ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0376.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Large-Scale Image Classification; Printed Chinese Character Recognition; Data Synthesis; GoogLeNet-GAP; Transfer Learning
Online: 22 December 2021 (16:31:53 CET)
In the field of computer vision, large-scale image classification tasks are both important and highly challenging. With the ongoing advances in deep learning and optical character recognition (OCR) technologies, neural networks designed to perform large-scale classification play an essential role in facilitating OCR systems. In this study, we developed an automatic OCR system designed to identify up to 13,070 large-scale printed Chinese characters by using deep learning neural networks and fine-tuning techniques. The proposed framework comprises four components, including training dataset synthesis and background simulation, image preprocessing and data augmentation, the process of training the model, and transfer learning. The training data synthesis procedure is composed of a character font generation step and a background simulation process. Three background models are proposed to simulate the factors of the background noise and anti-counterfeiting patterns on ID cards. To expand the diversity of the synthesized training dataset, rotation and zooming data augmentation are applied. A massive dataset comprising more than 19.6 million images was thus created to accommodate the variations in the input images and improve the learning capacity of the CNN model. Subsequently, we modified the GoogLeNet neural architecture by replacing the FC layer with a global average pooling layer to avoid overfitting caused by a massive amount of training data. Consequently, the number of model parameters was reduced. Finally, we employed the transfer learning technique to further refine the CNN model using a small number of real data samples. Experimental results show that the overall recognition performance of the proposed approach is significantly better than that of prior methods and thus demonstrate the effectiveness of proposed framework, which exhibited a recognition accuracy as high as 99.39% on the constructed real ID card dataset.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0183.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Security Systems Keywords: Cyber-physical security; Human activity recognition; GoogleNet; BiLSTM; Deep Learning; Algorithm
Online: 10 March 2023 (02:07:09 CET)
Cyber-physical security is vital for protecting key computing infrastructure against cyber attacks. Individuals, corporations, and society can all suffer considerable digital asset losses due to cyber attacks, including Data loss, theft, financial loss, reputation harm, company interruption, infrastructure damage, ransomware attacks, and espionage. A cyber-physical attack harms both digital and physical assets. Cyber-physical system security is more challenging than software-level cyber security because it requires physical inspection and monitoring. This paper proposes an innovative and effective algorithm to strengthen Cyber-Physical Security (CPS) with minimal human intervention. It is a Human Activity Recognition (HAR)-based approach where a GoogleNet-BiLSTM network hybridization has been used to recognize suspicious activities in cyber-physical infrastructure perimeter. The proposed HAR-CPS algorithm classifies suspicious activities from real-time video surveillance with an average accuracy of 73.15%. It incorporates Machine Vision at the IoT Edge (Mez) technology to make the system latency tolerant. Dual-layer security has been ensured by operating the proposed algorithm and GoogleNet-BiLSTM hybrid network from a cloud server, which ensures the security of the proposed security system. The innovative optimization scheme makes it possible to strengthen cyber-physical security with $4.29 per month only.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0211.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: gap junction; connexin; annular gap junction vesicle; mitochondria; lysosome
Online: 15 May 2018 (08:39:33 CEST)
It is becoming clear that in addition to gap junctions, playing a role in cell-cell communication, gap junction proteins, connexins, located in cytoplasmic-compartments may have other important functions. Mitochondrial connexin 43 (Cx43) is increased after ischemic preconditioning and has been suggested to play a protective role in the heart. How Cx43 traffics to the mitochondria and the interactions of mitochondria with other Cx43-containing structures are unknown. In this study, immunocytochemical, super-resolution and transmission electron microscopy were used to detect cytoplasmic Cx43-containing structure and to demonstrate their interactions with other cytoplasmic organelles. The most prominent cytoplasmic Cx43-containing structures, annular gap junctions, were demonstrated to form intimate associations with lysosomes as well as with mitochondria. Surprisingly, the frequency of associations between mitochondria and annular gap junctions was greater than that between lysosomes and annular gap junctions. The benefits of annular gap junction/mitochondrial associations are not known. However, it is tempting to suggest that the contact between annular gap junction vesicles and mitochondria facilitates Cx43 deliver to the mitochondria. Furthermore, it points to the need for investigating trafficking of Cx43 to cytoplasmic compartments and annular gap junction as more than only a vesicle destined for degradation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0238.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: building information modelling (BIM); mixed reality; energy performance gap; knowhow gap; prefab buildings
Online: 14 August 2018 (03:52:39 CEST)
At present European buildings typically consume two to five times more energy than predicted at the design stage. An important cause of this performance gap is the discrepancies between the design specification and the As-Built condition. Such discrepancies are mainly due to the gaps in knowhow between design, production and construction professionals. Design is more and more contained into a virtual environment and loses touch with the physical production and construction sites. As the construction sector enters the Industry 4.0 era, Building Information Modelling (BIM) based Mixed Reality can intertwine virtual and real worlds to bridge the knowhow gaps.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0313.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: dextranase; DEX49A; Pichia pastoris; GAP promoter
Online: 22 June 2022 (10:02:33 CEST)
In the sugar industry, dextran generates difficulties in the manufacturing process. Crude dextranase (EC 184.108.40.206) to eliminate dextran in sugar is an effective practice. In this study, a synthetic dextranase encoding gene of the filamentous fungus Talaromyces minioluteus, lacking its putative native signal peptide (1-20 amino acids) and the next 30 amino acids (r-TmDEX49A-ΔSP-ΔN30), was fused to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae prepro -factor (MF-2) signal sequence and expressed in Komagataella phaffii under the constitutive GAP promoter. K. phaffii DEX49A-ΔSP-ΔN30, constitutively producing and secreting the truncated dextranase was obtained. The specific activity of the truncated variant resulted nearly the same in relation to the full-length mature enzyme (900-1000 U.mg-1 of protein). At shaker scale (100 mL) in YPG medium, the enzymatic activity was 273 U.mL-1. The highest production level was achieved in a fed-batch culture (30 h) at 5 L fermenter scale using the FM21-PTM1 culture medium. The enzymatic activity in the culture supernatant reached 1614 U.mL-1 and the productivity was 53800 U.L-1.h-1 (53.8 mg.L-1.h-1), the highest reported so far for a DEX49A variant. Dextran decreased r-TmDEX49A-ΔSP-ΔN30 mobility in affinity gel electrophoresis, providing evidence of carbohydrate-protein interactions. K. phaffii DEX49A-ΔSP-ΔN30 shows great potential as a methanol-free, commercial dextranase production system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0571.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Business intelligence; gender gap; information technology.
Online: 24 May 2021 (13:31:05 CEST)
In the early 1990s, cyberfeminism emerged as an area of knowledge to discuss the connection between gender and technology. According to UNESCO, women are underrepresented in the field of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics and less than a third of women worldwide work in scientific research and development. However, this number has grown and this reality is constantly changing. In this context, using business intelligence techniques, this study analyzes data from the computer and information and communication technology market to characterize the impact of the performance of women in these areas. It is expected to show that this performance in the highlighted fields is still a challenge in Brazil.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0151.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: gap junctions; innexins; soma-germline interactions
Online: 3 November 2020 (14:01:49 CET)
In C. elegans, gap junctions couple cells of the somatic gonad with the germline to support germ cell proliferation and gametogenesis. We previously characterized a strong loss-of-function mutation (T239I) affecting the second extracellular loop (EL2) of the somatic INX-8 hemichannel subunit. These mutant hemichannels form non-functional gap junctions with germline-expressed innexins. Here we describe the characterization of mutations that restore germ cell proliferation in the T239I EL2 mutant background. We recovered seven intragenic mutations located in diverse domains of INX-8 but not the EL domains. These second-site mutations compensate for the original channel defect to varying degrees, from nearly complete wild-type rescue, to partial rescue of germline proliferation. One suppressor mutation (E350K) supports the innexin cryo-EM structural model that the channel pore opening is surrounded by a cytoplasmic dome. Two suppressor mutations (S9L and I36N) may form leaky hemichannels that support germline proliferation but cause the demise of somatic sheath cells. Phenotypic analyses of three other suppressors reveal an equivalency in the rescue of germline proliferation and comparable delays in gametogenesis but a graded rescue of fertility. These latter mutations may be useful to probe interactions with the biochemical pathways that produce the molecules transiting through soma-germline gap junctions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0063.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Cx43; gap junctions; conductance; inhibitors; docking; IC50
Online: 5 April 2023 (12:30:58 CEST)
Gap junctions (GJs) made of connexin-43 (Cx43) are important for the conduction of electrical impulses in the heart. Modulation of Cx43 activity may be useful in the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias and other dysfunctions. Search of novel GJ modulating agents using molecular docking approach allows to predict the binding affinities that often significantly differ from experimentally estimated their potencies. The objective of this study was to demonstrate that Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) model could be used for more precise identification of potent Cx43 GJ inhibitors. Using the QSAR model and molecular docking, we evaluated the known Cx43 GJ inhibitors, suggested a new one, and tested it experimentally. Our QSAR model predicted the concentrations required to produce 50% of the maximal effect (IC50) for each of these compounds and estimated the correlation between predicted and experimental IC50ies (pIC50 and eIC50). This led to suggestion of monocyclic monoterpene d-limonene as putative Cx43 inhibitor with pIC50 = 1.07. In turn, dual whole-cell patch-clamp measurements provided eIC50=1.41. The pIC50ies of d-limonene and other Cx43 GJ inhibitors examined by our QSAR model well correlated with their eIC50ies (R = 0.88) in contrast to pIC50s obtained from molecular docking (R = 0.42). However, the molecular docking suggested that inhibitor potency may depend on their docking sites on Cx43.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0244.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: backyard chicken; biosecurity; management; knowledge gap; Bangladesh
Online: 14 March 2023 (04:00:24 CET)
Backyard chickens are the most popular poultry in Bangladesh due to their production potential, and income generation. However, this farming can be a factor in zoonotic disease transmission. This study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) related to biosecurity and management among backyard chicken households in Bangladesh. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 295 households in six sub-districts of different six divisions of Bangladesh. The study used a convenient sampling technique to choose the divisions, then the districts and sub-districts. A well-structured pre-tested questionnaire was used to interview randomly selected households. In this study, most of the respondents relied on agriculture crop production (n=128) as their primary source of income, relied on scavenging for their birds’ feeding (34%), or fed their chickens whole or broken rice (32%), used tube well water (58%), used ash (38%) or sand (28%) as litter material. A significant proportion of households (40%) did not use any nest box at all. Results also showed that the most reported poultry diseases among backyard poultry farmers were Newcastle disease (49%), followed by coccidiosis (30%), fowl cholera (12%), and fowl pox (9%). In the multivariate logistic regression model, knowledge of biosecurity was associated with the household type (OR=1.4, p=0.04), knowledge of vaccination (OR=3.7, p=0.02), don’t know category (OR=4.2, p=<0.001), provision of the nest box (OR=9.5, p<0.001), training (OR=0.1, p=0.04), and air pollution (OR=0.1; p=0.04). The study found a huge knowledge gap on management and biosecurity practices present among backyard chicken farmers, which can negatively impact public health for instance in the outbreak of zoonotic diseases. Increasing farmers' biosecurity awareness through education and outreach activities could minimize the risk of disease transmission and improve both public and poultry health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0382.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: ZnO; sol gel; temperature; band gap; simulation
Online: 26 September 2022 (07:42:25 CEST)
ZnO was synthesized by Sol gel method using zinc nitrate as precursor at different calcination temperatures. Nucleation of ZnO crystallites and their growth with rise in temperature was observed. Exciton bands and lattice imperfections affected the absorption spectra. The decrease in band gap with temperature was due to the formation of defect energy levels. Phonon assisted non-radiative transitions caused broadening of the peaks. The possibility of tuning the band gap of ZnO by changing the temperature was explored. Simulation studies showed transition to single phase with rise in temperature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0524.v3
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Mass Gap Problem, Planck-Einstein relation, time, superfluid quantum space, bijectivity.
Online: 24 February 2021 (10:07:24 CET)
A given problem in physics can be solved if it is well formulated. Well formulated means that it has a bijective correspondence to physical reality. Mass Gap Problem has no bijective correspondence with the physical reality and is that’s why not solvable mathematically. It can be solved in the frame of quantum mechanics by the formulation of the photon’s mass accordingly to the Planck-Einstein relation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0174.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Electrochemistry Keywords: Perovskite materials; energy; band-gap; photo-efficiency.
