REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0133.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Cognition; nutrition; metabolism; neurodegeneration; ketone bodies; glycaemia; nutrition therapy
Online: 5 September 2020 (08:29:52 CEST)
Although diet interventions are mostly related to metabolic disorders, nowadays they are used in wide variety of pathologies. From diabetes and obesity to cardiovascular diseases, through cancer or neurological disorders and stroke, nutritional recommendations applied to almost all diseases. Among those disorders, metabolic disturbances and brain function and/or diseases have recently been shown to be linked. Indeed, numerous neurological functions are often associated with perturbations of whole-body energy homeostasis. In this regard, specific diets are used in various neurological conditions such as epilepsy, stroke, or seizure recovery. In addition, Alzheimer’s disease or Autism Spectrum Disorders are also considered as putatively improved by diet intervention. Glycemic index diets are a novel developed indicator expected to anticipate the changes in blood glucose induced by specific foods, and how they can affect various physiological function. Several results provide indications of efficiency of low glycemic index diets in weight management, insulin sensitivity, but also cognitive function, epilepsy treatment, stroke, or neurodegenerative diseases. Overall, studies involving glycemic index could provide new insight in the relationship between energy homeostasis regulation and brain function or related disorders. Therefore, in this review we will summarize main evidences on glycemic index involvement in brain mechanisms of energy homeostasis regulation.
Online: 16 December 2022 (10:10:37 CET)
In the United States, obesity is prevalent, and it could be described as a pandemic. Obesity is excessive fat accumulation, leading to a BMI ≥ 30 (Fruh, 2017). Surveys conducted by the CDC show that the obesity prevalence in the US is on the rise, as several obese people rose from 30.5% to 41.9% between 1999 and 2020 (Bryan et al., 2021). During the same time, several people suffering from severe obesity rose from 4.7% to 9.2% (Bryan et al., 2021). Additionally, childhood obesity is on the rise. Statistics indicate that between 2017-2020 over 19.7% of children and adolescents aged 2-19 years had obesity. During the same period, obesity prevalence in children aged 2-5 years, 6-11 years, and 12-19 years olds was 12.7%, 20.7%, and 22.2%, respectively (Bryan et al., 2021). With so many people suffering from obesity, the WHO declared it a public health crisis (WHO, 2020). The COVID-19 pandemic further exacerbated the prevalence of obesity in the US. According to the surveys, there was a 4.4% increase in obesity between 2019 to March 2020 due to lifestyle changes that were put on people during the COVID-19 pandemic (Akter et al., 2022). Many comorbidities are associated with obesity. Without adequate health interventions, millions of people could suffer severe health disorders like respiratory problems, type II diabetes, psychological issues, gastrointestinal disorders, and cardiovascular diseases. It is also essential to develop health interventions to mitigate obesity due to its strain on the healthcare system. Research shows that people suffering from obesity spend $2,505 more than people with average weight on healthcare (Cawley et al., 2021). Obesity has financial ramifications in every healthcare category: inpatient, outpatient, and prescription drugs (Cawley et al., 2021). One essential action toward the efforts to mitigate the soaring obesity rates is understanding the demographic inequities across populations and how they can be resolved.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0044.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: halophyte; salt-tolerance; N-nutrition; Portulaca oleracea; oxalic acid; ammonium nutrition
Online: 6 April 2020 (09:21:14 CEST)
Halophytic plants are, by definition, well adapted to saline soils. However, even halophytes can face nutritional imbalance and accumulation of high levels of compounds such as oxalic acid (OA), and nitrate (NO3¯). These compounds compromise the potential nutritional health benefits associated with salt tolerant plants such as Portulaca oleracea. Thus, preventing the accumulation of non-nutritional compounds will allow plants to be grown in saline conditions as crops. To this end, two ecotypes (ET and RN) of Portulaca oleracea plants were grown under growth room conditions with two levels of salinity (0, 50 mM NaCl) and three ratios of nitrate: ammonium (0:100%; 33:66%; 25:75% NO3¯:NH4+). The results showed that both ecotypes exposed to elevated NO3¯, showed severe leaf chlorosis, high levels of OA, citric acid, and malic acid, while plants of ecotype ET exposed to elevated NH4+ concentrations (33% and 75%) and 50 mM NaCl displayed a marked reduction in OA content, increased total chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, crude protein content, total fatty acid (TFA) and α-Linolenic acid (ALA) thus enhancing leaf quality. This opens the potential to grow high biomass, low OA P. oleracae crops. Lastly, our experiments suggest that ecotype ET copes with saline conditions and elevated NH4+ through shifts in leaf metabolites.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0370.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: alcohol; drugs of abuse; pregnancy; maternal nutrition; fetal nutrition; FASD; IUGR
Online: 25 June 2018 (05:57:21 CEST)
The consumption of alcohol and drugs of abuse among pregnant women has experienced a significant increase in the last decades. Optimal maternal nutritional status is of great importance for proper fetal development, yet is often altered with alcohol or drugs consumption. There is a lack of information on the effects of alcohol and drugs on maternal nutritional status, so the focus of this review was to provide an overview on nutrional status of mother and fetus in abusers pregnant women. Alcohol and drugs consumption can adversely affect the quality and quantity of proper nutrient supply and energy intake, resulting in malnutrition especially of micronutrients (vitamins, omega-3, folic acid, zinc, choline, iron, copper, selenium). When maternal nutritional status is compromised by alcohol and drugs essential nutrients are not available for the fetus, this can result in suboptimal outcomes like Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR) or Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). It is critical to determine a means to resolve and reduce the physical and neurological malformations that develop in the fetus as a result of prenatal alcohol and drugs exposure combined with poor maternal nutrition. Prenatal nutrition interventions are required that may prevent or alleviate the development of such abnormalities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0091.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: cardiac surgery; cardiopulmonary bypass; systemic inflammatory response; nutrition risk stratification; underfeeding; postoperative nutritional management; supplemental parenteral nutrition; enteral nutrition; pharmaconutrition
Online: 8 April 2018 (10:24:31 CEST)
Nutrition support is increasingly recognized as a clinically relevant aspect of the intensive care treatment of cardiac surgery patients. However, evidence from adequate large-scale studies evaluating its clinical significance for patients’ mid- to long-term outcome remains sparse. Considering nutrition support as a key component in the perioperative treatment of these critically ill patients, led us to review and discuss our understanding of the metabolic response to the inflammatory burst induced by cardiac surgery. In addition, we discuss how to identify patients who may benefit from nutrition therapy, when to start nutritional interventions, present evidence about the use of enteral and parenteral nutrition and the potential role of pharmaconutrition in cardiac surgery patients. Although the clinical setting of cardiac surgery provides advantages due to its scheduled insult and predictable inflammatory response, researchers and clinicians face lack of evidence and several limitations in the clinical routine, which are critically considered and discussed in this paper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0224.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: Incompatibility; interaction; enteral nutrition; complication
Online: 14 November 2022 (01:06:35 CET)
Artificial enteral nutrition (AEN) is defined as the delivery of nutrients through feeding tubes for special medical purposes. Patients usually suffer from chronic or critical illnesses and are generally polymedicated, which represents a high probability of interactions and incompati-bilities with the AEN that can cause adverse events and loss of effectiveness of pharmacological treatment. This study aimed to determine the potential incompatibilities and drug-enteral nu-trition interactions in patients hospitalized in a clinic in the city of Cartagena. A retrospective cross-sectional study design was used, in a sample of 218 patients with a stay of at least three days, who were prescribed at least five medications and AEN. The data was collected from medical records. The information was screened with the CheckTheMeds software, using the APPs: drug-interactionchecker and https://www.rccc.eu/ppc/Drogas/DrogasxSNG.htm. A prevalence of pharmaceutical type incompatibilities of 50% and physicochemical type of 31.65%, interactions of pharmacokinetic type 10.55% and physiological type of 6.42% was re-vealed. The adverse events identified were tube obstruction 54.78% (n=126), mobility disorders and/or gastric emptying disorders 22.61% (n=52), diarrhea 12.51% (n=29), mesenteric ischemia with 0.87% (n=2) and seizures 6.96% (n=16). The p and OR values were variable according to the interaction and/or incompatibility vs. adverse events. Drugs-AEN incompatibilities and inter-actions were frequent, which is why active pharmacovigilance is necessary to intervene in the safety, quality and cost-effectiveness of the care provided in the different care services.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0131.v1
Online: 8 December 2021 (14:22:24 CET)
A 52-day experiment was conducted to determine the crude protein (CP) requirements of juvenile matrinxã Brycon amazonicus, and to evaluate their resulting growth performance, hematological parameters and enzymatic activities. Sixty fish (29.03g ± 1.16g) were distributed in 12 tanks (310 L) with a completely randomized design, and maintained at four dietary crude protein levels (270, 320, 350, 390 g.kg-1) for 52 days. The results revealed that the fish fed diet 390 g.kg-1 CP had the best final weight, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, specific growth rate, protein efficiency ratio and lipid retention rate. The same could be stated for hematocrit, number of circulating erythrocytes, triglycerides and total proteins of the hematological profile (p<0.05). In the whole body composition, dry matter content was lower in the fish fed 390 g.kg-1 CP, while lipid content was higher in the fish fed 350-390 g.kg-1 CP (p<0.05). No differences were observed in CP and ash (p>0.05), or in the activities of digestive enzymes (p>0.05). In short, our findings suggest benefits of the 390 g.kg-1 CP feed for being the most adequate for this species’ juvenile stage.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0394.v1
Online: 22 November 2021 (13:27:03 CET)
Turmeric is highly tolerant to several climatic changes and can grow under high temperatures and moderate drought conditions. This herb is very much dependant on optimum rainfall, optimum heat with less chilling or freezing conditions. These conditions if are more than normal would tend to reduce the yields of the crops and also effect the productivity. To reduce such drastic yield losses certain conventional plant breeding methods were employed but were very less effective compared to plant biotechnology. To reduce these loses by stresses, extensive and effective molecular biology methods were employed which identifies the genes that are stress responsive along with certain methods like gene transfer, genetic engineering was also known to be effective. All these methods are quite helpful in mitigating the yield losses and promoting healthy growth in the plants. The maintenance of rhizome size, curcumin content, essential oils etc. is very much necessary for the turmeric crop because of its role, especially in the medical field. Therefore, the yield losses are reduced to a maximum extent so that development of smart turmeric is easy and crop designing is possible only with the advanced techniques involved in agriculture biotechnology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0080.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: child nutrition disorders; animal source foods; diet; food and nutrition; dietary diversity; food assistance
Online: 9 January 2019 (07:49:09 CET)
Introduction: Child undernutrition remains a challenge globally and in the geographically diverse country of Ethiopia. Improving dietary diversity and consumption of animal source foods are important for improving child nutrition and corresponding health outcomes. Objective: The objective of the study was to identify household and community factors associated with consumption of animal source foods among 6 to 36-month-old children from four regions of Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional survey using multistage probability sampling in eight geographic zones and four regions of Ethiopia took place in 2015 with parents/caretakers of 6 to 36-month-old children. Data was collected on demographic information, proxy indicators of socioeconomic status, and food consumed by the child the day before the survey. Results: Increased child age, pastoral livelihood, Muslim religion, and participation in the Productive Safety Net Program were associated with increased consumption of animal source foods. Odds of animal source foods consumption increased 8% with each 3-month age increase. Children from pastoralist households were the most likely to have consumed animal source foods in the preceding 24 hours as compared with those in agro-pastoralist households (0.21 times as likely) or those in agriculturalist/farming households (0.15 times as likely). The odds of consumption of animal source foods for families with food aid or safety net support was 1.7 times greater among those receiving traditional support from the Productive Safety Net Program and 4.5 times greater for those in the direct support arm of the program. Conclusions: The findings illustrate the importance of accounting for local context and community characteristics, such as livelihood and religion, when undertaking programming designed to improve diversity of children’s diets through increasing animal source foods. In addition, the Productive Safety Net program may be a critical determinant of dietary diversity for young children in these regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0589.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Sleep; Social Jetlag; Diet Food and Nutrition; Nutrition Surveys; Cross-sectional; Epidemiology; Adults; Public Health
Online: 30 July 2018 (14:41:06 CEST)
Limited observational studies have described the relationship between sleep duration and overall diet. The present study investigated the association between sleep duration at weekdays and empirically derived dietary patterns in a nationally representative sample of UK adults, aged 19-64 years old, participating in the 2008-2012 UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey Rolling Programme. Survey members completed between three to four days of dietary records. Sleep duration at weekdays was categorised into tertiles to reflect short, normal and long sleep duration. Social jetlag was calculated as the difference between sleep duration at weekends and weekdays. The association between sleep duration/ social jetlag and dietary patterns, derived by principal components analysis, was assessed regressing diet on sleep whilst accounting for the complex survey design and adjusting for relevant confounders. Survey members in the highest tertile of sleep duration had on average 0.45 (95% CI -0.78, -0.12) lower healthy dietary pattern score compared to middle tertile (p =0.007). There was an inverted u-shaped association between social jetlag and a healthy dietary pattern, such that when sleep at weekends exceeded weekday sleep by 1h 45min, scores for indicating a healthy dietary pattern declined (p =0.005). In conclusion, long sleep duration at weekdays and an increased social jetlag are associated with a lower healthy dietary pattern score. Further research is required to address factors influencing dietary patterns in long sleepers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0258.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Sports Nutrition; Dietary Supplements; Athletic Performance
Online: 16 January 2023 (01:29:53 CET)
The aim of the present study was to investigate the acute effect of caffeine supplementation on performance in official soccer matches. In double-blind, randomized crossover design, 13 professional soccer players performed two complete matches, with Caffeine (CAF) (6 mg/kg) and placebo (PLA) supplementation. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA showed that there was no effect of supplementation on the total distance covered (p = 0.536; ŋp² =0.033) or the total distance covered at different speeds (p = 0.453; ŋp² = 0.048), acceleration or deceleration (p = 0.387; ŋp² = 0.063) number of sprints (p = 0.521; µ² = 0.035) Heart Rate mean (p = 0.484; ŋp² = 0.042) Heart Rate maximum (p = 0.110; ŋp² = 0.199), Rate Perceived Effort (p = 0.151) or efficiency index (p = 0.480). Therefore, acute caffeine supplementation not effective to increase the performance of soccer players in official matches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0333.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Nanotechnology; Plant Nutrition; Nano Urea; Potato
Online: 19 December 2022 (09:14:27 CET)
In today’s world, it is the need of the hour to adopt new technology to sustain the production of the future. Nanotechnology is gaining popularity for its efficiency in various applied fields of science. In agriculture, nanomaterials have a huge impact on the efficiency of fertilizers pesticides, etc. As it requires very fewer quantities and has a negligible residual effect the environment is safe with the innovation of Nano fertilizer. Keeping this view into account an experimental Trial at a farmer’s field was carried out at Berui village in the Hooghly District of West Bengal during the winter (rabi) season of 2019 – 20 under the supervision of Berui Cooperative, KVK-Hooghly, BCKV, and IFFCO with nano-Urea, nano-Zn and nano-Cu using RBD design with 10 treatments and 3 replications. Experimental results revealed that the highest tuber yield was obtained in T-7 (50% N+100% P & K+ 2 spray of nano-Urea), and that was followed by T-10 (50% N + 100% P & K + 50% Zn + 1 spray each of Nano-Urea, Zn and Cu) and T-8 (100% N-P-K + 50% Zn + 2 spray of Nano-Zn). The performance of nano fertilizers, Nano- Urea, was quite promising and economically viable as compared to the 100% recommended dose with commercial fertilizers (RDF).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0071.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: nutrition screening tools; malnutrition; nutritional assessment
Online: 6 May 2022 (10:01:24 CEST)
Malnutrition is a serious problem with negative impact on the quality of life and the evolution of our patients, contributing to an increase in morbidity, hospital stay, mortality and health spending. Early identification is fundamental to implement the necessary therapeutic actions involving adequate nutritional support to prevent or reverse malnutrition. This review presents two complementary methods of fighting malnutrition: nutritional screening and nutritional assessment. Nutritional risk screening is conducted using simple, quick-to-perform tools and is the first line of action in detecting at-risk patients. It should be implemented systematically and periodically on admission to hospital or residential care, as well as on an outpatient basis for patients with chronic conditions. Once patients with a nutritional risk have been detected they should undergo a more detailed nutritional assessment to identify and quantify the type and degree of malnutrition. This should include health history and clinical examination, dietary history, anthropometric measurements, evaluation of the degree of aggression determined by the disease, functional assessment and, whenever possible, some method of measuring body composition.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0115.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Celiac disease; Early programming; Perinatal nutrition
Online: 6 October 2020 (09:49:37 CEST)
