REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0447.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Iron homeostasis; Cancer; Prognostic; Diagnostic; Therapy
Online: 22 October 2020 (08:56:33 CEST)
Iron (Fe) is a trace element that plays essential roles in various biological processes such as DNA synthesis and repair, as well as cellular energy production, or oxygen transport, and it is currently widely recognized that iron homeostasis is dysregulated in many cancers. Indeed, several iron homeostasis proteins may be responsible for malignant tumor initiation, proliferation, and for metastatic spread of tumors. A large number of studies demonstrated the potential clinical value of turning these deregulated proteins as prognostic and/or predictive biomarkers of malignancy and /or response to anticancer treatments. Additionally, the iron addiction of cancer cells and the importance of iron in ferroptosis cell death signaling pathways prompted the development of therapeutic strategies against advanced stage or resistant cancers. In this review, we selected relevant and promising studies in the field of iron metabolism in cancer research and clinical oncology. Besides, we discuss some co-existing discrepant findings. We will also present and discuss the latest lines of research related to targeting iron, or its regulatory pathways, as potential promising anti-cancer strategies for human therapy. Iron chelators, such as deferoxamine or iron-oxide based nanoparticles, which are already tested in clinical trials, alone or in combination with chemotherapy will also be reported.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0513.v1
Subject: Keywords: Malawi, HIV, tuberculosis, anti-retroviral therapy, surveillance, patient monitoring, epidemic trends, drug supply, unique patient identifiers, data analysis
Online: 27 September 2018 (15:29:43 CEST)
Malawi has developed an excellent, nation-wide system for monitoring people infected with HIV and keeping track of key epidemic markers. Their success lies in two things: the focus on simplicity and the use of data collection not only to track the epidemic and identify problems but also to give regular feedback and support to every clinic in the country. This achievement is the more remarkable given that Malawi is one of the poorest countries in the world, ranking 190 out of 194 countries by GDP, but has one of the most severe epidemics of HIV in the world, ranking 9th out of 168 countries by HIV prevalence. We first discuss the current state and likely future epidemic trends in Malawi: unless we know where we are and where we are going we cannot decide what to do or how to do it to in order to achieve a better outcome. We then discuss the history and development of Malawi’s patient monitoring system, as reported in their Integrated HIV Program Reports,ix which have been published quarterly since the beginning of 2004. We consider the current state of patient monitoring and support as reflected in the most recent report for the third quarter (Q3) of 2016 and comment on some of the questions that this raises. Finally, we consider ways in which the current system could be improved by strengthening Malawi’s analytical capacity and making better use of this unique data set. The focus here is on HIV in adultsv because if ART is initiated early in all adults living with HIV this should include testing all pregnant women for HIV and starting them on treatment immediately. However, PMTCT is especially important and care must be given to reducing MTCT and identifying the long-term child survivors of mother-to-child transmission and this demands a complementary assessment. There is an ongoing debate about the relative merits of treatment and prevention in reducing transmission and it should be made clear that the primary reason for starting people on treatment early is that it is in the best interest of the individual patient to start treatment as soon as possible after becoming infected. Allowing a person’s immune system to deteriorate to any degree is not consistent with the clinician’s commitment to ‘first do no harm’ and even those with the highest CD4+ cell count are at a substantially increased risk of death. What matters, therefore, is to get as many people as possible onto ART, ensure that they remain virally suppressed, and consider prevention in this context.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0163.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: individual therapy; metabolism of antibiotics; dosage choice; inflammation; biomarkers
Online: 16 December 2019 (11:25:16 CET)
In the modern world, the problem of antibiotic therapy is acute. Despite the diversity of existing antibiotic drugs, their efficacy decreases as new, resistant forms of pathogenic microorganisms emerge. It is extremely difficult to control such processes and even more difficult to treat severe bacterial infections. In such situations, an individual approach to each patient is required and physicians need parameters to estimate the efficacy of antibiotic therapy. This review discusses the significance of monitoring the content of antibiotics in the blood for this purpose, in combination with the content of inflammatory markers, such as C-reactive protein and procalcitonin. The basic principles of antibiotic therapy, and factors in the resistance of microorganisms to antibiotics, are examined. Approaches to assess the efficacy of antibiotic therapy, as well as methods to detect antibiotics and inflammatory markers in the blood of patients, and comparative assessment of their capabilities and limitations, are described.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0238.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: Covid; NET; neutrophils; circulating DNA; therapy; innate immune response