Online: 13 April 2018 (06:41:48 CEST)
In a world where conventional sources of energy are fast depleting, the quest for alternative energy sources may hold the key for the survival of humanity. In the present work, emphasis has been given to the idea of producing energy from perovskite based solar cells. In order to bring this idea into fruition, a unique and novel nano structured perovskite material n-propyl ammonium lead chloride (C3H7NH3+PbCl3⁻) was prepared through a unique co-precipitation route using n-propyl amine (n-C3H7NH2) and hydrochloric acid as the starting precursors with aqueous solution of Pb(CH3COO)23H2O. Finally acetic acid was added to the solution and this solution was allowed to concentrate and then gradually cooled down to room temperature. After math, the synthesized material was spin-coated on TiO2 film to fabricate the solar cell. The device was then undergone systematic analysis using XRD, SEM, UV and Photo Conversion to get a transparent idea regarding its structural, electrical and optical properties. When experimentally applied, this perovskite-based solar cell has shown energy conversion efficiency (η) of around 6.01 % which is noticeably good. Thus it can be concluded that this material is promising for fabrication of vastly efficient solar cells. This technology can be tried in large scale as an alternative of conventional energy in the near future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1002.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: plasmonics; metasurfaces; gap surface plasmons; surface lattice resonances
Online: 14 July 2023 (09:34:07 CEST)
We report on a 2D-gap surface plasmon metasurface based composed of a bottom metal layer, middle insulator layer, and top metal nanostructure of gold nanoblocks (nanoantennas). The proposed structure enables us to generate simultaneous multi plasmonic resonances and offers the possibility to tune them, within the near-infrared domain. The simplicity of the metasurface makes it promising for compact optical platforms based on reflection mode operation with potential application in multi-channel biosensors, second-harmonic generation, and multi-wavelength surface-enhanced spectroscopy among other interesting fields
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0401.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: SAR; Sentinel-1A; DSSAT CROPGRO; Peanut; Yield gap
Online: 23 January 2023 (08:15:49 CET)
Crop yield data is critical for managing sustainable agriculture and assessing national food security. Current study aims to increase Peanut productivity from current levels by analyzing the yield gap of production potential between theoretical yield and actual farmers’ yields. The spatial yield gap of Peanut for Thiruvannamalai district of Tamil Nadu is examined in this paper by integrating the products of microwave remote sensing (SAR Sentinel-1A) with DSSAT CROPGRO peanut simulation model. CROPGRO Peanut model was calibrated and validated by conducting field experiment at Oilseeds Research Station, Tindivanam during Rabi 2019 for predominant cultivars viz. TMV 7, TMV 13, VRI 2 and G 7. Actual attainable yield was recorded by organizing CCE with help of Department of Agriculture Economics and Statistics in the respective monitoring Villages. Regression analysis between maximum recorded DSSAT Leaf Area Index (LAI) at peak flowering stage of peanut and yield recorded by Crop Cutting Experiment (CCE) for spatial yield estimation of Peanut in Thiruvannamalai district of Tamil Nadu during Rabi 2021 was carried out using ArcGIS 10.6 software. The results showed that the simulated potential yield ranged from 3194 to 4843 kg/ha, whereas actual yield ranged from 1228 to 3106 kg/ha, with a considerable disparity between the actual and potential yield levels (1217 to 2346 kg/ha) of the monitored locations. The minimum, maximum and average yield gaps in Peanut for Thiruvannamalai district was assessed as 1890, 2324 and 2134 kg/ha, respectively. To reduce the production difference (Yield gap) of Peanut cultivation, farmers should focus more on management issues such as time of sowing, irrigation or water management, quantity and sources of nutrients, cultivar selection and availability of quality seeds tailored to each region.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0041.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: connexin; gap junction; hemichannel; pannexin; peptide; cell signaling
Online: 2 September 2021 (13:38:54 CEST)
Gap junctions (GJ) and connexins play integral roles in cellular physiology and have been found to be involved in multiple pathophysiological states from cancer to cardiovascular disease. Studies over the last 60 years have demonstrated the utility of altering GJ signaling pathways in experimental models, which has led to them being attractive targets for therapeutic intervention. A number of different mechanisms have been proposed to regulate GJ signaling, including channel blocking, enhancing channel open state, and disrupting protein-protein interactions. The primary mechanism for this has been through the design of numerous peptides as therapeutics, that are either currently in early development or are in various stages of clinical trials. Despite over 25 years of research into connexin targeting peptides, the overall mechanisms of action are still poorly understood. In this overview, we discuss published connexin targeting peptides, their reported mechanisms of action and the potential for these molecules in the treatment of disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0682.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Business fluctuations; financial stability; output gap; weighted maturity
Online: 28 July 2020 (12:34:23 CEST)
Many countries have been facing the problem of bank insolvency across the globe. Asset deterioration is one of the main reasons for insolvency of banks. The objective of the paper is to ascertain the determinants of nonperforming loans (NPLs) in the banking sector of Pakistan for the period 2006-16. Other than the bank specific and macro variables proposed by the literature, the roles of weighted maturity and output gap are for the first time examined. We find significant impact of output gap on NPLs however weighted maturity has insignificant role in shaping the future NPLs. Bank specific drivers of NPLs include bank size and capital adequacy ratio.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0306.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Mental disorder, treatment gap, health system, Madhya Pradesh.
Online: 30 January 2019 (09:25:43 CET)
Background: India has one-fifth of the world's population and the number of people suffering from mental illness is assumed to be huge considering the contribution of mental disorders to the overall burden of the disease being 13.9 %. Objectives of Study: To estimate prevalence and patterns of mental illnesses to assess the current mental health services and systems in the Madhya Pradesh. Material and Methods: Multi-stage, stratified, random cluster sampling technique, with random selection based on probability proportionate to size at each stage. A total of 3240 individuals aged 18 years and above were interviewed. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were employed. A set of 10 instruments including Mini International Neuro-psychiatric Interview were utilized. Results: The overall weighted prevalence for any mental illness was 16.7% lifetime and 13.9% current. Treatment-gap for all mental health problems is as high as 91% in the state along with huge socioeconomic impact of mental illness. Conclusions: This huge burden of mental, behavioural and substance use disorders, in Madhya Pradesh, calls for immediate attention of political leaders, policy makers, health professionals, opinion-makers and society at large. It is hoped that the data from the study will inform mental health policy and legislation and help shape mental health care delivery systems in the country.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0296.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: episodic memory, apolipoprotein, dementia, biomarkers, anion gap, inflammation
Online: 29 January 2019 (16:52:14 CET)
Background: The Apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) genotype is strongly associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), although the presence of the ApoE4 allele alone is not sufficient to explain AD. The pathophysiology of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) remains unclear. This study aims to examine associations between peripheral blood biomarkers coupled with ApoE4 and episodic and semantic memory. Methods: The CERAD battery was completed and various biomarkers were assayed in 60 subjects with aMCI, 60 with AD and 62 healthy controls. Results: Deficits in semantic and episodic memory were significantly predicted by anion gap and bicarbonate, albumin and glucose coupled with Apo E4. Furthermore, these peripheral biomarkers interacted with ApoE to predict greater memory impairments. Conclusions: Peripheral blood biomarkers may interact with pathways related to ApoE4 to predict greater semantic and episodic memory impairments, thus contributing to the pathophysiology of aMCI and AD. Our data suggest that the transition from aMCI to AD could at least in some cases be associated with significant interactions between ApoE4 and those peripheral blood biomarkers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0220.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: Synthesis, Crystal growth, Optical band gap, electrical susceptibility.
Online: 12 July 2018 (15:56:11 CEST)
A good optical quality crystal of 2-aminopyridine (2AP) metal complex crystals was grown by slow evaporation technique at room temperature. The transparent and defect less bulk size of 2-aminopyridine potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate metal complex crystals have been grown by solution growth method. The molecular structure and morphology of grown crystals was drawn and planes are indexed using WINXMORPH software. A optical absorption spectrum, the UV cut-off wavelength, Band gap (Eg), Reflectance (R), Refractive Index (n), Extinction coefficient (K) and Electrical susceptibility (χc) are calculated for 2AP metal complex crystals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0143.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Band-gap voltage reference; voltage reference; circuit design
Online: 29 December 2016 (15:47:33 CET)
By using 0.35-um CMOS process, this work achieves a design of analogous band-gap reference voltage circuit with low temperature coefficient. The proposed circuit operates at 3V and generates a reference current of 44 uA. The HSPICE simulation results show the temperature coefficient of this circuit is 23 ppm/℃ at range of -10 ℃ to 100 ℃, and the line regulation (the ratio of output current variation to supply voltage variation) is estimated as 1.95 uA/V from supply voltage variation of 3 V to 5 V. The experimental chip is fabricated and measured. The circuit provides adjustable capability for output voltage among temperature variation of -10 - 100 ℃. The chip area is 534 × 695 um^2. In this new design, the operational amplifier is not necessary. The chip design effort can be great reduced.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1482.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: remanufacturing trading platform; gap analysis; consortium blockchain; coupling mechanism
Online: 21 July 2023 (08:11:24 CEST)
Considering that consumers are more willing to buy products online, companies are increasingly selling remanufactured products online through e-commerce platforms. Notwithstanding the high attention it elicits from researchers and companies, the study about the remanufacturing trading platform is in its infancy. Thus, we investigate 20 remanufacturing trading platforms related nowadays and make a gap analysis among them in terms of: (i) business model, (ii) product display, (iii) delivery products, (iv) quality assurance and after-sales service, (v) product review and star rate and (vi) transaction and payment. On this basis, we analyze features and trends for the development of remanufacturing trading platforms and propose six key applications aimed at filling the identified gaps. The consortium blockchain has the characteristics of security and transparency, high credibility, traceability and unfalsifiability, low cost, and strong scalability, which can provide effective support for the six key applications. Then, we construct the technical framework and the model of a consortium blockchain-supported remanufacturing trading platform. Further, we analyze the coupling mechanism between consortium blockchain and remanufacturing trading platform to explain how the remanufacturing trading platform supported by consortium blockchain achieves development characteristics. This study provides important guidance for the development, construction, and operation management of remanufacturing trading platforms.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1163.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: connexin 43; connexin 30; connexin 26; gap junctions; transport
Online: 16 May 2023 (11:41:45 CEST)
The connexin gene family is the most prevalent gene that contributes to hearing loss. Connexins 26 and 30, encoded by GJB2 and GJB6 respectively, are the most abundant expressed connexins in the inner ear. Connexin 43 which is encoded by GJA1 appears to be widely expressed in various organs, including the heart, skin, brain, and inner ear. The mutations that arise in GJB2, GJB6 and GJA1 can all result in comprehensive or non-comprehensive genetic deafness in newborns. As it is predicted that connexins include at least 20 isoforms in humans, the biosynthesis, structural composition, and degradation of connexins must be precisely regulated so that the gap junctions can operate properly. Certain mutations result in connexins possessing a faulty subcellular localization, failing to transport to the cell membrane and preventing gap junction formation, ultimately leading to connexin dysfunction and hearing loss. In this review, we provide a discussion of the transport models for connexin 43, connexins 30 and 26, mutations affecting trafficking pathways of connexin 26, the existing controversies in trafficking pathways of connexins, and the molecules involved in connexin trafficking and their functions. This review can contribute to a new way of understanding the etiological principles of connexin mutations and finding therapeutic strategies for hereditary deafness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0201.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Internet use; social capital; income gap between farmers; mechanism
Online: 8 July 2021 (13:26:17 CEST)
Based on 2010, 2013 and 2015 CGSS data, the impact of Internet use and social capital on the income gap among farmers in the past five years is assessed at three time points using the OLS method and a quantile regression method. The study finds that (1) the income gap among farmers increases continuously in the five-year period, while Internet use plays a positive impact on farmers’ income growth in all five quartiles; the coefficient differences are all significantly negative, indicating that Internet use plays a positive role in alleviating the income gap between high-income and low-income farmer subgroups, and (2) social capital plays a positive role in moderating the income gap among farmers and that Internet use by farmers expands the boundary of social capital, which in turn increases the income level of and alleviates the income gap among farmers.