Experimental and epidemiological evidence has shown that modifications of the intrauterine environment can have deleterious consequences for individuals, expressed as an increased risk of suffering non-communicable pathologies in adult life, which is known as the hypothesis of the early origin of diseases or programming fetal. On the other hand, changes in gene expression patterns through epigenetic modifications can be the basis for long-term maintenance of the effects of fetal programming. In this sense, epigenetics comprises the study of intrauterine disturbances, which develop diseases in the adult, including Celiac Disease (CD). In addition, early feeding practices could influence the risk of CD development, such as breastfeeding timing and duration and age at gluten introduction in the diet. Gluten acts as a trigger for CD in genetically predisposed subjects, although approximately 30% of the world population has HLA DQ2 or DQ8, the prevalence of the disease is only 1-3%. It is not known what factors act to modify the risk of disease in genetically at risk subjects. Taking into account all these considerations, the aim of the current review is to elucidate the role of early programming and the effect of early nutrition on the development and progression of CD.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0166.v1
Online: 10 May 2020 (14:37:36 CEST)
On March 11, 2020, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). This review focuses on where the body mass index (BMI) value can be used as a tool to evaluate the risk of development and/or aggravation of this disease. Databases were used to search studies published up to April 18, 2020. In total, 4285 articles and other scientific literature were found, and twelve articles were included in this systematic review. The mean BMI value of severe COVID-19 patients ranged from 24.5 to 33.4 kg/m2, versus 22.0 to 24.3 kg/m2 for non-severe patients Articles using the terms obesity or overweight, without indicating the BMI value, in these patients were common, but this is not useful as the nutritional status, when not defined by this index, is confusing due to the classification being different in the West compared to among,, Asian and Korean criteria-based adults. Furthermore, the use of BMI is important during this pandemic, as it should be applied to nutritional support therapy during hospitalization of infected patients, as well as being considered in the home confinement population.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0034.v1
Online: 2 July 2019 (08:27:16 CEST)
In recent years, several brands have received much negative press coverage when trying to market their food and drink products specifically at women. This is, in part, because the taste preferences/sensitivities of men and women are actually quite similar. In fact, perhaps the one and only area where consumers are willing to accept (or should that be swallow) ingested products explicitly targeted at women or men is in the case of nutritional foods/supplements. Such products are not really sold on the basis of their taste/flavour anyway. Many consumers are also sensitive to the so-called pink tax, when near-identical products cost more when sold to women rather than to men (e.g., as in the case of female razors). As the four recent examples discussed in this review make clear, it can be difficult to roll-out a new food or beverage product, or else extend a pre-existing product line, that is especially for women without coming across as sexist/condescending. As such, marketers need to tread carefully, otherwise they may end-up generating unwanted negative publicity. Ultimately, therefore, adopting an implicit approach to gender-based marketing, should that be the direction that a brand wants to take, will likely have more chance of avoiding negative publicity than the explicit targeting of food/beverage-related products in what is undoubtedly a highly-politicized area.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0385.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: One Health, fermented foods, microbiota, nutrition
Online: 19 September 2018 (13:50:00 CEST)
The microbioma is presently one of the hottest areas of scientific and medical research and exerts a marked influence on the host during homeostasis and disease. Fermented foods arise in the human relationship to the microbial environment. Further to the traditionally recognized effects of fermented foods and beverages on the digestive health and well-being there is now strong evidence on their general health benefits, namely the significance on the gut microbiota and brain functionality. We highlight the possibilities in this field, how little is still known, and call for a convergence of interdisciplinary research fields of One Health microbe-nutrition with fermented foods and gut-brain research. A consequence of civilisation, changes in present-day society in diets with more sugar, fat and salt, habits and lifestyle, contributes to the likelihood of an inflammatory microbiome, particularly the global epidemics of obesity and mental health. Although two recent papers claim that probiotics perturb rather than aid in microbiota recovery back to baseline after antibiotic administration in humans, consuming fermented foods has shown to reduce inflammation so improve gut health and the proper function of the body’s immune system.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0422.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: children; histamine intolerance; nutrition; diagnostic algorithm; epidemiology
Online: 16 March 2021 (12:19:00 CET)
Histamine intolerance is defined as disequilibrium of accumulated histamine and the capacity for histamine degradation. This clinical term addresses a non-immunologically mediated pathology when histamine ingested with food is not particularly high, but its degradation is decreased. Clinical picture of histamine intolerance in children is similar to that observed in adults apart from male predominance found in paediatric patients. Both in children and adults, histamine-free diet seems to be the treatment of choice. Diamine oxidase supplementation offers another treatment option. There is no symptom and\or test pathognomonic for histamine intolerance. Nevertheless, manifestations of chronic gastrointestinal symptoms, measurement of diamine oxidase deficits, positive results of histamine provocation tests and improvement of symptoms with histamine-free diet greatly increase the probability of histamine intolerance diagnosis. These factors have been included in the proposed in this paper diagnostic algorithm for histamine intolerance. In children histamine intolerance probably co-occur with allergies and bowel diseases, which creates an additional diagnostic challenge. As the evidence for children is weak, further research is needed the establish epidemiology, validate diagnostic algorithms and establish possible treatment options regarding histamine intolerance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0444.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: blueberry; crop modeling; plant nutrition; machine learning
Online: 19 September 2020 (03:27:32 CEST)
Nutrient management of lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.) depends on several yield-limiting features. Machine learning models can process such yield-impacting variables to predict berry yield. We investigated the effects of local variables on yields and nutrient management of lowbush blueberry. We collected 1504 observations from N-P-K fertilizer trials conducted in Quebec, Canada. Meteorological indices at various phenological stages showed the greatest impact on yield. High mean temperature at flower bud opening and after fruit maturation, and total precipitation at flowering showed positive effects. Low mean temperature and low total precipitation before bud opening, at flowering, and by fruit maturity, as well as number of freezing days (< -5ºC) before flower bud opening, showed negative effects. Soil fertility variables, leaf nutrient compositions and N-P-K fertilization showed smaller effects. Gaussian processes predicted berry yields from historical weather data, soil analysis, fertilizer dosage, and leaf nutrients with a root-mean-square-error of 1447 kg ha-1 on the testing data set. An in-house Markov chain algorithm optimized yields modelled with Gaussian processes from leaf nutrient composition, soil test value, and fertilizer dosage conditioned to specified historical weather features. We propose to use conditioned machine learning models to manage nutrients of lowbush blueberry at local scale.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0026.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: COVID-19; herbs; spices; nutrition; nutrients; immunomodulatory
Online: 2 September 2020 (05:06:56 CEST)
Corona Virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a new strain of coronavirus that causes respiratory illnesses with a start of flu like symptoms. This disease is fatal and is spread all over the world. The Scientist are working day and night to find vaccine or a cure. World Health Organisation has declared COVID-19 as pandemic . In the view of the pandemic many treatments are being tried on the patients and various treatment modalities are being followed, the traditional medicine has shown a major role to manage this disease. The traditional medicines include the use of herbs, nutrition and spices that are freely available in Asian countries. These are used in day to day life by Asian population . In this paper we have compiled and reviewed the role of various herbs and spices such as Oregano, Ashwagandha, Ginseng, Basil, Sage, Curcumin, Fenugreek, Ginger and Garlic in building immunity and also in curing pathogenic invasions based on evidence based researches. As there is no cure available for COVID-19 till now so supportive therapy is playing a major role for the patients to fight with this pandemic. The AYUSH ministry has also promoted the use of above herbs for a patient suffering from this disease. The corona virus is present in respiratory system as shown by different studies and it has different strains. The guidelines laid by the ICMR and WHO shows that use of herbs, spices and nutrients can be helpful to manage this virus by increasing the immunity in patients. Hence we are not claiming any cures but the herbs and spices used in day to day life are very much effective in management of COVID-19. World Health Organisation (WHO) has recognised the use of alternative and traditional medicine in the management of COVID-19 but the herbs should be used in prescribed amounts and overdose of them can be harmful for health [1,3]. Therefore the present article will enlighten the readers about the role of herbs, spices and nutrients in improving the conditions in COVID-19.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0082.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: overview; meta-analyses; stroke; nutrition; geographical areas
Online: 6 August 2019 (16:18:23 CEST)
Stroke is one of the most prevalent cardiovascular diseases worldwide, both in high-income countries and in medium and low-medium income countries. The WHO report on non-communicable diseases (NCDs) indicates that the highest behavioral risk in NCDs is attributable to incorrect nutrition. The objective of our work is to present an overview of meta-analyses that have investigated the impact of different foods and / or drinks in relationship with the risk of stroke events (ischemic/ hemorrhagic). The papers to be included in the overview were sought in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, Clinicaltrials.gov, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library and were selected according to PRIMA flow chart. Quality assessment were made according to AMSTAR scale. This overview shows that all primary studies came from countries with high income level. This evidence shows that many countries are not represented. Therefore, different lifestyles, ethnic groups, potentially harmful or virtuous eating habits are not reported. It is important to underline how the choose of foods may help reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases and stroke in particular.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0029.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: food marketing; sex/gender; personalization; customization; nutrition
Online: 2 November 2018 (07:00:20 CET)
In recent years, food and drink marketers have become increasingly interested in the question of whether there are any meaningful sex/gender differences in the world of taste/flavour perception. However, it turns out that while there are a large number of individual differences in the experience of food/drink, few, if any, fall neatly along sex/gender lines. As such, the marketers of food and drink need to tread very carefully when it comes to marketing food or beverage products specifically at men, or more usually, women. All too often, the brands entering this space soon find their attempts branded crass and/or sexist. Adopting a stealthy or implicit gender-based product development strategy is therefore perhaps more likely to succeed than the explicit targeting of food/beverage-related products in what is undoubtedly a highly-politicized area. That said, the one area where the public appear willing to accept products that are explicitly targeted at men or women is in the case of nutritional foods/supplements.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0036.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: ERAS Protocol; nutrition support; fasting; colorectal surgery
Online: 2 October 2018 (22:31:38 CEST)
Traditionally, overnight fasting before elective surgery has been the routine in medical practice for risk reduction of pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents. Several original study and international societies recommend a 2‐h preoperative fast for clear fluids and a 6‐h fast for solids in most elective patients. We conducted a narrative review of the literature, searching electronic databases (Medline and CINAHL). We used PICO approach. The results of our review suggest that nutrition support in the perioperative period is very important to reduce length of hospital stay and reduced postoperative complication.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0066.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: cardiovascular diseases; risk factors; nutrition; ecological study
Online: 8 February 2018 (03:22:54 CET)
The aim of this study was a large-scale ecological analysis of nutritional and other environmental factors potentially associated with the incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in the global context. Indicators of CVDs from 158 countries were compared with the statistics of mean intake (supply) of 60 food items between 1993 and 2011, obesity rates, health expenditure and life expectancy. This comparison shows that the relationship between CVD indicators (raised blood pressure, CVD mortality, raised blood glucose) and independent variables in the global context is influenced by various factors such as short life expectancy, religiously conditioned dietary customs, the imprecision of some statistics and undernutrition. However, regardless of the statistical method used, the results always show very similar trends and identify high carbohydrate consumption (mainly in the form of cereals and wheat in particular) as a dietary factor most consistently associated with the risk of CVDs. These findings are in line with the changing view of the causes of CVDs. Because only the statistics of raised blood glucose include people using medications and reflect true prevalence that is independent of healthcare, more objective data on the prevalence of CVDs are needed to confirm these observed trends.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0015.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: iodine; pregnancy; qualitative research; awareness; perceptions; nutrition
Online: 2 February 2018 (07:29:44 CET)
Iodine is essential for thyroid hormones synthesis and normal neurodevelopment; however, 60% of pregnant women do not meet the WHO recommended intake. Using a qualitative design, we explored perceptions, awareness and experiences of pregnancy nutrition, focusing on iodine. Women in the perinatal period (n=48) were interviewed and filled in a food frequency questionnaire for iodine. Almost all participants achieved the recommended 150 μg/day intake for non-pregnant adults (99%), but only 81% met the increased demands of pregnancy (250 μg/day). Most were unaware of the importance, sources and recommendations of iodine intake. Attitudes to dairy products consumption were positive (e.g. helps with heartburn; easy to increase). Increased fish consumption was considered less achievable, with barriers around taste, smell, heartburn and morning sickness. Community midwives were the main recognised provider of dietary advice. The dietary advice received focused most often on multivitamin supplements rather than food sources. Analysis highlighted a clear theme of commitment to change behaviour, motivated by pregnancy, with desired focus on user-friendly documentation and continued involvement of the health services. The study highlights the importance of redirecting advice on dietary requirements in pregnancy and offers practical suggestions from women in the perinatal period as the main stakeholder group.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0148.v1
Online: 23 November 2017 (04:04:18 CET)
Baobab (Adansonia digitata) leaves are usually used in dry form in the preparation of a soup known as ‘miyan kuka’ in Northern Nigeria. The leaves are believed to have nutritional and medicinal benefits and have been used for those purposes in Africa and Asia. However there has been limited research on the detailed constituents of the dry leaves. In this study, phytochemical, elemental and proximate analyses of stored, sun and shade-dried baobab leaves were conducted. The results revealed a great variation in the nutritional contents of the leaves. The study reveals that the leaves are rich in phytochemicals such as glycosides, saponins, steroids and flavonoids while alkaloids, tannins and resins are absent. Also, they are important source of minerals such as zinc, copper, iron and manganese. In addition, they are rich in fibre, crude protein, nitrogen and ash. Contrasting responses were obtained in the samples studied. The implications of these responses are discussed in relation to crop yield.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0148.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: oveweight; obesity; public policy; nutrition education; malnutrition; school
Online: 12 September 2022 (12:26:50 CEST)
Being overweight or obese is a public health problem. This work evaluated a food and nutrition education (EAN) intervention against overweight schoolchildren in four schools in the West Panama Province. A quasi-experimental before-and-after study that implemented a 34-week EAN intervention through workshops with didactic material to 403 children between 8 and 13 years old. The knowledge and attitude survey was used as an evaluation tool before and after the educational intervention. The prevalence of excess weight (40%) did not report differences after the intervention. No differences were reported in the median level of attitude, although higher levels of knowledge were reported in students of both sexes. EAN in schoolchildren can be effective in acquiring knowledge and maintaining a positive attitude towards food.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0182.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: oncology; nutrition; supportive care; integrative oncology; metabolism; mitochondria
Online: 9 August 2022 (15:02:55 CEST)
Cancer-related fatigue is a common, burdensome symptom of cancer and side-effect of chemotherapy. While a Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) promotes energy metabolism and overall health, its effects on cancer-related fatigue remain unknown. In a randomized controlled trial, we evaluated a rigorous MedDiet intervention for feasibility and safety as well as preliminary effects on cancer-related fatigue and metabolism compared to usual care. Participants had stage I-III cancer and at least 6 weeks of chemotherapy scheduled. After baseline assessments, randomization occurred 2:1, MedDiet:usual care. Measures were collected at baseline, week 4, and week 8 including MedDiet adherence, dietary intake, and blood-based metabolic measures. Mitochondrial respiration from freshly isolated T cells was measured at baseline and 4 weeks. Participants (n=33) were 51.0±14.6 years old, 94% were female, and 91% were being treated for breast cancer. The study was feasible, with 100% completing the study and >70% increasing their MedDiet adherence at 4 and 8 weeks compared to baseline. Overall, the MedDiet intervention vs. usual care had a small-moderate effect on change in fatigue at weeks 4 and 8. For those with a baseline MedDiet score<5 (n=21), the MedDiet intervention had a moderate-large effect of 0.67 and 0.48 at weeks 4 and 8, respectively. The MedDiet did not affect blood-based lipids, though it had a beneficial effect on fructosamine (ES= -0.55). Fatigue was associated with mitochondrial dysfunction including lower basal respiration, maximal respiration, and spare capacity (p<0.05 for FACIT-F fatigue subscale and BFI, usual fatigue). In conclusion, the MedDiet was feasible and attenuated cancer-related fatigue among patients undergoing chemotherapy, especially those with lower MedDiet scores at baseline.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0330.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Forest nutrition; soil chemistry; geology; cumulative distribution functions
