient’s emotional needs or maintaining contact with the patient until the emergency services arrive are high predictors of the satisfaction.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0254.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: dental care; emotions; health personnel; health services; human needs; motivation; patient reported outcome measures; patient satisfaction; personal satisfaction; theory of satisfaction
Online: 11 September 2020 (09:44:11 CEST)
There is little understanding of patients' experiences and perceptions with satisfaction by health professionals such as medical and dental clinicians. Furthermore, patient satisfaction is not well understood. The objective of this article is to better understand patients' satisfaction with their medical and dental care. The methods of the current article are based on a narrative review of the literature strategy. Patient satisfaction's multidimensional nature has been established since the perceived reasons for satisfaction varied widely among patients. Many aspects of the treatment influence participant satisfaction at different stages of the intervention's process. An improved understanding of the basis for managing patients' expectations with information reiteratively and efficiently may ultimately reduce patients' potential for negative feelings toward the medical and dental treatment experience. The consumerist method may misrepresent the concept of satisfaction in health service.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0192.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: errors; culture; quality improvement; patient safety; management; clinics; outpatient
Online: 8 July 2021 (10:44:33 CEST)
As many as 20-25% of the population experiences harm in outpatient settings, yet these locations are underrepresented in the literature compared to hospitals. We examined results from the Medical Office Survey on Patient Safety Culture designed by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. The survey administered in 2012 gathered perceptions from 23,679 individuals in 934 unique medical offices. We examined associations of organizational patient safety climate composites on frequency of safety and quality issues, overall quality score, and safety rating. We found organizational patient safety composites are all positively and significantly associated with a higher overall quality score and patient safety rating, and fewer safety and quality issues. Office processes and standardization appeared to have the most consistent influence on perceived quality outcomes. Our results indicate it may be advantageous for medical offices to improve on the factors that contribute to positive safety climate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0318.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Treatment adherence; child; adolescent; trend; outpatient clinic; new patient
Online: 14 May 2021 (08:48:07 CEST)
This study analysed trends of first-time patients visiting the paediatric psychiatry clinic in a university hospital. The medical records from 2009 to 2016 of first-time patients visiting the Kyung Hee university hospital were reviewed, focusing on children in grades 1–12. We analysed the prevalence rate of psychiatric disorders per 100,000 general populations by gender and grade, and the characteristics of patients who sought outpatient care more than three times. The study included 1,467 participants, of which 931 were males (63.5%). The number of male patients per 100,000 populations significantly decreased from 4.14 in 2009 to 2.03 in 2016. While hyperkinetic disorders had the highest prevalence in males, neurotic disorders were most frequent in females. Prevalence of disruptive behaviour disorders in males and mental retardations in females decreased significantly during the study period. The factors affecting continuity were being female, studying in grades 7–12, and diagnosis of depressive, hyperkinetic, and tic disorders. Physicians should consider the new paediatric patients’ gender, grade, and expected diagnosis from their first visit to improve treatment compliance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0167.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: Heart arrest; optic nerve sheath diameter; Patient outcome assessment
Online: 10 May 2021 (10:51:42 CEST)
Optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) can help predict the neurologic outcome of patients with post-cardiac arrest (CA) return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). We aimed to investigate the effect of ONSD changes before and after CA on neurologic outcomes in patients with ROSC after CA using brain computed tomography (CT). The study included patients hospitalized after CA, who had undergone pre- and post-CA brain CT from January 2001 to September 2020. The patients were divided into good and poor neurologic outcome (GNO and PNO, respectively) groups based on the neurologic outcome at hospital discharge. We performed between-group comparisons of the amount and rate of ONSD changes on brain CT and calculated the area under the curve (AUC) to determine their predictive value for neurologic outcomes. Among the 96 enrolled patients, 25 had GNO. Compared to the GNO group, the PNO group showed significantly higher amount (0.30 vs. 0.63 mm; p=0.030) and rate of change (5.26 vs. 12.29 %; p=0.041). The AUC for predicting PNO was 0.64 (95% CI=0.53–0.73; p=0.04) and patients with a rate of ONSD change >27.2% had PNO with 100% specificity and positive predictive value. Hence, ONSD changes may predict neurologic outcomes in patients with post-CA ROSC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0257.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: information media; video; patient’ knowledge; antibiotic use; antibiotic resistance
Online: 9 April 2021 (10:23:20 CEST)
Irrational use or misuse of antibiotics, particularly by outpatients, increases antibiotic resistance. A lack of public knowledge about ‘Responsible use of antibiotics’ and ‘How to obtain antibiotics’ is a major cause of this. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of an educational video about antibiotics and antibiotics use to increase outpatient's knowledge in two public hospitals in East Java, Indonesia. A quasi-experimental research setting was used with a one-group pretest-posttest design, carried out from November 2018 to January 2019. The study population consisted of outpatients, to whom antibiotics were prescribed, in two public hospitals in East Java, Indonesia. Participants were selected using a purposive sampling technique; 98 outpatients at MZ General Hospital in S regency and 96 at SG General Hospital in L regency were included. A questionnaire was used to measure the respondents’ knowledge and consisted of five domains, i.e. definition of infections and antibiotics, obtaining the antibiotics, directions of use, storage instructions, antibiotic resistance. The knowledge test score was the total score of the Guttman scale (a dichotomy of ‘yes’ or ‘no’ answers). To determine the significance of the difference in knowledge before and after providing the educational video and in the knowledge score between hospitals, the (paired) Student’s t-test was applied. The educational videos significantly improved outpatients' knowledge, which increased with 41% in MZ General Hospital and 42% in SG General Hospital. An educational video is a useful method to improve the knowledge of the outpatients regarding antibiotics.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: communication; patient safety; obstetrics; midwifery; intervention; training; interprofessional; learning
Online: 24 December 2020 (07:59:04 CET)
(1) Background: Obstetric work requires good communication, which can be trained in interventions targeting health care providers and pregnant women/ patients. This systematic review aims to aggregate the current state of research on communication interventions in obstetrics. (2) Methods: Using the PICOS scheme, studies published in peer-reviewed journals in English or German between 2000 and 2020 were searched. Out of 7,018 results, 71 studies were included in this synthesis and evaluated using the Oxford Level of Evidence Scale. (3) Results: 63 studies, including a communication component, revealed a positive effect on different proximal outcomes (i.e., communication skills). Three studies evaluating the effect of communication training on distal performance indicators (i.e., patient safety) proved to be beneficial to some extent. Most studies included different groups at the same time; those addressing health care providers were more common than those with students (61 vs. 12). Expectant mothers were targeted only in 9 studies. Overall, the evidence level of studies was low (only 11 RCTs), with 24 studies evidence level of I-II, 35 of III, and 10 of IV. (4) Conclusions: Communication training should be applied more often to improve communication of staff, students, and pregnant women, and thereby improve patient safety.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0130.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Anesthesiology Keywords: state entropy; response entropy; general anaesthesia; patient safety; recovery.
Online: 10 February 2020 (15:24:34 CET)
Study background and aims: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is one of the most frequently performed interventions in departments of general surgery. One of the most important aims in achieving perioperative stability of these patients is diminishing the impact of general anesthesia on the hemodynamic stability and the optimization of anesthetic drug doses based on the individual clinical profile of each patient. The objective of this study is the evaluation of the impact monitoring the depth of anesthesia through Entropy (state entropy – SE and response entropy -RE) has on the hemodynamic stability and on the doses of volatile anesthetic. Material and Methods: This is a prospective, observational, randomized, monocentric study carried out between January 2019 and December 2019 in the Clinic of Anesthesia and Intensive Care from the “Pius Brînzeu” Emergency County Hospital in Timișoara, Romania. The patients included in the study were divided in two study groups; patients in Group A (target group) received multimodal monitoring that included monitoring of standard parameters and of Entropy (SE and RE), while patients in Group B (control group) only received standard monitoring. Anesthetic dose in group A were optimized to achieve a target entropy of 40-60. Results: 68 patients met the inclusion criteria and were allocated to one of the two study groups, Group A (N=43) and Group B (N=25). There were no statistically significant differences identified between the two groups for both demographical and clinical data (p>0.05). Statistically significant differences have been identified for the number of hypotensive episodes (p = 0.011, 95% CI 0.1851 to 0.7042) and for the number of episodes of bradycardia (p < 0.0001, 95% CI 0.3296 to 0.7923). Moreover, there was a significant difference in the Sevoflurane consumption between the two study groups (p = 0.0498, 95% CI -0.3942 to 0.9047). Conclusions: The implementation of the multimodal monitoring protocol that includes the standard parameters and the measurement of Entropy for determining the depth of anesthesia (SE and RE) lead to a considerable improvement in perioperative hemodynamic stability. Optimizing the doses of anesthetic drugs based on the individual clinical profile of each patient leads to a considerable decrease in drug consumption as well as to a lower incidence of hemodynamic side-effects.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0081.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; micrometastatic niche; Patient with Cancer
Online: 3 August 2022 (10:22:20 CEST)
In previous clinical studies, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in patients with cancer has a high risk of aggravation and mortality than in healthy infected individuals. The inoculation with the COVID-19 vaccine reduces the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID- 19 severity. However, vaccination-induced production of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies is said to be lower in patients with cancer than in healthy individuals. Additionally, the rationale for why patients with cancer become more severe with COVID-19 is not well understood. Therefore, we examined the infection status of SARS-CoV-2 in primary tumor and micrometastasis tissues of patients with cancer and COVID-19. In this study, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) expression was observed, and SARS-CoV-2 particles were detected in ovarian tissue cells in contact with the micrometastatic niche of high-grade serous ovarian cancer. We believe that more severe COVID-19 cases in patients with cancer may be attributed to these pathological features.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0342.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Artificial Intelligence; Data Science; HealthCare Applications; Machine Learning; Patient Attitudes
Online: 20 September 2021 (15:51:54 CEST)
Today, across the most critical problems faced by hospitals and health centers are those caused by the existence of patients who do not attend their appointments. Among others, this practice generates waste of resources and increases the patients’ waiting list. To handle these problems, hospitals are actively trying to implement methods to reduce the idle time caused by patient no-shows. Many scheduling systems developed require predicting whether a patient will show up for an appointment or not. Although, a challenging problem resides in obtaining these estimates precisely. The goal of this work is to analyze how objective factors influence a patient not to attending their appointment, to identify the main causes that contribute to a patient’s decision, and to be able to predict whether or not the patient will attend the scheduled appointment. As a result, the obtained model is tested on a real dataset collected in a health center linked to the University of Vale do Itajaí (UNIVALI), which includes 25 features and about 5000 samples. The algorithm that produced the best results for the available dataset is the Random Forest classifier. It reveals the best recall rate (0.91), since it measures the ability of a classifier to find all the positive instances and achieves a receiver operating characteristic curve rate of 0.969.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0108.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Urology Keywords: Acute Cystitis Symptom Score; cystitis; patient-reported outcome; questionnaire; women
Online: 6 September 2021 (17:02:05 CEST)