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Metals, Alloys And Metallurgy Keywords: particle-hole symmetry; metal-insulator transition; random gap model
Online: 22 October 2019 (15:40:00 CEST)
We use a random gap model to describe a metal-insulator transition in three-dimensional semiconductors due to doping and find a conventional phase transition, where the effective scattering rate is the order parameter. Spontaneous symmetry breaking results in metallic behavior, whereas the insulating regime is characterized by the absence of spontaneous symmetry breaking. The transition is continuous for the average conductivity with critical exponent equal to 1. Away from the critical point the exponent is roughly 0.6, which may explain experimental observations of a crossover of the exponent from 1 to 0.5 by going away from the critical point.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0126.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: soil moisture; remote sensing; geostatistics; gap-filling; midwestern USA
Online: 12 September 2019 (03:32:21 CEST)
Soil moisture plays a key role in the Earth’s water and carbon cycles, but acquisition of continuous (i.e., gap-free) soil moisture measurements across large regions is a challenging task due to limitations of currently available point measurements. Satellites offer critical information for soil moisture over large areas on a regular basis (e.g., ESA CCI, NASA SMAP), however, there are regions where satellite-derived soil moisture cannot be estimated because of certain circumstances such as high canopy density, frozen soil, or extreme dry conditions. We compared and tested two approaches--Ordinary Kriging (OK) interpolation and General Linear Models (GLM)--to model soil moisture and fill spatial data gaps from the European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative (ESA CCI) version 3.2 (and compared them with version 4.4) from January 2000 to September 2012, over a region of 465,777 km2 across the Midwest of the USA. We tested our proposed methods to fill gaps in the original ESA CCI product, and two data subsets, removing 25% and 50% of the initially available valid pixels. We found a significant correlation coefficient (r = 0.523, RMSE = 0.092 m3m-3) between the original satellite-derived soil moisture product with ground-truth data from the North American Soil Moisture Database (NASMD). Predicted soil moisture using OK also had significant correlation coefficients with NASMD data, when using 100% (r = 0.522, RMSE = 0.092 m3m-3), 75% (r = 0.526, RMSE = 0.092 m3m-3) and 50% (r = 0.53, RMSE = 0.092 m3m-3) of available valid pixels for each month of the study period. GLM had lower but significant correlation coefficients with NASMD data (average r = 0.478, RMSE = 0.092 m3m-3) when using the same subsets of available data (i.e., 100%, 75%, 50%). Our results provide support for OK as a technique to gap-fill spatial missing values of satellite-derived soil moisture products across the Midwest of the USA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0109.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: connexins; Cx43; gap junctions; lung cancer; immunohistochemistry; prognosis; nuclear
Online: 13 February 2019 (10:30:49 CET)
Direct intercellular communication, mediated by gap junctions formed by the connexin transmembrane protein family, is frequently dysregulated in cancer. Connexins have been described as tumour suppressors, but emerging evidence suggests that they can also act as tumour promoters. This feature is connexin- and tissue-specific and may be mediated by complex signalling pathways through gap junctions or hemichannels or by completely junction-independent events. Lung cancer is the number one cancer in terms of mortality worldwide, and novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets are urgently needed. Our objective was to gain a better understanding of connexins in this setting. We used several in silico tools to analyse TCGA data in order to compare connexin mRNA expression between healthy lung tissue and lung tumours and correlated these results with gene methylation patterns. Using Kaplan-Meier plotter tools, we analysed a microarray dataset and an RNA-seq dataset of non-small cell lung tumours in order to correlate connexin expression with patient prognosis. We found that connexin mRNA expression is frequently either upregulated or downregulated in lung tumours. This correlated with both good and poor prognosis (overall survival) in a clear connexin isoform-dependent manner. These associations were strongly influenced by the histological subtype (adenocarcinoma versus squamous cell carcinoma). We present an overview of all connexins but particularly focus on four isoforms implicated in lung cancer: Cx26, Cx30.3, Cx32 and Cx43. We further analysed the protein expression and localization of Cx43 in a series of 72 human lung tumours. We identified a subset of tumours that exhibited a unique strong nuclear Cx43 expression pattern that predicted worse overall survival (p=0.014). Upon sub-stratification, the prognostic value remained highly significant in the adenocarcinoma subtype (p=0.002) but not in the squamous carcinoma subtype (p=0.578). This finding highlights the importance of analysis of connexin expression at the protein level, particularly the subcellular localization. Elucidation of the underlying pathways regulating Cx43 localization may provide for novel therapeutic opportunities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0334.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: Adhesive, Dentin, Composite, Adaptation, Tooth, Optical coherence tomography, Gap
Online: 18 September 2018 (08:52:54 CEST)
Objectives: The current study aimed to compare the adaptation of the restored class-I cavities with two self-etch adhesives bonded to two resin composite using cross-polarization optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT). Materials and Methods: Cylindrical class-I cavities were prepared on twenty, extracted human premolars. Two self-etch adhesives; Clearfil SE bond 2 (SE; Kuraray Noritake Dental, Japan) and Bond Force (Palfique Bond) adhesive (PL; Tokuyama Dental, Japan) were used in this study that were bonded to either resin composites materials; Herculite XRV microhybrid dental composite (HRV; Kerr, Italy) or Estelite Alpha composite (ESA; Tokuyama Dental, Japan). The specimens were divided into four groups (n=5); SE-HRV, SE-ESA, PL-HRV and PL-ESA. All specimens were varnished and stored in distilled water for 24h. Then, they were submerged in a contrasting medium. After that, all groups were optically imaged under CP-OCT at every 250 µm interval distance. Later, image binarization and gap quantification were carried out using Image analysis software. Result: There was a significant difference between all the groups except between SE-ESA and PL-ESA (p = 0.51). The highest median gap % was seen in PL-HRV group followed by SE-ESA, PL-ESA and SE-HRV. Conclusion: Other than composite filler loading and adhesive formula, the interactions of the adhesive and composite copolymers have great influence on composite adaptation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0331.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Electrochemistry Keywords: conjugated polymer; selenophene; fluorine; carbazole band; gap; Suzuki coupling
Online: 24 May 2018 (05:32:43 CEST)
In this study, two donor-acceptor (D-A) type conjugated polymers namely PQSeCz and PQSeFl were designed and synthesized. Selenophene was incorporated as a π -bridge, quinoxaline as an acceptor unit while carbazole and fluorene were used as the donor units. Polymers were synthesized via palladium catalyzed Suzuki polymerization reaction. All molecules were characterized by 1H and 13C NMR Spectroscopy. The weight and number average molecular weights of the two polymers were determined by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical characterizations of the polymers were performed to investigate their optoelectronic properties. Oxidation potentials were 1.15 V/ 0.82 V and 1.11 V/ 0.82 V for PQSeCz and PQSeFl respectively, while reduction potentials were -1.26 V /-1.14 V and -1.48 V/ -1.23 V, respectively. In the visible region, maximum absorption wavelengths for the two polymers were 551 nm and 560 nm, respectively. Optical band gaps (Egop) were found from the lowest energy π – π∗ transition onsets as 1.71 eV and 1.58 eV, respectively. Both polymers showed good solubility in common solvents.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0168.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: connexins; gap junctions; transcription; translation; post-translational modifications; trafficking
Online: 20 March 2018 (05:27:38 CET)
Connexins are tetraspan transmembrane proteins that form gap junctions and facilitate direct intercellular communication, a critical feature for the development, function and homeostasis of tissues and organs. In addition, a growing number of gap junction-independent functions are being ascribed to these proteins. The connexin gene family is under extensive regulation at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level, and undergoes numerous modifications at the protein level, including phosphorylation, which ultimately affects their trafficking, stability and function. Here, we summarize these key regulatory events, with emphasis on how these affect their multi-functionality in health and disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0180.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: computer science; tertiary education; course selection; performance; gender gap
Online: 26 December 2017 (02:30:21 CET)
The aim of the present study is to investigate both the performance and preferences of males and females Computer Science (CS) graduates. In order to attain the above goal, a quantitative case study was conducted regarding 89 degrees, acquired from 2006 to 2012, from the Department of Computer Science and Technology, University of Peloponnese, Greece. The analysis of the data revealed that in terms of performance, no significant differences between the mean grades of males and females exist, in almost most of the courses included in the curriculum of the aforementioned CS department. Any statistically significant differences in performances were present in almost equal number of courses in favor of males and females. It seems also, that females performed better in the courses they selected more than males. Regarding preferences, in CS courses, it seems that gender differences are existent. Males preferred more than females did core programming courses and advanced topics of Software Systems, computer networks, computer engineering, robotics and mathematics, whereas females preferred more the study of algorithms and security issues, computer fractals, data management, computer architecture, and mobile communication. In addition, females preferred courses in reference with humanities and social sciences, CS terminology, and career opportunities. Yet, females did not select any of programming lab-based courses, computer engineering, computer network issues and robotics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0276.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: Monolayer semiconductor; Band gap; Electronic structure; Biaxial strain; DFT calculations
Online: 5 June 2023 (09:58:45 CEST)
In recent years, two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted significant attention due to their distinctive properties, including exceptional mechanical flexibility and tunable electronic properties. Via the first-principles calculation, we investigate the effect of strain on the electronic properties of monolayer SnP2S6 and GeP2S6. We find that monolayer SnP2S6 is an indirect band gap semiconductor, while monolayer GeP2S6 is a direct band gap semiconductor. Notably, under uniform biaxial strains, SnP2S6 undergoes an indirect-to-direct band gap transition at 4.0% biaxial compressive strains, while GeP2S6 exhibits a direct-to-indirect transition at 2.0% biaxial tensile strain. The changes of the conduction band edge can be attributed to the high-symmetry point Γ being more sensitive to strain than K. Thus, the relocation of the conduction-band and valence-band edges in monolayer SnP2S6 and GeP2S6 induces a direct-to-indirect and indirect-to-direct band-gap transition respectively. Consequently, the strain is an effective band engineering scheme which is crucial for the design and development of next-generation nanoelectronic and optoelectronic devices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0304.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: COVID-19; waste generation; waste collection; gap assessment; emergency plans
Online: 23 June 2021 (11:39:27 CEST)
The nationwide lockdown imposed to control the spread of novel coronavirus induced dramatic alterations in different sectors of the Nepalese governance, including Solid Waste Management (SWM) practices. The study identifies SW collection gaps in seven major cities of Nepal and highlights the municipal and public households on SW management practices before and during the lockdown to emphasize the linkage between COVID-19 and SWM. It includes information on solid waste status, collection frequency and coverage, workers safety practices, types of vehicles operated for collection and alternative methods adopted by households to manage SW during the lockdown. For this, 1329 households survey and key informant interviews were conducted in seven cities of Nepal during the lockdown. It was found that although the coverage of the collection service was similar during the pandemic, there was a drastic decrease in the collection frequency leading to a collection gap of around 570 tons/day. More than 50% of the surveyed households adopted no proper alternative measures as they claimed that they stored solid waste with proper management so that municipal authorities can take it. The study reveals poor occupational health and safety practices among the solid waste workers due to the unavailability of safety gears and equipment despite being aware of the modes of transmission of the virus. The pandemic exacerbated the challenges of smooth SWM as it is an essential and needy service. This study highlights the need for a timely strategic management framework to be developed by the government to continue the smooth SWM practices during the lockdown.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0626.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Sexism; social networks; adolescence; digital gender gap, emotional well-being
Online: 23 April 2021 (10:01:04 CEST)
Despite gender equality being present in the social and political sphere, we still encounter aspects that are characteristic of sexism. Such aspects impact upon gender inequality and different types of violence towards women. The present article aims to examine the behaviour of adolescents from Huelva with regards to ambivalent sexism towards women on social networks and their influence on health. Further, we seek to uncover adolescent’s perceptions with regards to gender differences in the use of social networks, the relationship between sexism and women's emotional well-being was observed. The study sample was formed by young people aged between 14 and 16 years who were residing in rural and urban zones in the south of Spain. A mixed methods approach was taken. At a quantitative level, a sample of 400 young people was recruited. These were administered a questionnaire about sexism which was composed of two scales and has been validated at a national and international level. At a qualitative level, the study counted on 33 young people who participated in in-depth discussions via interviews and discussion groups. The results showed that sexism emerges in adolescence in the analysed sample from the south of Spain. This favoured a digital gender gap and was reinforced through social networks such as Instagram and Snapchat. Rising awareness and a critical view of the aforementioned sexism was shown on the behalf of females, particularly those from urban backgrounds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0273.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: data-driven optimization; climate change; harvest planning; optimality gap; forest
Online: 13 October 2020 (10:46:56 CEST)
Forest planners have traditionally used expected growth and yield coefficients to predict future merchantable timber volumes. However, because climate change affects forest growth, the typical forest planning methods using expected value of forest growth can lead to sub-optimal harvest decisions. We proposed in this paper to formulate the harvest planning with growth uncertainty due to climate change problem as a multistage stochastic optimization problem and use sample average approximation (SAA) as a tool for finding the best set of forest units that should be harvested in the first period even though we have a limited knowledge of what future climate will be. The objective of the harvest planning model is to maximize the expected value of the net present value (NPV) considering the uncertainty in forest growth and thus in revenues from timber harvest. The proposed model was tested on a small forest with 89 stands and the numerical results showed that the approach allows to have superior solutions in terms of net present value and robustness in face of different climate scenarios compared to the approach using the expected growth and yield. The SAA methods requires to generate samples from the distribution of the random parameter. Our results suggested that a sampling scheme that focuses on generating high number of samples in distant future stages is favorable compared to having large sample sizes for the near future stages. Finally, we demonstrated that, depending on the level of forest growth change, ignoring this uncertainty can negatively affect forest resources sustainability.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0171.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: animal welfare legislation; animal cruelty; law enforcement; Australia; enforcement gap
Online: 12 December 2019 (10:07:56 CET)
Enforcement of animal welfare statutes are the primary protection given for the maintenance of animal welfare and prevention of cruelty. It is speculated that animal law enforcement in Australia has a number of weakness in the enforcement model. These weaknesses create a gap between the goals of animal law enforcement and the reality of the animal law justice system. This gap is defined as the ‘enforcement gap’. This paper identifies and investigates the causes of this gap. The hypothesized causes discussed are (1) the impact the public can have on reporting animal cruelty, (2) the reliance on charitable organizations as enforcement bodies, (3) the inconsistencies in animal welfare legislation, and (4) the role of the sentencing courts. Thus, the causes of the enforcement gap are multifactorial; derived from all stages of the enforcement process. Further research is needed to investigate the concepts raised in this paper. However, it is likely that a combination of structural change to enforcement agencies, legislative reform and public education is required to reduce the enforcement gap.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0333.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: gap junction; connexin; angiogenesis; cell mechanics; cell migration; cellular stiffness
Online: 28 December 2018 (05:19:52 CET)
Angiogenesis, the sprout and growth of new blood vessels from existing vasculature, is an important process of tumor development for the supply of oxygen and nutrition to cancer cells. Endothelial cell is a critical player in angiogenic process by modulating cell proliferation, cell motility, and cell morphology in the response to pro-angiogenic factors and environments provided by tumor and cancer cells. Recent in vivo and in vitro studies have revealed that gap junction of endothelial cells also participates in the promotion of angiogenesis. Pro-angiogenic factors modulate gap junction function and connexins expression in endothelial cells, whereas endothelial connexins involve in angiogenic tube formation and cell migration of endothelial cells via both gap junction channel function dependent or independent mechanisms. In particular, connexin might have the potential to regulate cell mechanics such as cell morphology, cell migration, and cellular stiffness that are dynamically changed during angiogenic processes. Here, we review the implication for endothelial gap junction and cellular mechanics in vascular angiogenesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0327.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Gap filling, M-SSA, Monte Carlo test, Time series, LST
Online: 20 June 2018 (16:25:07 CEST)
Land Surface Temperature (LST) is a basic parameter in energy exchange between the land and atmosphere and is frequently used in many sciences such as climatology, hydrology, agriculture, ecology, etc. LST time series data have usually deficient, missing and unacceptable data caused by the presence of clouds in images, presence of dust in atmosphere and sensor failure. In this study, Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA) algorithm was used to resolve the problem of missing and outlier data caused by cloud cover. The region studied in the present research included an image frame of MODIS with horizontal number 22 and vertical number 05 (h22v05). This image involved a large part of Iran and Turkmenistan and Caspian Sea. In this study, MODIS LST sensor (MOD11A1) was used during 2015 with 1×1 Km spatial resolution and day/night LST data (daily temporal resolution). The results of the data quality showed that cloud cover caused 36.37% of missing data in the studied time series with 730 day/night LST images. Further, the results of SSA algorithm in reconstruction of LST images indicated the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 2.95 K between the original and reconstructed data in LST time series in the study region. In general, the findings showed that SSA algorithm using spatio-temporal interpolation in LST time series can be effectively used to resolve the problem of missing data caused by cloud cover.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0080.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Particle And Field Physics Keywords: neutrino; neutrino’s flavor; neutrino oscillation; many-body interactions; superconducting energy gap; a quantized space-time; zero-point energy; lepton; Fermi’s golden rule; mass gap