Online: 21 July 2022 (13:26:46 CEST)
Successful fertilization treatments targeted to improve stand productivity while reducing operational complexities and cost depend on a clear understanding of soil nutrient availability under varying environmental conditions. Soil nutrient data collected from 154 forest sites throughout the Inland Northwest, USA were analyzed to examine soil nutrient characteristics on different geologic soil parent materials and to rank soil fertility. Results show that soil parent material explains significant differences in soil nutrient availability. Soils developed from volcanic rocks have the highest CEC and are relatively high in P, K, S, Mg, Cu, Ca, and B, but generally poor in N. Forest soils developed from plutonic rocks exhibit the lowest CEC and are low in N, S, K, Mg, Cu, and Ca, but higher in P. Some soils located on mixed glacial till are low only in K, Cu, Mg, and Ca, but many glacial soils are relatively rich in other nutrients, albeit the second lowest CEC. Soils developed from metasedimentary and sedimentary rocks are among those with lowest soil nutrient availability for P and B. Sulfur was found to have the highest concentrations in metasedimentary influenced soils and the least in sedimentary derived soils. Our results should be useful in designing site-specific fertilizer and nutrient management prescriptions for forest stands growing on soils developed from these major geologies within the Inland Northwest region of the United States.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0140.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Child nutrition; Religion; Ramadan fasting; In-utero exposure
Online: 9 February 2022 (16:00:34 CET)
In this study, we analyse if in-utero exposure to Ramadan fasting period is negatively associated with child nutrition? The data for the analyses come from a retrospective assessment of 924,198 children from 103 demographic and health surveys (DHS) across 56 countries during the period 2003-2020. Considering the month-long Ramadan exposure as a natural experiment, we implement an intent-to-treat framework, comparing outcomes among individuals who were exposed to Ramadan at any time in-utero to those who were not exposed. Our findings do not show significant evidence to conclude that in-utero exposure to Ramadan fasting period is negatively associated with child nutrition. On the contrary, except for stunting in children who had in-utero exposure to Ramadan during the first trimester, among Muslims, we find slightly better nutritional outcomes among children exposed in-utero to Ramadan period. The better nutritional outcomes among children exposed in-utero can be attributed to high nutritious food intake and better hygienic practices during holy months of Ramadan compared to usual months. Our main results are robust to multiple robustness checks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0391.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: celiac disease; orthorexia; eating disorders; ORTHO-15; nutrition
Online: 22 November 2021 (12:56:59 CET)
Evidence points to a link between gluten-free diet or celiac disease and eating disorders, but not with orthorexia. This study is the first to examine adults with celiac disease in terms of the prevalence of risk of orthorexia. The study included 130 adults diagnosed with celiac disease. The standardized ORTHO-15 questionnaire was used to assess the risk of orthorexia. Cronbach's alpha test was used to determine the reliability of the ORTHO-15 questionnaire. Eating habits of the subjects were assessed using a questionnaire. The effect of celiac disease on diet was assessed on a 5-point scale. A risk of orthorexia was found in 69% of subjects with celiac disease. A statistically significant (p<0.005) positive correlation was observed between age and ORTHO-15 test scores (rho=0.37). In the group with orthorexia risk, meals were more often self-prepared (93.3%) compared to those without orthorexia (80%) (p=0.023). For 80% of those at risk for orthorexia versus 20% without risk, mood was a factor influencing dietary choices (p=0.001). The study observed a strong association between celiac disease and the presence of orthorexia risk. The numerous risk factors for orthorexia suggest the need for holistic care, including nutritional and psychological support among individuals with celiac disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0322.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: adolescents; lifestyles; nutrition; overweight and obesity; food intake
Online: 22 October 2021 (09:20:18 CEST)
(1) Objective: This study analyzes the evolution of the body mass index (BMI) throughout the academic year associated with changes in the lifestyle associated with the place where they live during the course and design lifestyle and health strategies to the university community. (2) Methods: 93 first-year nursing students participated in this study. Data were collected throughout the course by administering self-reported questionnaires about eating habits and lifestyles, weight, and height to calculate their BMI and place of residence throughout the course. Data were analyzed using statistical analysis (Mann-Whitney, Chi-square, student's t- test, repeated-measures analysis of variance, and least significant difference tests). (3) Results: We found that the mean BMI increases significantly throughout the course among all students regardless of sex, age, eating habits or where they live during the course. At the beginning course the mean BMI was 22.1 ± 3,642. The mean difference between the beginning of the course and the middle has a value of p value <0. 015 and between the middle of the course and the end a p value <0.009. The group that increased the most is found among students who continue to live in the family nucleus rather than those who live alone or in residence. Students significantly change their eating and health habits, especially those who live alone or in residences.: (4) Conclusions: There is an increase in BMI among students. It is necessary to carry out seminars or talks that can help students understand the importance of good eating practices and healthy habits to maintain their weight and, therefore, their health, in the short, medium, and long term and acquire a good quality of life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0014.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Beta-alanine; supplementation; nutrition,; aerob and anaerob performance
Online: 2 August 2021 (10:18:40 CEST)
: Supplement the use of ergogenic aids in cyclist’s directly have been improved the body metabolism and hemodynamic factors that are micro supplement in chancing reactions on the body muscle mass and limb muscle. Mostly knowing that, muscle power development progressive fast glycolytic and short time oxidative systems reactions. Sport competition intervals, therefore, during periods has been used specific drinks supported to cyclists. But, be obtained during should be long race times. Athletes directly needed some drug and fluid intake to prevented from metabolic breakdown rapidly the dynamic physiologic performance factors. Beta-alanine supplementation can be direct muscle performance development affects the anaerobic metabolism and capacity. It should be de-termined how the cyclists will use the competitive and training period intervals can increase the cyclists specific sprint and endurance race performance. Science cyclist International Road doses will be created in which, intervals can random effectively the investigate. This study random a cohort studies is examined the effects of beta-alanine supplementation on aerobic and anaerobic power output in specific cyclists. Therefore, we have been databases PubMed, Scopus and Medline initial search 10 August 2020 were created prospective effect the quality of bias work concluded effect size (ES) 95% confidence interval (CI) were used in participant. Participations (N=66) have age range 25 to 38 of the using beta-alanine in training periods to endurance muscle performance, aerobic power, anaerobic power, and sprint time trials. As a result of beta-alanine improved an-aerobic and aerobic power output on 4-week time-dependent trial performance condition. Signifi-cant values are obtained level factor alpha <0.05 and p-value analysis pre-post interactive stand-ardization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0339.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: microbiota; microbiome; manipulation; fiber; diet; prebiotic; nutrition; supplement
Online: 14 June 2021 (09:19:54 CEST)
Consumption of prebiotic fibers to modulate the human gut microbiome is a promising strategy to positively impact health. Nevertheless, given the compositional complexity of the microbiome and its inter-individual variances, generalized recommendations on the source or amount of fiber supplements remain vague. This problem is further compounded by availability of tractable in vitro and in vivo models to validate certain fibers. We employed a gnotobiotic mouse model containing an a priori characterized 14-member synthetic human gut microbiome (SM) for their ability to metabolize a suit of fibers in vitro; the SM contains 14 different strains belonging to five distinct phyla. Since soluble purified fibers have been a common subject of studies, we specifically investigated the effects of concentrated raw fibers (CRFs)—containing fibers from pea, oat, psyllium, wheat and apple—on the compositional and functional alterations in the SM. We demonstrate that, compared to a fiber-free diet, CRF supplementation increased the abundance of fiber-degraders namely Eubacterium rectale, Roseburia intestinalis and Bacteroides ovatus and decreased the abundance of the mucin-degrader Akkermansia muciniphila. These results were corroborated by a general increase of bacterial fiber-degrading α-glucosidase enzyme activity. Overall, our results highlight the ability of CRFs to enhance the microbial fiber-degrading capacity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0593.v1
Online: 25 May 2021 (08:56:26 CEST)
Cacao is an understory plant cultivated under full-sun monocultures to multi-strata agroforestry systems, where cocoa trees are planted together with fruit, timber, firewood, and leguminous trees, or grown within thinned native forests. Under agroforestry systems of cultivation, cacao is subjected to excess shade due to high density of shade trees, and overgrown or unmanaged pruning of shade trees. Cacao is tolerant to shade, and the maximum photosynthetic rate occurs around irradiance of 400 μmol m−2 s−1 but excess shade reduces the irradiance further which is detrimental to photosynthesis and growth functions. Intra-specific variation is known to exist in cacao for the required saturation irradiance. A greenhouse study was implemented with 58 cacao genotypes selected from four geographically diverse groups: (i) wild cacao from river basins of the Peruvian Amazon, (PWC), (ii) Peruvian farmers’ collection (PFC), (iii) Brazilian cacao collection (BCC) and (iv) national and international cacao collections (NIC). All the cacao genotypes were subjected to 50% and 80% shade where photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) was 1000 and 400 μmol m-2 ּs-1 respectively. Intra-specific variations were observed for growth, physiological and nutritional traits, and tolerance to shade. Cacao genotypes tolerant to shade were: UNG-77 and UGU-130 from PWC; ICT-2173, ICT-2142, ICT-2172, ICT-1506, ICT-1087, and ICT-2171 from the PFC; PH-21, CA-14, PH-990 and PH-144 from BCC; and ICS-1, ICS-39, UF-613 and POUND-12 from NIC. Genotypes that tolerate excess shade might be useful plant types to maintain productivity and sustainability in agroforestry systems of cacao management.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Gut-Brain Axis; Nutrition; Microbiome; SCFA; Gut dysbiosis
Online: 13 May 2021 (13:30:00 CEST)
Diet plays a pivotal role in the overall health of an individual. Not only does it help carry out and regulate certain physiological functions, but it also can determine the composition of the gut microbiome. While the relative number of microorganisms that make up the gut microbiome vary between individuals and can be dependent on different environmental factors, there is evidence to suggest that composition of the microbiome can correlate with overall health or disease. When the GI microbiome is disturbed or suddenly changes it results in microbiome dysbiosis, a condition that correlates with the presence of certain diseases. Diseases linked to microbiome dysbiosis range from metabolic disorders, inflammatory bowel diseases to disorders of the brain. Many of these diseases are linked to the connection between the brain and the gut, known as the brain-gut axis. This bidirectional communication is important to maintain normal intestinal function, but is also responsible for the GI response to emotions as well as the emotional response to GI disturbances. By exploiting the interaction between microbiome health and nutrition, diet can be used to alleviate disease symptoms, protect against the development of certain conditions, and better maintain overall health. This review will examine the effects of nutrition on the microbiome, diseases linked to disruption of the normal microbiome, and the way that altering the diet can mitigate symptoms or prevent disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0205.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: diabetes; vegetarian; diet; nutrition; metabolic syndrome; disparity; child
Online: 17 October 2019 (15:24:37 CEST)
The national rate of obesity in US Hispanic/Latinos exceeds all other major ethnic subgroups and represents an important health disparity. Plant-based diet interventions that emphasize whole plant foods with minimal processing and less refined grains and sugar have shown have shown great promise in control of obesity, but there is a paucity of data translating this treatment effect to disparity populations. The objective of our study was to evaluate the efficacy and scalability of the Healthy Eating Lifestyle Program (HELP) – a hospital-based, family centered, culturally tailored, plant-based diet intervention for Hispanic/Latino pediatric obesity patients and their families. Our evaluation methods included: 1) a quasi-experimental, one group, longitudinal study to measures changes in BMI at 0, 6, and 18 weeks of follow-up, and 2) A stakeholder analysis consisting of six key informant interviews of HELP program staff. We found a significant decrease in body mass index across all adults (-0.2 kg/m2 p=0.0047), that was much stronger in men. For children ages 5-12 years, there was also a significant decrease in BMI Z score from pre- to post- intervention (p=0.04). Program strengths were the cultural tailoring of the plant-based diet choices, and allowing a tiered approached that did not require adherence to strict vegetarianism. Our pilot study findings from HELP raise the possibility that incorporating plant-based diet choices into the treatment of pediatric obesity patients and their families can be an effective addition to a culturally responsive care model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0178.v4
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: nutrition; children; greenhouse gas emissions; school meals; sustainability; Agenda 2030
Online: 8 July 2019 (14:52:09 CEST)
There is great potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) from public sector meals. This paper aimed to develop a strategy for reducing GHGE in the Swedish school food supply without compromising nutritional adequacy, affordability, and cultural acceptability. Amounts, prices and GHGE-values for all foods and drinks supplied to three schools over one year were gathered. The amounts were optimized by linear programming. Four nutritionally adequate models were developed: Model 1 minimized GHGE while constraining relative deviation (RD) from observed food supply; Model 2 minimized total RD while imposing stepwise GHGE reductions; Model 3 additionally constrained RD for individual foods to an upper and lower limit; and Model 4 further controlled how ratios between food groups could deviate. Models 1 and 2 reduced GHGE by up to 95% but omitted entire food categories or increased the supply of some individual foods by more than 800% and were deemed unfeasible. Model 3 reduced GHGE by up to 60%, excluded no foods, avoided high RDs of individual foods, but resulted in large changes in food group ratios. Model 4 limited changes in food group ratios but resulted in a higher number of foods deviating from the observed supply and limited the potential of reducing GHGE. Cost was reduced in almost all solutions. An omnivorous, nutritionally adequate, and affordable school food supply, with considerably lower GHGE is achievable with moderate changes to the observed food supply. Trade-offs will always have to be made between achieving GHGE reductions and preserving similarity to the current supply.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0215.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Maternal nutrition; Breast milk; Premature delivery; Milk composition
Online: 22 January 2019 (11:27:30 CET)
(1) Background: Premature infants require mothers’ milk fortification to meet nutrition needs, but breast milk composition may be variable leading to a risk of inadequate nutrition. We aimed at determining factors influencing mothers’ milk macronutrients. (2) Methods: Milk samples were analyzed for the first 5 weeks after premature delivery, by infrared spectroscopy. Mothers’ nutritional intake data were obtained during standardized interviews with dieticians then analyzed with reference software. (3) Results: Composition of 367 milk samples from 81 mothers was (Median [range]g/100mL): Carbohydrates 6.8[4.4-7.3], lipids 3.4[1.3-6.4], proteins 1.3[0.1-3.1]. There was a relationship of milk composition with mothers’ carbohydrates intake only (r=0.164; p<.01). Postnatal age was correlated with milk proteins (r=-0.505 p<.001) & carbohydrates (r=+0.202, p<.001). Multiple linear regression analyses showed (coefficient) a relationship between milk proteins r=0.547 and postnatal age (-0.028), carbohydrates intake (+0.449) and the absence of maturation (-0.066); and between milk lipids r=0.295 and carbohydrates intake (+1.279) and smoking (-0.557). Finally, between milk carbohydrates concentration r=0.266 and postnatal age (+0.012) and smoking (-0.167). (4) Conclusions: Variability of mothers’ milk composition is differentially associated for each macronutrient with maternal carbohydrates intake, antenatal steroids, smoking, and postnatal age. Improvement in milk composition could be achieved by modification of these related factors.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0527.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: citation network analysis; text mining; nutrition intervention; cognition
Online: 21 November 2018 (13:50:28 CET)
Manual review of the extensive literature covering nutrition-based lifestyle interventions to promote healthy cognitive ageing has proved educative, however, data-driven techniques can better account for the large size of the literature (tens of thousands of potentially relevant publications to date) and interdisciplinary nature of where relevant publications may be found. In this study we present a new way to map the literature landscape focusing on nutrition-based lifestyle interventions to promote healthy cognitive ageing. We applied a combination of citation network analysis and text mining to map out the existing literature on nutritional interventions and cognitive health. Results indicated five overarching clusters of publications, which could be further deconstructed into a total of 35 clusters. These could be broadly distinguished by focus on lifespan stages (e.g. infancy versus older age), and specificity regarding nutrition (e.g. narrow focus on iodine deficiency versus broad focus on weight gain). Rather than concentrating into a single cluster, interventions were present throughout the majority of the research. We conclude that a data-driven map of the nutritional intervention literature can benefit the design of future interventions, by highlighting topics and themes that could be synthesized across currently disconnected clusters of publications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0459.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Nutrition; Amino acids; Leukocytes; Skeletal muscle; Gut; Liver.