The Acute Cystitis Symptom Score (ACSS) is a patient self-reporting questionnaire for the clinical diagnosis and patient-reported outcome (PRO) in women with acute uncomplicated cystitis (AC). The aim of the current study (part II) was the clinical validation of the Greek ACSS questionnaire. After linguistic validation according to internationally accepted guidelines and cognitive assessment (part I), the clinical validation was performed after ethical approval by using the Greek ACSS study version in 92 evaluable female participants including 53 patients with symptoms suspicious of AC and 39 controls. The clinical outcome using the ACSS questionnaire at different time points after the start of treatment was demonstrated as well. The age (mean±SD) of the 53 patients (44.7±17.0) and 39 controls (49.3±15.9) and their additional conditions at baseline visits, such as menstruation, premenstrual syndrome, pregnancy, menopause, diabetes mellitus, were comparable. There was, however, a significant difference (p<0.001) between patients and controls at baseline visit regarding sum score of the ACSS domains, such as typical symptoms and quality of life. The clinical outcome of up to 7 days showed a fast reduction of the symptom scores and improvement of quality of life. The optimal thresholds for the patient-reported outcome of successful therapy could be established. The linguistically and clinically validated Greek ACSS questionnaire can now be used for clinical or epidemiological studies and also for patient’s self-diagnosis of AC and as a PRO measure tool.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0384.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: quality; just culture; patient safety; nurses; hospital; measuring instrument validation
Online: 26 March 2020 (07:24:55 CET)
Purpose: "Just culture" is an element of safety culture, and in a broader sense – a part of quality culture. It is the subject of studies, especially in healthcare. This phenomenon is almost unknown in Polish medical facilities. For this reason, the aim of the article is to present the essence and significance of "just culture" in healthcare. The other aim of the research is to present the results of the validation of "just culture" assessment instrument used to recognize the "just culture" maturity level and evaluate the nurses’ beliefs and behaviours in the light of "just culture" criteria. Methodology/Approach: The verified questionnaire consisted of 28 statements in relation to which respondents expressed their opinion on a 5-point Likert scale. The questionnaire was distributed among nurses in one of the largest hospitals in Pomorskie Voivodeship, in Poland. The results based on 68 responses were statistically processed with Statistica 13.1 software. Findings: The obtained results allowed to confirm the reliability of the assessment tool, to recognize the level of „just culture” as wisdom (68%) and to indicate strengths and weaknesses of observed beliefs and behaviours. On this basis, improvement actions were proposed. Originality/Value: We use the original, own prepared questionnaire. This is the first study on "just culture" in healthcare in Poland. There are only few studies devoted to patient safety culture in Poland and no research addressed to "just culture" phenomenon, as well in Poland as in Central Europe. The results in this area allow to recommend the assessment tool for other hospitals and seem to help in understanding the essence of "just culture" implementation.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0127.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Febrile patient; Kolda; Circulation; Sylvatic Dengue virus 2; 2021; One health
Online: 10 October 2022 (11:24:46 CEST)
A human case of dengue virus 2 was detected from a febrile patient living in the Sare yoba, Kolda region (Southern Senegal). Phylogenetic analysis based on the partial sequence of the NS5 gene reveals that the virus belongs to the DENV2 Sylvatic genotype and is closely related to a strain (JF260983/ 98.98% identity) detected in Spain from a tourist who travelled to Guinee Bissau (bordering Kolda region) in 2009. This highlights a potential recent underreported circulation of sylvatic Dengue in the southern part of Senegal and calls for re-enforced integrated surveillance among humans, non-human primates and arboreal mosquitoes throughout a one-health approach.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0201.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: diabetes mellitus; obesity; meta-analysis; patient education; self-management; disease management
Online: 13 July 2022 (15:19:53 CEST)
Diabetes mellitus (DM) and obesity account for the highest burden of non-communicable diseases. There is increasing evidence showing therapeutic patient education (TPE) as a clinically and cost-effective solution to improve biomedical and psychosocial outcomes among people with DM and obesity. The present systematic review and meta-analysis presents a critical synthesis of development of TPE interventions for DM and obesity and the efficacy of these interventions across a range of biomedical, psychosocial and psychological outcomes. A total of 54 of these RCTs were identified among patients with obesity and diabetes and were thus, qualitatively synthesized. Out of these, 47 were included into quantitative synthesis. There was substantial heterogeneity in reporting of these outcomes (I2= 88.35%, Q= 317.64), with significant improvement (SMD=0.36, 95% CI: 0.23 to 0.49) noted in biomedical outcomes in the intervention group. The effect sizes were comparable across interventions delivered by different modes and delivery agents. These interventions can be delivered by allied health staff, doctors or electronically as self-help programs, with similar effectiveness (P < 0.001). These interventions should be implemented in healthcare and community settings to improve health of patients suffering from DM and obesity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0230.v1
Subject: Keywords: COVID-19; Patient isolation; Self-quarantine; Reliability and validity; Psychosocial assessment
Online: 15 October 2021 (14:46:23 CEST)
Background: The cumulative number of patients during the COVID-19 pandemic led to a significant shortage of hospital beds. Many patients may not require hospitalization and can be clinically observed in home settings. However, some psychosocial factors are correlated with unsuccessful home isolation (HI), which might negatively affect the transmission control in the community. Therefore, we developed a new psychosocial screening tool (CCPHIET) for assessing HI suitability and examined its validity and reliability.Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study included COVID-19 patients who were deemed to be medically safe for 14 days of HI. The CCPHIET is comprised of 8 clinical domains pertinent to HI behavioral compliance and risk. We explored its statistical validity and reliability and discussed the potential utility of this tool. Results: A total of 65 COVID-19 patients participated in this study. Most patients (58.5%) were evaluated as good candidates for HI. The CCPHIET has an acceptable content validity (IOC index > 0.5), moderate internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.611) and substantial to excellent inter-rater reliability (Intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.944, Cohen’s kappa= 0.627).Conclusions: To compromise between strict and costly absolute institutional quarantine and the potentially unsuccessful absolute HI, the CCPHIET may help to identify good candidates for HI in mild and asymptomatic COVID-19 patients. This psychosocial information would support the physicians in matching each patient to the most suitable setting. Therefore, safe medical care is provided, unnecessary use of medical resources is spared, and local transmission is contained.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0449.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: vision rehabilitation; review of systems; traumatic brain injury; concussion; patient advocacy.
Online: 17 March 2021 (16:05:12 CET)
Treating a patient with traumatic brain injury requires an interdisciplinary approach because of the pervasive, profound and protean manifestations of this condition. In this review, key aspects of the medical history and review of systems will be described in order to highlight how the role of any provider must evolve to become a better patient advocate. Although this review is written from the vantage point of a vision care provider, it is hoped that patients, caregivers and providers will recognize the need for the team approach; it truly takes a village.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0459.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: emergency department; crowding; return visit; admission; patient satisfaction; quality of healthcare
Online: 25 April 2020 (10:45:25 CEST)
This study was conducted to determine whether overcrowding in the emergency department (ED) affects the occurrence of a return visit (RV) within 72 hours. The crowding indicator of index visit was the average number of total patients, patients under observation, and boarding patients during the first 1 and 4 hours from ED arrival time and the last 1 hour before ED departure. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine whether each indicator affects the occurrence of RV and post-RV admission. Of the 87,360 discharged patients, 3,743 (4.3%) returned to the ED within 72 hours. Of the crowding indicators pertaining to total patients, the last 1 hour significantly affected decrease in RV (p=0.0046). Boarding patients were found to increase RV occurrence during the first 1 hour (p=0.0146) and 4 hours (p=0.0326). Crowding indicators that increased the likelihood of admission post-RV were total number of patients during the first 1 hour (p=0.0166) and 4 hours (p=0.0335) and evaluationg patients during the first 1 hour (p=0.0059). Overcrowding in the ED increased the incidence of RV and likelihood of post-RV admission. However, overcrowding at the time of ED departure was related to reduced RV.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: Novel coronavirus pneumonia; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; Pathology; Critical patient
Online: 9 March 2020 (10:31:10 CET)
Background Critical patients with novel coronavirus pneumonia ( COVID-19) have worse outcome and high mortality. However, the histopathology of critical patient with COVID-19 remains undisclosed. Methods We performed the whole lung biopsy, and described the pathological changes of critical COVID-19 patient done with transplant by HE staining, immunohistochemistry and special staining observed under the microscopy. Findings The whole lungs displayed diffuse congestive appearance and partly haemorrhagic necrosis on gross examination. The haemorrhagic necrosis was prominently present in outer edge of the right lower lung. The cut surfaces of the lung displayed severe congestive and haemorrhagic changes. The main pathological changes showed massive pulmonary interstitial fibrosis, and partly hyaline degeneration, variable degrees of hemorrhagic pulmonary infarction. Small vessels hyperplasia, vessel wall thickening, lumen stenosis, occlusion and microthrombosis formation. Focal monocytes, lymphocytes and plasma cells infiltrating into pulmonary interstitium. Bronchiolitis and alveolitis with proliferation, atrophy, desquamation and squamous metaplasia of epithelial cells. Atrophy, vacuolar degeneration, proliferation, desquamation and squamous metaplasia in alveolar epithelial cells. Alveolar cavity congestion was prominent, and contained mucus, edema fluid, desquamated epithelial cells, and inflammatory cells. We also found several multinucleate giant cells and intracytoplasmic viral inclusion bodies. Special stains including Masson stain, sirius red staining, reticular fibers staining indicated massive pulmonary interstitial fibrosis. Immunohistochemistry showed positive for immunity cells including CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20, CD79a, CD5, CD38 and CD68. Interpretation We demonstrate the pathological findings of critical patient with COVID-19, which might provide a deep insight of the pathogenesis and severity of this disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0218.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: head and neck cancer; radiation therapy; radiation; patient-derived models; cancer
Online: 10 February 2020 (10:45:23 CET)
Patient derived model systems are important tools for studying novel anti-cancer therapies. Patient derived xenografts (PDXs) have gained favor over the last 10 years as newer mouse strains have improved the success rate of establishing PDXs from patient biopsies. PDXs can be engrafted from head and neck cancer (HNC) samples across a wide range of cancer stages, retain the genetic features of their human source, and can be treated with both chemotherapy and radiation, allowing for clinically relevant studies. Not only do PDXs allow for study of patient tissues in an in vivo model, they can also provide a renewable source of cancer cells for organoid cultures. Herein, we review the uses of HNC patient derived models for radiation research including approaches to establishing both orthotopic and heterotopic PDXs, approaches and potential pitfalls to delivering chemotherapy and radiation to these animal models, biological advantages and limitations, and alternatives to animal studies that still use patient-derived tissues.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0016.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: patient engagement; consumer health; recommendation; consensus conference; guidelines; health services research
Online: 3 February 2020 (05:31:43 CET)
Patient engagement is receiving a growing attention in the healthcare context. However, although worldwide healthcare stakeholders agree that patient engagement is a priority for quality and effective care, no shared recommendations on how to promote patient engagement are currently available. Based on these premises, a Consensus Conference (CC) was promoted to address four main issues: What is the definition of Patient Engagement? How measuring Patient Engagement? What are the most recommended methodologies and the tools to promote Patient Engagement? What is the role of new technologies in promoting of Patient Engagement? The consensus was obtained through an iterative process that began with a systematic synthesis of the available literature in each domain followed by plenary expert discussions. This CC - including the systematic analysis of internationals scientific evidences (2749 sources across the major international scientific databases) together with experiences of a multi-disciplinary consortium of investigators and key stakeholders - attempted to provide the first evidence-based Expert Consensus Statement for the promotion of Patient Engagement in chronic care. These recommendations should be envisaged as inspirational principles to promote a real eco-system of engagement and might orient health services research and interventions.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: patient care; pharmacists; pharmacy curriculum; pharmacy education; public health; qualitative method
