Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Large-Scale Printed Chinese Character Recognition for ID Cards Using Deep Learning and Few Samples Transfer Learning

Version 1 : Received: 20 December 2021 / Approved: 22 December 2021 / Online: 22 December 2021 (16:31:53 CET)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Li, Y.-Q.; Chang, H.-S.; Lin, D.-T. Large-Scale Printed Chinese Character Recognition for ID Cards Using Deep Learning and Few Samples Transfer Learning. Appl. Sci. 2022, 12, 907. Li, Y.-Q.; Chang, H.-S.; Lin, D.-T. Large-Scale Printed Chinese Character Recognition for ID Cards Using Deep Learning and Few Samples Transfer Learning. Appl. Sci. 2022, 12, 907.

Journal reference: Appl. Sci. 2022, 12, 907
DOI: 10.3390/app12020907

Abstract

In the field of computer vision, large-scale image classification tasks are both important and highly challenging. With the ongoing advances in deep learning and optical character recognition (OCR) technologies, neural networks designed to perform large-scale classification play an essential role in facilitating OCR systems. In this study, we developed an automatic OCR system designed to identify up to 13,070 large-scale printed Chinese characters by using deep learning neural networks and fine-tuning techniques. The proposed framework comprises four components, including training dataset synthesis and background simulation, image preprocessing and data augmentation, the process of training the model, and transfer learning. The training data synthesis procedure is composed of a character font generation step and a background simulation process. Three background models are proposed to simulate the factors of the background noise and anti-counterfeiting patterns on ID cards. To expand the diversity of the synthesized training dataset, rotation and zooming data augmentation are applied. A massive dataset comprising more than 19.6 million images was thus created to accommodate the variations in the input images and improve the learning capacity of the CNN model. Subsequently, we modified the GoogLeNet neural architecture by replacing the FC layer with a global average pooling layer to avoid overfitting caused by a massive amount of training data. Consequently, the number of model parameters was reduced. Finally, we employed the transfer learning technique to further refine the CNN model using a small number of real data samples. Experimental results show that the overall recognition performance of the proposed approach is significantly better than that of prior methods and thus demonstrate the effectiveness of proposed framework, which exhibited a recognition accuracy as high as 99.39% on the constructed real ID card dataset.

Keywords

Large-Scale Image Classification; Printed Chinese Character Recognition; Data Synthesis; GoogLeNet-GAP; Transfer Learning

Subject

ENGINEERING, Electrical & Electronic Engineering

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