Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

QCD theory of the hadrons and filling the Yang-Mills mass gap

Version 1 : Received: 26 October 2020 / Approved: 27 October 2020 / Online: 27 October 2020 (12:28:24 CET)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Yablon, J.R. QCD Theory of the Hadrons and Filling the Yang–Mills Mass Gap. Symmetry 2020, 12, 1887. Yablon, J.R. QCD Theory of the Hadrons and Filling the Yang–Mills Mass Gap. Symmetry 2020, 12, 1887.


The rank-3 antisymmetric tensors which are the magnetic monopoles of SU(N) Yang-Mills gauge theory dynamics, unlike their counterparts in Maxwell’s U(1) electrodynamics, are non-vanishing, and do permit a net flux of Yang-Mills analogs to the magnetic field through closed spatial surfaces. When electric source currents of the same Yang-Mills dynamics are inverted and their fermions inserted into these Yang-Mills monopoles to create a system, this system in its unperturbed state contains exactly 3 fermions due to the monopole rank-3 and its 3 additive field strength gradient terms in covariant form. So to ensure that every fermion in this system occupies an exclusive quantum state, the Exclusion Principle is used to place each of the 3 fermions into the fundamental representation of the simple gauge group with an SU(3) symmetry. After the symmetry of the monopole is broken to make this system indivisible, the gauge bosons inside the monopole become massless, the SU(3) color symmetry of the fermions becomes exact, and a propagator is established for each fermion. The monopoles then have the same antisymmetric color singlet wavefunction as a baryon, and the field quanta of the magnetic fields fluxing through the monopole surface have the same symmetric color singlet wavefunction as a meson. Consequently, we are able to identify these fermions with colored quarks, the gauge bosons with gluons, the magnetic monopoles with baryons, and the fluxing entities with mesons, while establishing that the quarks and gluons remain confined and identifying the symmetry breaking with hadronization. Analytic tools developed along the way are then used to fill the Yang-Mills mass gap.


hadrons; baryons; mesons; quarks; gluons; QCD; hadronization; quark-gluon plasma; Yang-Mills mass gap


Physical Sciences, Nuclear and High Energy Physics

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