Online: 8 October 2019 (08:47:19 CEST)
We herein described an investigation of a theory, which describes the energies of neutrinos and the source of neutrino oscillations. A series of experiments were conducted to show evidences of the existence a neutrino mass. We also applied theories to explain the reason for the extremely small energy of a neutrino, mainly by employing a vacuum-derived superconducting energy gap from the Bardeen–Cooper–Schrieffer ground state. Moreover, we succeeded in obtaining the transition probabilities of neutrinos’ flavors (i.e., in terms of neutrino oscillation). We focused on the fact that up- and down-quantized space pairs combine by the Lorentz forces, undertake Bose-Einstein condensation, and then create a superconducting energy gap at the energy level of the vacuum with quantum mechanics fluctuation. Eventually, the superconducting energy gap vanishes to form a real body of the neutrino. Furthermore, assuming that the speed of the neutrino is near the speed of light and exhibits Planck’s blackbody emissions, we derived many-body interactions of neutrinos and applied them in Fermi’s golden rule. As a result, the neutrino energy we calculated agreed well within the realms of the experimental results. The calculated transition probabilities of neutrino’s flavor also explain the experiment results very well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0130.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: initial time delay gap; just noticeable difference; autocorrection function; continuous brainwaves
Online: 6 September 2023 (10:23:14 CEST)
In this study, the apparent variation range of acoustical parameters were investigated in a concert hall. The initial time delay gap (ITDG) was evaluated in terms of its just noticeable difference (JND) through two instruments, the cello and the trumpet. Even though the IDTG values were prolonged over the measurements and were not significantly varied, an ITDG range of 22 - 220 ms in increments of 91 steps was produced electro-acoustically in an anechoic chamber with a loudspeaker. The result of JNDc ((delta gap/gap) was rated 0.059 and 0.081 at 50% “different” judgement ranges for the cello and trumpet tracks, respectively. The effective duration of the autocorrection function (ACF) of the continuous brainwaves (CBWs) within the alpha (8-13 Hz) frequency range on the left hemisphere responding to 91-step ITDG increments revealed that the continuous ratio minimum Tauee e of CBW was approximately equal to 0.28 s on the trumpet. The continuous ratios of Tauee e_min ((Tauee e_min_rear - Tauee e_min_front)/ Tauee e_min_front) of CBWs were constantly at 0.4. Furthermore, a homologous period of resonance between the subjective JNDc and Tauee e values of the ACF of CBWs in the alpha range allowed us to conclude that the subjective JND of the ITDG in a room is related to the W_IACC value of the interaural cross-correlation function, which reflect the characteristics of source signal themselves and arouse the activities of brain on the right hemisphere (p < 0.01).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0314.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Artemisia absinthium; green ZnO NPs; band gap energy; plant extract; phytochemicals
Online: 5 July 2023 (12:32:59 CEST)
Artemisia absinthium (A. absinthium) leaf extract was successfully used to create zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs), and their properties were investigated via several techniques, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and UV–Vis spectroscopy. SEM analysis confirmed the spherical and elliptical shapes of the particles. Three different zinc peaks were observed via EDX at energies of 1, 8.7, and 9.8 keV, together with a single oxygen peak at 0.5 keV. XRD analysis identified ZnO NPs as having a hexagonal wurtzite structure with a particle size that decreased from 24.39 to 18.77 nm, and with an increasing surface area (BET) from 4.003 to 6.032 m2/g for the ZnO (without extract) and green ZnO NPs, respectively. FTIR analysis confirmed the groups of molecules that were accountable for stabilizing and minimizing the ZnO NPs, which was apparent at 3400 cm. Using UV–Vis spectroscopy, the band gap energies (Egs) for the green ZnO and ZnO (without extract) NPs were estimated, and the values were 2.65 and 2.79 eV, respectively.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0542.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: Human papillomavirus; Epidemiology; Prevention Strategies; Vaccination; Screening; Cervical Cancer; Gender Gap
Online: 19 April 2023 (04:32:32 CEST)
Background and aim: Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is sexually transmitted, one of the three most common sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in both males and females, and the most common viral STI. A crucial public health strategy to protect people against HPV is through vaccination, which has shown its effectiveness in preventing HPV related diseases. Presently three types of vaccines are available (bivalent, quadrivalent, and nonavalent) and they all target at least the two most oncogenic virus genotypes (HPV 16, 18). In the past few years, the need to implement vaccination programmes that include all genders has been discussed in order to achieve herd immunity against HPV. To date, only a few countries have included young males in their vaccination programmes, so we aim through this review to provide an overview of the epidemiology of HPV and prevention strategies to prevent it, reporting the latest findings from the scientific literature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0276.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Other Keywords: homeotropic alignment; cell gap; self-alignment; liquid crystal phase shifter; antenna
Online: 15 November 2022 (06:29:59 CET)
We evaluated hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HTAB) for use in radio frequency (RF) applications in which liquid crystals (LCs) are used in layered structures that have various cell gap conditions. HTAB is a surfactant that can self-align vertically on the surface of indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates, and can induce homeotropic alignment of the LCs. For implementing RF devices with HTAB and LCs, we should consider limitations caused by the design conditions which are different from conventional liquid crystal displays such as cell gap. We quantified the concentration of HTAB ([HTAB]) that is necessary to form and maintain a sufficiently dense vertical alignment of 5CB (4-Cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl). The required [HTAB] for full-homeotropic alignment was proportional to the cell gap until it was too large to support the transfer of the surface alignment to the LC, due to the weak anchoring nature of HTAB. We also showed the phase-change characteristic of the LC mixture depended on [HTAB] for the design of RF devices driven by light or heat. This work may help to guide the development of new approaches to designing efficient RF devices that use LCs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0261.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: environmental behavior; financial industry; employee survey; behavioral acceptance; intention-behavior-gap
Online: 19 May 2022 (11:39:40 CEST)
The financial sector, too, is developing innovative services and products that have the potential to make a more positive impact on global environmental goals. However, research sheds little light on environmental attitudes and behavioral patterns of employees in this sector. There are multiple factors promoting or inhibiting environmental behavior. Those factors may be rooted in individual or subjective norms, but also social influence and to some extent financial incentives and benefits. A survey concerning the intention to improve and actually show ‘green behavior’ was developed based on widely used acceptance models which differentiate between desirable behavior and the intention to show such behavior. Employees are predominately responsive towards environmental behavior: 20% are convinced of the need to act in a “green” and sustainable manner, only 5% are hard to win over or are not accessible at all. Financial loss or benefits combined with social motives contribute to sustainable living whereas financial benefits alone actually hinder such behavior. The study underlines the existence of a intention-behavior gap: The intention to behave sustainably is built somewhat separately from various influences. There are moderating factors like sex, age and family status that influence the decisions. This then leads to a gap between intention and actual behavior.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0455.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: connexin hemichannel; gap junction; oxidative stress; Inflammatory receptors; Fasudil; Y-27632.
Online: 29 October 2021 (13:12:44 CEST)
Connexin 43 (Cx43) is expressed in kidneys and constitutes a feedforward mechanism leading to inflammation in other tissues where they form hemichannels and gap junction channels. However, the possible functional relationship between these membrane channels and their role in damaged renal cells remains unknown. Here, analyses of ethidium uptake and thiobarbituric acid reactive species revealed that TNF-α plus IL-1β increase Cx43 hemichannel activity and oxidative stress in MES-13 cells, a cell line derived from mesangial cells. The latter also was accompanied by a reduction in gap junctional communication, whereas western blotting analysis showed a progressive increase of phosphorylated MYPT (a substrate of RhoA/ROCK) and Cx43 upon TNF-α/IL-1β treatment. Additionally, inhibition of RhoA/ROCK strongly diminished the TNF-α/IL-1β-induced activation of Cx43 hemichannels and reduction in gap junctional coupling. We propose that activation of Cx43 hemichannels and inhibition of cell coupling during pro-inflammatory conditions could contribute to oxidative stress and damage of mesangial cells via the RhoA/ROCK pathway.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: motion capture; neural networks; reconstruction; gap filling; FFNN; LSTM; BILSTM; GRU
Online: 3 August 2021 (11:52:46 CEST)
Optical motion capture is a mature contemporary technique for the acquisition of motion data, alas it is non-error-free. Due to technical limitations and occlusions of markers, gaps might occur in such recordings. The article reviews various neural network architectures applied for gap filling problem in motion capture sequences within FBM framework providing the representation for body kinematic structure. The results are compared with interpolation and matrix completion methods. We found out, that for longer sequences simple linear feedforward neural networks can outperform the other, sophisticated architectures. We were also able to identify, that acceleration and monotonicity of input sequence are the parameters that have a notable impact on the obtained results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0051.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Metal-Organic Framework; Photocatalysis; Band-Gap modulation; Strain Engineering; Catalyst Selectivity.
Online: 1 February 2021 (15:00:06 CET)
In recent years, the class of metal-organic framework (MOF) materials emerged. These materials' unique properties can be assigned to their structure, containing inorganic nodes connected with organic linkers. Due to their porosity and flexibility, MOFs have become suitable for various energy-related applications, including gas storage, hydrogen production and heterogeneous catalysis, and photocatalysis. Using DFT+U calculations, we show that the substitution of metal centers in inorganic nodes and the strain engineering of UiO-66 alters the electronic and optical properties of this material. We show that applying mechanical strain on UiO-66 enables the control of absorption coefficient in the UV-Vis spectrum and the photocatalytic processes' selectivity when reactants for several photocatalytic processes are present. The presented findings could lead to general strategies for designing novel MOFs for sustainable energy conversion applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0191.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: nickelate superconductors; infinite-layer superconductors; London penetration depth; superconducting gap symmetry
Online: 15 December 2019 (14:02:04 CET)
Recently Li et al (2019 Nature 572 624) discovered a new type of oxide superconductor Nd0.8Sr0.2NiO2 with Tc = 14 K. To classify superconductivity in this infinite-layer nickelate experimental upper critical field, Bc2(T), and the self-field critical current densities, Jc(sf,T), reported by Li et al (2019 Nature 572 624), are analysed in assumption of s-, d-, and p-wave pairing symmetries and single- and multiple-band superconductivity. Based on deduced the ground-state superconducting energy gap, Δ(0), the London penetration depth, λ(0), the relative jump in electronic specific heat at Tc, ΔC/C, and the ratio of 2Δ(0)/kBTc, we conclude that Nd0.8Sr0.2NiO2 is type-II high-κ weak-coupled single-band s-wave superconductor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0077.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: leaf area index; smartphone camera sensor; conifer forest; canopy gap fraction
Online: 17 January 2017 (09:59:36 CET)
Plant leaf area index (LAI) is a key characteristic affecting field canopy microclimate. In addition to traditional professional measuring instruments, smartphone camera sensors have been used to measure plant LAI. However, when smartphone methods were used to measure conifer forest LAI, very different performances were obtained depending on whether the smartphone was held at the zenith angle or at a 57.5° angle. To validate further the potential of smartphone sensors for measuring conifer LAI and to find the limits of this method, this paper reports the results of a comparison of two smartphone methods with an LAI-2000 instrument. It is shown that both methods can be used to reveal the conifer leaf-growing trajectory. However, the method with the phone oriented vertically upwards always produced better consistency in magnitude with LAI-2000. The bias of the LAI between the smartphone method and the LAI-2000 instrument was explained with regard to four aspects that can affect LAI: gap fraction, leaf projection ratio, sensor field of view (FOV), and viewing zenith angle (VZA). It was concluded that large FOV and large VZA cause the 57.5° method to overestimate the gap fraction and hence underestimate conifer LAI, especially when tree height is greater than 2.0 m. For the vertically upward method, the bias caused by the overestimated gap fraction is compensated for by an underestimated leaf projection ratio.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0792.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Boreal forest; Multi-temporal LiDAR remote sensing; Crown Closure Monitoring; Tree Density; Gap Fraction; Vertical canopy cover; Gap probability; Spatial Autocorrelation; Height threshold; Spatial grid resolution
Online: 31 December 2020 (11:55:01 CET)
Monitoring crown closure evolution using multi-temporal Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) surveys is a method that we expect to be increasingly adopted given the availability of LiDAR sensors and the accumulating survey archives. However, little attention was devoted to comparing crown closure estimates from independent surveys. Although survey parameters cannot be modified after the data collection, we speculate that the error associated to crown closure estimates comparison can be reduced by selecting optimal post-survey parameters. In this study, we compared crown closure estimates of three airborne LiDAR surveys from 2018 (40 pt/m²) used as a reference, and two lower-density surveys from 2016 (4.5 pt/m²) and 2018 (2 pt/m²). We studied the effect of the height threshold used to separate canopy points and the grid resolution, using skewness and variance of lagged difference of crown closure. Crown closure estimates using low height thresholds were more different across surveys, resulting in higher root mean squared error (RMSE), bias and more different variograms. Results show that optimal height threshold was 3 m and grid resolution was 25 m, although there was room for decision (RMSE of 7% and 5%, and bias of 4% and 0% for 2016 and 2018 low-density surveys).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0150.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: Pechini method; TiO2; CuO; anatase; tenorite; band gap; absorbance; diffuse reflectance; XPS
Online: 11 May 2022 (08:54:56 CEST)
High purity TiO2 and CuO powders were synthesized by the Pechini method, an inexpensive and easy-to-implement procedure to synthetize metal oxides. The variables of synthesis were the ethylene glycol:citric acid molar ratio and the pH. High reproducibility of the anatase and tenorite phase was obtained for all synthesis routes. The degree of purity of the powders was confirmed by XRD, FTIR, UV-vis absorption and XPS spectra. SEM and TEM images revealed the powders are composed by micrometer grains that can have a spherical shape (only in the TiO2) or formed by a non-compacted nanocrystalline conglomerate. FTIR spectra only vibrational modes associated to the TiO2 or CuO with a nanoparticle behavior. UV-vis absorption spectra revealed the values of maximum absorbance percentage of both systems are reached in the ultraviolet region, with percentages above 83 % throughout the entire visible light spectrum for the CuO system, a relevant result for solar cell applications. Finally, XPS experiments allow the observation of the valence bands and the calculation of the energy bands of all oxides.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0525.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: flexible functional device; thin film coating; slot-die; surface tension; coating gap
Online: 20 November 2020 (07:08:12 CET)
Slot-die coatings are advantageous when used for coating large-area flexible devices; in particular, the coating width can be controlled, and simultaneous multi-layer coatings can be processed. Till date, the effects of ink widening and coating gap on the coating thickness have only been considered in a few studies. To this end, we developed two mathematical models to accurately estimate the coating width and thickness considering these two effects. We used root mean square deviation (RMSD) to experimentally verify the developed method. The coating width was seen to increase and the coating thickness was seen to decrease when the coating gap was increased. Experimental results showed that the estimation performances of the coating width and thickness models were as high as 98.46 % and 95.8 %, respectively. We believe that the developed models can be useful for determining the coating conditions according to the ink properties to coat a functional layer with user-defined widths and thicknesses in both lab- and industrial-scale roll-to-roll slot-die coating processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0567.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: Wide band gap semiconductor; Elastic modulus; Optic-electronic properties; Ab–initio calculations
Online: 26 August 2020 (08:57:57 CEST)
The electronic structure and some of its derived properties of Li2CaGeO4 compound have been investigated. The calculations have been performed using the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave plus local orbitals method and ultra-soft pseudo-potentials . The optimized lattice parameters are found to be ingood accord with experiment. Features such as bulk modulus and its pressure derivative, electronic band structure and density of states are reported. The elastic anisotropy of the crystal is discussed and visualized. Moreover, the optical properties reveal that Li2CaGeO4 compound are suitable candidates for optoelectronic devices in the visible and ultraviolet (UV) regions.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: lacunary function; gap function; centered polygonal numbers; Natural boundary; singularities; broom topology
Online: 19 February 2020 (11:43:50 CET)
This work investigates centered polygonal lacunary functions restricted from the unit disk onto symmetry angle space which is defined by the symmetry angles of a given centered polygonal lacunary function. This restriction allows for one to consider only the p-sequences of the centered polygonal lacunary functions which are bounded, but not convergent, at the natural boundary. The periodicity of the $p$-sequences naturally gives rise to a convergent subsequence, which can be used as a grounds for decomposition of the restricted centered polygonal lacunary functions. A mapping of the unit disk to the sphere allows for the study of the line integrals of restricted centered polygonal that includes analytic progress towards closed form representations. Obvious closures of the domain obtained from the spherical map lead to four distinct topological spaces of the "broom topology'' type.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0006.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Forest hydrology; Canopy filtering; trace metal; throughfall; gap edge canopy; closed canopy.