Online: 24 September 2018 (13:20:58 CEST)
Glutamine is the most abundant and versatile amino acid in the body. In health and disease, the rate of glutamine consumption by immune cells is similar or greater than glucose. For instance, in vitro and in vivo studies have determined that glutamine is an essential nutrient for lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production, macrophage phagocytic plus secretory activities and neutrophil bacterial killing. Glutamine release to the circulation and availability is mainly controlled by key metabolic organs, such as the gut, liver and skeletal muscles. During catabolic/hypercatabolic situations glutamine can become essential for metabolic function, but its availability may be compromised due to impairment of homeostasis in the inter-tissue metabolism of amino acids. For this reason, glutamine is currently part of clinical nutrition supplementation protocols and/or recommended for immune suppressed individuals. However, in a wide range of catabolic/hypercatabolic situations (e.g. ill/critically ill, post-trauma, sepsis, exhausted athletes) it is currently difficult to determine whether glutamine parenteral or enteral supplementation should be recommended based on the amino acid plasma concentration (glutaminemia). Although the beneficial immune based effects of glutamine supplementation is already established, many questions and evidence for positive in vivo outcomes still remain to be presented. Therefore, this paper provides an integrated review on how glutamine metabolism in key organs is important to cells of the immune system. We also discuss glutamine metabolism, action and important issues related to the effects of glutamine supplementation in catabolic situations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0062.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: microbiome; probiotics, dietary supplements; nutrition; HIV infection, inflammation
Online: 8 May 2017 (12:10:17 CEST)
Microbiota plays a key role in various body’s functions, physiological, metabolic and immunological processes, through different mechanisms such as the regulation of the development and/or functions of different types of immune cells in the intestines. Several evidences indicate that alteration in the gut microbiota can influence infectious and non-infectious diseases. Bacteria that resides on the mucosal surface or within the mucus layer participate in interactions with the host immune system, and a healthy gut microbiota is essential for the development of mucosal immunity. The immunomodulatory activity of probiotics has been proposed in several bowel disorders or in aging-related dysfunctions. In HIV infected patients, the intestinal immune system is affected and inflammation persists during ART therapy too. Several studies are in progress to investigate the ability of probiotics to modulate epithelial barrier functions, microbiota composition and microbial translocation in HIV infection. This mini-review aims to suggest how the use of probiotics is beneficial not only in maintaining a healthy status but also to improve conditions in HIV subjects.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0212.v2
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: Education; effectiveness; intervention; food and nutrition education; knowledge; schoolchildren
Online: 9 September 2022 (07:43:19 CEST)
School-aged children may benefit from education interventions focused on healthy eating and physical activity to improve their quality of life. This article aims to review scientific evidence on food and nutrition education (FNE) in Spanish-speaking countries for the prevention of overweight and obesity in school-aged children (6-12 y). Articles were searched between April and August 2021. The searches were conducted using MEDLINE, Google Scholar, and SciELO. The primary search for articles focused on the experience of FNE interventions in Spanish-speaking countries. Overall, 518 articles were found and 33 studies were eligible for data extraction. Forty-two percent of the studies had a focus on FNE and 64% were focused on describing the eating habits of schoolchildren. Nutritional assessments (anthropometric) were found frequently with 91% and 30% of the studies focused on physical activity. All interventions focused on preventing or reducing overweight and obesity in school-age children. Educational, cognitive, dietary, and physical activity practices were described, whit being educational the most frequent intervention. Interventions reported positive effects of FNE interventions to improve knowledge and practices of healthy lifestyles in school-age children.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0047.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: colorectal neoplasm; nutrition assessment; body composition; electric impedance; prognosis
Online: 5 September 2022 (07:33:30 CEST)
Background: Some studies have shown that an increase in visceral fat is associated with postoperative clinical and oncologic outcomes. However, no studies have used bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to determine the effects of visceral fat on the oncologic outcomes of colorectal cancer (CRC). This study aimed to investigate the relationship between visceral fat area (VFA) and clinical, and oncologic outcomes in CRC. Methods: This study included 203 patients who underwent anthropometric measurements by BIA before surgical treatment for CRC between January 2016 and June 2020. Results: According to the cutoff level of VFA by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, 85 (40.5%) patients had a low VFA, and 119 (59.5%) had a high VFA. Multivariate analysis found that preoperative CRP (hazard ratio [HR], 3.882; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.001–15.051; p=0.050) and nodal stage (HR, 7.996; 95% CI, 1.414–45.209; p=0.019) were independent prognostic factors for overall survival, while sex (HR, 0.110; 95% CI, 0.013–0.905; p=0.040), lymphovascular invasion (HR, 3.560; 95% CI, 1.098–11.544; p=0.034), and VFA (HR, 4.263; 95% CI, 1.280–14.196; p=0.040) were independent prognostic factors for disease-free survival (DFS). Conclusion: High VFA preoperatively measured by BIA was associated with inflammations and was an independent prognostic factor for DFS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0334.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Nutrition; Hydration; Dementia: Eating; Drinking; Food; Ethnic minorities; Culture
Online: 25 March 2022 (02:47:59 CET)
Eating and drinking difficulties are common in dementia, but little is known about the experiences of ethnic minority groups managing these difficulties at home. We undertook qualitative semi-structured interviews, exploring the meaning of food, the impact of dementia on eating and drinking and carers’ experiences of support. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. We interviewed 17 carers and people with dementia from ethnic minority backgrounds, using reflexive thematic analysis to analyse data. Food/drink had strong links to identity, culture and emotions. Providing culturally familiar foods, celebrating traditional festivals and supporting previous food-related roles promoted reminiscence, which encouraged people with dementia to eat and drink, as did social interactions. However, these strategies sometimes led to distress in those with more advanced dementia. Food choices were also influenced by carer strain, generational differences and the impact of health conditions. Despite a strong sense of duty to care for relatives at home, there was low awareness of community support services. Carers expressed a need for culturally tailored support for managing dementia-related eating and drinking difficulties at home. Healthcare professionals must provide contextually relevant advice to carers, being mindful of how cultural backgrounds can affect dietary choices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0187.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: WASH; Hygiene; Sanitation; Under-five children; Nutrition status; Bangladesh
Online: 13 January 2022 (11:04:48 CET)
This study aimed to assess knowledge and practice of caregivers and its relationship to the disease and nutritional status of children under five years of age in rural areas of Sylhet, Bangladesh. A total of 110 households having 6 to 59 months aged children was selected by simple random method from ten rural communities of three Upazila of Sylhet during September 2019 to February 2020. Descriptive statistics were used to assess the WASH knowledge & practice and multivariate chi-square analyses were performed to assess associations among diseases & nutritional status with WASH following a structured questionnaire. The study found a significant association of WASH with childhood disease and nutritional status, and 65% of children were found to be in a diseased state and 35% of children were found to be in a disease-free state within the last six months. The findings sketched that mother with poor wash knowledge and practice was at greater risk for disease outbreaks, disease frequency and duration. The highest incidence of diarrhea was 17% in children aged 12 to 23 months. Significant effect of WASH was also found in children nutrition status, that was reflected in the ratio of stunted, underweight and wasted children. Integrated convergent work focusing on the provision of clean water within the household, stop open defecation, promotion of hand washing, behavior change and poverty alleviation is needed to improve the situation. Health, nutrition and livelihood programs should be uninterrupted, and mothers or caregivers should be encouraged to participate in these programs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0233.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Diabetes; Chronic Kidney Disease; Proteinuria; Dialysis; Inflammation; Diet; Nutrition
Online: 8 June 2021 (13:33:23 CEST)
Chronic kidney disease is a critical health crisis in the US, affecting about 37 million adults. Known as "the silent killer" because it is often undiagnosed until it has reached a stage of progression. Renal dysfunction causes many adverse effects to the body's biological mechanisms, such as fluid electrolyte and pH balance, blood pressure regulation, excretion of toxins and waste, vitamin D metabolism, and hormonal regulation. Many CKD patients experience hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, chronic metabolic acidosis, bone deterioration, blood pressure abnormalities, and edema. Symptoms experienced may be minimized, and the disease's progression may be slowed through an appropriate diet, which is why medical nutrition therapy is a critical aspect of the medical intervention for CKD. The current KDOQI recommendations are proposed as well as the physiological mechanisms behind the recommendations. Current biological explanations of the effects of a whole foods plant-based diet are included for possible contrast with the current renal diet. Strong evidence continues to support the importance of proper nutrition in the prevention and progression of kidney disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0505.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: dietary intake; sport nutrition knowledge; dietary habits; energy availability
Online: 21 May 2021 (09:01:55 CEST)
Sport nutrition knowledge has been shown to influence dietary habits of athletes. The purpose of the current study was to examine relationships between sport nutrition knowledge and body composition and examine potential predictors of body weight goal in collegiate athletes. Participants included National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III women (n=42, height: 169.9 ± 6.9 cm; body mass: 67.1 ± 8.6 kg; fat-free mass: 51.3 ± 6.6 kg; body fat %: 24.2 ± 5.3%) and men (n=25, height: 180.8 ± 7.2 cm; body mass: 89.2 ± 20.5 kg; fat-free mass: 75.9 ± 12.2 kg; body fat %: 13.5 ± 8.9%) athletes. Body composition was assessed via air displacement plethysmography. Athletes completed a validated questionnaire designed to assess sport nutrition knowledge and were asked questions about their perceived dietary energy and macronutrient requirements, as well as their body weight goal (i.e. lose, maintain, gain weight). Athletes answered 47.98 ± 11.29 % of questions correctly on the nutrition questionnaire with no differences observed between sexes (men: 49.52 ± 11.76% vs. women: 47.03 ± 11.04%; p=0.40). An inverse relationship between sport nutrition knowledge scores and body fat percentage (r = -0.330; p=0.008), and fat mass (r = -.268; p=0.032) was observed for all athletes. Fat mass (β = 0.224), BF % (β = 0.217), and BMI (β = 0.421) were all significant (p<0.05) predictors of body weight goal in women. All athletes significantly (p<0.001) underestimated daily energy (-1,360 ± 610.2 kcal/d), carbohydrate (-301.6 ± 149.2 g/d), and fat (-41.4 ± 34.5 g/d) requirements. Division III collegiate athletes have a low level of sport nutrition knowledge, which was associated with a higher BF %. Women athletes with a higher body weight, BF % and BMI were more likely to select weight loss as a body weight goal. Athletes also significantly underestimated their energy and carbohydrate requirements based upon the demands of their sport, independent of sex.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0476.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Overweight; Obesity paradox; Physical activity; Nutrition; Sugar-sweetened beverages
Online: 18 March 2021 (11:03:09 CET)
Metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUO) was associated with increased cardiometabolic risk. However, it is not fully understood which lifestyle factors are associated with MUO in youth. We aimed to investigate the relationship between MUO and lifestyle patterns in youth. 7-17 years old youth with overweight (N=48; 60.4% girls) and obesity (N=71; 56.3% girls) were recruited in the Pediatric Clinic, Luxembourg (cross-sectional study). Eating and sedentary habits, moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and vigorous physical activity (VPA) were assessed. 72.3% of the participants had MUO. Multivariable logistic regressions showed that MUO is most likely to be associated with moderate to low weekly levels of MVPA [OR: 2.09 (95% CI: 1.07 – 4.09; p = 0.030)] and moderate to high weekly soda and lemonade drinks consumption [OR: 2.92 (95% CI: 1.32 – 6.48; p = 0.008)]. After adjustment for age, gender and Tanner stages, MUO was most likely to be associated with moderate to high soda and lemonade drinks consumption [OR: 2.72 (95% CI: 1.21– 6.12; p = 0.016)] and with Tanner stages [OR: 2.06 (95% CI: 1.08– 3.94; p = 0.029)]. We support the promotion of MVPA and the moderation in the sugar-sweetened beverages consumption to manage cardiometabolic health in youth with obesity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0087.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: alcoholic liver disease; cognitive function; calorie intake; nutrition; BMI
Online: 3 December 2020 (14:22:03 CET)
Malnutrition and cognitive dysfunction are typical features of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and are correlated with the development of complications. The aim of this study is to explore the effect of nutritional state and diet on cognitive function in ALD. A total of 43 patients with compensated alcoholic cirrhosis were enrolled, and neuropsychological test was assessed according to body mass index (BMI, <22 and ≥22). In the ALD animal study, mice were divided into 5 groups (n=9/group; normal liquid, 5% EtOH+regular liquid, 5% EtOH+high-carbohydrate liquid, 5% EtOH+high-fat liquid, and 5% EtOH+high-protein liquid diet) and fed the same calories for 8-week. To assess cognitive function, we performed T-maze studies weekly before/after alcohol binging. In cognitive function (BMI <22 /≥22), language score of Korea mini-mental state (7.4±1.4/7.9±0.4), Rey-complex figure (72.0±25.9/58.4±33.6), Boston naming (11.7±2.7/13.0±1.8), forward digit span (6.7±1.8/7.5±1.6), Korean Color Word Stroop (24.2±26.5/43.6±32.4), and interference score (33.9±31.9/52.3±33.9) revealed significant differences. In the T-maze test, alcohol significantly delayed the time to reach food, and binge drinking provided a temporary recovery in cognition. The alcohol-induced delay was significantly reduced in the high-carbohydrate and high-fat diet groups. Synaptic function exhibited no changes in all groups. Cognitive dysfunction is affected by nutritional status and diet in ALD.