Online: 15 April 2020 (09:55:34 CEST)
Neutrophils play an important role as the first line of innate immune defense. One function of neutrophils, called neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), has been discovered recently. NETs are extensive fibrous structures released extracellularly from activated neutrophils in response to infection. They are composed of cytosolic protein assembled on a scaffold of released chromatin. These structures suppress the dissemination of micro-organisms in blood by trapping them mechanically, and by exploiting coagulant function to segregate them within the circulation. In addition, NET components (DNA, histone, and granule proteins) also contribute to the triggering of an inflammatory process. NET function, however, can be regarded as a double-edged sword. On one hand, NET formation is an efficient strategy for neutralizing invading micro-organisms. On the other hand, NET can be harmful to the host, as its exposed by-products that are toxic to endothelial cells and parenchymal tissue. We present here the analogous biological and physiological features of the harmful positive amplification loop between inflammation and tissue damage induced by NETosis dysregulation and Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) pathogenesis. Considering the rapid evolution of this disease symptoms and its lethality, we hypothesize that COVID-19 progresses under an amplifier loop, leading to an massive, uncontrolled inflammation process. We also describe the correlations of COVID-19 symptoms and biological features with those consecutive to uncontrolled NET formation causing various sterile or infectious diseases. General clinical conditions, and numerous pathological and biological features, are analogous with NETs deleterious effects. We postulate that Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) induces a disproportionate virus-induced NET release, and that this plays a key role in COVID-19 pathogenesis. While neutrophils are the principal starting point for extracellular and circulating DNA release, targeting NETs rather than neutrophils themselves may stand for an effective strategy. This paper offers an in-depth review of NET formation, function and pathogenic dysregulation, as well as of current and future therapies to control NET unbalance. As such, it enables us also to suggest new therapeutic strategies to fight COVID-19. In combination with or independent of the latest tested approaches, we propose that, in the short term, deoxyribonuclease I (DNase-1) treatment should be evaluated; we also advocate a significant increase in research on the development of toll-like receptors (TLR) and C-type Lectin like receptors (CLEC) inhibitors, and on anti-IL26 therapies.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: liquid biopsy; ctDNA; cell free DNA; non-operative management; neoadjuvant therapy
Online: 10 December 2020 (12:52:27 CET)
As non-operative management (NOM) of esophageal and rectal cancer is becoming more prevalent, blood-biomarkers such as circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) may provide clinical information in addition to endoscopy and imaging to aid in treatment decisions following chemotherapy and radiation therapy. In this feasibility study, we prospectively collected plasma samples from locally advanced esophageal (n=3) and rectal cancer (n=2) patients undergoing multimodal neoadjuvant therapy to assess the feasibility of serial ctDNA monitoring throughout neoadjuvant therapy. Using the DIDA-Seq error-correction method, we serially interrogated plasma cell-free DNA at 28-41 tumor-specific genomic loci throughout therapy and in surveillance with an average limit of detection of 0.016% mutant allele frequency. In both rectal cancer patients, ctDNA levels were persistently elevated following total neoadjuvant therapy with eventual detection of clinical recurrence prior to salvage surgery. Among the esophageal cancer patients, ctDNA levels closely correlated with tumor burden throughout and following neoadjuvant therapy, which was associated with a pathologic complete response in one patient. In this feasibility study, patient and tumor-specific ctDNA levels correlated with clinical outcomes throughout multi-modality therapy suggesting that serial monitoring of patient ctDNA has the potential to serve as a highly sensitive and specific biomarker to risk-stratify esophageal and rectal cancer patients eligible for NOM. Further prospective investigation is warranted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0176.v1
Online: 10 January 2023 (06:29:04 CET)