Online: 2 November 2018 (10:34:46 CET)
1) Public health remains a tiny portion of the undergraduate pharmacy curriculum and the material is integrated into other modules. The objective of this study is to describe the UK undergraduate pharmacy curriculum, including its public health content; 2) Methods: A qualitative method (content analysis of websites) was used to describe the UK undergraduate pharmacy curriculum and teaching and learning policy. This involved selecting relevant concepts and then quantifying their presence and the relationships between them. The NVivo software was used to carry out ‘group queries’ and visualisation of results; 3) Results: Public health remains an optional module in the curricula of many UK schools of pharmacy. Several public health-related topics are often integrated into other modules, but UK undergraduate pharmacy curricula are still dominated by traditional pharmacy modules; and 4) Conclusions: Most of the curricula analysed were dominated by traditional pharmacy modules designed to enhance students' knowledge and skills. The skill set of UK pharmacy students with respect to macro-level public health activities needs to be improved in order to enhance pharmacists’ contribution to public health.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0071.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: precision medicine; next generation sequencing; oncology, patient outcomes; health insurance coverage
Online: 4 July 2018 (11:06:43 CEST)
Precision medicine seeks to use genomic data to help provide the right treatment to the right patient at the right time. Next-generation sequencing technology allows for the rapid and accurate sequencing of many genes at once. This technology is becoming more common in oncology, though the clinical benefit of incorporating it into precision medicine strategies remains under significant debate. In this manuscript, we discuss the early findings of the impact of next-generation sequencing on cancer patient outcomes. We investigate why not all patients with genomic variants linked to a specific therapy receive that therapy and describe current barriers. Finally, we explore the current state of health insurance coverage for individual genome sequencing and targeted therapies for cancer. Based on our analysis, we recommend increased transparency around the determination of “actionable mutations” and a heightened focus on investigating the variations in health insurance coverage across patients receiving sequencing-matched therapies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0662.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: maintenance cost; patient related outcome measurements; quality of life; mandibular overdentures; edentulism
Online: 26 November 2020 (10:40:14 CET)
Denture wearers often complain about jeopardized function and reduced quality of life due to lack of prosthesis’ retention. Implant retained mandibular overdentures, on 2 non-connected implants (2IOD) are well-proven solutions to overcome these issues. We prospectively assessed 69 patients and scrutinized clinical records until at least 7 years of function. Thirty-six were retained on Locator ® Abutments (LA) and thirty-tree on Ball Abutments (BA). Both systems were compared regarding the type, amount and total cost of required maintenance. One implants was lost, yielding 98.7% survival after 7 years. In total 438 technical issues occurred: 121 (27.35%) in BA and 317 (72.4%) in LA. Out of these, 343 events (78%) were solved chairside: 191 (43.6%) were replacements of retention caps, 113 (25.8%) were minor acrylic repairs, in 26 (5.9%) pressure ulcers had to be relieved and 13 (3%) related to abutments. LA required 179 insert replacements compared to 12 in the BA group. The overall initial treatment cost was 3850 euro. The average total maintenance cost in relation to the initial cost for the LA and BA groups was 19.11% (range 0% - 82.24%) and 18.91% (range 0% - 113.26%) respectively (P=0.540). Conclusions: The 7-years maintenance costs for a 2IOD is acceptable when the patient is regularly checked and professionally maintained. Most events are easily solvable chairside, but a few patients required more expensive interventions, regardless of the type of attachment used.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0200.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: critical care nurses; critical care setting; experiences; patient advocacy; systematic review; understanding
Online: 12 March 2020 (04:42:24 CET)
Objectives: The purpose of this systematic review was to ascertain critical care nurses’ understanding and experiences of patient advocacy in adult critical care settings. The specific objectives were to identify how critical care nurses define patient advocacy, to explore the understanding and experiences of critical care nurses regarding patient advocacy, to explore critical care nurses’ role in patient advocacy, and to ascertain the barriers to encouraging advocacy in the critical care setting. Research design: Systematic literature search of CINAHL and Medline databases, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, as well as grey literature search, was conducted. Search dates were restricted from January 2005 to 2015 in both CINAHL and Medline. Findings: 62 studies were identified, of which 6 qualitative research papers were included. Nurses gave varied definitions of patient advocacy, which were categorized into three themes: communication, protection, and doing. Nurses perceive advocacy as truly listening to patients and their families. Conclusion: For critical care nurses to be effective advocates, there must be support, collaboration, and improved working relationship between professional groups. Moreover, nurses must be empowered to be able to give power to patients and family.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0002.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: patient-derived xenograft; immunocompromised mice; precision medicine; drug screening; cancer; cell line
Online: 3 June 2019 (04:47:14 CEST)
Patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models are created by engraftment of patients’ tumor tissues into immunocompetent mice. Since PDX model keep the characteristics of primary patient’s tumor such as gene expression profiles and drug sensitivity, it now becomes most reliable in vivo human cancer model. The engraftment rate are increased with the introduction of NOD/Scid based immunocompromised mice, especially, NK cell defective NOD strains such as NOD/Scid/IL2Rγnu (NOG/ NSG) mice and NOD/Scid/Jak3null (NOJ) mice. Success ratio differs from the origin of tumor: Gastrointestinal tumors tend to higher success rate and breast cancer is lower. Subcutaneous transplantation is most popular method to establish PDX, but some tumor needs orthotropic or renal capsule transplantation, and human hormone treatment is needed to establish hormone dependent cancers such as prostate and breast cancer. PDX library with patient’s clinical data, gene-expression patterns, mutational status, drug responsiveness and tumor architecture will be the powerful tool for developing specific biomarker and novel individualized therapy and establishing precision cancer medicine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0058.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: pediatric patient with T1DM; physical activity; muscle strength exercise; self-rated health
Online: 5 June 2018 (10:00:16 CEST)
Background: Even though a number of studies have verified the positive effect of physical activity (PA) on self-related health (SRH) no previous research has examined this association among pediatric patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between regular physical activity (PA) and self-rated health (SRH) in pediatric patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) who lacked diabetes care. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study among pediatric patients with T1DM who lacked diabetes care and were enrolled in a diabetes education program between January 2011 to January 2015 at the endocrinology clinic of Seoul National University Children’s Hospital in South Korea. The eligible participants for this study were 37 pediatric patients with T1DM aged 9 to 17 years. PA was divided into regular PA and muscle strength exercise to analyze the relationship with SRH using binomial logistic regression analysis. Results: The results showed SRH of pediatric patients with T1DM who did not engage in regular PA was significantly lower than those who did (OR in regular PA = .199 [95% CI: .040, .995]; OR in regular muscle strength exercise = .097 [95% CI: .023, .825]). Conclusions: In conclusion, regular PA and muscle strength exercise in pediatric patients with T1DM who lacked diabetes care were effective in improving their SRH. A systematic plan is required to enhance regular PA for pediatric patients with T1DM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0013.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Rheumatoid Arthritis; thematic analysis; Outcomes assessment; Qualitative Research; Patient reported outcome measures
Online: 3 January 2017 (11:32:52 CET)
Background. The Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ) is widely used to measure functional ability in persons with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). The instrument was developed with limited involvement from persons with RA, and their perception of the instrument has not been studied in depth. The aim of this study was to explore how persons with RA experience the use of the HAQ in care. Methods. Forty persons with RA were purposefully recruited to participate in semi-structured interviews. The interviews were then analyzed qualitatively using thematic analysis. Results. The participants questioned the relevance of the HAQ but nevertheless experienced that the instrument had a profound effect on their understanding of health and how care is delivered. The analysis resulted in three themes: Problems with individual items, meaning of the summative score, and effects on care and health perceptions. Conclusions. To make the HAQ relevant to persons with RA, it needs to be revised or to include an option to select items most meaningful to the respondent. To ensure relevance, the HAQ update should preferably be co-created by researchers, clinicians and persons with RA.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0063.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; Placental Pathology; Apgar Scores; Gestational Age; Under-resourced Patient Population
Online: 5 September 2022 (13:17:10 CEST)
Abstract. Babies born to severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infected mothers are at greater risk for perinatal morbidity and more likely to receive a neurodevelopmental diagnosis in the first year of life. However, the effect of maternal infection on placental function and neonatal outcomes varies depending upon the patient population. We set out to test our hypothesis that maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection in our underserved, socioeconomically disadvantaged, predominantly African American and Latina population in the Bronx, NY would have effects evident at birth. Fifty-five SARS-CoV-2 positive and 61 negative third trimester patients were randomly selected from Montefiore Medical Center (MMC), Bronx, NY. In addition, two positive cases from Yale New Haven Hospital, CT were included as controls. All 55 placentas delivered by SARS-CoV-2 positive mothers were uninfected by the virus, based on immunohistochemistry, in-situ hybridization, and qPCR analysis. However, placental villous infarcts, mild preeclampsia, shortened gestational periods and lower Apgar scores were observed in the infected cases. These findings suggest that even without entering the placenta, SARS-CoV-2 can affect various systemic pathways culminating in altered placental development and function, which may adversely affect the fetus, especially in a high-risk patient population such as ours. These results underline the importance of vaccination among pregnant women, particularly in low resource areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0073.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: focus group; patient reported outcome measures; oral health; education; COVID-19; dental problem
Online: 4 March 2022 (07:08:57 CET)
This study reports results of focus groups with school nurses and teachers from elementary, middle, and high schools to explore their perceptions of child and adolescent oral health. Participants included 14 school nurses and 15 teachers (83% Female; 31% Hispanic, 21% White, 21% Asian, 14% African American, and 13% Others). Respondents were recruited from Los Angeles County schools and scheduled by school level for six one-hour focus groups, using Zoom. Audio recordings were transcribed, reviewed, and saved with anonymization of speaker identities. NVivo software was used to facilitate content analysis and identify key themes. The nurses’ rate of “Oral Health Education” comments statistically exceeded that of teachers, while teachers had higher rates for “Parental Involvement” and “Mutual Perception” “Need for Care” was perceived to be more prevalent in immigrants to the United States based on student behaviors and complaints. “Access to Care” was seen as primarily the nurse’s role. Strong relationships between community clinics and schools were viewed by some as integral to students achieving good oral health. The results suggest dimensions and questions important to item development for oral health surveys of children and parents to address screening, management, program assessment, and policy planning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0305.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: background infusion; intravenous infusions; laparoscopic cholecystectomy; opioid analgesics; patient-controlled analgesia; postoperative pain
Online: 14 December 2020 (08:18:43 CET)