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: Nutrition system; Carbon footprint; Energy metabolism; Anthropometric; Biomedical treatment
Online: 31 May 2020 (21:01:47 CEST)
To reduce the risk factors for mortality, the paper has focused on the assessment of the socioeconomic, clinical, physical, biophysiological, and biochemical characteristics of Down's syndrome which can be affected by the type of nutrition system, toxicity, and ecological footprint. Patients were males with trisomy 21 diagnosed by karyotype test and assessed by clinical examinations. Samples were collected from different biofluids. The physicochemical analyses of the biomatrix samples were performed and these properties had compared to findings of healthy males and age-matched controls. Duraphat application was proved effective for their oral treatment and saliva was the optimum biomarker for detecting malnutrition. Patients were hypersensitive to Cu while the Mn content in blood and hair was considered an expression to the degree of epileptic condition and chronic seizure development. The ecological footprint was 5.6 gha and carbon footprint was recognised in food poverty habits. These can be reduced by eating more plant-based proteins and fibre-rich foods with low saturated fats and sodium. The findings provide an up-to-date reference for expected developmental outcomes in children with DS in terms of biophysicochemistry. The genetically sensitive intervention is affected by heredity factor and sensitivity to toxics. Down's syndrome is encouraged to live green-hipster life.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0243.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: aged; homes for the aged; malnutrition; dehydration; nutrition policy
Online: 11 October 2018 (14:48:57 CEST)
Preventing malnutrition and dehydration in older care home residents is complex, with both conditions remaining prevalent, despite numerous guidelines spanning several decades. This policy-mapping scoping review used snowballing search methods to locate publicly-available policies, reports and best practice guidelines relating to hydration and nutrition in UK residential care homes, to describe the existing knowledge base and pinpoint gaps in practice, interpretation and further investigation. Findings were synthesised narratively to identify solutions. Strategies for improvements to nutritional and hydration care include: development of age and population-specific nutrient and fluid intake guidelines; statutory regulation, contractual obligations for commissioners, appropriate menu-planning, implementation and auditing of care, acknowledgment of residents’ eating and drinking experiences, effective screening, monitoring and treatment and staff training. The considerable body of existing knowledge is failing to influence practice, relating to translational issues of implementing knowledge into care at the point of delivery, and this is where future research and actions should focus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0512.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: parenteral nutrition, neonatal solution; calcium; phosphate; organic; inorganic; precipitation;
Online: 26 September 2018 (13:57:18 CEST)
The aim of the study was to determine the maximum safe concentration of calcium and phosphate in neonatal parenteral nutrition (PN) solutions when various combinations of inorganic and organic salts are applied. Twelve PN solutions for neonatal use were aseptically prepared. Increasing concentration of inorganic and organic calcium and phosphate were added to the standard formulas. Each admixture was separately tested according to following conditions; after mixing, 37°C for 24 h, and maximum safe combination of calcium and phosphate were stored at 4°C for 30 days and followed by 24 h at 37°C. Visual inspections against a black and white contrast background, microscopic observation of undiluted PN solutions as well as the membrane filter after filtration of the PN solution, pH evaluation, and spectrophotometry at 600 nm were examined in triplicate. Safe maximum concentration of organic and inorganic calcium and phosphate was proposed individually for each composition of parenteral nutrition solutions. Surprisingly organic calcium with organic phosphate showed precipitation but over the therapeutic range. The protective effect of amino acid was observed and higher concentrations of calcium and phosphate were free of precipitation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0403.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: olive nutraceuticals; functional foods; exercise; nutrition; type-2 diabetes
Online: 26 June 2018 (09:37:44 CEST)
Lifestyle is the primary prevention of diabetes, especially type-2 diabetes (T2D). Nutritional intake of olive oil (OO), the key Mediterranean diet component has been associated with the prevention and management of many chronic diseases including T2D. Several OO bioactive compounds such as monounsaturated fatty acids, and key polyphenols including hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, have been associated with preventing inflammation and cytokine-induced oxidative damage, glucose lowering, reducing carbohydrate absorption and increasing insulin sensitivity and related gene expression. However, research into the interaction of OO nutraceuticals with lifestyle components, especially physical activity is lacking. Promising postprandial effects have been reported when OO or other similar monounsaturated fatty acids was the main dietary fat compared with other diets. Animal studies have shown a potential anabolic effect of oleuropein. Such effects could be further potentiated via exercise, especially strength training, which is an essential exercise prescription for individuals with T2D. There is also an evidence from in vitro, animal and limited human studies for a dual preventative role of OO polyphenols in diabetes and cancer, especially that they share similar risk factors. Putative anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory mechanisms and associated gene expressions resulting from OO phenolics, have produced paradoxical results making suggested inferences from dual prevention T2D and cancer outcomes difficult. Well-designed human interventions and clinical trials are needed to decipher such a potential dual anti-cancer and anti-diabetic effects of OO nutraceuticals. Exercise combined with OO consumption, individually or as part of a healthy diet is likely to induce reciprocal action for T2D prevention outcomes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0457.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: CKD; renal function; nutrients; nutraceuticals; xenobiotics; inflammation; functional nutrition.
Online: 30 May 2018 (17:15:58 CEST)
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects worldwide 8-16% of the population. In developed countries, the most important risk factors for CKD are diabetes, hypertension and obesity, calling into question the importance of educating and acting on lifestyles and nutrition. A balanced nutrition and supplementation can indeed support the maintenance of a general health status, including preservation of renal function, and help to manage and curb the main risk factors for renal damage. While the concepts of protein and salt restriction in nephrology are historically acknowledged, the role of some nutrients on renal health and the importance of nutrition as a preventative measure for renal care are less known. In this review, we provide an overview of the demonstrated and potential actions of some selected nutrients, nutraceuticals and xenobiotics on renal health and function. The effects on kidney of fibres, proteins, fatty acids, curcumin, steviol glycosides, green tea, coffee, nitrates, nitrites, and alcohol, both direct and indirect, in CKD and non-CKD condition, are reviewed here. In a view of a functional and personalized nutrition, understanding the renal and systemic effects of dietary components is essential since many chronic conditions and CKD are related to systemic dysfunctions such as chronic low-grade inflammation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0048.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Aging, Nutrition, Diet, Muscle atrophy, Body wasting, Food choice
Online: 5 February 2018 (23:43:16 CET)
Inadequate protein intake can impair protein balance and lead to skeletal muscle atrophy, impaired body growth, and functional decline. Foods provide both non-essential (NEAAs) and essential amino acids (EAAs) that may convey different metabolic stimuli to specific organs and tissues. In this study, we sought to evaluate the impact of six diets with various EAA/NEAA blends on body composition and the risk of developing tissue wasting in late middle-aged male mice. Mice consuming NEAA-based diets, although showing increased food and calorie intake, suffered the most severe weight loss. Interestingly, even moderate NEAAs prevalence was able to induce inflammatory catabolic stimuli, generalized body wasting and systemic metabolic alterations. Complete depletion of retroperitoneal white adipose tissue and a severe loss (>75%) of brown adipose tissue were observed together with muscle wasting. Conversely, EAA-based diets induced significant decreases in weight by reducing primarily fat reserves, but improved clinical parameters. Tissue wasting was caused by altered AA quality, independent of reduced nitrogen or caloric intake. Our results indicate that an optimized balance of AA composition is necessary for preserving overall bodily energy status. These findings are particularly relevant in the context of aging and may be exploited for contrasting its negative correlates including body wasting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0388.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: time-restricted feeding; controlled feeding study; study design; nutrition interventions
Online: 22 August 2022 (19:16:58 CEST)
The efficacy of time-restricted feeding for weight loss has not been established as prior studies were limited by lack of controlled isocaloric designs. This study describes the design and implementation of a controlled feeding study evaluating time-restricted feeding. We designed a randomized, controlled, parallel-arm, feeding study comparing time restricted feeding (TRF) to a usual feeding pattern (UFP) for the primary outcome of weight change. Participants were aged 18-69 years with prediabetes and obesity. TRF consumed 80% of calories by 1300, and UFP consumed ≥50% of calories after 1700. Both arms consumed identical macro- and micro-nutrients, based on a healthy palatable diet. We calculated individual calorie requirements which were maintained throughout the intervention. We randomized 41 participants who all completed the study. The desired distribution of calories across feeding windows in both arms was achieved, as were weekly averages for macronutrients and micronutrients. All randomized participants completed the study. We actively monitored participants and adapted diets to facilitate adherence. We provide the first report, to our knowledge, on the design and implementation of a feeding study that isolated the effect of meal timing on weight, while maintaining constant caloric intake and identical diets during the study period.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0048.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: lifestyle diseases; food processing; ultra-processed food; NOVA classification; nutrition
Online: 6 April 2022 (13:44:53 CEST)
The modern diet, which consists of food produced with high level of industrial processing, is associated with an increased risk of the development of lifestyle diseases. Current nutritional science is, however, focused on chemical composition of food, and not on the type and degree of processing used during the food production. Here, we take a fresh perspective on the relationship between the extent and type of food processing, and evaluate its impact on consumer health. We argue that the preference for consumption of minimally processed foods, and restriction of ultra-processed foods should be an essential part of a healthy lifestyle, disease prevention, and even treatment. We also present a simple, user-friendly consumer guide, which is intended to be used as a practical, ready-to-go identifier of ultra-processed foods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0016.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: Nutrition program; vendor system; qualitative study; obesity; non-communicable diseases
Online: 1 December 2021 (13:10:10 CET)
Globally, noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) were responsible for 41 million deaths in 2016, with the majority of these occurring in low and middle-income countries. These diseases were on the rise as a result of unhealthy, low-quality, and unbalanced diets, which resulted in overweight and obesity. The National School Nutrition Programme (NSNP) was created to regulate the foods sold to schoolchildren. To ascertain school management teams' perspectives on the relationship between the NSNP and the development of lifestyle diseases. A phenomenological qualitative study using Focus Group Discussions among 16 purposively selected members of the School Management Teams were conducted in Mt Frere, Eastern Cape in 2016. The narrative data was analyzed using Tesch's eight-phase thematic analysis approach. The data analysis revealed two themes (NSNP and the vendor system) and six sub-themes. The NSNP was viewed as making a significant contribution to children's food security, thereby improving academic output. However, reengineering of the NSNP was need through improved budgeting and inclusion of breakfast in the menu to control NCDs risk factors. The current implementation of the vendor system did not support reduction of NCDs risk factors. Improved implementation of the guide to vendor system is needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0094.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: nutrition; pediatrics; geographic information systems; acute respiratory infections; diarrhea; growth
Online: 6 October 2021 (09:00:12 CEST)
Infectious disease is the leading cause of mortality in children under five. This study has investigated environmental factors related to the morbidity of acute respiratory infections (ARIs), diarrhea, and growth using geographical information systems (GIS) technology. Anthropometric, address and disease prevalence data were collected through the SEEM study in Matiari, Pakistan. Publicly available map data was used to compile coordinates of healthcare facilities. A Pearson correlation coefficient (r) was used to calculate the correlation between distance from healthcare facilities and participant growth and morbidity. Other continuous variables influencing these outcomes were analyzed using a random forest regression model. In this study of 416 children, we found participants living closer to secondary hospitals had lower prevalence of ARI (r=0.154, p<0.010) and diarrhea (r=0.228, p<0.001) as well as participants living closer to Maternal Health Centers (MHCs): ARI (r=0.185, p<0.002) and diarrhea (r=0.223, p<0.001) compared to those living near primary facilities. Our random forest model showed distance to have high variable importance in the context of disease prevalence. Our results indicated that participants closer to more basic healthcare facilities reported a higher prevalence of both diarrhea and ARI than those near more urban facilities, highlighting potential public policy gaps in ameliorating rural health.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0402.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Very preterm infants; Z-score on weight; neonatal nutrition; appropriate intrauterine neonatal growth
Online: 30 July 2021 (15:00:25 CEST)
Introduction: In general, everyone believes that the smallest preterm infants should achieve normal intrauterine growth rates, but many thinks that this is not possible with current nutrition guidelines. There is resistance to giving enough nutrition for fear of "toxicity". The difference in weight Z-score between birth and a corrected gestational age (CGA) at discharge is assess in postnatal growth in our unit. Material and methods: An observational study was done between January 2018 and December 2020 where all cases that had ≤ 29 weeks of GA at birth and survived to 36 weeks corrected GA or that were discharged home. An aggressive nutrition protocol including parenteral as well as enteral nutrition was followed. Patients and their weight trajectory was plotted on the Fenton 2013 growth curve. The patients who had had a smaller WZP difference were also plotted. Results: A total of 32 cases were found. The median change in Z-score between birth and discharge of the whole group was -0.52 (IQR 0.53). Six of 32 (19%) had a more than one WZP, all of whom had severe pathologies. The median decline in Z score for this group with poor growth was 1.24 (IQR 0.22). There were 26 cases with a < 1 WZP (81%) and a median Z score fall of 0.39 (IQR 0.55). No important complications secondary to the ingested volumes or parenteral nutrition were reported. Conclusion: The group of cases with a > 1 WZP drop had severe pathologies. All the other cases had adequate growth parallel to normal weight growth charts and a few cases had some catch-up growth. The study showed that it is possible for many preterm infants to achieve normal intrauterine growth rates if they are given enough nutrition, but bigger multicenter studies are needed to confirm these findings.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Crohn’s Disease, Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Exclusive Enteral Nutrition, Mucosal Healing
Online: 16 February 2021 (15:58:08 CET)
Crohn’s disease is an inflammatory bowel disease whose prevalence is increasing worldwide. Among medical strategies, the dietary therapy with exclusive enteral nutrition is recommended as first line option, at least for children, because it induces clinical remission and mucosal healing. Modulen®, a polymeric TGF-β2 enriched formula, has a good palatability and is widely used. For the first time in the literature, this review outlines and discusses the clinical outcomes obtained with this therapy, as well as the potential mechanisms of action of its compounds. It can be explained by its TGF-β2 content but also by its protein and lipid composition. Further well-designed studies are required to improve our knowledge and to optimize therapeutic strategies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0415.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: nutrition; brain; neurodevelopment; childhood; gut-brain axis; psychobiotics; macronutrients, micronutrients.