Film therapy, the therapeutic use of movies in psychological therapies, is a growing area of interest to therapists and researchers. This paper presents the MOVIE model of film therapy, a widely applicable, trauma-informed framework for working with film imagery and themes in individual or group therapy, counsellor education and self-help. Film or cinema therapy is a highly accessible and relatable method for many diverse client and student groups with benefits that include, catharsis and emotional processing, greater ease of dialogue around issues, increased empathy, and interpersonal learning, engaging with new perspectives and learning skills. Following the model clients mindfully observe and voice their emotional and psychological responses to movie watching, identify how the imagery, characters, themes, and narrative symbolise personal experience and consider any new possibilities that emerged through re-authoring personal narratives. The model is informed by a practice focused review of literature.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0497.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: lung cancer; immune checkpoint inhibitor; perioperative therapy; neoadjuvant therapy; adjuvant therapy
Online: 21 July 2021 (14:58:36 CEST)
The emergence of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has dramatically changed the treatment landscape for patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). These achievements inspired investigators and pharmaceutical companies to conduct clinical trials in patients with early-stage NSCLC because both adjuvant and neoadju-vant platinum-based doublet chemotherapies (PT-DCs) showed only a 5% improve-ment in the 5-year overall survival. IMpower010, a phase 3 trial (P3), showed that ad-juvant PT-DC followed by maintenance atezolitumab significantly prolonged dis-ease-free survival than adjuvant PT-DC alone (hazard ratio, 0.79; stage II to IIIA). Since conventional therapies, including chemotherapy and radiotherapy, can promote im-munogenic cell death, which releases tumour antigens from dead tumour cells, ICI combination therapies with conventional therapies are widely proposed. Checkmate 816 trial (P3) indicated a significantly higher pathological complete response rate of neoadjuvant nivolumab/PT-DC combination therapy than neoadjuvant PT-DC alone (odds ratio, 13.9, for stage IB to IIIA). Detection of circulating tumour DNA is highly anticipated for the evaluation of minimal residual disease. Multimodal approaches and new ICI agents are being attempted to improve the efficacy of ICI treatment in phase 2 trials. This review presents the development of perioperative treatment using ICIs in patients with NSCLC while discussing problems and perspectives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0340.v1
Subject: Keywords: helminth; helminthic therapy; biological therapy; inflammation; anti-inflammatory
Online: 14 December 2020 (13:40:28 CET)
The virtually complete loss of intestinal worms, known as helminths, from Western society has resulted in elimination of a range of helminth-induced morbidities. Unfortunately, that loss has also led to inflammation-associated deficiencies in immune function, ultimately contributing to widespread pandemics of allergies, autoimmunity, and neuropsychiatric disorders. Several socio-medical studies have examined the effects of intentional reworming, or self-treatment with helminths, on a variety of inflammation-related disorders. In this study, the latest results from ongoing socio-medical studies are described. The results point toward two important factors that appear to be overlooked in some if not most clinical trials. Specifically, (a) the method of preparation of the helminth can have a profound effect on its therapeutic efficacy, and (b) variation between individuals in the effective therapeutic dosage apparently covers a 10-fold range, regardless of the helminth used. These results highlight current limits in our understanding of the biology of both hosts and helminths, and suggest that information from self-treatment may be critical in moving the field forward into mainstream medicine.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0277.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: thalassemia; iron overload; chelation therapy; gene therapy; blood transfusion
Online: 25 July 2019 (01:20:41 CEST)
Thalassemia is genetic blood disease cause by absence or decrease of one or more of the globin chain synthesis. Beta thalassemia is characterized by one or more mutations in beta globin gene. Absence or reduced amount the of beta globin chains cause ineffective erythropoiesis which leads to anemia. Beta thalassemia has been further divided into three main forms: Thalassemia minor/silent carrier, major and intermedia. More severe form is thalassemia major in which patients depend upon blood transfusion for survival and high level of iron occur as a consequence of consistent blood transfusion. Over loaded iron invokes the synthesis of reactive oxygen species that are toxic in redundancy and triggering the impairment to vascular, endocrine and hepatic system. Thalassemia can be diagnosed and detected through various laboratory tests such as blood smear, prenatal testing (genetic testing of amniotic fluid), DNA analysis (genetic testing) and complete blood count. Treatment of thalassemia intermedia is symptomatic but it can also be managed by splenectomy and folic supplementation. While thalassemia major can be treated by transplantation of bone marrow, regular transfusion of blood and iron chelation treatment, stimulation of fetal hemoglobin production, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and gene therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0355.v1
Online: 21 September 2021 (11:09:28 CEST)