Background and objectives: Traditional intravenous, patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) uses a fixed-rate continuous background infusion mode. However, some patients suffer from inadequate analgesia or opioid-related adverse effects due to the biphasic pattern of postoperative pain. Therefore, we investigated the postoperative analgesic efficacy of PCA using an optimizing background infusion mode (OBIM), where the background injection rate varies depending on the patient's bolus demand. Materials and Methods: We prospectively enrolled 204 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a randomized, controlled, double-blind study. Patients were allocated into either the optimizing (group OBIM) or the traditional background infusion group (group TBIM). The numeric rating scale (NRS) score for pain was evaluated at admission to and discharge from the recovery room, as well as at the 6th, 24th, and 48th postoperative hours. Data of bolus demand count, total infused volume, and background infusion rate was downloaded from the PCA device at 30-min intervals until the 48th postoperative hour. Results: The NRS score was not significantly different between groups throughout the postoperative period (P = 0.621), decreasing with time in both groups (P < 0.001). The bolus demand count was not significantly different between groups throughout (P = 0.756). The mean cumulative infused PCA volume was lower in group OBIM [84.0 (95% confidence interval: 78.9−89.1) mL) than in group TBIM [102 (97.8−106.0) mL] (P < 0.001). The background infusion rate was significantly different between groups throughout (P < 0.001); it was higher in group OBIM than in group TBIM before the 12th postoperative hour, and lower from the 18th to the 48th postoperative hours. Conclusions: The OBIM combined with bolus dosing is useful in that it reduces the cumulative PCA volume compared to the TBIM combined with bolus dosing, while yielding comparable postoperative analgesia and bolus demand in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0007.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: responsible innovation; user engagement; role of users; digital health; informed; involved; innovative patient
Online: 2 November 2020 (09:38:38 CET)
Despite the recognition of the importance of stakeholder inclusion into decisions about new solutions offered to society, responsible innovation (RI) has stalled at the point of articulating a process of governance with a strongly normative loading, without clear practical guidelines toward implementation practices. The principles of RI direct us to involve the user early in the innovation process. However, it lacks direction of how to involve users and stakeholders into this process. In this article, we try to understand how to empower users to become a part of innovation process though empirical cases. Based on 11 cases of firms innovating in digital health and welfare services, we look on firm practices for user integration into their innovation process, as well as how user’s behavior is changing due to new trends such as availability of information and digitalization of services. We try to explore this question through lenses of responsible innovation in the emerging field of digital healthcare.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0381.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: continuous quality improvement; healthcare sector; biology risk control; patient safety; research to practice
Online: 18 August 2020 (10:57:11 CEST)
Stakeholder input into the decision-making process when developing public health programs and policies is crucial. This article presents an innovative approach, involving online participation with a wide group of stakeholders located in different geographic locations, for policy consensus by research methodology. The results of the project have been used to propose assumptions regarding a strategy for preventing blood-borne diseases in Poland. The research was conducted iteratively using a multi-stage qualitative methodology to explore risk assessment involving blood-borne infections. The final output of the entire project is a list of key problems/challenges and solutions associated with medical and nonmedical services that are connected to the breakage of tissue continuity. Qualitative research is rare in risk assessment as priority is usually given to statistical data and end-points (quantitative studies ). Statistical data on health risk allows to assess the health implications, while the methodology applied also allowed diagnosis of the processes leading to these effects. In addition to policy preparation for blood-borne illnesses, the methodology employed in the study can also be used to successfully explore other areas of public health policy decisions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0479.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: video consultations; digitalisation; stakeholders’ health and wellbeing; corporate social responsibility; hospital doctors; patient care
Online: 26 December 2022 (07:40:43 CET)
The past several decades have seen a shift in patient care towards digitalisation, which has ushered in a new era of health care delivery and improved sustainability and resilience of health systems, with positive impacts on both internal and external stakeholders. This study’s aim was to understand the role of digital virtual consultations in improving internal and external stakeholders’ health, as well as wellbeing among hospital doctors. A qualitative research approach was used with semi-structured online interviews administered to hospital doctors. The interviews showed that the doctors viewed digital virtual consultations as supplementary to in-person consultations, and as tools to reduce obstacles related to distance and time. If the necessary infrastructure and technology were in place, doctors would be willing to use these options. Implementing these technologies would improve the medical profession’s flexibility on the one hand; but it might affect doctors’ work–life balance if consultations extended beyond standard working hours.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0446.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: sleep breathing disorders; mandibular advancement; MAD; titratable positioner; drug-induced sleep endoscopy; patient selection.
Online: 28 December 2021 (11:03:45 CET)
Mandibular advancement devices (MAD) are an effective alternative treatment to CPAP. However, different maneuvers have been performed during the performance of drug sleep-induced endoscopy (DISE) to mimic the effect of MAD. Using the Selector Avance Mandibular (SAM) device, we aimed to identify MAD candidates during DISE using a titratable, reproducible, and measurable maneuver. This DISE-SAM protocol may help to find the relationship between the severity of the respiratory disorder and the degree of response, and to determine the advancement required to improve the collapsibility of the upper airway. Explorations were performed in 161 patients (132 males; 29 females) with a mean age of 46.81 (SD = 11.42) years, a BMI of 27.90 (SD = 4.19) kg/m2 and a mean AHI of 26.51 (SD = 21.23). Results showed no relationship between severity and MAD recommendation. Also, there was a weak positive relationship between the advancement required to obtain a response and the disease severity. Using the DISE-SAM protocol, the response and the range of mandibular protrusion were assessed, avoiding the inter-examiner bias of the jaw thrust maneuver. We suggest prescribing MAD as a single, alternative, or multiple treatment approaches following the SAM recommendations in a personalized design.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0010.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Anesthesiology Keywords: spinal cord stimulation; screening trial; infection; supervised learning; machine learning; predictive modeling; patient outcome
Online: 1 September 2021 (12:05:18 CEST)
Persistent Pain after Spinal Surgery can be successfully addressed by Spinal Cord Stimulation (SCS). International guidelines strongly recommend that a lead trial be performed before any permanent implantation. Recent clinical data highlight some major limitations of this approach. First, it appears that patient outcomes, WITH OR WITHOUT lead trial, are similar. In contrast, during trialing, infection rate drops drastically within time and can compromise the therapy. Using composite pain assessment experience and previous research, we hypothesized that ma-chine learning models could be robust screening tools and reliable predictors of long-term SCS efficacy. We developed several algorithms including logistic regression, Regularized Logistic Regression (RLR), naive Bayes classifier, artificial neural networks, random forest and gradient boosted trees to test this hypothesis and to perform internal and external validations, the objec-tive being to confront model predictions with lead trial results using a 1-year composite out-come from 103 patients. While almost all models have demonstrated superiority on lead trial-ing, the RLR model appears to represent the best compromise between complexity and inter-pretability in prediction of SCS efficacy. These results underscore the need to use AI based-predictive medicine, as a synergistic mathematical approach, aimed at helping implanters to optimize their clinical choices on daily practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0637.v1
Subject: Keywords: Telemedicine; medical call center; Sehha application; non-urgent patient; emergency department visits; Saudi Arabia.
Online: 28 July 2021 (17:14:55 CEST)
Background: ED overcrowding is described as one of the main issues in emergency departments (EDs) of any hospital. In Saudi Arabia, the ministry of health applied new telemedicine technology to serve patients by using the mobile application which include Sehha application and 937 medical call center. The main aim of this study is to determine the role of different telemedicine services in reducing non-urgent visits to EDs in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-section study was conducted during August 2020 - May 2021 among 319 patients were using two telemedicine services in Saudi Arabia, including medical call center, and Sehha smart phone application. The primary endpoint of this study aims to determine the role of different telemedicine services in reducing non-urgent visits to EDs in Saudi Arabia. Results: This study analyzed the data from 319 patients who completed the survey provided by the Saudi Ministry of Health that concerning on information related to their health status, and ED visits. Among patients that had the intention to visit the ED (N=159), 53 of them did not go to EDs after using telemedicine services (p-value < 0.01). Regarding medical call center and Sehha application, 9.6% and 24.4%, respectively of the patients used these telemedicine services had changed their mind concerning visiting ED after taking the medical advice (p-values < 0.01).Conclusion: The implemented telemedicine services in Saudi Arabia, namely Sehha application and medical call center showed to be effective in reducing ED overload by providing medical advices to less- and non-urgent patients and deal with their minor medical issues.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0596.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Atopic dermatitis; Patient Reported Outcome Measures; Dupilumab; Quality of life; Satisfaction; Efficacy; Safety; Adherence
Online: 25 May 2021 (09:15:21 CEST)
Dupilumab is used to treat atopic dermatitis patients who have proven to be refractory to previous treatments. The aim of this study was to assess evolution and patient reported outcome measures in adult patients with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis treated with Dupilumab in routine clinical practice. The outcomes were evaluated and registered at baseline and weeks-16, 40 and 52. The variables evaluated were: diseases severity, pruritus, stressful life events, difficulty to sleep, anxiety and depression, quality of life, satisfaction, adherence to the treatment, efficacy and safety. Eleven patients were recruited between Nov 14th 2017 and Jan 16th 2018. Demographic variables: 90% Caucasian, 82% women. Clinical variables: Mean duration of AD =17.7 (±12.8), 91% had severe disease severity. At baseline, SCORAD mean score = 61.7 (±15.5); itch was reported by 100% of patients; itch Visual Analogue Scale mean range of 8 (6-10); HADS mean total score =13.9 (±5.5); DLQI mean score =13.3 (±8.3): EQ-5D-3L mean range = 57 (30-99). At week-52 there is a significant reduction of SCORAD scores, HADS total score and improved quality of life. ¡This study confirms that Dupilumab, used for 52-weeks under routine clinical practice, maintains the improved atopic dermatitis signs and symptoms obtained at week-16, with a good safety profile.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0495.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: nephrectomy; Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory; patient-controlled analgesia; quadratus lumborum block; persistent postoperative pain
Online: 20 May 2021 (17:17:47 CEST)
Background: New regional techniques can improve pain management after nephrectomy. Methods: This study was a randomized controlled trial conducted at two teaching hospitals. Patients undergoing elective open and laparoscopic nephrectomy were eligible to participate in the trial. A total of 100 patients were divided into a quadratus lumborum block (QLB) group and a control (CON) group. At the end of surgery, but while still under general anesthesia, unilateral QLB with ropivacaine was performed on the side of nephrectomy for patients in the QLB group. The main measured outcome of this study was oxycodone consumption via a patient-controlled anesthesia (PCA) pump during the first 24 hours following surgery; other measured outcomes included postoperative pain intensity assessment, patient satisfaction with pain management, and persistent pain evaluation. Results: Patients undergoing QLB needed less oxycodone than those in the CON group (34.5 mg [interquartile range 23–40 mg] vs. 47.5 mg [35–50 mg]; p<0.001). No difference between the groups was seen in postoperative pain intensity measured on the visual analog scale, except for the evaluation at hour 2, which was in favor of the QLB group (p=0.03). Patients who received QLB were more satisfied with postoperative pain management than the CON group. Persistent postoperative pain was assessed with the Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory (NPSI) at months 1, 3, and 6 and was found to be significantly lower in the QLB group at each evaluation (p<0.001). We also analyzed the impact of the surgery type on persistent pain severity, which was significantly lower after laparoscopic procedures than open procedures at months 1, 3, and 6. Conclusions: QLB reduces oxycodone consumption in patients undergoing open and laparoscopic nephrectomy and decreases persistent pain severity months after hospital discharge.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0463.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: undiagnosed rare diseases; diagnostic odyssey; NGS; deep phenotyping; genomic matchmaking; secondary findings; patient involvement
Online: 31 May 2018 (09:35:32 CEST)