Online: 1 March 2019 (11:29:55 CET)
Trace metals can enter some natural regions with low human disturbance from atmospheric circulation, but little information is available regarding how the canopy can retained trace metals. Therefore, a representative sub-alpine spruce plantation was selected to investigate the net throughfall fluxes of eight trace metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Al, Pb, Cd and Cr) of closed canopy and gap-edge canopy from August 2015 to July 2016. Over a one-year observational period, the annual fluxes of Al, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu, Cd, Cr and Pb were 7.29 kg·ha-1, 2.30 kg·ha-1, 7.02 kg·ha-1, 0.16 kg·ha-1, 0.19 kg·ha-1, 0.06 kg·ha-1, 0.56 kg·ha-1 and 0.24 kg·ha-1, respectively, in the deposited precipitation. The annual net throughfall fluxes of these trace metals were 1.73 kg·ha-1, 0.9 kg·ha-1, 1.68kg·ha-1, -0.032 kg·ha-1, 0.04 kg·ha-1, 0.018 kg·ha-1, 0.093 kg·ha-1 and 0.087kg·ha-1, respectively, in the gap-edge canopy and -1.6 kg·ha-1, 1.13 kg·ha-1, 1.65 kg·ha-1, -0.10 kg·ha-1, 0.05 kg·ha-1, 0.03 kg·ha-1, 0.26 kg·ha-1 and 0.15 kg·ha-1, respectively, in the closed canopy. The closed canopy displayed a greater filter effect on the trace metals from precipitation than did the gap-edge canopy in the sub-alpine forest. In the rainy season, the net filtering ratio of trace metals ranged from -66%-89% in the closed canopy and from -52% to 25% in the gap-edge canopy. However, the net filtering ratio of all trace metals was greater than 50% in the closed canopy in the snowy season. Therefore, the results suggested that the most trace metals moving through the forest canopy are taken up rather than by rainfall leaching; moreover, the closed canopy can efficiently take up trace metals in the snowy season.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0190.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: mast cells; angiogenesis; endothelial cells; tube formation assay; co-culture; gap junction
Online: 31 October 2017 (03:51:50 CET)
Angiogenesis is a complex process that involves interactions between endothelial cells and various other cell types as well as the tissue microenvironment. Several previous studies have demonstrated that mast cells accumulate at angiogenic sites. In spite of the evidence suggesting a relationship between mast cells and angiogenesis, the association of mast cells and endothelial cells remains poorly understood. The present study aims to investigate the relationship between mast cells and endothelial cells during in vitro angiogenesis. When endothelial cells were co-cultured with mast cells, angiogenesis was stimulated. Furthermore, there was direct intercellular communication via gap junctions between the two cell types. In addition, the presence of mast cells stimulated endothelial cells to release angiogenic factors. Moreover, conditioned medium from the co-cultures also stimulated in vitro angiogenesis. The results from this investigation demonstrate that mast cells have both direct and indirect proangiogenic effects and provide new insights into the role of mast cells in angiogenesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0043.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: BaxSr1-xTiO3 films; boltzmann modelling; optical band gap; deposition rate; stoichiometric content
Online: 9 October 2017 (05:20:59 CEST)
Thin films (100-400 nm) of BaxSr1-xTiO3 (0≤x≤1) deposited in RF-magnetron co-sputtering equipment are presented in this research work. The change of deposition rate, gap energy, and resistivity as a function of temperature- applied power change in the growth parameters was studied through the ISO colour-code lines constructed with MATLAB: By analysing the trend information and take into account the influence of the calculated "x" parameter with the Boltzmann profile fitting is proposed a method to allow a controlled set up of the RF-magnetron co-sputtering system and predict the Eg and resistivity values in the BaxSr1-xTiO3 solid solution with 0≤x≤1 for amorphous and crystalline phases. Also, a versatile tool to optimise the deposition process and material properties.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0048.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: SSCM; Mathematical Model; Systematic Literature Review; SSCM Modules; Sustainable Development Goals; Gap analysis
Online: 2 June 2021 (07:19:32 CEST)
The main purpose of this paper is to present a comprehensive view of the application mathematical models in the designing and implementing SSCM beside to solving problems and making decision. The research questions are: what mathematical models are used for designing and implementing sustainable supply chain management, how to use them, which industries implemented in, what modules of SSCM depth in and finally finding the gaps of researches. The methodology of research is Systematic Literature review through peer review papers which are published in high ranking journals. In this paper, First, we search all papers through scientific data bases like Scopus, science direct, MDPI, Springer, Google Scholar, then, screening papers based on the criteria such as subject of paper, journals impact factor which is published in-should be peer review journal- and relative content of the papers. Finally, we selected 245 papers with three steps screening through 2806 papers that they have enough quality and relative to our research goals for context analysis. Through context analysis, first we categorized the information of the papers and drew the current situation of researches in the framework of our topic. Then, we evaluate and compare the goals of sustainability and current situation and found the gapes, then, offered new suggestions like implementing SSCMs models in pollutant industries like casting industry, Heavy industry, coal Industry and so on. On the other hand, there are gaps in researches in some modules of SSCM such as packaging, designing products, etc.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0391.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Particle And Field Physics Keywords: Neutron black holes; dark matter black holes; black hole mass gap; universe evolution
Online: 18 March 2021 (10:52:30 CET)
The origins of the stellar mass neutron black holes and supermassive dark matter black holes without the singularities are reported based on the 4-D Euclidean space. The neutron black holes with the mass of mBH = 5 – 15 msun are made by the 6-quark merged states (N6q) of two neutrons with the mass (m(N6q) = 10 m(n)) of 9.4 GeV/c2 that gives the black hole mass gap of mBH = 3 – 5 msun. Also, the supermassive black holes with the mass of mSMBH = 106 – 1011 msun are made by the merged 3-D states (J(B1B2B3)3 particles) of the dark matters. The supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky way galaxy has the mass of mSMBH = 4.1 106 msun that is consistent with mSMBH = 2.08 - 6.23 106 msun calculated from the 3-D states (J(B1B2B3)3 particles) of the dark matters with the mass of m(J) = 1.95 1015 eV/c2. In other words, this supports the existence of the B1, B2 and B3 dark matters with the proposed masses. The first dark matter black hole (primary black hole) was created at the big bang. This first dark matter black hole decayed to the supermassive dark matter black holes through the secondary dark matter black holes that are explained by the merged states of the J(B1B2B3)3 particles. The universe evolution is closely connected to the decaying process of the dark matter black holes since the big bang. The dark matter cloud states are proposed at the intermediate mass black hole range of mIMBH = 102 – 105 msun. This can explain why the dark matter black holes are not observed at the intermediate mass black hole range of mIMBH = 102 – 105 msun.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1441.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: fine grain image recognition; Inception-V3; reinforcement complementary learning; complementary learning; inter-class gap
Online: 21 September 2023 (08:54:27 CEST)
Abstract:The objects of fine-grained image categories(e.g., bird species) are various subclass under different categories. Because the differences between subclass are very subtle and most of them are concentrated in multiple local areas, the task of fine-grained image recognition is very challenging. At the same time, some fine-grained networks tend to focus on a certain region when judging the target category, resulting in the lack of other auxiliary regional features. To this end, Inception V3 is used as the backbone network, and an enhanced and complementary fine-grained image classification network is designed. While adopting the method of reinforcement learning to obtain more detailed fine grain image features, the complementary network can obtain the complementary discriminant area of the target through the method of attention erasure to increase the network's perception of the overall target. Finally, experiments are conducted on CUB-200-2011, FGVC Aircraft and Stanford dogs three open datasets. The experimental results show that the proposed model has better performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0350.v1
Subject: Engineering, Aerospace Engineering Keywords: disk-gap-band (DGB) parachute; Schiaparelli capsule; re-entry vehicle/capsule,; Aerothermodynamics; compressible flows
Online: 5 May 2023 (10:27:29 CEST)
The goal of this paper is to investigate the aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic behaviour of the Schiaparelli capsule after the deployment of the supersonic disk-gap-band (DGB) parachute during its re-entry phase into the Martian atmosphere. Large-Eddy Simulations of compressible flows have been performed over the capsule and the flexible DGB parachute to analyse the behaviour of the turbulent wake behind the capsule and its interaction with the parachute flow-field. The simulations are performed at an altitude of 10 km and a Mach number around 2, i.e., a regime in which large canopy-area oscillations are observed. These simulations have shown a strong interaction between the bow shock, the recompression and expansion waves, high pressure, density and temperature gradients, heat flux towards the airstream and the body implying turbulence generation, ingestion, and amplification through the shock waves. This nonlinear turbulence flowfield explains the non-axisymmetric behaviour around and behind the parachute that caused the uncontrolled capsule oscillation and the mission failure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0213.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Digital gap; academic performance; Information and Communication Technology; digital literacy; virtual education; Covid-19
Online: 15 November 2022 (01:12:52 CET)
This study analyzes the academic performance of students from an official school in Bogotá (Colombia) who had asymmetric access to Information and Communication Technologies during the first year of the Covid-19 pandemic. The Classical Linear Regression Model is employed using data from a survey of a representative group of students in the year 2020. Results show technological gaps between students that are associated with asymmetric academic performance against students with limited or null access to the Internet and electronic devices. Results also show that, among students with permanent access to the Internet, women have better scores compared to men’s scores, which implies that women can achieve better academic results than men in virtual education. It is also noted that the sole access to an electronic device does not guarantee good academic achievements if there is no full access to the Internet, and if ICT-use skills have not been developed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0449.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: bismuth manganite; ceramics; composite; lead titanate; optical energy gap; surface morphology; Vis-NIR reflectance
Online: 29 October 2021 (10:13:45 CEST)
This work shows a correlation between light reflectance, absorption, and morphologies of series of (1-x) BM–x PT, (x = 0.0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.08, 0.12, 0.16, 0.24) ceramics composite. The (1-x) BM–x PT showed features of a black mirror with a low optical energy gap. The measured Vis-NIR diffused reflectance enabled the calculation of the energy gap using the modified Kubelka-Munk function. The estimated energy gap was lower than 1.5 eV related to low reflectance in the Vis-NIR range. Moreover, obtained histograms of grains, using scanning electron microscope, enabled the correlation between grains size and amount of lead titanate. We deduced from the ceramics surface morphology that marked porosity also induced reflectivity of low magnitude. We correlated the magnitude of the energy gap with phases of the BM-PT composite and with the electrical conductivity activation energy reported in the literature. Our results findings opened prospect studied materials for optical applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0537.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: engineering education; Forth Industrial Revolution; 4IR; skills gap; future of work; e-learning; didactics
Online: 23 July 2021 (10:50:42 CEST)
We are calling for a paradigm shift in engineering education. In times of the Fourth Industrial Revolution (“4IR”), a myriad of potential changes is affecting all industrial sectors leading to increased ambiguity that makes it impossible to predict what lies ahead of us. Thus, incremental culture change in education is not an option any more. The vast majority of engineering education and training systems, having remained mostly static and underinvested in for decades, are largely inadequate for the new 4IR labor markets. Some positive developments in changing the direction of the engineering education sector can be observed. Novel approaches of engineering education already deliver distinctive, student centered curricular experiences within an integrated and unified educational approach. We must educate engineering students for a future whose main characteristics are volatility, uncertainty, complexity and ambiguity. Talent and skills gaps across all industries are poised to grow in the years to come. The authors promote an engineering curriculum that combine timeless didactic tradition, such as Socratic inquiry, project-based learning and first-principles thinking with novel elements (e.g. student centered active and e-learning by focusing on the case study and apprenticeship pedagogical methods) as well as a refocused engineering skillset and knowledge. These capabilities reinforce engineering students’ perceptions of the world and the subsequent decisions they make. This 4IR engineering curriculum will prepare engineering students to become curious engineers and excellent communicators better navigating increasingly complex multistakeholder ecosystems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0554.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Nuclear And High Energy Physics Keywords: hadrons; baryons; mesons; quarks; gluons; QCD; hadronization; quark-gluon plasma; Yang-Mills mass gap
Online: 27 October 2020 (12:28:24 CET)
The rank-3 antisymmetric tensors which are the magnetic monopoles of SU(N) Yang-Mills gauge theory dynamics, unlike their counterparts in Maxwell’s U(1) electrodynamics, are non-vanishing, and do permit a net flux of Yang-Mills analogs to the magnetic field through closed spatial surfaces. When electric source currents of the same Yang-Mills dynamics are inverted and their fermions inserted into these Yang-Mills monopoles to create a system, this system in its unperturbed state contains exactly 3 fermions due to the monopole rank-3 and its 3 additive field strength gradient terms in covariant form. So to ensure that every fermion in this system occupies an exclusive quantum state, the Exclusion Principle is used to place each of the 3 fermions into the fundamental representation of the simple gauge group with an SU(3) symmetry. After the symmetry of the monopole is broken to make this system indivisible, the gauge bosons inside the monopole become massless, the SU(3) color symmetry of the fermions becomes exact, and a propagator is established for each fermion. The monopoles then have the same antisymmetric color singlet wavefunction as a baryon, and the field quanta of the magnetic fields fluxing through the monopole surface have the same symmetric color singlet wavefunction as a meson. Consequently, we are able to identify these fermions with colored quarks, the gauge bosons with gluons, the magnetic monopoles with baryons, and the fluxing entities with mesons, while establishing that the quarks and gluons remain confined and identifying the symmetry breaking with hadronization. Analytic tools developed along the way are then used to fill the Yang-Mills mass gap.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0861.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: energy gap; refractive index; Moss, Ravindra, Herve-Vandamme relationships; Wemple and DiDomenico single oscillator model
Online: 11 August 2023 (02:56:13 CEST)
The refractive index of solids guages their transparency to incident light, while the energy gap determines the threshold for light absorption. This paper provides a mathematical formulation for the relationship between refractive index and energy gap. It is also established that this formulation aided in the unification of the Moss, Ravindra, and Herve-Vandamme relationships.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0531.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: astrocyte; gap junction coupling; connexin 43; connexin 30; hippocampus, epilepsy; ep-ileptogenesis; temporal lobe epilepsy
Online: 30 January 2023 (02:07:39 CET)
The gap junction-coupled astroglial network plays a central role in the regulation of neuronal activity and synchronization, but its involvement in the pathogenesis of neuronal diseases is not yet understood. Here we present the current state of knowledge about the impact of impaired glial coupling in the development and progression of epilepsy and discuss whether astrocytes represent alternative therapeutic targets. We focus mainly on temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), which is the most common form of epilepsy in adults, characterized by high therapy resistance. Functional data from TLE patients and corresponding experimental models point to a complete loss of astrocytic coupling, but preservation of the gap junction forming proteins connexin43 (Cx43) and connexin30 (Cx30) in hippocampal sclerosis. Several studies further indicate that astrocyte uncoupling represents a causal event in the initiation of TLE, as it occurs very early in epileptogenesis, clearly preceding dysfunctional changes in neurons. However, more research is needed to fully understand the role of gap junction channels in epilepsy and to develop safe and effective therapeutic strategies targeting astrocytes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0143.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: finite element method; hybrid magnetic equivalent circuit; the air gap flux density distribution; rotor shape.