I Introduction: Pneumothorax is a pathological condition characterized by the presence of air between the visceral and parietal pleura. Objectives: To investigate incidence, clinical characteristics, risk factors, management and perinatal outcome among newborns with pneumothorax in a tertiary care center. Materials and Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted in Maternity hospital with tertiary NICU from 2015-2019. We included all neonates with pneumothorax born in our hospital and compared demographic characteristics, perinatal risk factors, anthropometric parameters, concurrent diseases, clinical course and method of chest drainage between full term (≥37 GW) and preterm (<37GW) newborns. Results: Mong 30.378 neonates, 74 developed pneumothorax (2, 4/1000 newborns). The incidence of neonatal pneumothorax (NP) was higher in preterm group (59, 5%), with a mean age 34,62 GW in whole group. The mode of delivery was c. section in 68.9%. NP occurred mostly on the right side (47,3%), on the second day of life , in males (67,6%). Chest drainage was performed in 64,9% of cases. Of 74 NP cases, 64 (85.1%) recovered, 6 (8,1%) died. Conclusion: Pneumothorax is a pathological condition of the newborn, which, if not diagnosed in time and treated adequately, leads to a fatal outcome.ads to a
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0447.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Urology Keywords: acute kidney disease; chronic kidney disease; gene therapy; cell therapy
Online: 25 January 2023 (04:29:25 CET)
The rising global incidence of acute and chronic kidney diseases has increased the demand for renal replacement therapy. This issue, compounded with the limited availability of viable kidneys for transplantation, has propelled the search for alternative strategies to address the growing health and economic burdens associated with these conditions. In the search for such alternatives, significant efforts have been devised to augment the current and primarily supportive management of renal injury with novel regenerative strategies. For example, gene- and cell-based approaches that utilize recombinant peptides/proteins, gene, cell, organoid, and RNAi technologies have shown promising outcomes primarily in experimental models. Supporting research has also been conducted to improve our understanding of the critical aspects that facilitate the development of efficient gene- and cell-based techniques that the complex structure of the kidney has traditionally limited. This manuscript is intended to communicate efforts that have driven the development of such therapies by identifying the vectors and delivery routes needed to drive exogenous transgene incorporation that may support the treatment of acute and chronic kidney diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0068.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy; pain management; target therapy; immuno-therapy
Online: 6 May 2022 (09:14:17 CEST)
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) develops as a challenging nerve-damaging adverse effect of anticancer drugs used in chemotherapy. The disorder may require a dose reduction of chemo-therapy and its most common sensory symptoms are severe pain, tingling, and numbness in the hands and feet. CIPN affects dramatically the patient's quality of life (QoL). Pain and sensory abnormalities may occur for months, or even years after the termination of chemotherapy. This disease has complicated pathophysiology featured by underlying mechanisms not completely known. Although many pharmaco-logical and non-pharmacological therapeutic approaches have been tested to overcome these symptoms, there is currently no standardized cure to prevent or treat CIPN. According to current guidelines, Duloxe-tine is the only recommended agent for painful neuropathic symptoms. Therefore, finding effective thera-pies for CIPN is mandatory. The purpose of this review is to dissect CIPN, the target and immunothera-py-based approaches to this disorder, as well as to offer new insights for novel therapeutic perspectives.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: triple negative breast cancer; immunotherapy; immune checkpoint therapy; radionuclide therapy
Online: 9 April 2021 (13:26:23 CEST)
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive subtype of the disease with poor clinical outcomes and limited therapeutic options. Immune checkpoint blockade (CP) has surged to the forefront of cancer therapies with widespread clinical success in a variety of cancer types. However, the percentage of TNBC patients that benefit from CP as a monotherapy is low and clinical trials have shown the need for combined therapeutic modalities. Specifically, there has been interest in combining CP therapy with radiation therapy where clinical studies primarily with external beam have suggested their therapeutic synergy, contributing to the development of anti-tumor immunity. Here, we have developed a therapeutic platform combining radionuclide therapy (RT) and immunotherapy utilizing a radiolabelled biomolecule and CP in an E0771 murine TNBC tumor model. Survival studies show that while neither monotherapy is able to improve therapeutic outcomes, the combination of RT + CP extended overall survival. Histologic analysis showed that RT + CP increased necrotic tissue within the tumor and decreased levels of F4/80+ macrophages. Flow cytometry analysis of the peripheral blood also showed that RT + CP suppressed macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressive cells, both of which actively contribute to immune escape and tumor relapse.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0002.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Acute Toxicity, Oropharyngeal Cancer; Proton Beam Therapy; Radiation Therapy; Survival