The time required to reach a correct diagnosis is one of the most important problems for rare disease (RD) patients. Diagnostic delay can be intolerably long, to the point that it is usually described as a “diagnostic odyssey” and, sometimes, a diagnosis might never occur. The International Rare Disease Research Consortium proposed, as ultimate goal for 2017-2027, to enable all people with a suspected RD to be diagnosed within one year if the disorder is known, and to enter a globally coordinated diagnostic and research pipeline for the unsolved cases. In-depth analysis of the genotype through next generation sequencing, together with a standardized in-depth phenotype description and sophisticated high-throughput approaches, have been applied as diagnostic tools to increase the chance of a timely and accurate diagnosis. This approach is very fruitful as, according to the Orphanet database, from 2010 to March 2017 more than 600 new RDs have been described and about 3600 genes linked to RDs have been identified. However, combination of -omics and phenotype data and international sharing of this information raise ethical concerns. Values to be assessed include not only patient autonomy but also family implications, beneficence, non-maleficence, justice, solidarity and reciprocity, which must be respected and promoted and, at the same time, balanced among each other. In this work we suggest that, to maximise patients involvement in the search for a diagnosis and identification of new causative genes, undiagnosed patients should have the possibility to: 1) actively participate in the description of their phenotype; 2) choose the level of visibility of their profile in matchmaking databases; 3) express their preferences regarding return of new findings, in particular which level of Variant of Unknown Significance (VUS) significance should be considered relevant to them. The quality of the relation between individual patients and physicians, and between the patient community and the scientific community is critically important for making the best use of available data and combining efforts in the search for matches with similar cases worldwide that will help to solve unsolved cases. The contribution of patients to collecting and coding data comprehensively is critical for efficient use of data downstream of data collection.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0220.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Molecular switches; oncolytic vectors; patient-specific ubiquitous mutations; targeted therapy; multi-region sequencing; molecular biology
Online: 11 August 2022 (11:50:12 CEST)
Most existing cancer therapies negatively affect normal tissue as well as cancerous tissue. A potentially effective strategy for treating cancer that precludes off-target damage and could be an option for most patients would involve targeting one or more mutations that are ubiquitous in the given patient’s tumor(s). To effect this strategy, one would employ multi-region sequencing of a patient’s primary tumor and metastases to seek out mutations that are shared between all or at least most regions. Once the target or targets are known, one would ideally rapidly generate a molecular switch for at least one of said ubiquitous mutations that can distinguish the mutated DNA, RNA, or protein from the wild-type version and subsequently trigger a therapeutic response. I propose that the therapeutic response involve the replication of an oncolytic virus or intracellular bacterium, as any mutation can theoretically be detected by a vector that enters the cell - and automatic propagation could be very helpful. Moreover, the mutation “signal” can be easily enhanced through transcriptional and translational (if the target is an intracellular protein) enhancement. Importantly, RNA may make the best target for the molecular switches in terms of amplification of the signal and ease of targeting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0246.v2
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Raspberry Pi; Edge Computing; Ambient Health Monitoring; Privacy-preserving; Bluetooth; Geolocation Tracking; Patient Alarm; Illuminance
Online: 16 March 2022 (05:28:32 CET)
The non-contact patient monitoring paradigm moves patient care into their homes and enables long-term patient studies. The challenge, however, is to make the system non-intrusive, privacy-preserving, and low-cost. To this end, we describe an open-source edge computing and ambient data capture system, developed using low-cost and readily available hardware. We describe five applications of our ambient data capture system. Namely: (a) Estimating occupancy and human activity phenotyping; (b) Medical equipment alarm classification; (c) Geolocation of humans in a built environment; (d) Ambient light logging; and (e) Ambient temperature and humidity logging. We obtained an accuracy of 94% for estimating occupancy from video. We stress-tested the alarm note classification in the absence and presence of speech and obtained micro averaged F1 scores of 0.98 and 0.93, respectively. The geolocation tracking provided a room-level accuracy of 98.7%. The root mean square error in the temperature sensor validation task was 0.3°C and for the humidity sensor, it was 1% Relative Humidity. The low-cost edge computing system presented here demonstrated the ability to capture and analyze a wide range of activities in a privacy-preserving manner in clinical and home environments and is able to provide key insights into the healthcare practices and patient behaviors.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0657.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: hypnosis; multimodal monitoring; entropy; qNOX; qCON; bispectral index; surgical plethismographic index; general anaesthesia; patient safety
Online: 25 January 2021 (17:02:57 CET)
With the development of general anesthesia techniques and anesthetic substances, brought new horizons for the expansion and improvement of surgical techniques. Nevertheless, more complex surgical procedures brought a higher complexity and longer duration for general anesthesia that led to a series of adverse events such as hemodynamic instability, under- or overdosage of anesthetic drugs, as well as an increased number of post-anesthetic events. In order to adapt the anesthesia according to the particularities of each patient, the multimodal monitoring of these patients is highly recommended. Classically, general anesthesia monitoring consists of the analysis of vital functions and gas exchange. Multimodal monitoring refers to the concomitant monitoring of the degree of hypnosis and the nociceptive-antinociceptive balance. By titrating anesthetic drugs according to these parameters, clinical benefits can be obtained, such as hemodynamic stabilization, reduction of awakening times, and the reduction of post-operative complications. Another important aspect is the impact on the status of inflammation and the redox balance. By minimizing inflammatory and oxidative impact one can achieve a faster recovery that will lead to both increased patient satisfaction and an increase in patient safety. The purpose of this literature review is to present the most modern multimodal monitoring techniques, respectively to discuss the particularities of each technique.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: self-care; self-care monitoring; quality of life; stoma care; health promotion; nurse – patient interaction
Online: 12 January 2021 (17:32:17 CET)
The current article examined stoma self-care and health-related quality of life in patients with drainage enterostomy, describe clinical and sociodemographic variables and analyze the relations between all of them. Trained interviewers collected data using a standardized form that queried sociodemographic and clinical variables, collected from the electronic medical record, in addition to the Specific Self-Care for Ostomized Patients Questionnaire (CAESPO) and Stoma Quality of life (S-QoL) from January 2016 to January 2017. This was a multicenter, cross sectional study conducted in four hospitals of the province of Castellon (Spain) where 120 participants were studied. Significant differences were found in Self Care according to sex (p = .043); married participants show higher score (p < .01); also, significant differences according to work activity were observed (p < .01). Regarding the clinical variables, differences were observed according to the autonomy of care, the presence of complications in the stoma, the use of irrigation and the type of effluent (p < .01). We can highlight the importance of the skills related to self-care by ostomized patients has for a good level of quality of life related to health. In this learning process, the figure of the stoma therapist plays a very important role.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0484.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Urology Keywords: Acute Cystitis Symptom Score; ACSS; cystitis; urinary tract infection; female patients; diagnosis; patient-reported outcome
Online: 18 November 2020 (16:35:23 CET)
Background To develop and validate the American-English version of the self-reporting Acute Cystitis Symptom Score (ACSS), a suitable tool for diagnosis and patient-reported outcome in female patients with acute uncomplicated cystitis (UC). Methods After certified translation into American-English and cognitive assessment, the clinical validation of the ACSS was performed as an embedded study in a US phase II trial (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03129295). Results A total of 167 female patients with typical symptoms of UC were included in the study following FDA guidance. At Day 1 (diagnosis) the mean(SD) sum score of the six ACSS typical symptoms reached 10.60(2.51). Of 100 patients followed-up last time on Day 5 or 6 (End-of-treatment, EoT), 91 patients showed clinical success according to the favoured ACSS criteria (sum score of typical symptoms 0.98(1.94)). There was no correlation between the severity of symptoms on Day 1 or between clinical success rate at EoT and level of bacteriuria on Day 1. Conclusion The American-English ACSS showed high predictive ability and responsiveness, and excellent levels of reliability and validity. It can now be recommended as the new master version in clinical and epidemiological studies, in clinical practice or for self-diagnosis of women with symptoms of UC.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0185.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: predictive preventive personalized medicine; Lactobacillus; Bifidobacterium; probiotics, gut microbiota; patient phenotype, individualized medicine; metabolic syndrome
Online: 11 September 2018 (06:00:03 CEST)
The modification the gut microbiota in metabolic syndrome and associated chronic diseases is among leading tasks of microbiome research and needs for clinical use of probiotics. Evidence lack for the implications for microbiome modification to improve metabolic health in particular when applied impersonalized. Probiotics have tremendous potential in personalized nutrition and medicine to develop healthy diets. The aim was to to conduct comprehensive overview of recent updates of role of microbiota on human health and development of metabolic syndrome and efficacy of microbiota modulation considering specific properties of probiotic strain and particular aspects of metabolic syndrome and patient`s phenotype to fill the gap between probiotic product and individual to facilitate development of individualized / personalized probiotic and prebiotic treatments. We discuss the relevance of using host phenotype-associated biomarkers, those based on imaging and molecular and patrient`s history, reliable and accessible to facilitate person-specific appication of probiotics and prebiotic substances. Microbiome phenotypes can be parameters of predictive medicine to recognize patient`s predispositions and evaluate treatment responses; the number of phenotype markers can be effectively involved to monitor microbiome modulation. The studied strain-dependent properties of probiotic strains are potentially relevant for individualized treatment for gut and distant sites microbiome modulation. The evidence regarding probiotic strains properties can be taken to account via pathophysiology-based approach for most effective individualized treatment via gut, oral and vaginal and other sites microbiome modulation according to phenotype of the patient providing individualized and personalized medical approaches. Preventive potential of probiotics is strong and well-documented. Recommendations for individualized clinical use of probiotics, and for probiotic studies design have been suggested.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0560.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Total Elbow Arthroplasty; Distal Humerus Fractures; Patient Reported Outcomes; Open Reduction Internal Fixation of Distal Humerus
Online: 29 December 2022 (11:33:17 CET)
Background and purpose: Total elbow arthroplasties (TEA) aim to replicate anatomy and provide stability in the treatment of distal fractures of the humerus. In the presence of an aging population with higher functional demand, improving patients’ well-being is crucial. This study aimed to analyze patients’ reported outcomes and functional outcomes for TEA in comminuted fractures of the distal humerus and to compare these outcomes with their counterpart patients who have been treated with open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). In addition, this study aims to compare the secondary procedures rate between the two groups.Patients and Methods: Eligible patients were those who underwent TEA or ORIF of the distal humerus and completed several patient-reported outcome (PRO) questionnaires including the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) questionnaire, 12-Item Short Form Health Survey Physical and Mental components (SF-12 P and SF-12 M, respectively) scores, visual analog scale (VAS) score for pain, and patient satisfaction ratings (1-5). A physical examination including range of motion, instability, and strength was performed for all patients. Results: This study found that patients following TEA have shown significantly lower pain levels (TEA: 3.72±2.8; ORIF 5.2±2.98, P=0.019) and higher satisfaction levels (TEA: 4.18±1.17; ORIF 3.57±1.46, P=0.035) compared with patients following ORIF. DASH score (TEA: 33.7±29.4; ORIF 39.75±24.6, P=0.31) and SF-12 score (TEA: 31.7±9.67; ORIF 31.25±10.2, P=0.85) were not statistically different between TEA and ORIF.Patients following TEA have demonstrated an advantage in flexion compared with patients following ORIF (P=0.045). Both patients following TEA and ORIF demonstrated no statistically significant difference in pronation and supination of the operated elbow compared to the contralateral side. Although, a decreased range in extension and flexion of the operated elbow compared with the contralateral side was demonstrated in both groups (extension P=0.005, flexion P<0.001). The grip Test showed no significant difference between the patients who were treated by TEA or ORIF (P=0.99). Moreover, ORIF in comminuted fractures of the distal humerus in elders may be associated with a higher complication rate compared with TEA.Conclusion: TEA following comminuted fractures of the distal humerus is associated with favorable satisfaction, pain levels, and range of motion in flexion compared with patients following ORIF of the distal humerus. Additionally, TEA may be associated with a lower rate of secondary procedures.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0444.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: prostate cancer; knockout mouse models; genetically-engineered mouse models; xenografts; patient derived xenografts; organoids; signaling pathways