Online: 16 December 2020 (13:52:17 CET)
Proper nutrition is crucial for normal brain and neurocognitive development. Failure to optimize neurodevelopment early in life can have profound long-term implications for both mental health and quality of life. Although the first 1000 days of life represent the most critical period of neurodevelopment, the central and peripheral nervous systems continue to develop and change throughout life. All this time, development and functioning depend on many factors, including adequate nutrition. In this review, we outline the role of nutrients in cognitive, emotional, and neural development in infants and young children with special attention to the emerging roles of polar lipids and high quality (available) protein. Furthermore, we discuss the dynamic nature of the gut-brain axis and the importance of microbial diversity in relation to a variety of outcomes, including brain maturation/function and behavior are discussed. Finally, the promising therapeutic potential of psychobiotics to modify gut microbial ecology in order to improve mental well-being is presented. Here we show that the individual contribution of nutrients, their interaction with other micro-and macronutrients, and the way in which they are organized in the food matrix are of crucial importance for normal neurocognitive development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0442.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: nutrition status; muscle strength; diabetes; handgrip; insulin resistance; functional tests
Online: 24 April 2020 (13:52:32 CEST)
Background and Aims: We aimed to investigate cross-sectional relationships of relative handgrip strength (RHGS) with presence of diabetes and hypertension in a community setting. Methods and Results: Between 2016 and 2018, we enrolled 601 consecutive women with an average age of 70.7 ± 6.9 years (mean ± SD). Nutritional status was evaluated by the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) score. Muscular strength and level of fitness were assessed by handgrip strength (HGS) and other standardized physical functional tests. The majority of participants were overweight or obese (80% with BMI > 25). Prevalence of diabetes and hypertension was 13 and 60%, respectively. Participants in the lowest quartile of HGS adjusted for BMI (RHGS) had significantly higher prevalence of diabetes and hypertension compared with those in the lower quartile (20.7 vs. 5.3% and 49.3 vs. 39.3%, respectively, p < 0.01 for both), whereas differences in nutritional status were not observed. Likelihood of having diabetes was significantly reduced in women with higher RHGS values (OR 0.77; 0.59–0.86 CI95%; p=0.002), independently of age, abdominal adiposity and presence of hypertension. RHGS was positively correlated with most of the physical functional tests performed. Conclusion: RHGS is an easy-to-obtain and inexpensive measure of muscular strength, independently associated with presence of diabetes in overweight elderly women. Prospective studies are required to assess its predictive value in individuals at risk of new onset or progression of diabetes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0133.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: malnutrition; disease related malnutrition; risk factors; nutrition care; mortality; recommendations
Online: 12 November 2019 (16:46:08 CET)
Disease related malnutrition (DRM) is prevalent in hospitals and is associated with increased care needs, prolonged hospital stay, delayed rehabilitation and death. Nutrition care process related activities such as screening, assessment and treatment has been advocated by scientific societies and patient organizations but implementation is variable. We analyzed the cross-sectional nutritionDay database for prevalence of nutrition risk factors, care processes and outcome for medical patients. In 59126 medical patients included between 2006-2015 the prevalence of recent weight loss (45%), history of decreased eating (48%) and low actual eating (53%) was more prevalent than low BMI (8%). Each of these risk factors was associated with a large increase in 30 days hospital mortality. Nutrition care processes increases slightly with presence of risk factors but never done in more than 50% of patients. Only a third of patients not eating in hospital receive oral nutritional supplements or artificial nutrition. We suggest that political action should be taken to raise awareness and formal education on all aspects related to DRM for all stakeholders, to create and support responsibilities within hospitals, and to create adequate reimbursement schemes. Collection of routine and benchmarking data is crucial to tackle DRM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0256.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: nhanes; foodservice; nutrition assessment; dietary reference intakes; school lunch program
Online: 22 October 2019 (10:31:57 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to select target nutrients to be included in the nutritional standards of school lunches in Korea. The dietary intake data of children and adolescents aged 6-17 years old from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Ⅵ were analyzed for eight groups based on gender and age (6-8, 9-11, 12-14, and 15-17 years old). First, the usual intake of the 3,091 subjects was estimated and assessed to identify nutrients with insufficient or excessive intake prevalence. Along with the nutrients identified by the assessment, the energy and nutrients prioritized in the meal planning procedure of the 2015 Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans were the initial candidates: energy, the percentages of energy from carbohydrates, protein, and fat, vitamin A, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin C, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, and iron. Phosphorus was excluded due to little evidence of clinical symptoms caused by insufficient intake. Sodium was excluded because reliable data on added salt were not available among the school lunch recipes in Korea. Therefore, energy, the percentages of energy from carbohydrates, protein, and fat, vitamin A, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin C, calcium, and iron were selected to be included in the nutritional standards of school lunches in Korea.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: renal diets; fiber; renal nutrition; chronic kidney disease; gut microbiota
Online: 26 August 2019 (12:23:22 CEST)
Nutrition is crucial for the management of patients affected by chronic kidney disease (CKD) to slow down disease progression and to correct symptoms. The mainstay of the nutritional approach to renal patients is protein restriction coupled with adequate energy supply to prevent malnutrition. However, other aspects of renal diets, including fiber content, can be beneficial. This paper summarizes the latest literature on the role of different types of dietary fiber in CKD, with special attention to intestinal microbiota and the potential protective role of renal diets. Fibers have been identified based on aqueous solubility, but other features, such as viscosity, fermentability, and bulking effect in the colon should be considered. A proper amount of fiber should be recommended not only in the general population but also in CKD patients, to achieve an adequate composition and metabolism of intestinal microbiota and to reduce the risks connected with obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0567.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: bio-impedance, phase angle, over-hydration, body composition, nutrition, hemodialysis
Online: 23 November 2018 (15:01:18 CET)
Background A body composition monitor (BCM) has a role not only in determining over-hydration (OH) but also as an aid to nutritional assessment. For dialysis patient-specific clinical applications of BCM, it is necessary to clarify the relationship between body composition parameters and OH in healthy Chinese individuals. Methods This cross-sectional study involved 314 healthy individuals with a mean age of 45.7±13.1 years. BCM measurements were performed while the subjects were fasting. Results The mean OH level was 0.379±0.81 L. Lean tissue index (LTI) and Lean tissue mass (LTM) were significantly higher in males (p<0.001), while fat tissue index (FTI) was significantly higher in females (p<0.001). In univariate correlation analysis, FTI, Fat, and ATM had a negative correlation with OH in females and all subjects (p<0.05), while LTM and BCM had a positive correlation in all subjects (p<0.05). There was a significant negative correlation between phase angle (PhA) and OH in males, females, and all subjects (r=-0.634, p<0.001; r=-0.666, p<0.001; r=-0.484, p<0.001, respectively). In multivariate linear regression analysis, PhA (b=-1.266, p<0.001), LTM (b=0.987, p<0.001), age (b=-0.307, p<0.001) were independent predictors of OH. Conclusions This study demonstrated that age, LTM and especially PhA, had important roles in predicting OH in healthy Chinese individuals. In the future, PhA may aid in clinical assessment by helping to titrate dry weight among hemodialysis patients with malnutrition.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0503.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: HMB; Branched-chain amino acid; Strength training; Sports nutrition; Inflammation.
Online: 29 August 2018 (14:12:18 CEST)
β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a bioactive metabolite formed from breakdown of the branched-chain amino acid leucine. Given the popularity of HMB supplements among different athletes, specifically, those who engage in regular resistance training, this review was performed to summarize current literature on some aspects of HMB supplementation that have received less attention. Because of the small number of published studies, it has not been possible to conclude the exact effects of HMB on cardiovascular parameters, oxidative stress and inflammatory markers. Thus, the interpretation of outcomes should be taken cautiously. However, the data presented here suggest that acute HMB supplementation may attenuate pro-inflammatory response following an intense resistance exercise in athletes. Also, the available findings collectively indicate that chronic HMB consumption in conjunction with resistance training has no more adaptive advantages associated with decreasing cardiovascular risk factors and oxidative stress markers. Taken together, there is clearly a need for further well-designed, longer duration studies to support these findings and determine whether HMB supplementation affects the adaptations induced by resistance training associated with body’s inflammatory condition, antioxidative defense system, and cardiovascular risk factors in humans.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0011.v1
Subject: Biology, Forestry Keywords: plant nutrition; chemical fertilization; nutrient diagnosis; forest plantation; foliar nutrients
Online: 2 January 2018 (10:25:46 CET)
Pinus patula is one of the most planted wood conifer species worldwide; however, no foliar nutrient standards exist for this species up to date. The objective of the present study was to generate and verify two sets of foliar nutrient standards for nearly ten-year-old P. patula trees: critical nutrient concentrations and DRIS norms. Nutrients studied were N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, and B. The reference standards were verified experimentally by installing two fertilization trials; one of them located in Huayacocotla, state of Veracruz and the other one in Aquixtla, state of Puebla, Mexico. Nutrient status of each fertilization trial was correctly predicted by critical nutrient values and DRIS as well. Both standards were able to detect the secondary growth-limiting nutrient deficiency in the Huayacocotla trial, where the primary limitation for growth was scarcity of solar radiation within tree crowns. The limiting nutrient in both experimental trials was K.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0038.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: phospholipids; atherosclerosis; inflammation; anti-inflammatory; dairy; marine; meat; egg; nutrition
Online: 6 November 2017 (10:30:12 CET)
In this review paper, the latest literature on the functional properties of phospholipids in relation to inflammation and inflammation-related disorders has been critically appraised and evaluated. The paper is divided into three sections: Section one addresses the relationship between the anti-inflammatory bioactivities of different phospholipids in relation to their structures and compositions. Sections two and three are dedicated to the structures, functions and anti-inflammatory properties of dietary phospholipids from animal and marine sources. Most of the dietary phospholipids of animal origin come from meat, egg and dairy products. To date, there is very limited work published on meat phospholipids, undoubtedly due to the negative perception that meat consumption is an unhealthy option due to its putative associations with several chronic diseases. These assumptions are addressed with respect to the phospholipid composition of meat products. Recent research trends indicate that dairy phospholipids possess anti-inflammatory properties, which has led to an increased interest into their molecular structures and reputed health benefits. Finally, the structural composition of phospholipids of marine origin is discussed. Extensive research has been published in relation to ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and inflammation, however this research has recently come under scrutiny and has proved to be unreliable and controversial in terms of the therapeutic effects of ω-3 PUFA, which are generally in the form of triglycerides and esters. Therefore, this review focuses on recent publications concerning marine phospholipids and their structural composition and related health benefits. Finally, the strong nutritional value of dietary phospholipids are highlighted with respect to marine and animal origin and avenues for future research are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0005.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: potential markets; improved forages; food systems; food security; forage hybrids; nutrition
Online: 1 February 2023 (02:45:07 CET)
The cattle sector is strategic sector for both the economic development and food security of Africa. However, the low availability and quality of forage puts the most vulnerable population in the field at risk. Hybrid forages have proven to be a real alternative for enhancing both the food security and sustainability of the sector. They are the product of genetic improvements and combine the superior traits of different materials. In 1987, the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) began this line of research and together with the private sector various ma-terials have been released until today. Despite their beforementioned potential, forage hybrid adoption levels are still low in Africa, which is related to various factors among which the availability of seeds and planting material stands out. This document analyzes the potential markets for new forage hybrids adapted to the environmental conditions of eastern Africa and partially western Africa. Likewise, an estimation of the commercial value of these markets is provided. The results show a potential market of 414,388 ha for new interspecific hybrids of Urochloa and 528,409 ha for potential hybrids of Megathyrsus maximus, with approximate values of 73.5 and 101.1 million dollars, respectively. Ethiopia, Tanzania, and Kenya have a 70% market share for Urochloa, while South Sudan, Ethiopia, and Tanzania have a 67% share for Megathyrsus maximus. The results will help different actors in decision-making, i.e., regarding private sector investments in forage seed commercialization or public sector incentives supporting adoption processes, and thus contribute to increasing food security and sustainability in the region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0366.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Encephalartos natalensis; microbe-symbiosis; soil nutrition; enzyme activities; soil nutrient cycling
Online: 19 January 2023 (15:29:52 CET)
Encephalartos spp. establish symbioses with nitrogen (N)-fixing bacteria that contribute to soil nutrition and improve plant growth. Despite the Encephalartos mutualistic symbioses with N-fixing bacteria, the identity of other bacteria and their contribution to soil fertility and eco-system functioning are not well understood. This limited information presents a challenge in developing comprehensive conservation and management strategies for these cycad species. Therefore, this study identified the nutrient cycling bacteria in Encephalartos natalensis coral-loid roots, rhizosphere, and non-rhizosphere soils. Additionally, the soil characteristics and soil enzyme activities of the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils were assayed. The coral-loid roots, rhizosphere, and non-rhizosphere soils of E. natalensis were collected from a popu-lation of >500 E. natalensis in a disturbed savanna woodland at Edendale in KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa) for nutrient analysis, bacterial identification, and enzyme activity assays. Nu-trient cycling bacteria such as Lysinibacillus xylanilyticus; Paraburkholderia sabiae, and Novo-sphingobium barchaimii were identified in the coralloid roots, rhizosphere, and non-rhizosphere soils of E. natalensis. Phosphorus (P) cycling (alkaline and acid phosphatase) and N cycling (β-(D)-Glucosaminidase and nitrate reductase) enzyme activities showed a pos-itive correlation with the P and N concentrations in the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils of E. natalensis. Nutrient cycling bacteria identified in E. natalensis coralloid roots, rhizo-sphere, and non-rhizosphere soils and associated enzymes assayed may contribute to soil nu-trient inputs of E. natalensis plants growing in acidic and nutrient-poor savanna woodland ecosystems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0197.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: health literacy; food literacy; dietary intake; nutrition; office workers; health promotion
Online: 10 November 2022 (10:14:31 CET)
Widespread patterns of poor dietary behavior are a key factor causing the increasing prevalence of chronic diseases around the world. Research provides initial insights into the potential of food literacy (FL) to empower individuals to improve their dietary behavior. Yet, studies on FL interventions in working adults are scarce. This study aimed to investigate the short- and long-term effects of a comprehensive 3-week workplace health promotion program (WHPP) on FL and dietary intake (DI) and to examine the association between FL and DI in a sample of 144 German office workers (30.0% female). Using two random intercept mixed linear regression models, we found significant strong improvements for both FL (β = 0.52, p < .0001) and DI (β = 0.63, p < .0001) after the WHPP when compared to baseline. Significant long-term improvements at 18 months where strong for FL (β = 0.55, p < .0001) and small for DI (β = 0.10, p < .0001). FL showed a significant moderate effect on DI across all measurement time points (β = 0.24, p < .0001). Our study fills a gap of long-term findings in the literature on FL interventions, offers insights into underlying mechanisms, and provides recommendations for effective WHPPs.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0054.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: checkout; policy; product placement; obesity; nutrition; retail; marketing; disparities; race; income.