Online: 6 July 2021 (12:21:49 CEST)
Recently, the demand for electric vehicle is increasing worldwide due to eco-friendly policies and stricter emission regulations. As a traction motor for electric vehicle, interior permanent magnet synchronous motors are mainly used. For the design of the interior permanent magnet synchronous motor, the magnetic equivalent circuit method, which is a method of lumped constant circuit, and the finite element method, which is a method of distributed constant circuit, mainly are used. Magnetic equivalent circuit method is useful for simple design through fast and intuitive parameters, but it cannot derive the distribution of magnetic field. The finite element method can derive an accurate magnetic field distribution, but it takes a long time to analyze and it is difficult to analyze intuitive design parameters. In this paper, magnetic equivalent circuit method and Carter coefficient are mixed for rotor structure design. This design method will be called the hybrid magnetic equivalent circuit method. Intuitive design parameters are derived through this hybrid magnetic equivalent circuit method. We will derive the Air gap flux density distribution according to rotor shape, no-load induced voltage, and cogging torque, and compare and verify it with the finite element method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0023.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: coronavirus pandemic (2019+); cycle; Hodrick-Prescott filter; output gap; Polish economy; secular stagnation; sustainability; trend
Online: 3 July 2020 (08:46:44 CEST)
The research problem was formulated as a question: are demand-supply shocks affecting the opening up of a negative or positive output gap? The hypothesis was formulated: demand-supply shocks have a significant impact on the opening up and deepening of the negative output gap, thereby causing real GDP to shrink or potential GDP to grow. The spatial range applies to Poland and the time period - 2008:Q1-2019:Q4. The methodology consists of three stages: the first is the decomposition of the time series using the TRAMO/SEATS on the components: seasonality, trend-cycle, irregular; the second - the decomposition of the trend-cycle component using the Hodrick-Prescott filter into two separate components; the third is the calculation of the output gap; forecast with VECM and IRF approximation. The ouput gap is in the range of - 11% to +10%. After cleaning it, the shock elements are between -2.2% and 2%. Demand-supply shocks open up and widen the negative output gap. Based on forecasts, the output gap will be positive by the end of 2022, close to 0% (optimal scenario), rising to 5% (optimistic scenario) and negative, deepening to -4% (pessimistic scenario). Two of these scenarios point to a growing risk of secular stagnation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0090.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: alpine forest gap; freeze-thaw cycle; fungi to bacteria ratio; snow cover depth; total phenol
Online: 8 October 2019 (10:57:01 CEST)
Alpine forest gaps can distribute snowfall, solar radiation and rainfall, thus inducing a heterogeneous hydrothermal microenvironment between the inside and outside areas of forest gaps. Additionally, the characteristics of the heterogeneous microenvironment could vary greatly across the gap location properties during winter and the growing season. To determine the response of total phenol loss (TPL) from the litter to alpine forest gap disturbance during decomposition, we conducted a field litterbag experiment within a representative fir (Abies faxoniana Rehd.) forest based on the gap location properties. The TPL and abundances of fungi and bacteria from two typical shrub species (willow, Salix paraplesia Schneid., and bamboo, Fargesia nitida (Mitford) Keng f.) were measured during the following periods over two years: snow formation (SF), snow cover (SC) snow melting (ST), the early growing season (EG) and the later growing season (LG). At the end of the study, we found that the snow cover depth, frequencies of the freeze-thaw cycle and the fungal copy g-1 to bacterial copy g-1 ratio had significant effects on the litter TPL. The abundances of fungi and bacteria decreased from the gap center to the closed canopy during the two SF, SC, ST and LG periods and reversed during the two EG periods. The TPL closely followed the same trend as the microbial abundance during the first year of incubation. In addition, both species had larger TPLs in the gap center during the first winter, first year and entire two years. These findings suggest that alpine forest gap formation accelerates litter TPL and plays a dual role during specific critical periods by distributing abiotic and biotic factors directly and indirectly. In conclusion, reduced snow cover depth and duration during winter warming under current climate change scenarios or as gaps vanish may slow litter TPL in alpine biomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0287.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: nanocomposite, metal-polymer-interface, multilayer, structure-function correlation, indirect band gap, GISAXS, GIWAXS, UV-Vis.
Online: 27 June 2019 (11:11:33 CEST)
A new strategy to nanoengineer gold/fluorocarbon multilayer (ML) nanostructures is reported. We have investigated the morphological changes occuring at the metal-polymer interface in multilayer structures with varying volume fraction of gold (Au) and the kinetic growth aspect of the microscale properties of nano-sized Au in plasma polymer fluorocarbon (PPFC). Investigations were carried out at various temperatures and annealing time by means of grazing incidence small-angle and wide-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS and GIWAXS). We have fabricated a series of multilayers with variying volume fraction (0.12, 0.27, 0.38) of Au and bilayer periodicity in ML structure. They show an interesting granular structure consisting of nearly spherical shaped nanoparticles within the polymer layer. The nanoparticle (NP) morphology changes due to the collective effects of NPs diffusion within ensembles in the in-plane vicinity and inter-layer with increasing temperature. The in-plane NPs size distinctly increases (from 1.9 to 4 nm) with increasing temperature. The NPs become more spherical thus reducing the surface energy. Linear growth of NPs with temperature and time shows diffusion-controled growth of NPs in the ML structure. The structural stability of the multilayer is controlled by the volume ratio of the metal in polymer. At room temperature UV-Vis shows a blueshift of the plasmon peak from 560 nm in ML Au/PTFE_1 to 437 nm in Au/PTFE_3. We have identified the fabrication and post-deposition annealing conditions to limit the Local Surface Plasmon resonance (LSPR) shift (from 〖∆λ〗_LSPR=180 nm (Au/PTFE_1) to 〖∆λ〗_LSPR=67 nm (Au/PTFE_3 ML)) and their optical response over a wide visible wavelength range. A variation in the dielectric constant of the polymer in precence of varying Au inclusion is found to be the main factor affecting the LSPR frequency. Our finding may provide insights in Nano engineering ML structure can be useful to systematically control the growth of NPs in polymer matrix.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0108.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: semiconductor thin films; CSS; ion-exchange; XRD; SEM; p-type carriers; band gap; solar cell
Online: 13 February 2019 (10:24:01 CET)
Stabilized un-doped Zinc Telluride (ZnTe) thin films were grown on glass substrates under vacuum using closed space sublimation (CSS) technique. A dilute copper nitrate solution (0.1/100 ml) was prepared for copper doping known as ion exchange process in the matrix of ZnTe thin film. The reproducible polycrystalline cubic structure of undoped and Cu doped ZnTe thin films with preferred orientation (111) was confirmed by X-rays diffraction (XRD) technique. Lattice parameter analyses verified the expansion of unit cell volume after incorporation of Cu species into ZnTe thin films samples. The micrographs of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to measure the variation in crystal sizes of samples. The energy dispersive X-rays was used to validate the elemental composition of undoped and Cu-doped ZnTe thin films. The bandgap energy 2.24 eV of ZnTe thin film decreased after doping Cu to 2.20 eV may be due to the introduction of acceptors states near to valance band. Optical studies showed that refractive index was measured from 2.18 to 3.24 whereas thicknesses varied between 220 nm to 320 nm for un-doped and Cu doped ZnTe thin film respectively using Swanepoel model. The oxidation states of Zn+2, Te+2 and Cu+1 through high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses was observed. The resistivity of thin films changed from ~107 Ω-cm for undoped ZnTe to ~1 Ω-cm for Cu-doped ZnTe thin film, whereas p-type carrier concentration increased from to respectively. These results predicted that Cu-doped ZnTe thin film can be used as an ideal, efficient and stable intermediate layer between metallic and absorber back contact for the heterojunction thin film solar cell technology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0329.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: permanent magnet excited homopolar inductor alternator; optimization method for minimum mass; air-gap winding; unit number
Online: 6 July 2023 (07:36:59 CEST)
This paper proposes the optimization method for the minimum mass of permanent magnet (PM) excited homopolar inductor alternator (HIA) with air-gap winding used for high-speed driving system. The calculation results show that there is an optimal value for shell diameter and unit number of HIA to make the mass to be smallest. A 1 MW at 22000 rpm PM excited HIA is designed. The analytical results are verified by the FEM simulations. The losses, temperature rise, rotor stress and modal of the PM excited HIA are also analyzed. The calculation results show that the solid rotor eddy-current losses and the temperature rise of PM excited HIA are acceptable. Also the rotor strength is adequate, and the rotor system is a stiffness rotor, and it can safely operate. Finally, the comparison between PM excited HIA and permanent magnet rotor machine is discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0306.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: eutectic mixtures; hydrogen bond acceptor; hydrogen bond donor; design of experiments; Tauc plot; band gap energy
Online: 11 June 2021 (08:52:30 CEST)
Three ternary mixtures composed by choline chloride (ChCl), ethylene glycol (EG) and a second hydrogen bond donor (HBD) as ethanol (A), 2-propanol (B), and glycerol (C) were studied in terms of composition related to the band gap energy (BGE). A Design of Experiments (DoE) approach, and in particular a Simple Lattice three-components design, was employed for determining the variation of the BGE upon the composition of each system. UV-VIS analysis and subsequent Tauc plot methodology provided the data requested from the DoE and multivariate statistical analysis revealed a drop of the BGE in correspondence to specific binary compositions for systems A and B. In particular, a BGE of 3.85 eV was registered for the mixtures ChCl/EtOH (1:1), and ChCl/2-propanol (1:1), which represents one of the lowest values ever observed for these systems.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Nuclear And High Energy Physics Keywords: Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chamber; Time of Flight; particle identification; Time resolution; high energy physics experiments
Online: 16 July 2020 (13:06:13 CEST)
Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chamber has been attracting increasing attention and has been studied in recent decades because of its good efficiency, high time resolution and relatively low cost. It has become a new standard technology for the Time of Flight system in particle and high energy physics experiments. In this paper, we introduce the operation principle and structure of the MRPC detector and review the applications on the Time of Flight system in several famous experiments, such as STAR, CBM and SoLID. The performances including time resolution and particle identification are discussed in detail. Some recent advances and perspectives with regard to the future development of the next generation MRPC are also outlined.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1053.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: axons; nerves; plasma membrane; endoplasmic reticulum; Golgi apparatus; mitochondria; crayfish; gap junctions; sulfhydryl groups; electrical stimulation; asphyxia
Online: 14 August 2023 (15:19:49 CEST)
This review describes and discusses unusual axonal structural details and evidence for unmasking of sulfhydryl groups (-SH) in axoplasmic membranes resulting from electrical stimulation or asphyxia. Crayfish axons contain fenestrated septa (FS) that in phase contrast micrographs appear as repeated striations. In the electron microscope each septum is made of two cross-sectioned membranes containing ~550 Å pores, each occupied by a microtubule. Thin filaments, likely to be made of kinesin, bridge the microtubule to the edge of the pore. FS are believed to play a role in axoplasmic flow. The axons also display areas in which axon and sheath-glial cell plasma membranes are sharply curved and project into the axoplasm. In freeze-fractures, the protoplasmic leaflet (P-face) of the projections appears as elongated indentations containing parallel chains of particles. The sheath-glial cell plasma membrane also contains particles, but they are irregularly aggregated. The axons also display areas where axonal and glial plasma membranes fuse, creating intercellular pores. In axons fixed during electrical stimulation the plasma membrane, the outer membrane of mitochondria, membranes of other cytoplasmic organelles and gap junctions increase in electron opacity and thickness, resulting from unmasking of sulfhydryl groups (-SH). Similar changes occur in asphyxiated nerve cords.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0232.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Other Keywords: low-carbon-tourism food; low-carbon-attitude-friendly tourists; user attitude–action gap; grounded theory; service design
Online: 12 April 2023 (03:29:04 CEST)
One of the key issues in sustainable tourism research is the gap between tourists' expressed friendly attitudes towards sustainable behaviors and their actual behaviors. Although many "low-carbon" themed restaurants have emerged during the low-carbon transformation of the Chinese tourism industry, low-carbon food services have not been significantly improved. This study takes food as the entry point to explore tourists' behavior and attitudes towards low-carbon tourism in relation to food. We conducted two interviews. The first interview was a semi-structured contextual interview with 120 tourists who had experiences in food streets, aim-ing to identify the core user group: low-carbon attitude-friendly tourists with high-carbon food behaviors. The second interviews was an in-depth interview based on grounded theory with 29 core users, analyzing the four main reasons for their high-carbon food behaviors and their re-quirements for low-carbon food services in tourism. Based on this, we extracted four design ele-ments for low-carbon tourism food services: low-carbon information show service, low-carbon service product attractiveness improvement, low-carbon food environment atmosphere creation, and service providers' low-carbon behaviors. Through these four service elements, we constructed a low-carbon tourism food service design framework based on the core users' needs, discussed the mechanism of service elements, and provided service design suggestions accordingly. The re-search results serve tourism providers, low-carbon tourism researchers, and designers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0384.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Gap junctions; Connexins; Connexons; Electrical coupling; Cx36; Coincidence detection; HCN channels; Neuronal synchronization; Lateral Excitation; Oscillatory activity
Online: 23 December 2021 (11:42:39 CET)