Online: 26 August 2022 (04:16:25 CEST)
In 2022, prostate cancer (PCa) is estimated to be the most commonly diagnosed cancer in men in the United States – almost 270,000 American men are estimated to be diagnosed with PCa in 2022 . This review compares and contrasts in vivo models of PCa with regards to the altered genes, signaling pathways, and stages of tumor progression associated with each model. The main type of model included in this review are genetically engineered mouse models, which include conditional and constitutive knockout model. 2D cell lines, 3D organoids and spheroids, xenografts and allografts, and patient derived models are also included. The major applications, advantages and disadvantages, and ease of use and cost are unique to each type of model, but they all make it easier to translate the tumor progression that is seen in the mouse prostate to the human prostate. Although both human and mouse prostates are androgen-dependent, the fact that the native, genetically unaltered prostate in mice cannot give rise to carcinoma is an especially critical component of PCa models. Thanks to the similarities between the mouse and human genome, our knowledge of PCa has been expanded, and will continue to do so, through models of PCa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0350.v3
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: lyme disease; clinical decision-making; medical history taking; physician-patient relation; primary health care; qualitative research
Online: 31 May 2022 (09:14:56 CEST)
Background: Media coverage of Lyme disease (LD) has led to an increase in consultations for presumed LD in Europe. However, LD is confirmed in only 10-20% of patients, with a significant number remaining in a diagnostic dead-end. Objectives: To reach a deeper understanding of how patients themselves contribute to the diagnostic process. To describe the genesis of the LD hypothesis in care pathways. Methods: In 2019, 30 patients from a prospective cohort consulting in the infectious diseases department at University Hospital in Marseille for presumed LD were recruited for semi-structured interviews. The inclusion criteria were : suffering from subjective symptoms for 6 months, no clinical or paraclinical argument suggesting current LD. The patients’ medical trajectories were collected using a biographical approach. Results: The diagnosis of Lyme disease was primarily triggered by identification with personal testimonies found on the internet. Most of patients were leading their own diagnostic investigation. The majority of participants were convinced they had LD despite the lack of medical evidence and the scepticism of their referring GP. Conclusion: GPs should first systematically explore patients’ etiologic representations in order to improve adherence to the diagnosis especially in the management of medically unexplained symptoms. Long COVID-19 syndrome challenge offers an opportunity to promote active patient involvement in diagnosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0090.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms; patient-derived xenograft; tumor spheroids; somatostatin receptor-2; Near infrared-labelled octreotide analog
Online: 7 February 2022 (13:12:50 CET)
Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP NENs) are rare cancers consisting of neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs) and neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), which have been increasing in incidence in recent years. Few cell lines and pre-clinical models exist for the study of GEP NECs and NETs, limiting the ability to discover novel imaging and treatment modalities. To address this gap, we isolated tumor cells from cryopreserved patient GEP NECs and NETs and injected them into the flanks of immunocompromised mice to establish patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models. Two of 6 mice developed tumors (NEC913 and NEC1452). Over 90% of NEC913 and NEC1452 tumor cells stained positive for Ki67. NEC913 PDX tumors expressed neuroendocrine markers such as chromogranin A (CgA), synaptophysin (SYP), and somatostatin receptor-2 (SSTR2) whereas NEC1452 PDX tumors do not express SSTR2. Exome sequencing revealed loss of p53 and RB1 in both tumors. To demonstrate an application of these novel NEC PDX models for SSTR2-targeted peptide imaging, the NEC913 and NEC1452 cells were bilaterally injected into mice. Near infrared-labelled octreotide was administered and fluorescent signal was specifically observed for the NEC913 SSTR2 positive tumors. These 2 GEP NEC PDX models serve as valuable resource for GEP NEN therapy testing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0303.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Microvascular complications; Cardiac autonomic neuropathy; Diabetic peripheral neuropathy; Diabetic nephropathy; Diabetic retinopathy; patient profiles; machine learning
Online: 17 November 2021 (11:54:23 CET)
Microvascular complications are one of the key causes of mortality among type-2 diabetic patients. This study was sought to investigate the use of a novel machine learning approach for predicting these complications from patient demographic, clinical, and laboratory profiles only. A total of 96 Bangladeshi participants having type-2 diabetes were recruited during their routine hospital visits. All patient profiles were assessed by using a Chi-squared (2) test to statistically determine the most important markers in predicting four microvascular complications; namely cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN), diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN), diabetic nephropathy (NEP), and diabetic retinopathy (RET). A machine learning approach based on random forest (RF) and support vector machine (SVM) was then developed to ensure automated clinical testing for microvascular complication in diabetic patients. The highest prediction accuracies were obtained by RF using diastolic blood pressure, Albumin-Creatinine ratio, and gender for CAN testing (98.67%), Microalbuminuria, smoking history, and hemoglobin A1C for DPN testing (67.78%), Albumin-Creatinine ratio for NEP testing (100%), and hemoglobin A1C, Microalbuminuria, and smoking history for RET testing (84.38%). This study suggests machine learning as a promising automated tool for predicting microvascular complications in diabetic patients using their profiles, which could help prvent those patients from further microvascular complications leading to early death.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0732.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: biomedical engineering; breathing simulation; electro-mechanical lung simulator, patient-ventilator interactions; rapidly manufactured ventilator systems testing
Online: 30 March 2021 (11:34:05 CEST)
During mechanical ventilation, a disparity between flow, pressure or volume demands of the patient and the assistance delivered by the mechanical ventilator often occurs. Asynchrony effect and ventilator performance are frequently studied from ICU datasets or using commercially available lung simulators and test lungs. This paper introduces an alternative approach of simulating and evaluating patient-ventilator interactions with high fidelity using the electro-mechanical lung simulator xPULM™ under selected conditions. The xPULM™ approximates respiratory activities of a patient during alternating phases of spontaneous breathing and apnoea intervals while connected to a mechanical ventilator. Focusing on different triggering events, volume assist-controlled (V/A-C) and pressure support ventilation (PSV) modes were chosen to test patient-ventilator interactions. In V/A-C mode a double-triggering was detected every third breathing cycle leading to an asynchrony index of 16.67%, being classified as severe. This asynchrony causes a major increase of Peak Inspiratory Pressure PIP = 12.80 ± 1.39 cmH2O and Peak Expiratory Flow PEF = -18.33 ± 1.13 L/min when compared to synchronous phases of the breathing simulation. Additionally, events of premature cycling were observed during PSV mode. In this mode, the peak delivered volume during simulated spontaneous breathing phases almost doubles compared to apnoea phases. The presented approach demonstrates the possibility of simulating and evaluating disparities in fundamental ventilation characteristics caused by double-triggering and premature cycling under V/A-C and PSV ventilation modes. Various dynamic clinical situations can be approximated and could help to identify undesired patient-ventilation interactions in the future. Rapidly manufactured ventilator systems could also be tested using this approach.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0337.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma; molecular biology; patient derived xenografts; genetically engineered mouse model; humanized mouse model
Online: 18 January 2021 (12:50:14 CET)
Diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs) account for ~15% of pediatric brain tumors, which invariably present with poor survival regardless of treatment mode. Several seminal studies have revealed that 80% of DIPGs harbor H3K27M mutation coded by HIST1H3B, HIST1H3C and H3F3A genes. The H3K27M mutation has broad effects on gene expression and is considered a tumor driver. Determination of the effects of H3K27M on posttranslational histone modifications and gene regulations in DIPG is critical for identifying effective therapeutic targets. Advanced animal models play critical roles in translating these cutting-edge findings into clinical trial development. Here, we review current molecular research progress associated with DIPG. We also summarize DIPG animal models, highlighting novel genomic engineered mouse models (GEMMs) and innovative humanized DIPG mouse models. These models will pave the way towards personalized precision medicine for the treatment of DIPGs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci2020045
Subject: Keywords: adverse drug reactions; antimalarial; Ghana; herbal remedies; malaria; questionnaire; street sale; orthodox; unnatural medicines; patient preference
Online: 12 June 2020 (00:00:00 CEST)
Malaria is a serious infection affecting millions of people in Africa. Our study investigated the personal preferences and applications of antimalarial medicines in Ghana. Based on over 1000 questionnaires distributed in Ghana from January to May 2019, we noticed that although Western medications to fight this disease are widely available, most patients in Ghana prefer treatment with locally produced herbal remedies. This preference appears to be due to a combination of traditional venues for obtaining medicines “on the street” rather than in licensed pharmacies, trust in local and “green” products, extensive advertisement of such local products, and an inherent distrust of imported and synthetic or unnatural medicines. Going local and natural is a trend also observed in other countries across the globe, and adds to the acceptance or rejection of drugs regardless of their activity or toxicity. In fact, adverse side effects associated with herbal remedies, such as general weakness and swollen, sore mouth, do not seem to deter the respondents of this study in Ghana. We propose a combination of (a) increasing public awareness of the benefits of modern medicine and (b) an improvement and control of the quality of herbal remedies to raise the standard of malaria treatment in countries such as Ghana.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0240.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: patient satisfaction; quality of care; private healthcare provider; public private mix model; tuberculosis control; health system
Online: 20 September 2019 (15:42:47 CEST)
Objective: The private healthcare providers (PHCP) are believed to improve access to healthcare services in Public-Private Mix (PPM) projects, as they are considered first point of contact for healthcare. The purpose of this study was to know the satisfaction level of TB patients. Design: A questionnaire-based, cross-sectional study was carried out during November and December 2017 for 572 under-treatment patients registered with PHCPs in the PPM project. Lot quality assurance sampling technique was used to randomly select 19 districts from sample frame of 75 districts. In each selected district, data collector retrieved TB register of 8 months (Jan – Aug 2017) and systematically selected patients by fixed periodic interval. SPSS (version 24.0) was used to analyze the data. Results: Study included 53% (n=301) of males and 47% (n=271) of females, with mean age of 38 years (SD, ±18). Almost half of the participants were illiterate (51%, n=289) and 64% (n=365) were non-earning members of the family. In practice, most of the participants visit private providers (71%, n=407), including private hospital/clinic (44%) and traditional practitioners (27%; n=153). 55% of participants visited the current doctor because of clinic’s proximity to residence. 82% of the participants (n=469) were satisfied with the TB care services and 85% (n=488) said that they would recommend this clinic to others. Conclusion: PHCPs are preferred providers for individuals, which is consistent with findings of other studies. Though they are satisfied with TB care and services, interventions should be introduced to reduce the financial burden on the patient. Partnering PHCP is a way forward to ensure universal health coverage, health system strengthening and better health outcomes of the population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0478.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome; Long COVID; data acquisition source; post-infectious; longitudinal cohort study; patient-powered
Online: 25 November 2021 (13:51:54 CET)