Online: 2 November 2021 (22:32:49 CET)
Background: As the only place in a store where all customers must pass through and wait, the checkout lane may be particularly influential over consumer purchases. Because most foods and beverages sold at checkout are unhealthy (e.g., candy/sweets, sugar-sweetened beverages, and salty snacks), policymakers and advocates have expressed growing interest in healthy checkout policies. To understand the extent to which such policies could improve nutrition equity, we as-sessed the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of purchasing items from checkout. Methods: We assessed self-reported checkout purchasing and sociodemographic characteristics in a national convenience sample of adults (n=10,348) completing an online survey in 2021. Re-sults: Over one-third (36%) of participants reported purchasing foods or drinks from checkout during their last grocery shopping trip. Purchasing items from checkout was more common among men; adults <55 years of age; low-income consumers; Hispanic, non-Hispanic American Indian and Alaska Native, and non-Hispanic Black consumers; those with at least a bachelor’s degree; parents; and consumers diagnosed with type 2 diabetes or pre-diabetes (p-values<0.05). Conclusions: Purchasing foods or beverages from store checkouts is common and more prevalent among low-income and racial and ethnic minority groups. These results suggest that healthy checkout policies have the potential to improve nutrition equity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0368.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: fruit; vegetables; depressive symptoms; depression; young people; young adult; nutrition; diet
Online: 15 December 2020 (10:18:23 CET)
Higher consumption of fruit and vegetables has been associated with a lower risk of various chronic diseases including coronary heart disease, obesity, and certain cancers. Recently, fruit and vegetable intake has also been linked with mental health, including depression. This systematic review aimed to evaluate the association between fruit and vegetable intake and depressive symptoms in young people and adults aged 15-45. The systematic review focused on peer-reviewed cohort studies published from 1 January 2000 to 31 August 2020 using searches of six electronic databases. The exposure was fruit and vegetable consumption analysed both separately and/or together, and the outcome was depression or depressive symptoms. Data from eligible studies were extracted according to predefined criteria and the studies were appraised using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) for Cohort Studies to evaluate for study quality and risk of bias. To evaluate the association between fruit and vegetable consumption and depressive symptoms, a narrative synthesis was conducted. Of 9667 potentially relevant studies that were screened for title and abstracts, 144 full text studies were evaluated, and 12 studies from seven countries were deemed eligible and included in the qualitative synthesis. Using the NOS framework one study was categorised as ‘very good’ quality, ten studies were ‘good’ quality, and two studies were ‘moderate’ quality. With respect to combined fruit and vegetable consumption, two studies demonstrated an inverse association with depression. When the effects of fruit and vegetable on depression were analysed separately, five studies showed significant associations in fruit consumption, and two studies showed significant associations in vegetable consumption. Four studies showed no association between combined fruit and vegetable consumption and depression, one study showed no association between fruit consumption and depression, and two studies showed no association between vegetable consumption and depression. Despite some contradictory results in the studies included in this review, the evidence seems to be building that a possible association exists, and this may have implications for addressing the burden of mental illness in young people and adults aged 15-45 years. Well-designed prospective cohort studies are needed to provide more robust evidence on the diet-depression relationship.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0455.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: NHANES; periodontal diseases; periodontitis; tooth loss; inflammation; diet; nutrition; oral health
Online: 17 November 2020 (14:44:20 CET)
Background: We aimed to assess the association between DII and PD and the mediation effect of DII in the association of PD with systemic inflammation. Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2009-2010, 2011-2012 and 2013-2014, participants that received periodontal exam and provided dietary recall data were included. The inflammatory potential of diet was calculated via DII. Periodontitis was defined according to the 2012 case definition. The clinical outcomes of interest were mean periodontal probing (PPD), mean clinical attachment loss (CAL) and thresholds of PPD and CAL. White blood cells (WBC), segmented neutrophils and C-reactive protein (CRP) were used as proxies for systemic inflammation. The periodontal measures were regressed across DII values using adjusted multivariate linear regression. Adjusted mediation analysis appraised the influence of DII in the association of periodontitis and systemic inflammation. 10,178 participants were included. DII was significantly correlated with mean PPD, mean CAL, thresholds of PPD and CAL, WBC, segmented neutrophils and DII (p<0.01). A linear regression logistic adjusted for multiple confounding variables confirmed the association between DII and mean PPD (B = 0.02, Standard Error [SE]: 0.02, p<0.001) and CAL (B = -0.02, SE: 0.01, p<0.001). The association of mean PPD and mean CAL with both white blood cells and segmented neutrophils were mediated by DII (from 2.1 to 3.5%, p<0.001). In the 2009-2010 subset, the association of mean CAL with serum CRP was mediated by DII (52.0%, p<0.01). In conclusion, inflammatory diet and PD may be associated. Also, the inflammatory diet significantly mediated the association of leukocyte counts and systemic inflammation with periodontitis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0341.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: flavonoid; polyphenols; orange extract; performance; endurance; aerobic; anaerobic; nutrigenomic; sport nutrition
Online: 16 September 2020 (03:10:12 CEST)
2S-hesperidin is a flavanone (flavonoid) found in high concentrations in citrus fruits. It has an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect, improving performance in animals. This study investigated the effects of chronic intake of an orange extract (2S-hesperidin) or placebo on aerobic-anaerobic and metabolic performance markers in amateur cyclists. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was carried out between late September and December 2018. Forty amateur cyclists were randomized into two groups: one taking 500mg/day 2S-hesperidin and other taking 500 mg/day placebo (microcellulose) for 8 weeks. All participants completed the study. Performance and metabolic aerobic-anaerobic markers were measured using incremental and rectangular tests by indirect calorimetry. The anaerobic power was determined using Wingate tests. After 8 weeks supplementation, there was a significant increase in the incremental test in estimated functional threshold power (FTP) (3.23%; p≤0.05) and maximum power (2.68%; p≤0.05) with 2S-Hesperdin compared to placebo. In the rectangular test, there was a significant decrease in VO2 (-8.26%; p≤0.01) and VO2R (-8.88%; p≤0.01) at VT2 in placebo; however, there were no significant differences between groups. In the Wingate test, there was a significant increase (p≤0.05) in peak and relative power in both groups, but without significant differences between groups. Supplementation with an orange extract (2S-hesperdin) 500mg/day improves estimated FTP and maximum power performance in amateur cyclists.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0317.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: pear trees; TIMAC AGRO Italia; growth regulator; sustainable development; plant nutrition
Online: 15 July 2020 (05:57:57 CEST)
Agricultural Production today has to deal with different challenges. It has to increment production for a continuously increasing population, reducing the environmental burdens on the natural systems. In conventional agriculture, this is possible through the increase of inputs, especially nutrients, which, however, are responsible for the biggest part of emissions. It becomes more complicated though, adopting sustainable agricultural practices, to improve the quality and the quantity of agricultural production reducing the inputs use. Plant growth regulators are described in the literature for the significant role in securing crop management of modern agriculture. Therefore, this joint field experiment has been carried out on a pear orchard (Pyrus communis L. cv. Abate Fètel) in Emilia Romagna (Italy) by Fondazione Navarra and TIMAC AGRO Italia S.p.A., to test the “less for more” theory which consists in getting more and better agricultural produce using fewer inputs. Preliminary results of two consecutive years have confirmed our assumption as it was possible to substantially reduce the total fertilisation units applied, improving significantly quantitative and qualitative production indicators (i.e. flower and fruit density, fruit set (%), the average weight of fruits (g) and the total yield (t/ha)). Results have also shown a positive correlation between plant growth regulators and agronomic efficiency of pears.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0345.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: veganism; vegan diet; nutrition status; vitamin B12 deficiency; health status disparities
Online: 30 October 2019 (04:01:40 CET)
The vegan diet excludes animal-derived product consumption and health advantages had been reported when followed. However, heterogeneous eating habits, food availability, and sociocultural characteristics among regions could lead to different physiological results. The objective of this case-control cross-sectional pilot study was to analyze body composition, daily nutrients consumption, and basic serum biomarkers as a general overview of the health status of Mexican adults with a vegan diet for ≥3 years, randomly paired with omnivores. Body composition was assessed through bioelectric impedance analysis. Eating patterns were evaluated and daily nutrients intake was calculated. A complete blood count, glycated hemoglobin, cobalamin, and creatinine serum concentrations were analyzed. We hypothesized certain nutrient deficits and specific biomarker impairments originated from cultural particularities driving food selection in Mexicans following a plant-based diet. Body composition did not differ among groups. Lower protein, niacin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, cobalamin, calciferol, fluoride, iodine, and selenium intake yet greater fiber, folic acid, vitamin E, copper, and molybdenum were observed in the plant-based group when compared with controls. Vegans presented lower cobalamin and creatinine serum concentrations. Hematologic abnormalities were prevalent in vegans. Insufficient consumption of several nutriments was identified in both dietary groups, suggesting that the local diet may be unbalanced, affecting both vegans and non-vegan individuals. However, vegans might present additional deficiencies, especially vitamin B12, with potential repercussions. Clinical and nutritional guidance is required in this particular population to avoid possible health adverse events.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0214.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: inflammatory bowel diseases; parenteral nutrition; systematic review; meta-analysis; crohn disease
Online: 18 October 2019 (11:36:07 CEST)
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic disease mediated by the immune system and characterized by the inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. This study is to understand how the use of parenteral nutrition (PN) can affect the adult population diagnosed with IBD. We conducted a systematic review, meta-analysis and a meta-regression. On the different databases, (MEDLINE, Scopus, Cochrane, LILACS, CINAHL, WOS) we found 119 registers, the accuracy was 16% (19 registers); After a Full-text review, only 15 research studies were selected for qualitative synthesis and 10 for Meta-analysis and Meta-regression. The variables used were Crohn’s Disease Activity Index (CDAI), albumin, body weight (BW) and post-operative complications (COM). PN has shown to have efficacy for the treatment of IBD and is compatible with other medicines. The CDAI and albumin improve although the effect of PN are greater after a while. However, the effect on the albumin could be less than the observed value in the meta-analysis, due to a possible publication bias. The BW does not change after intervention. COM utilizing PN has been observed, although the proportion is low.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0009.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: inflammatory bowel diseases; enteral nutrition; systematic review; meta-analysis; Crohn disease
Online: 1 September 2019 (10:32:09 CEST)
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic disease mediated by the immune system and characterized by the inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. One of the possible treatments for this pathology is a change in the type of diet, the enteral nutrition (EN) is one of them. This study is to understand how the use of EN can affect the adult population diagnosed with IBD. We conducted a systematic review, meta-analysis and a meta-regression. On the different databases, (MEDLINE, Scopus, Cochrane, LILACS, Cinhal, WOS) we found 363 registers, the accuracy was 12% (44 registers); After a Full-text review, only 30 research studies were selected for qualitative synthesis and 11 for Meta-analysis and Meta-regression. The variables used were Crohn’s Disease Activity Index (CDAI), C-Reactive Protein (CRP) and Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR). EN has shown to have efficacy for the treatment of Crohn’s Disease and is compatible with other medicines. As for the CDAI or the rates of remission, there were no differences between enteral and parenteral nutrition. Polymeric formulas, have shown better results with respect to the CRP. The long-term treatment could dilute the good CDAI results that are obtained at the start of the EN treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0283.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: 24-hour recall; nutrition assessment; technology assisted dietary assessment; gestational diabetes
Online: 16 July 2018 (12:12:42 CEST)
myfood24 is a comprehensive self-completed online 24-hour dietary recall tool currently used for nutritional assessments in epidemiological research. However, its clinical application has been unexplored. This mixed methods prospective observational study explores the acceptability and usability of myfood24 in a clinical population, women with gestational diabetes (GDM). Women were recruited at their first diabetes antenatal clinic appointment. To assess acceptability and usability, they were asked to complete five 24-hour dietary recalls using myfood24 over two weeks and a user experience questionnaire; with a subset invited to participate in a one-to-one semi-structured interview. Of the 199 participants, mean maternal age was 33 years, mean booking BMI 29.7kg/m2, 36% primiparous, 57% White, 33% Asian. Of these 121 (61%) completed myfood24 at least once and 73 (37%) completed the user questionnaire; 15 were interviewed. Usability of myfood24 was measured using the System Usability Scale (SUS) and found to be good (mean 70.9, 95%CI 67.1, 74.6). Interviews identified several areas for improvement, including optimising its use for mobile devices. myfood24 appears to be acceptable and have potential to support self-management and behaviour change for women with GDM but requires adaptation to record blood glucose results alongside real-time tracking of diet.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0073.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: breastfeeding; feeding practices; infant feeding; nutrition; malnutrition; pediatrics; primary health care
Online: 9 January 2018 (05:23:01 CET)
Infant malnutrition remains as an important cause of death and disability, Haiti has the highest prevalence in America, so preventive strategies are needed. Our objective was to assess infant and young children malnutrition in Haiti and to study an association to World Health Organization (WHO) recommended feeding practices adherence. Cross-sectional study of children younger than 2 years old, recruited at Saint Espri Health Center, Port Au Prince (August to September 2014). We registered feeding practices, social and demographic data, and performed anthropometry (WHO-2006 standard). We evaluated 278 infants and young children, 8.08 ± 6.5 months old, 53.2% female. 18.35% had underweight; 13.31% were stunted and 13.67% had moderate or severe wasting. Malnutrition was associated to male gender, older age, lower education of mothers and higher number of siblings. The adherence to WHO recommended practices for breastfeeding was from 11.8 to 97.9% and was related to a lower prevalence of malnutrition. For complementary food, adherence was 9.7 to 90.3%, also associated to lower malnutrition. Conclusion: Prevalence of infant and young children malnutrition in this Haitian Health Center population was high, related to some risk factors. The adherence to WHO recommended feeding practices was associated to a better nutritional status.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0129.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: blood; bone mineralization; minerals; monitoring; nutrition; renal tubular reabsorption; supplementation; urine
Online: 25 November 2016 (10:14:30 CET)
Preterm infants are at significant risk to develop reduced bone mineralization based on inadequate supply of calcium and phosphorus (Ca-P). Biochemical parameters can be used to evaluate the nutritional intake. The direct effect of nutritional intake on changes in biochemical parameters has not been studied. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of Ca-P supplementation on biochemical markers as serum (s)/urinary (u) Ca and P; alkaline phosphatase (ALP); tubular reabsorption of P (TrP) and urinary ratios for Ca/creatinin and P/creatinin in Very-Low-Birth-Weight infants on postnatal day 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14. This observational study compared two groups with High (n = 30) and Low (n = 40) intake of Ca-P. Birth weight: median (IRQ) 948 (772-1225) vs. 939 (776-1163) grams; Gestational age: 28.2 (26.5-29.6) vs. 27.8 (26.1-29.4) weeks. Daily median concentrations of biochemical parameter were not different between the groups but linear regression mixed model analyses showed that Ca intake increased the uCa and TrP (p = 0.04) and decreased ALP (p = 0.00). Phosphorus intake increased sP, uP and uP/creat ratio and ALP (p ≤ 0.02) and caused decrease in TrP (p = 0.00). Protein intake decreased sP (p = 0.000), while low gestational age and male gender increased renal excretion of P (p < 0.03). Standardized repeated measurements showed that biochemical parameters were affected by nutritional intake, gestational age and gender.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0512.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: micronutrient deficiencies; rational food design; adolescents; biscuits; texture; chickpea flour; targeted nutrition
Online: 28 January 2023 (03:06:52 CET)
"Hidden hunger", the deficiency of important mineral micronutrients, affects more than 2 billion people globally. Adolescence is unquestionably a period of nutritional risk, given the high nutritional requirements for growth and development, erratic or capricious diets and the increased consumption of snacks. This study applied the rational food design approach to obtain micronutrient-dense biscuits by combining chickpea and rice flours to achieve an optimal nutritional profile, crunchy texture and appealing flavour. The perception of 33 adolescents of the suitability of such biscuits as a mid-morning snack was examined. Four biscuits were formulated, with different ratios of chickpea and rice flours (CF:RF): G100:0, G75:25, G50:50 and G25:75. Nutritional content, baking loss, acoustic-texture and sensory analyses were carried out. On average, the mineral content of biscuits with the CF:RF ratio of 100:0 doubled compared with the 25:75 formula. The dietary reference values for iron, potassium and zinc reached 100% in the biscuits with CF:RF ratios of 50:50, 75:25 and 100:0, respectively. The analysis of mechanical properties revealed that samples G100:0 and G75:25 were harder than the others. Sample G100:0 showed the highest sound pressure level (Smax). Sensory analysis showed that increasing the proportion of CF in the formulation augments the grittiness, hardness, chewiness and crunchiness. Most of the adolescents (72.7%) were habitual snack consumers; 52% awarded scores ≥ 6 to biscuit G50:50 for its overall quality, 24% described its flavour as "biscuit" and 12% as "nutty". However, 55% of the participants could not pinpoint any dominant flavour. In conclusion, it is possible to design nutrient-dense snacks that meet the micronutrient requirements and sensory expectations of adolescents by combining flours naturally rich in micronutrients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0163.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: food security; food waste; nutrition; overconsumption; sustainable and healthy food choices/systems
Online: 12 October 2022 (05:41:27 CEST)
Food security is a matter of global concern, as the supply of food is one of the basic needs, ensuring the survival of the species. The trend of globalization and development of the global economy has shifted the responsible, local consumption patterns towards an increased homogeneity of diets, with food products being disconnected from their source, leading to two major results: (1) increased global consumption, driven by the extensive availability of affordable seasonal foods throughout the year and (2) increased uncertainty in the supply chain – susceptible to disruptions, causing food insecurity. To determine what the nutritional model is in the case of the present study – Romania – we developed a questionnaire of 32 questions and distributed it to 1,053 respondents from Romania. The survey was conducted during 2021 and 2022, both in urban and rural areas with the aim of investigating the consumption pattern of the population. The analysis of the questionnaire data reveals overconsumption of animal products, starchy vegetables and bread and pastry products. This nutritional pattern with a high intake in animal protein, correlated with a lack of diversification, is extremely unsustainable, having a negative impact on human health and environmental health.behaviour towards a careful approach to food, environment and personal health, aims to identify consumption patterns that have the potential to increase the sustainability of the food system and a positive correlation with food security. Adopting sustainable dietary patters, based on short supply chains and mindful consumption, has great potential in restoring food security and resilience to adversity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0110.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: food security; food waste; nutrition; overconsumption; sustainable and healthy food choices/systems
Online: 8 June 2022 (03:35:57 CEST)
Food security is a matter of global interest, as the provision of food resources is the primary determinant of human existence. Food is one of the basic needs, ensuring the survival of the species. The trend of globalization and development of the global economy has shifted the responsible local consumption patterns to an increased homogeneity of diets, food products being disconnected from their source. This disconnection led to two major results: (1) increased global consumption, with seasonal foods now available throughout the year, and a decrease in food prices on the global market, and (2) increased uncertainty in the supply chain, susceptible to disruptions, as was the case during the Covid-19 pandemic. The present study, based on the research and analysis of third-party data on food security, sustainable diets, consumption patterns and recommended actions to change the current unsustainable consumer behaviour towards a careful approach to food, environment and personal health, aims to identify consumption patterns that have the potential to increase the sustainability of the food system and a positive correlation with food security. Adopting sustainable dietary patters, based on short supply chains and mindful consumption, has great potential in restoring food security and resilience to adversity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0332.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: school meals; nutrition policies; food preferences; healthy meals; children; norway; qualitative methods
Online: 25 February 2022 (09:53:50 CET)
School meals can have a key function in promoting children’s health. However, simply providing a free school meal is not a guarantee that pupils will actually eat the food. The purpose of this study was to explore factors influencing pupils’ participation in free school meal schemes in Oslo The study has a qualitative research design, inspired by grounded theory. Data were collected through interviews with pupils, teachers and parents, and participant observations in two schools participating in a pilot project funded by Oslo Municipality. Line-by-line coding, memo writing and a constant comparative technique were used to analyse the data. One primary school and one lower-secondary school in different districts in Oslo that were implementing two different free school meal models. 39 pupils (5th–10th grade), 15 parents and 12 school employees were included. Four main factors related to pupils’ participation to free school meals emerged from the analysis: the popularity of the food served, the attraction to the nearby shopping centre, social aspects and predictability. To promote pupils’ participation in free school meal schemes, schools need to solve the challenges of balancing between healthy food and popular but often unhealthy food. Children and parents involvement, regularity of the meals provision, a good flow of information and the creation of a friendly eating environment are recommended
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0468.v2
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Pollinator; landscape; land use; urban rural gradient; Japanese honeybee; honey; pollen; nutrition.