Electrical transmission between neurons is largely mediated by gap junctions. These junctions allow the direct flow of electric current between neurons, and in mammals are mostly composed of the protein connexin (Cx)36. Circuits of electrically coupled neurons are widespread in these animals, plus, experimental and theoretical evidence supports the notion that, beyond synchronicity, these circuits are able to perform sophisticated operations like lateral excitation and inhibition, noise reduction, as well as the ability to selectively respond upon coincident excitatory inputs. Although once considered stereotyped and unmodifiable, we now know that electrical synapses are subject to modulation and, by reconfiguring neural circuits, these modulations can alter relevant operations. The strength of electrical synapses depends on gap junction conductance, as well as on its functional interaction with the electrophysiological properties of coupled neurons. In particular, voltage dependent channels of the non-synaptic membrane critically determine the efficacy of transmission at these contacts. Consistently, modulatory actions on these channels have been shown to represent relevant mechanisms of plasticity of electrical synaptic transmission. Here we review recent evidence on the regulation of electrical synapses of mammals, the underlying molecular mechanisms, and the possible ways in which they affect circuit function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0533.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: laser beam welding; welding with gap; keyhole dynamics; pore formation; multiphysical simulation; CFD; process optimization; mesh refinement
Online: 23 February 2021 (19:06:04 CET)
Keyhole laser beam welding (LBW) of stainless steel sheets with a gap in between is numerically simulated with a three-dimensional, transient multi-physical model for laser material processing. At first, the model’s ability to reproduce experimental results on a relatively coarse computational mesh within reasonable computing time, so as to serve as process optimization tool, is presented. An example of process optimization, where a given set of weld seam quality criteria is fulfilled by iteratively optimizing a secondary laser beam, is shown. The relatively coarse mesh, in combination with a good model calibration to the experimental conditions, allows for sufficiently fast simulations to use this approach for optimization tasks. Finally, using a finer spatial and temporal discretization, the dynamic processes in the vicinity of the keyhole leading to the formation of pores are investigated. The physical phenomena predicted by the simulation are coherent with experimental observations found in literature.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0118.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Theoretical Chemistry Keywords: beef tallow biodiesel; fatty acid esters; atomic charge; molecular dipole moment; HOMO-LUMO energy gap; electrostatic potential
Online: 13 June 2019 (09:37:39 CEST)
This study deals with computational analysis of dominant fatty acid ethyl esters characterized from the biodiesel produced from waste beef tallow by means of KOH catalyzed ethanol based transesterification. Ethyl palmitate, Ethyl Oleate, Ethyl Stearate and Ethyl Myristate were identified as dominant fatty acid esters and were computed for molecular analysis in Gaussian 09 software using Density Functional Theory (B3LYP method) with 6-31G* as basis set. Geometric parameters were in accordance with existing experimental values and population analysis exhibited negative charge for oxygen atoms, both positive & negative charge for carbon atoms in all ester molecules. The molecular dipole moment was higher for unsaturated ester molecule and quadruple moment proposed electronic dislocation in X+Y direction. Also, energy gap decreased slightly with increasing carbon chain but reduced drastically with increase in unsaturation. Electrostatic potential mapping displayed negative electrostatic potential for oxygen atoms in ester linkage of all ester molecules.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0141.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Theoretical Chemistry Keywords: purine and рyrimidine bases; donor/acceptor properties; quantum-chemical calculations; frontier levels; middle energy gap; parameter φ
Online: 28 September 2017 (03:13:48 CEST)
We have studied the relative positions of the frontier levels determine the main electronic properties and reaction ability, there is important necessity to compare the MO of the purine and рyrimidine bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), thymine (T) and uracil (U). The donor and acceptor properties are the fundamental characteristic of the conjugated molecules and can be quantitatively estimated by relative positions of the frontier molecular orbitals. The MO’s energies can be estimated experimentally or quantum-chemically. Analysis of the relative position of the frontier levels (calibrated by the energy gap) enables the investigation of the donor/acceptor properties of the RNA/DNA bases more detailed. The index φ0 is proposed for the quantitative quantum-chemical estimation of the donor ability of the conjugated molecules: it points on the shifting of the energy gap relative to the reference electron balanced system. The RNA/DNA bases divided strictly by two groups: predominantly donors (φ0 > 0.5) and predominantly acceptors (φ0 > 0.5). Each representative base of the first group forms the stable base pair the representative base of the second group the difference of indices Δφ0 should be optimal to enables the DNA replication.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0201.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Religion Keywords: church closures; gentrification; socioeconomic outcomes; social capital theory; faith and African Americans; poverty gap; scholarship and grant funding
Online: 4 May 2023 (05:45:31 CEST)
The closure of Black churches raises concerns about the socioeconomic impact on African American communities. This pilot study uses Social Capital theory to highlight the relationship between the Black church and socioeconomic outcomes within the community. Based on survey responses from approximately 60% of African American participants, it was revealed that religious communities have a positive impact on their socioeconomic status. These findings have reinforced the strong connection between faith and success, noting that active involvement in religious services or activities could lead to higher annual incomes. Individuals who earned a higher income also reported more frequent participation in weekly religious services and activities. Furthermore, a chi-square test of independence showed a significant relationship between the frequency of religious participation and the likelihood of receiving a scholarship or grant funding from religious organizations. Therefore, the study provides evidence highlighting the church's critical role in fostering positive economic outcomes and social networks within African American communities. These findings provide a framework for additional research in this field to explore further the impact of religious communities on various aspects of African American life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0192.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: connexin 43; gap junctions; cancer; intercellular communication; breast cancer; cell signaling; tunneling nanotubes; cell–cell communication; tumor microtubes
Online: 9 September 2020 (03:09:50 CEST)
Connexin 43 (Cx43) forms gap junctions that mediate the direct intercellular diffusion of ions and small molecules between adjacent cells. Cx43 displays both pro- and anti-tumorigenic properties, but the mechanisms underlying these characteristics are not fully understood. Tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) are long and thin membrane projections that connect cells, facilitating the exchange of not only small molecules, but also larger proteins, organelles, bacteria, and viruses. Typically, TNTs exhibit increased formation under conditions of cellular stress and are more prominent in cancer cells, where they are generally thought to be pro-metastatic and to provide growth and survival advantages. Cx43 has been described in TNTs, where it is thought to regulate small molecule diffusion through gap junctions. Here, we developed a high-fidelity CRISPR/Cas9 system to knockout (KO) Cx43. We found that loss of Cx43 expression was associated with significantly reduced TNT length and number in breast cancer cell lines. Notably, secreted factors present in conditioned medium stimulated TNTs more potently when derived from Cx43-expressing cells than from KO cells. Moreover, TNT formation was significantly induced by inhibition of several key cancer signaling pathways that both regulate Cx43 and are regulated by Cx43, including RhoA kinase (ROCK), protein kinase A (PKA), focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and p38. Intriguingly, drug-induced stimulation of TNTs was more potent in Cx43 KO cells than in wild-type cells. In conclusion, this work describes a novel non-canonical role for Cx43 in regulating TNTs, identifies key cancer signaling pathways that regulate TNTs in this setting, and provides mechanistic insight into a pro-tumorigenic role of Cx43 in cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0184.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: technology adoption; Lorenz curves; Gini coefficient; local-national gap; Georgia; NIMBY; solar energy; community development; soft cost reduction
Online: 9 October 2018 (10:23:08 CEST)
Despite a global push in the development and implementation of widespread alternative energy use, significant disparities exist across given nation-states. These disparities reflect both technical and economic factors, as well as the social, political, and ecological gaps between how communities see energy development and national/global policy goals. Known as the “local-national gap,” many nations struggle with fostering meaningful conversations about the role of alternative energy technologies within communities. Mitigation of this problem first requires understanding the distribution of existing alternative energy technologies at the local level of policymaking. Using the State of Georgia, U.S.A. as a case study, we present a model for analyzing how existing adoption trends enable/limit conversation at the scale of local governance (i.e., county governments). Leveraging existing work on the Gini Coefficient as a metric for measuring energy inequity, we argue these tools can be applied to analyze where gaps exist in ongoing solar adoption trends. As we demonstrate, communities that adopt solar tend to be concentrated in a few counties, indicating existing conversations are limited to a circumscribed set of social networks. This information and the model we demonstrate can enable focused qualitative analyses of existing solar trends, not only amongst high-adoption areas but within communities where little to no adoption has occurred.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1051.v4
Subject: Physical Sciences, Particle And Field Physics Keywords: Berry geometrical phase; symmetry groups; self-organized criticality; dual superconductivity; scale- and gauge-invariance; hyperbolic curvature; false vacuum; QCD mass gap
Online: 25 August 2023 (08:49:43 CEST)
Berry curvature is deemed responsible for generating mechanical work in a strongly metastable system containing dynamically responsive clathrate hydrate structures within a crystal-fluid material. High energy degeneracy in the associated chemistry produces local stability and false vacuum conditions that lead to non-extensive and non-additive contributions in the fundamental thermodynamic relation. The reciprocating action of a piston expander also confirms a net energy gain despite the crystal-fluid material maintaining almost constant density. Hyperbolic curvature produces non-extensive volume changes attributed to gluon emission and absorption in a U(2) electroweak symmetry group synchronized across the condensed matter system, the embedding vacuum manifold and associated quantum interactions. The property of asymptotic freedom is apparent across these three domains providing evidence for scale-invariance that dominates both the macro- and micro-scales of an associated Ginzburg-Landau superconducting phase transition. External pressure perturbations of the low-energy system initiate ‘rolling’ critical responses that conserve energy and momentum across the synchronized U(2) group and also reveal an emergent gauge field. Corresponding emergence of the Ginzburg-Landau superconducting phase transition is consistent with gauge-invariant coupling of this scalar field to the Yang-Mills action of QCD. The discovery of an energy gap in the gradient energy term of the system Lagrangian is associated with a critical correlation length and consistent with a complex energy band gap in the Berry phase. Coupled with the emergence and absorption of the Higgs-like scalar field, a mechanism for describing the QCD mass gap arises.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1648.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Laser beam butt welding; Acoustic process monitoring; Nondestructive testing (NDT); Joint gap detection; Temporal resolution; Clustering; Neighborhood Components Analysis (NCA)
Online: 25 July 2023 (04:52:39 CEST)
With increasing power and speed of laser welding, in-process monitoring has become even more crucial to ensure process stability and weld quality. Due to its low cost and installation flexibility, acoustic process monitoring is a promising method and has demonstrated its effectiveness. Since its feasibility has been the focus of existing studies, the temporal resolution of acoustic emissions (AE) has not yet been addressed despite its utmost importance for realizing real-time systems. Aiming to provide a benchmark for further development, this study investigates the relationship between duration and informativeness of AE signals during high power (3.5kW) and high speed (12m/min) laser beam butt welding. Specifically, the informativeness of AE signals is evaluated based on the accuracy of detecting and quantifying joint gaps for various time windows of signals, yielding numerical comparison. The obtained results show that signals can be shortened up to a certain point without sacrificing their informativeness, encouraging to optimize the signal duration. Our results also suggest that large gaps (> 0.3mm) induce unique signal characteristics in AE, which are clearly identifiable from 1 ms signal segments, equivalent to 0.2mm weld seam.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0003.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: defected ground structure; dumbbell-shaped; Chebyshev band-stop filter; common mode rejection filter; gap-coupled stub; electromagnetic interference; signal integrity
Online: 3 July 2023 (04:47:48 CEST)
An efficient design method is proposed for a compact common-mode rejection (CMR) filter utilizing dumbbell-shaped defected ground (DS-DG) structures and gap-coupled stub (GCS) resonators. A CMR filter for differential lines helps to improve the signal integrity of high-speed digital signals on printed circuit boards. The proposed CMR filter design is based on the equivalent circuit models, while the previous designs depended heavily on the DS-DG structure optimization using the EM simulations. The proposed CMR filter effectively reject the common-mode components with minimally affecting the differential signals. To prove the simplified design approach, a 5th-order Chebyshev band-stop filter has been designed with three DS-DG structures and two GCS resonators. From the simulated and measured results, it is found that the proposed CMR filter provides ~90% fractional frequency bandwidth with more than 20 dB of common-mode rejection ratio and less than 0.6 dB of insertion loss of the differential signal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0053.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: calcium signaling; chemokine signaling; gap junction; NOD-like receptor signaling; oli-neu cells; pannexin1; PI3K-Akt pathway; thyroid hormone pathway
Online: 6 April 2020 (12:36:20 CEST)