ME/CFS (Myalgic Encephalomyelitis / Chronic Fatigue Syndrome) is a chronic, complex, heterogeneous disease that affects millions and lacks both diagnostics and treatments. Big data, or the collection of vast quantities of data that can be mined for information, has transformed the understanding of many complex illnesses like cancer (1,2) and multiple sclerosis (3,4), by dissecting heterogeneity, identifying subtypes, and enabling the development of personalized treatments. It is possible that big data can reveal the same for ME/CFS. Solve M.E. developed and launched the You + ME Registry to collect longitudinal health data from people with ME/CFS, people with Long COVID (LC) and control volunteers using rigorous protocols designed to harmonize with other groups collecting data from similar groups of people. The Registry is an invaluable resource because it integrates with a symptom tracking app, as well as a biorepository, to provide a robust and rich dataset that is available to qualified researchers. Accordingly, it facilitates collaboration that may ultimately uncover causes and help accelerate the development of therapies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0271.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: chiropractic; physical therapy; treatment outcome; low back pain; therapy; economics; patient satisfaction; recurrence; health care costs; illness
Online: 20 December 2019 (07:41:47 CET)
Low back pain (LBP) is a pandemic and costly musculoskeletal condition in the United States. Patients with LBP may endure surgery, injections, and expensive visits to emergency departments. Some suggest that using physical therapy or chiropractic in the earlier stage of LBP reduces the utilization of expensive health services and lowers the treatment costs. Nevertheless, there is no consistent evidence to declare which one of these methods is a cost-effective treatment within a short (less than a year) period of time. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cost-effectiveness of chiropractic versus physical therapy in the United States. A decision tree analytic model was used for estimating the economic outcomes. The findings showed that in the chiropractic group, the total average cost was $48.56 lower than the physical therapy group, and daily adjusted life years (DALY) was 0.0043 higher than the physical therapy group. Chiropractic care was shown to be a cost-effective alternative compared with physical therapy for adults with at least three weeks of low back pain over six months.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0735.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Urology Keywords: Greek language; translation; acute cystitis symptom score; ACSS; cystitis; urinary tract infection; female pa-tients; diagnosis; patient-reported outcome
Online: 29 December 2020 (15:40:33 CET)
Objective: The Acute Cystitis Symptom Score (ACSS) was developed and validated as a self-reporting questionnaire for diagnosing and monitoring acute, uncomplicated cystitis (AC) in female patients. The study aims at the translation of the ACSS into Greek from original Russian as a source and American English as a new master version and at its linguistic validation. Material and Methods: Three independent professional native Greek translators, two of them experts in Russian and one in English, translated the ACSS from Russian and American English into Greek. The second group of three translators translated each of the three versions back into the original language to detect or correct any important discrepancies. These three Greek versions were then used for linguistic validation. Results: The English to Greek translation reflected more the spoken language, the two Russian to Greek translations more the written, formal language. A total of 60 randomly selected females and 30 healthcare professionals was asked about their preferences and to comment on each of the three translations. Considering all comments the scientific committee (SC) developed the Greek consensus version. For cognitive assessment additional 30 healthcare professionals and 30 females were asked to comment on the intelligibility of all items. Considering their comments the linguistically validated Greek study version was established by the SC. Conclusion: The linguistically validated Greek version of the ACSS can now be used for the clinical validation study.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0203.v1
Subject: Keywords: mobile technology; patient engagement; mobile clinical trials; virtual trials; digital trials; hybrid trials; site engagement; site support; mobile devices
Online: 16 December 2019 (02:44:52 CET)
In order to harness the potential of mobile technologies to enhance the quality of clinical research, it is critical to first understand how to engage patients and research sites when planning and conducting mobile clinical trials. The Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative has developed the first comprehensive, evidence-based set of recommendations for incorporating patient and site perspectives in mobile clinical trials, which can aid in engaging stakeholders, addressing site challenges, and maximizing value for participants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0414.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: nursing values; burnout; hardy personality; work-life balance; nursing stress; co-counselling; critical realism; nurse education; nurse-patient ratios
Online: 19 November 2018 (04:21:47 CET)
This initial report of a longitudinal study of 192 English hospital nurses has measured Nursing Values (the 6Cs of nursing); Personality, Self-Esteem and Depression; Burnout Potential; Work-Life Balance Stress; ‘Hardy Personality’; and Intention to Leave Nursing. Correlational, component and cluster analysis identifies four groups: “The Soldiers” (N = 79) , with medium scores on most measures, who bravely ‘soldier on’ in their nursing roles, in the face of numerous financial cuts to the National Health Service, and worsening nurse-patient ratios; “Cheerful Professionals” (N = 54), coping successfully with nursing roles, and a variety of challenges, in upwardly mobile careers; “High Achievers” (N = 39), senior nurses with strong profiles of a ‘hardy personality’, and commitment to fundamental nursing values; “Highly Stressed, Potential Leavers” (N = 20), with indicators of significant psychological distress, and difficulty in coping with nursing role challenges. We propose a model of co-counselling and social support for this distressed group, by nurses who are coping more successfully with multiple challenges. We discuss the role of nurse educators in fostering nursing values, and developing and supporting ‘hardy personality’ and emotional resilience in recruits to nursing. This study is framed within the disciplinary approach of Critical Realism, which identifies the value basis for research and dialogue in developing strategies for social change.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0027.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: chatbot technology; ontology-based systems; expert systems; diagnosis; conversational agents; robotics; human-robot interaction; physician-patient relationship; intelligent agents
Online: 6 December 2016 (04:46:32 CET)
Access to medical care is a global issue. Technology-aided approaches have been applied in addressing this. Interventions have however not focused on medical diagnosis as a fully automated procedure and available applications employ mainly text-based inputs rather than conversation in natural language. We explored the utility of ontology-based chatbot technology for the design of intelligent agents for medical diagnosis through a systematic review of the most recent related literature. English articles published in 2011-2016 returned 233 hits which yielded 11 relevant articles after a 3-stage screening. Findings showed that the creation of expert systems had been the focus of many the studies which utilize the physician-system-patient framework with system training based mostly on expert knowledge for designing web- or mobile phone-based applications that serve assistive purposes. Findings further indicated gaps in the design and evaluation of more effective systems deployable as standalone applications, for example, on an embodied robotic system. The need for technology supporting the physical examination part of diagnosis, connection to data sources on patients’ vitals and medical history are also indicated in addition to the need for more qualitative work on natural language-based interaction. The system should be one that is continuously learning. Future works should also be directed towards the building of more robust knowledge base as well as evaluation of theory-based diagnostic methodological options
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0346.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: gastrointestinal cramps; gastrointestinal pain; irritable bowel syndrome; hyoscine butyl bromide; peppermint oil; over-the-counter treatment; pharmacy-based patient survey
Online: 22 September 2022 (14:15:32 CEST)
Functional gastro-intestinal disorders (FGID) including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are frequently handled by self-management with over the counter (OTC) products such as hyoscine butylbromide (HBB), alone or in combination with paracetamol, and natural products such as peppermint oil. To obtain real-world information, we have performed an anonymous pharmacy-based patient survey among 1686 users of HBB, HBB + paracetamol and peppermint oil. Based on the distinct but overlapping indications for the three OTC products, multiple logistic regression was applied to compare them in users reporting gastrointestinal cramps and pain, bloating, flatulence, or IBS as cardinal symptom. All three treatments reduced symptoms and associated impairments of work/daily chores, leisure activities, and sleep by approximately 50%. Based on the four cardinal symptoms and the four dependent continuous variables of interest (change of intensity of symptoms and of the three impairment domains) a total of 16 logistic regression models were applied. HBB, HBB + paracetamol, and peppermint oil had similar reported overall effectiveness in those models. Gender, age, baseline symptom severity and impairment in one of three domains had small and inconsistent effects on perceived treatment success. We provide evidence that HBB, HBB + paracetamol, and peppermint oil have comparable effectiveness in their approved indications under real-world conditions in an OTC setting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0110.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: blow-out; biocompatible materials; computer-aided design; finite element analysis; orbit; implant; orbital fracture; patient-specific modeling; printing; three-dimensional.
Online: 5 July 2021 (15:37:53 CEST)
Pure orbital blowout fractures occur within the confines of the internal orbital wall. Restoration of orbital form and volume is paramount to prevent functional and esthetic impairment. The anatomical peculiarity of the orbit has encouraged surgeons to develop implants with customized features to restore its architecture. This has resulted in worldwide clinical demand for patient-specific implants (PSIs) designed to fit precisely in the patient's unique anatomy. Fused filament fabrication (FFF) three-dimensional (3D) printing technology has enabled the fabrication of implant-grade polymers such as Polyetheretherketone (PEEK), paving the way for a more sophisticated generation of biomaterials. This study evaluates the FFF 3D printed PEEK orbital mesh customized implants with a metric considering the relevant design, biomechanical, and morphological parameters. The performance of the implants is studied as a function of varying thicknesses and porous design constructs through a finite element (FE) based computational model and a decision matrix based statistical approach. The maximum stress values achieved in our results predict the high durability of the implants, and the maximum deformation values were under one-tenth of a millimeter (mm) domain in all the implant profile configurations. The circular patterned implant (0.9 mm) had the best performance score. The study demonstrates that compounding multi-design computational analysis with 3D printing can be beneficial for the optimal restoration of the orbital floor.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: physical activity; depression; elderly people living alone; Patient Health Questionnaire-10; flexibility exercise; muscular strength exercise; complex sample logistic regression
Online: 25 March 2019 (11:10:17 CET)
Background and objectives: Only a few studies analyzed the physical activity level of elderly people living alone in local communities and evaluated the relationship between it and mental health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between physical activity and depression in the elderly living alone and to provide basic data for the prevention of depression in the elderly. Materials and Methods: We analyzed 256 elderly people living alone aged 65 years or older who completed the 2014 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Depression was defined as a score of 10 or higher using Patient Health Questionnaire-10(PHQ-9). This study investigated walking per week, days of muscular strength exercise performance in the past one week, days of flexibility exercise in the past one week, mean hours in a sitting position per day, the numbers of days and hours conducting a high intensity physical activity in the past one week, and numbers of days and hours conducting a medium intensity physical activity in the past one week to define physical activity. Our study presented prevalence odds ratios (pOR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) by using complex sample logistic regression analysis in order to identify the relationship between physical activity and depression. Results: The results of complex sample logistic regression analysis showed that flexibility exercise was significantly related to depression (p <0.05). On the other hand, the mean hours in a sitting position per day, aerobic physical activity, walking, and muscular strength exercise were not significantly related to geriatric depression. Conclusions: The results of our study implied that persistent flexibility exercise might be more effective to maintain a healthy mental status than muscular strength exercise. A longitudinal study is required to prove the causal relationship between physical activity and depression in the old age.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0184.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: type 2 diabetes; lifestyle behaviors; healthcare provider advice; provider-patient interactions; health care setting; brief lifestyle intervention exposure; diabetes prevention; diabetes management
Online: 15 February 2022 (09:20:36 CET)