Online: 16 July 2021 (13:04:52 CEST)
Pollinators are being threatened globally by urbanisation and agricultural intensification, driv-en by a growing human population. Understanding these impacts on landscapes and pollinators is critical to ensuring a robust pollination system. Remote sensing data on land use attributes have previously linked honeybee nutrition to land use in the Western Honeybee (Apis mellifera L.). Here, we instead focus on the less commonly studied Apis cerana japonica – the Japanese Honeybee. Our study presents preliminary data comparing forage (honey and pollen) with land use across a rural-urban gradient from 22 sites in Kyushu, southern Japan. Honey samples were collected from hives between June 2018 and August 2019. Pollen were collected and biotyped from hives in urban and rural locations (n = 4). Previous studies of honey show substantial vari-ation in monosaccharide content. Our analysis of A. cerana japonica honey found very little varia-tion in glucose and fructose (which accounted for 97% of monosaccharides), despite substantial differences in surrounding forage composition. As expected, we observed temporal variation in pollen foraged by A. cerana japonica, likely dependent on flowering phenology. These prelimi-nary results suggest that the forage and nutrition of A. cerana japonica may not be negatively af-fected by urban land use. This highlights the need for further comparative studies between A. cerana japonica and A. mellifera as it could suggest a resilience in pollinators foraging in their na-tive range.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0427.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: ageing; methods; frailty; exercise; nutrition; psychosocial intervention; mental health; life style; guidelines
Online: 14 May 2021 (09:33:51 CEST)
The World Health Organization has developed the Integrated Care of Older People (ICOPE) strategy, a program based on the measurement of intrinsic capacity (IC) as “the composite of all physical and mental attributes on which an individual can draw”. Multicomponent interventions appear to be the most effective approach to enhance IC and to prevent frailty and disability, since adapted physical activity is the preventive intervention that has shown most evidence in the treatment of frailty and risk of falls. Our paper describes the development of a multi-domain group-based intervention addressed to older people living in the community, aimed at improving and/or maintaining intrinsic capacity by means of promoting physical activity, healthy nutrition, and psychological wellbeing in older people. The process of intervention development is described following the Guidance for reporting intervention development studies in health research (GUIDED. The result of this study is the AMICOPE intervention (Aptitude Multi-domain group-based intervention to improve and/or maintain IC in Older PEople) built upon the ICOPE framework and described following the Template for Intervention Description and Replication (TIDieR) guidelines. This study represents the first stage of the UK Medical Research Council framework for developing and evaluating a complex intervention. The next step should be carrying out a feasibility study for the AMICOPE intervention, and in a later stage, assessing the effectiveness in a randomized controlled trial.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0067.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: acute kidney injury; ischemia-reperfusion injury; dietary restriction; nutrition; preconditioning; endocannabinoids; AEA
Online: 5 May 2021 (13:59:13 CEST)
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent and critical complication in the clinical setting. In rodents AKI can be prevented effectively through caloric restriction (CR), which has also been shown to increase lifespan in many species. In Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) longevity studies revealed that a marked CR-induced reduction of endocannabinoids may be a key mechanism. Thus, we hypothesized that regulation of endocannabinoids, in particular arachidonoyl ethanolamide (AEA), might also play a role in CR-mediated protection from renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in mammals including humans. In male C57Bl6J mice, CR significantly reduced renal IRI and led to a significant decrease of AEA. Supplementation of AEA to near-normal serum concentrations by repetitive intraperitoneal administration in CR mice, however, did not abrogate the protective effect of CR. We also analyzed serum samples taken before and after CR from patients of three different pilot trials of dietary interventions. In contrast to mice and C. elegans, we detected an increase of AEA. We conclude that endocannabinoid levels in mice are modulated by CR, but CR-mediated renal protection does not depend on this effect. Moreover, our results indicate that modulation of endocannabinoids by CR in humans may differ fundamentally from the effects in animal models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0303.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Controlling Nutritional Status Score; Hemorrhagic stroke; Nutrition screening; Prognosis; Modified Rankin Scale
Online: 15 January 2021 (16:08:15 CET)
Controlling Nutritional Status (CONUT) Score is useful for the nutritional screening. We aimed to explore whether the CONUT score may predict a 3-month functional outcome in hemorrhagic stroke (AHS). Totally, 349 patients with incident AHS were consecutively recruited, and their malnutrition risks were determined using a high CONUT score of ≥ 2. Poor functional outcomes were defined as the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of ≥ 3 at 3 months. A total of 328 patients (mean age, 60.4 ± 12.83 years; 66.8% male) were included, 172 (52.40%) patients at malnutrition risk and 104 (31.7%) patients with a poor prognosis. High-CONUT patients had lower total lymphocyte counts and total cholesterol levels than low-CONUT patients (p < 0.001 and p = 0.012). At 3-month post discharge, patients with malnutrition risk had higher hospitalization costs (p = 0.021), lower Barthel Index (p = 0.001), and more infectious complications (p = 0.002) than those without, and there was a greater risk for poor functional outcomes in the high-CONUT compared with the low-CONUT patients at admission (adjusted odds ratio: 2.32, 95% confidence interval: 1.28-4.17). High-CONUT scores predict a 3-month poor prognosis in AHS, which may help identify the AHS patients who need additional nutritional managements.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Sustainable intensification; crop diversification; COVID-19; food security; nutrition security; water security
Online: 8 September 2020 (10:21:33 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic is adversely impacting food and nutrition security and requires urgent attention from policymakers. Sustainable intensification of agriculture is one strategy that attempts to increase food production without adversely impacting the environment, by shifting from water-intensive crops to other climate-resistant and nutritious crops. This paper focuses on the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh by studying the impact of shifting 20% of the area under paddy and cotton cultivation to other crops like millets and pulses. Using FAO’s CROPWAT model, along with monsoon forecasts and detailed agricultural data, we simulate the crop water requirements across the study area. We simulate a business-as-usual base case and compare it to multiple crop diversification strategies using various parameters – food, calories, protein production, as well as groundwater and energy consumption. Results from this study indicate that reduced paddy cultivation decreases groundwater and energy consumption by around 9-10%., and a calorie deficit between 4-8% - making up this calorie deficit requires a 20-30% improvement in the yields of millets and pulses. We also propose policy interventions to incentivize the cultivation of nutritious and climate-resistant crops as a sustainable strategy towards strengthening food and nutrition security while lowering the environmental footprint of food production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0197.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Maternal diet; Dietary behaviour change intervention; Nutrition education; Balanced plate; Qualitative methods
Online: 9 July 2020 (16:15:13 CEST)
Social, cultural, environmental and economic factors closely regulate the selection, allocation and consumption of maternal diets. We developed a nutrition behaviour change intervention to promote a balanced diet in pregnancy through practical demonstration in rural Bangladesh and tested the impact with a cluster randomised controlled trial. This paper presents the findings of the process evaluation and describes the strategies that worked for intervention compliance. We conducted in-depth interviews with pregnant women, women who birthed recently, and their husbands; focus groups with mothers and mothers-in-law; key-informant interviews with community health workers, and observation of home visits. We identified six key areas within the intervention strategy that played a crucial role in achieving the desired adherence. These included practical demonstration of portion sizes; addressing local food perceptions; demystifying animal-source foods; engaging husbands and mothers-in-law; leveraging women’s social networks; and harnessing community health workers’ social role. Practical demonstration, opportunity to participate and convenience of making of the plate with the food available in their kitchen or neighbours’ kitchen were the most commonly mentioned reasons for acceptance of the intervention by the women and their families. The balanced plate intervention helped women through practical demonstration to learn about a balanced meal by highlighting appropriate portion sizes and food diversity. The women needed active involvement of community health workers in mobilising social support to create an enabling environment essential to bring changes in dietary behaviours. Programs to promote a nutritious maternal diet should focus on encouraging the use of healthy foods through practical demonstration of portion sizes and engagement of the women and family instead of replicating the traditional information-based counselling.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0311.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: functional food; dietary supplement; phytochemicals; nutritional neuroscience; gut microbiome; personalized nutrition; Bangladesh
Online: 26 June 2020 (12:23:14 CEST)
Plants and plant-derived food products have been used for medicinal purposes since the ancient. Medicinal Plant-based functional foods or plant-based dietary compounds are a re-emerged interest for their therapeutic benefits and nutritive supports which has implicated in healthcare systems across the world. Neurological disorders are one of the greatest threats to public health and according to the World Health Organization, about 100 million people are affected globally by several neurological and mental ailments. In a traditional medication system, medicinal plants have been applied as both neuro-therapeutic purposes and micro-macro nutrients provider for the wellbeing of psychological states e.g. anti-depressant, anti-anxiety, anti-convulsions, anti-dementia, anti-psychotic, etc. Herein, it is a topic of great interest to present a conceptual aspect by reviewing relevant scientific literature about the plant-based functional foods or bioactive phytochemicals for the prevention and treatment of mental and neurological disorders. From the literature assessment, we have found that nutritional neuroscience is becoming an advanced research discipline and there has been a growing pile of evidence concerning the therapeutic use of plant-based functional foods and/or plant-derived food compounds for the management of neurologic health, evolving with promising impact over the time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0280.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: nutrition; plant-based diet; vegan diet; lifestyle; obesity; body composition; weight-loss
Online: 24 October 2019 (15:30:39 CEST)
Failure of various weight-loss programs and long-term maintenance of favorable body composition in all kinds of people is high, since the majority go back to old dietary patterns. Many studies have documented the efficacy of a plant-based diet (PBD) for body mass management, but there are opinions that maintaining a PBD is difficult. We aimed to evaluate the long-term success of a whole-food plant-based (WFPB) lifestyle program. We investigated the differences in the obesity indices and lifestyle of 151 adults (39.6 ± SD 12.5 years), who were on our program for short (0.5–<2 years), medium (2–<5 years), or long term (5–10 years). Body-composition changes were favourable for all three groups, both genders and all participants. There were no differences in relative body-composition changes (BMI, body fat percentage and muscle mass index (MMI)) between the three groups. All participants improved their BMI (baseline mean pre-obesity BMI range (kg/m2): 26.4 ± 5.6 to normal 23.9 ± 3.8, p < 0.001), decreased body mass (–7.1 ± 8.3 kg, p < 0.001) and body fat percentage (–6.4 ± 5.6 % points, p < 0.001). Those with the highest BMI at baseline lost the most of: a) BMI units, b) total body mass and c) body fat (a) (kg/m2) (–5.6 ± SD 2.9, –2.4 ± 1.8 and –0.9 ± 1.5), b) (kg) (–16.1 ± SD 8.8, –7.1 ± 5.4 and –2.5 ± 4.5) and c) (% points) (–9.5 ± SD 5.7, –6.6 ± 4.6 and –4.7 ± 5.3) for participants who had baseline BMI in obese, overweight and normal range, respectively; pbaseline vs. current < 0.001 for all). 85.6% (101 out of 118) of parents of underage children (< 18 years), introduced WFPB lifestyle to their children. WFPB lifestyle program provides long-term lifestyle changes for reversal of obesity and is effective transferred to the next generation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0140.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: quality of life; physical activity; physical function; food and nutrition; older Japanese adults
Online: 9 January 2023 (06:32:36 CET)
Japan is experiencing a super-aging society faster than is anywhere else worldwide. Consequently, extending healthy life expectancy is an urgent social issue. To understand diet that supports the extension of healthy life expectancy, we studied the relationships among quality of life (QOL: SF-36 questionnaire), physical activity (number of steps and activity calculated using an accelerometer), physical function (muscle strength, movement function, agility, static balance, dynamic balance, and walking function) and dietary intake among 469 older adults living in the Tokyo metropolitan area (65–75 years old, men/women = 166/303) from February 23, 2017, to March 31, 2018. There was a significant positive association between physical QOL and steps, moderate-intensity activity, and high-intensity activity (p < 0.05), and a significant positive association (p < 0.05) between physical activity and movement, static balance, and walking functions, but no association with muscle strength. These three body functions were significantly positively correlated with intake of vegetables, seeds, fruits, and milk, and with magnesium, potassium, vitamin B6, and the dietary fibre/carbohydrate ratio and composition ratios (p < 0.05). Balancing food and nutrition may improve QOL in older adults through increased physical function and physical activity. Future verification of interventions is needed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0114.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: food security; sustainable and healthy food choices/systems; metabolic food waste; nutrition; overconsumption
Online: 8 June 2022 (05:21:51 CEST)
The Metabolic Food Waste [MFW (kg of food)], first time developed in 2016 as a new indicator by Serafini and Toti, indicates the amount of food consumed over the nutritional requirements and the impact of this overconsumption on the environment. It is necessary to identify the causes and to develop potential methods to prevent and reduce MFW, at the same time with increasing consumer awareness about unsustainable diets and changing diet habits toward more environmentally conscious consumption patterns. By analysing and corroborating external data available for food waste, nutritional requirements, environmental impact of food waste and consumer behaviour, we identified as primary causes for MFW the lack of nutritional education and little understanding of the nutritional requirements amongst all categories of consumers, no access to appropriate food resources or reduced availability of fresh produced food. We conclude that for the quantification of the negative impact of MFW on both the environment and human health, we need a decisive action to raise consumer awareness for healthy and sustainable diets, together with an uniform worldwide distribution of the nutritious food.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0504.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Microbiota; Microbiome; Mosquitoes; Behavior; Oviposition; Larval habitat; Life History Traits; Nutrition; Development; Survival
Online: 21 June 2021 (11:22:15 CEST)
Mosquitoes are considered one of the most important threats worldwide due to their ability to vector pathogens. They are responsible for the transmission of major pathogens such as Malaria, dengue, Zika or Chikungunya. Due to the lack of treatments or prophylaxis against many of the transmitted pathogens and an increasing prevalence of mosquito resistance to insecticides and drugs available, alternative strategies are now being explored. Some of these involve the use of microorganisms as promising agent to limit the fitness of mosquitoes, attract or repel them and decrease the replication and transmission of pathogenic agents. In recent years, the importance of microorganisms colonizing the habitat of mosquitoes has particularly been investigated since they appeared to play major roles in their development and diseases transmission. In this issue we will synthesize researches investigating how microorganisms present within water habitats may influence breeding site selection and oviposition strategy of gravid mosquito females. We will also highlight the impact, effect of such microbes on the fate of females’ progeny during their immature stages with a specific focus on egg hatching, development rate and larvae of pupae survival.