We profiled the transcriptomes of primary mouse cortical astrocytes cultured alone or co-cultured with immortalized precursor oligodendrocytes. The experimental set-up (insert systems) prevented formation of gap junction channels but allowed free exchange of the two culture media. The study complements our previously published reports that the genomic fabrics of major functional pathways in oligodendrocytes are substantially remodeled by the proximity of non-touching astrocytes. Here, we present new analysis indicating that the transcriptomic landscape of astrocytes likewise changes significantly in the proximity of non-touching oligodendrocytes. The research was stimulated by the reported transcriptomic similarity between the brains of Cx43KO and Cx32KO mice, both substantially different from that of the Cx36KO mice. Since the three connexins are expressed in different cell types (Cx43 in astrocytes, Cx32 in oligodendrocytes and Cx36 in neurons), altogether these findings support the idea of a “panglial transcriptomic syncytium” in the mouse brain. Going further, our results suggest that integration in a heterocellular tissue modulates not only the expression profile but also the expression control and networking of the genes in each cell phenotype.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0113.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: conceptual modeling; cyber-physical systems; cyber-physical gap; Object-Process Methodology; model-based systems engineering; Three Mile Island 2 Accident
Online: 26 June 2017 (04:59:29 CEST)
: The cyber-physical gap (CPG) is the difference between the 'real' state of the world and the way the system perceives it. This discrepancy often stems from the limitations of sensing and data collection technologies and capabilities, and is an inevitable issue in any cyber-physical system (CPS). Ignoring or misrepresenting such limitations during system modeling, specification, design, and analysis can potentially result in systemic misconceptions, disrupted functionality and performance, system failure, severe damage, and potential detrimental impacts on the system and its environment. We propose CPG-Aware Modeling & Engineering (CPGAME), a conceptual model-based approach for capturing, explaining, and mitigating the CPG, on top of and in sync with the conventional system model, and as an inherent systems engineering activity. This approach enhances the systems engineer’s ability to cope with CPGs, mitigate them by design, and prevent erroneous decisions, actions, and hazardous implications. CPGAME is a generic, conceptual approach, specified and demonstrated with Object Process Methodology (OPM). OPM is a holistic conceptual modeling paradigm for multidisciplinary, complex, dynamic systems, which is also ISO-19450. We analyze the 1979 Three Miles Island 2 nuclear accident as a prime example of the disastrous consequences of unmitigated CPGs in complex systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1173.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: Zn-Al-Green Dyes Nanohybrids; PVA-Zn-Al-Dyes nanocomposite; UV–Vis absorption spectra; Band gap; Scanning electron microscopy; Thermal analyses
Online: 28 April 2023 (11:08:48 CEST)
In the present research, groups of nanolayered structures and nanohybrids based on organic green dyes and inorganic species are designated to act as fillers for PVA for inducing new optical sites and increasing its thermal stability through producing polymeric nanocomposites. In this trend, different percentages of Naphthol green B were intercalated as pillars inside the Zn-Al nanolayered structures to form green organic-inorganic nanohybrids. The two-dimensional green nanohybrids were identified by X-ray diffraction, TEM and SEM. According to the thermal analyses, the nanohybrid, which has the highest amount of green dyes, was used for modifying the PVA through two series. In the first series, three nanocomposites were prepared depending on the green nanohybrid as prepared. In the second series, the yellow nanohybrid, which was produced from the green nanohybrid by thermal treatment, was used to produce another three nanocomposites. The optical properties revealed that the polymeric nanocomposites depending on green nanohybrids became optical-active in UV and visible regions because the energy band gap decreased to be 2.2 eV. In addition, the energy band gap of the nanocomposites depended on yellow nanohybrids was 2.5 eV. The thermal analyses indicated that the polymeric nanocomposites are thermally more stable than that of the original PVA. Finally, the dual functionality of organic-inorganic nanohybrids that produced from the confinement of organic dyes and the thermal stability of inorganic species converted the non-optical PVA to optical-active polymer in a wide range with high thermal stability
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2086.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: laser beam butt welding (LBW); Joint-gap formation; AE-analysis; Non-destructive test-30 ing (NDT); Deep learning; Audible to Ultrasonic sensors
Online: 29 June 2023 (10:14:05 CEST)
This study aimed to explore the feasibility of using airborne acoustic emission in laser beam butt welding for the development of an automated classification system based on neural networks. The focus was on monitoring the formation of joint gaps during the welding process. To simulate various sizes of butt joint gaps, controlled welding experiments were conducted, and the emitted acoustic signals were captured using audible to ultrasonic microphones. To implement an automated monitoring system, a method based on short-time Fourier transformation was developed to extract audio features, and a convolutional neural network architecture with data augmentation was utilized. The results demonstrated that this non-destructive and non-invasive approach was highly effective in detecting joint gap formations, achieving an accuracy of 98%. Furthermore, the system exhibited promising potential for low latency monitoring of the welding process. The classification accuracy for various gap sizes reached up to 90%, providing valuable insights for characterizing and categorizing joint gaps accurately. Additionally, increasing the quantity of training data with quality annotations could potentially improve the classifier model's performance further. This suggests that there is room for future enhancements in the study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1047.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Artificial Intelligence; Large Language Models; GPT-3.5; GPT-4; Google-BARD; Historical Fact-Checking; Distance to Reality; History; AI in Education; Gap Bridging
Online: 15 May 2023 (12:53:11 CEST)
The rapid proliferation of information in the digital era underscores the importance of accurate historical representation and interpretation. While artificial intelligence (AI) has shown promise in various fields, its potential for historical fact-checking and gap-filling remains largely untapped. This study evaluates the performance of three large language models (LLMs)—GPT-3.5, GPT-4, and Google- BARD—in the context of predicting and verifying historical events based on given data. A novel metric, "Distance to Reality" (DTR), is introduced to assess the models' outputs against established historical facts. The results reveal a substantial potential for AI in historical studies, with GPT-4 demonstrating superior performance. This paper underscores the need for further research into AI's role in enriching our understanding of the past and bridging historical knowledge gaps.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0105.v4
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: high Tc cuprates; macroscopic Boson; many-body interactions; pseudo gap; critical temperature; anomaly metal phase; conservation of angular momentum; attractive force; Cooper pair
Online: 2 February 2023 (11:23:18 CET)
This study describes all the properties of high Tc cuprates by introducing rotating holes that are created by angular momentum conservations on a 2D CuO2 surface, and which have a different mass from that of a normal hole because of the magnetic field energy induced by the rotation. This new particle called a macroscopic Boson describes the doping dependences of pseudo-gap temperature and the transition temperature at which an anomaly metal phase appears and describes the origin of the pseudo-gap. Furthermore, this study introduces a new model to handle many-body interactions, which results in a new statistic equation. This statistic equation describing many-body interactions accurately explains why high Tc cuprates have significantly high critical temperatures. Moreover a partition function of macroscopic Bosons describes all the properties of anomaly metal phase, which sufficiently agree with experiments, using the result from our previous study  that analytically describes the doping dependence of Tc. By introducing a macroscopic Boson and the new statistical model for many-body interactions, this study uncovered the mystery of high Tc cuprates, which have been a challenge for many researchers. An important point is that, in this study, pure analytical calculations are consistently conducted, which agree with experimental data well (i.e., they do not use numerical calculations or fitting methods but use many actual physical constants).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0033.v3
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: temperature-independent superconductivity; circuit-approached superconductivity; electron pair; Bose–Einstein condensation; large superconducting energy gap; London equation; Meissner effect; macroscopic wave function; critical current density; negative voltages
Online: 20 March 2023 (06:59:15 CET)
In general, a superconductor has zero resistance, although it requires significant refrigeration or high pressures, which prevents it into practical applications. In other words, solving these issues implies main superconducting researches. This paper describes a new type of superconductivity, which is independent for temperatures and which operates without pressures. The principles of the presented system are as follows:First a voltage source, a current source and a load are connected in series. Then, the voltage of the voltage source is adjusted to balance the voltage of the load. Under this condition, the balance of the two voltages provides a zero voltage between the taps of the current source and the generated current from the voltage source becomes zero because of the internal infinite resistance of the current source. As a result, the electric powers generated by the two sources are zero, and therefore, the load cannot generate Joule heating because of energy conservation. However, the current from the current source (not the voltage source) is not zero; therefore, we can predict that the resistance of the load must be zero. As a theory, we derived a new electric field and transient attractive force, which result in a very short coherence of an electron pair because there is not Coulomb repulsive force due to the existence of the above transient attractive force. Note that both the forces are derived by the Poisson equation, which implies that they cannot compatible. Therefore, the pair combination energy from spins becomes extremely strong, which is not destroyed by the normal heat energy. Moreover, every center-of-mass motion of electron pair results in the Bose-Einstein condensation and the macroscopic wave function, which produces the London equation (i.e., the Meissner effect). Moreover, by introducing the equivalent circuit, this paper conducted numerical calculations. As a result, we could derive numerically zero resistance and responses for additional static magnetic fields as a discharged current. Note that this paper has prepared Appendix section, which provides a guide to reproduce actual experiments and preliminary experimental results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0963.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: edge of chaos; intermittency; difference mapping; Lyapunov exponent; consciousness; thesaurus; memristor; forth phase of water; proton; Grotthuss mechanism; gap junctions; excitation; inhibition; neuron; brain; fields of hippocampus
Online: 14 September 2023 (11:16:53 CEST)
Consciousness is a special type of interaction between subjects exchanging by lingua quanta (phonemes). A set of lingua quanta composes a thesaurus placed on the edge of chaos. Its library is a memory, modification of which is due to tuning of memristive neural elements scattered in the brain volume. The memristive neural model takes into consideration two types of neurons - excitatory and inhibitory and the current leakage, all at the body temperature, T = 309 K. At such temperatures only heavy ions like hydrogen ions - protons can pass robustly through the water medium of the brain. The robust ion transport is proton water wires supported by the Grotthuss mechanism. Final aims of the ions are the gap junctions (electric synapses) linking nearest neurons. Following these observations, a model of excitable nervous tissue is constructed. Namely, a difference mapping on the basis of sigmoid curves can reproduce chaotic modes of neural activity proved by positive values of the Lyapunov exponent. The edge of chaos is placed near the bifurcation boundary dividing the chaos and the periodic convulsive activity typical at the epileptic discharges. In this region the self-sustained spiral waves occur. An intermittent activity of the competing excitatory and inhibitory neurons is observed on the edge of chaos. The intermittent electrical activity of neural tissues is demonstrated by records both from different literature issues and records made by the author together with DR. A. Dudkin on slices of CA1 field of the hippocampus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0194.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Theoretical Physics Keywords: Artificial magnetic monopole; new electromagnetic equations; superconducting loop; stationary wave; conservation of momentum; Lorentz conservation; magnetic potential; Dirac equation; energy gap in vacuum; pair of two Cooper pairs
Online: 6 September 2021 (14:21:23 CEST)
The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the existence of an artificial magnetic monopole and to introduce new electromagnetic equations by altering an electric field and a magnetic field vectors.As a principle device, a cylindrical condenser is prepared, and a superconducting loop is inserted into it. By this conduction, radial electric fields take a role as the centripetal force and both counterclockwise and clockwise motions are induced. As a result, a stationery wave is formed in which the nodes take a part in creating a monopole as follows.First, employing the Lorentz conservations and because node of the stationary wave has no phases, the momentum k and the vector potential A vanish and instead a magnetic potential appears in order to maintain the Lorentz conservation. This magnetic potential has relationship with an electric potential, and thus consequently, a dependent relationship is obtained between an electric field and a magnetic field vectors. Using this conclusive dependent relationship, we can derive new Maxwell equation assembly which are created by altering the electric field and the magnetic field vectors. In this process, we derive a divergent equation of magnetic fields which is not zero, i.e., the existence of a magnetic monopole. Employing these newly derived Maxwell equation, an electromagnetic wave is derived whose speed is the same as one the existing Maxwell equations provide. As a monopole configuration, this paper discusses the energy gap of the vacuum, which is a result of the Dirac equation and describes a monopole as pairs between two Cooper pairs (i.e. four electrons) whose interaction is a photon. As mentioned, because the total momenta and phases are zero, this paper defines the wave function as the Dirac function and demonstrate the condensation, employing the Bloch’s theorem. Moreover, using the macroscopic basic equations, we retrace the creation of the divergent magnetic field in view of macroscopic phenomenon., which provides results in this paper.In Result section in this paper, we succeeded in demonstrating the distribution of the divergent magnetic field of monopole in terms of both microscopic and macroscopic scales. Furthermore, Discussion section describes properties a magnetic monopole should follow.