Growing evidence suggests that healthcare provider advice may increase tobacco cessation, reduce alcohol use, and improve the adoption of desirable lifestyle behaviors among patients. However, how brief interventions and other provider-patient interactions can shape cumulative adoption of multiple modifiable behaviors is less well studied for diabetes prevention and control. Using weighted internet panel survey data from a large socio-demographically diverse urban population in the United States (n=1,003), the present study describes differences in group characteristics among those who had been “ever diagnosed” with prediabetes/diabetes versus those who had not. It also examines the associations between the cumulative adoption of lifestyle behaviors and each of the following: a) lifetime prediabetes/diabetes diagnosis; b) brief lifestyle intervention exposure (i.e., received provider advice/encouragement); and c) recent provider-patient communication about diabetes. There were several group differences in “ever diagnosed” prediabetes/diabetes status by age, employment status, health status, nutrition knowledge, blood pressure/hypertension diagnosis, and diabetes-related health behaviors (p<0.05). Each of the three provider-patient interactions of interest were positively associated with a higher cumulative sum of adopted modifiable lifestyle behaviors for diabetes prevention and management. Results suggest that provider advice/provider-patient interactions of any type can have a salutary impact on whether individuals with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes will engage in recommended lifestyle behavior modifications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0237.v2
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: Game-based therapy; robot-mediated therapy; neuromotor disability; cerebral palsy; subjective assessment; patient-centered assessment; caregiver burden; ankle range of motion; ankle strengthening; home exercise program
Online: 12 October 2020 (10:09:19 CEST)
Technological advances in game-mediated robotics provide an opportunity to engage children with cerebral palsy (CP) and other neuromotor disabilities in more frequent and intensive therapy by making personalized, programmed interventions available 24/7 in children’s homes. Though shown to be clinically effective and feasible to produce, little is known of the subjective factors impacting acceptance of what we term assistive/rehabilitative (A/R) gamebots by their target populations. This research describes the conceptualization phase of an effort to develop a valid and reliable instrument to guide the design of A/R gamebots. We conducted in-depth interviews with 8 children with CP and their families who had trialed an exemplar A/R gamebot, PedBotHome, for 28 days in their homes. The goal was to understand how existing theories and instruments were either appropriate or inappropriate for measuring the subjective experience of A/R gamebots. Key findings were the importance of differentiating the use case of therapy from that of assistance in rehabilitative technology assessment, the need to incorporate the differing perspectives of children with CP and those of their parents into A/R gamebot evaluation, and the potential conflict between the goals of preserving the quality of the experience of game play for the child while also optimizing the intensity and duration of therapy provided during play.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0184.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: pharmacy; patient communication; pharmacy communications; interpersonal communications; automated telemarketing telephone calls; telephone messages; automated messages; communication theory; customer relation management; CRM; pharmacy practice
Online: 16 April 2018 (04:31:24 CEST)
Pharmacy personnel often answer telephones to respond to pharmacy customers (subjects) who received messages from automated systems. This research examines the communication process in terms of how users interact and engage with pharmacies after receiving automated messages. No study has directly addressed automated telephone calls and subjects’ interactions. The purpose of this study is to test the interpersonal communication (IC) process of uncertainty in subjects in receipt of automated telephone calls from pharmacies. Subjects completed a survey of validated scales for Satisfaction (S); Relevance (R); Quality (Q); Need for Cognitive Closure (NFC). Relationships between S, R, Q, NFC, and subject preference to an automated telephone call (ATC) were analyzed to determine whether subjects contacting pharmacies display information seeking behavior. This research demonstrates that seeking information occurs if subjects: are dissatisfied with the content of the ATC; perceive that the Q of the ATC is high; perceive that the Q of ATC is high, and like receiving the ATC or with high NFC, and do not like receiving ATCs. Other interactions presented complexities amongst uncertainty and tolerance of NFC within the IC process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0460.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patient; Low-phosphate meal; CKD-MBD (chronic kidney disease-related mineral and bone disorder); Proinflammatory cytokine; TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-alpha)
Online: 24 November 2021 (15:27:03 CET)
High dietary phosphate intake and poor adherence to phosphate-binding-therapy elevate the risk of hyperphosphatemia in maintenance hemodialysis (HD; MHD) patients. Therefore, chronic kidney disease-related mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) indicators increase; consequently, risks of CKD-MBDs and inflammation are elevated. This double-blind, randomized control trial intervention study was designed to investigate the possibility of reducing blood CKD-MBD indicators and modulating inflammatory indicators by consuming low-phosphate (LP) meals accompanied by a minimum dose of a calcium-based phosphate binder (CaCO3). MHD patients were recruited and randomly assigned to an LP meal group (LP group) or a control group. After initial data collection, blood collection, and dietary counseling, subjects were asked to consume a washout diet for 1 week. During the washout diet period, subjects consumed their usual diet but took 1 tablet of calcium carbonate (1CaCO3) as a phosphate binder with each meal. After the washout diet period, subjects in the LP group and control group respectively consumed LP meals and regular meals twice a day for 1 week. Meat in the LP meals was boiled before the regular cooking process, but meat in control meals was not. All meals were supplied by a central kitchen so that the contents of phosphate and other nutrients could be identified. In total, 40 MHD patients completed the study program. After 1 week of the dietary intervention, the blood Ca x P product and dietary phosphate had significantly decreased in the LP group compared to the control group (p<0.05). The LP group had significantly lower variations in dietary phosphate intake, blood calcium, Ca x P product, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α than the control group by comparing differences between after the dietary intervention and the baseline (△after intervention - baseline, p<0.05). The increase in dietary phosphate intake (△3rd - 2nd dietary phosphate intake) augmented the increase in the TNF-α level by 6.24-fold (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 6.24 [1.12~34.92], p<0.05). These results highlighted the conclusion that LP meals accompanied by a minimum dose of CaCO3 downregulated pro-inflammation by reducing CKD-MBD indicators which was triggered by decreasing dietary phosphate intake.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: ME/CFS; education; medical school; teaching; long Covid; patient safety, NICE Guidelines, Health Act 1983, General Medical Council, GMC, Medical Schools Council, MSC, Long Covid.
Online: 16 March 2021 (12:16:27 CET)
Background and objectives: Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome ME/CFS is a common complex multi-system disease with a significant impact on the quality of life of patients and their families, yet the majority of ME/CFS patients go unrecognised or undiagnosed. For two decades the medical education establishment in the UK has been challenged to remedy these failings, but little has changed. This study was designed to ascertain the current UK medical school education on ME/CFS and to identify challenges and opportunities to inform the future of medical education. Materials and methods: A questionnaire, developed under the guidance of the Medical Schools Council, was sent to all 34 UK Medical Schools to collect data for the academic year 2018-2019. Results: Responses were provided by 22 out of a total of 34 medical schools (65%). 59% of respondents taught ME/CFS, led by specialists drawn from 6 medical disciplines. Teaching delivery was usually by lecture; however, discussion case studies and e-learning were used. 7 schools included questions on ME/CFS in their examinations and 3 schools reported likely clinical exposure to ME/CFS patients. 64% of respondents were interested in receiving further teaching aids in ME/CFS. None of the schools shared details of their teaching syllabus so it was not possible to ascertain what students were being taught. Conclusions: UK medical school teaching in ME/CFS is shown to be inadequate. Several medical disciplines, with known differences about the disease, need to set these aside to give greater clarity in teaching undergraduates so they can more easily recognise and diagnose ME/CFS. Improvements are proposed in ME/CFS medical education consistent with the international paradigm shift in biomedical understanding of this disease. Many medical schools (64% of respondents) acknowledge this need by expressing a strong appetite for the development of further teaching aids and materials. The GMC and MSC are called upon to use their considerable influence to bring about the appropriate changes to medical school curricula so future doctors can recognise, diagnose and treat ME/CFS. The GMC should also consider creating a registered speciality encompassing ME/CFS, post viral fatigue and Long Covid.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0125.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Critical Care Capacity; Critical Care Transfers; Critical Care Networks; COVID-19 Critical Care Capacity; COVID-19; Patient Transfer; Inter-hospital transfer; COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2
Online: 6 October 2020 (11:41:35 CEST)
The intensive care units in North West London are part of one of the oldest critical carenetworks in the UK, forming a mature and established strategic alliance to shareresources, experience and knowledge for the benefit of its patients. North WestLondon saw an early surge in COVID-19 admissions, which urgently threatened thecapacity of some of its intensive care units even before the UK government announcedlockdown. The pre-existing relationships and culture within the network allowed itsmembers to unite and work rapidly to develop agile and innovative solutions, protectingany individual unit from becoming overwhelmed, and ultimately protecting its patients.Within a short 50-day period 223 patients were transferred within the network todistribute pressures. This unprecedented number of critical care transfers, combinedwith the creation of extra capacity and new pathways, allowed the region to continue tooffer timely and unrationed access to critical care for all patients who would benefitfrom admission. This extraordinary response is a testament to the power and benefitsof a regionally networked approach to critical care, and the lessons learned maybenefit other healthcare providers, managers and policy makers, especially in regionscurrently facing new outbreaks of COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0001.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: CRISPR-Cas9; high-content screening (HCS); fluorescent-activated cell sorting (FACS); Parkinson's disease (PD); patient-derived iPS; single-cell clones; isogenic cell lines; SNCA; alpha-synuclein; A30P
Online: 2 May 2020 (11:20:20 CEST)
The generation of isogenic induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines using CRISPR-Cas9 technology is a technically challenging, time-consuming process with variable efficiency. Here we use fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) to sort biallelic CRISPR-Cas9 edited single-cell iPS clones into high-throughput 96-well microtiter plates. We used high-content screening (HCS) technology and generated an in-house developed algorithm to select the correctly edited isogenic clones for continued expansion and validation. In our model we have gene-corrected the iPSCs of a Parkinson’s disease (PD) patient carrying the autosomal dominantly inherited heterozygous c.88G>C mutation in the SNCA gene, which leads to the pathogenic p.A30P form of the alpha-synuclein protein. Undertaking a PCR restriction-digest mediated clonal selection strategy prior to sequencing, we were able to post-sort validate each isogenic clone using a quadruple screening strategy. Subsequent transfection with mRNA encoding excision-only transposase allows for the generation of footprint-free isogenic iPSC lines. These monoclonal isogenic iPSC lines retain a normal molecular genotype, express pluripotency markers and have the ability to differentiate into the three germ layers. This combinatory approach of FACS, HCS and post-sorted restriction digestion facilitates the generation of isogenic cell lines for disease modelling to be scaled-up on an automated platform.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0018.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD); CRISPR/Cas9; exon skipping therapy; gene editing; human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs); immortalized patient muscle cells; mdx mice; humanized dystrophic mouse models; deltaE50-MD dog model
Online: 2 November 2018 (05:14:23 CET)
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal X-linked recessive neuromuscular disease prevalent in 1 in 3500 to 5000 males worldwide. As a result of mutations that interrupt the reading frame of the dystrophin gene (DMD), DMD is characterized by a loss of dystrophin protein which leads to decreased muscle membrane integrity, which increases susceptibility to degeneration. CRISPR/Cas9 technology has garnered interest as an avenue for DMD therapy due to its potential for permanent exon skipping, which can restore the disrupted DMD reading frame in DMD and lead to dystrophin restoration. An RNA-guided DNA endonuclease system, CRISPR/Cas9 allows for the targeted editing of specific sequences in the genome. The efficacy and safety of CRISPR/Cas9 as a therapy for DMD has been evaluated by numerous studies in vitro and in vivo, with varying rates of success. Despite the potential of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing for the long-term treatment of DMD, its translation into the clinic is currently challenged by issues such as off-targeting, immune response activation, and sub-optimal in vivo delivery. Its nature as being mostly a personalized form of therapy also limits applicability to DMD patients, who exhibit a wide spectrum of mutations. This review summarizes the various CRISPR/Cas9 strategies that have been tested in vitro and in vivo for the treatment of DMD. Perspectives on the approach will be provided, and the challenges faced by CRISPR/Cas9 in its road to the clinic will be briefly discussed.