Online: 1 February 2021 (08:57:08 CET)
Purpose: To report the early clinical outcomes of combining intensity‐modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and intensity‐modulated proton therapy (IMPT) in comparison with IMRT alone in treating the oropharynx cancer (OPC) patients. Materials and Methods: The medical records of 148 OPC patients were retrospectively reviewed, who underwent definitive radiotherapy (RT) with concurrent systemic therapy, from January 2016 till December 2019 at Samsung Medical Center. During the 5.5 weeks’ RT course, the initial 16 (or 18) fractions were delivered by IMRT in all patients, and the subsequent 12 (or 10) fractions were either by IMRT in 81 patients (IMRT only) or by IMPT in 67 (IMRT/IMPT combination), respectively, based on comparison of adaptive re-plan profiles and availability of equipment. Propensity‐score matching (PSM) was done on 76 patients (38 from each group) for comparative analyses. Results: With the median follow‐up of 24.7 months, there was no significant difference in overall survival and progression free survival between groups, both before and after PSM. Before PSM, IMRT/IMPT combination group experienced grade ≥3 acute toxicities less frequently: mucositis in 37.0% and 13.4% (p<0.001); and analgesic quantification algorithm (AQA) in 37.0% and 19.4% (p=0.019), respectively. The same trends were observed after PSM: mucositis in 39.5% and 15.8% (p=0.021); and AQA in 47.4% and 21.1% (p=0.016), respectively. In multivariate logistic regression, grade ≥3 mucositis was significantly less frequent in IMRT/IMPT combination group, both before and after PSM (p=0.027 and 0.024, respectively). AQA score ≥3 was also less frequent in IMRT/IMPT combination group, both before and after PSM (p=0.085 and 0.018, respectively). Conclusions: In treating the OPC patients, with comparable early oncologic outcomes, more favorable acute toxicity profiles were achieved following IMRT/IMPT combination than IMRT alone.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0138.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: extracorporeal shock wave therapy; ESWT, laser therapy; musculoskeletal system, rehabilitation
Online: 8 January 2021 (10:39:40 CET)
Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) is a well investigated and widely used treatment modality for a number of musculoskeletal disorders. A limitation of ESWT is its potential painfulness at higher, clinically relevant energy flux density (EFD), which may limit its applicability and, thus, effectiveness. Various studies in the literature demonstrated that neither application of a higher number of extracorporeal shock waves with lower EFD nor use of local anesthesia may solve this problem. Based on the results of several other studies in the literature it is hypothesized here that in patients suffering from musculoskeletal disorders that can be treated with ESWT, pretreatment with a pulsed, high power laser with a wavelength of 904 or 905 nanometers (hereafter: "laser pretreatment") does not only allow to apply higher EFDs in subsequent ESWT but actually results in faster and/or better treatment outcome than ESWT without laser pretreatment. Accordingly, it is hypothesized here that combining ESWT with laser pretreatment leads to synergistic effects and, thus, is superior to either treatment modality alone. Confirming this hypothesis in preclinical and clinical research may raise significance and increase the use of ESWT in physical and rehabilitation medicine, with immediate benefit for patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0745.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Pancreatic Cancer; Adjuvant therapy; neoadjuvant therapy; biomarkers; Precision medicine; timing
Online: 30 November 2020 (16:45:30 CET)
Adjuvant chemotherapy is currently used in all patients with resected pancreatic cancer who are able to begin treatment within 3 months after surgery. Since the recent publication of the PRODIGE 24 trial results, modified FOLFIRINOX has become the standard-of-care in the non-Asian population with localized pancreatic adenocarcinoma following surgery. Nevertheless, there is still a risk of toxicity, and feasibility may be limited in heavily pre-treated patients. In more frail patients, gemcitabine-based chemotherapy remains a suitable option, for example gemcitabine or 5FU in monotherapy. In Asia, although S1-based chemotherapy is the standard of care it is not readily available outside Asia and data are lacking in non-Asiatic patients. In patients in whom resection is not initially possible, intensified schemes such as FOLFIRINOX or Gemcitabine-Nabpaclitaxel have been confirmed as options to enhance the response rate and resectability, promoting research in adjuvant therapy. In particular, should oncologists prescribe adjuvant treatment after a long sequence of chemotherapy +/- chemoradiotherapy and surgery? Should oncologists consider the response rate, the R0 resection rate alone, or the initial chemotherapy regimen? And finally, should they take into consideration the duration of the entire sequence, or the presence of limited toxicities of induction treatment? The aim of this review is to summarize adjuvant management of resected pancreatic cancer and to raise current and future concerns, especially the need for biomarkers and the best holistic care for patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0091.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: bacterial infection; antibiotic resistance; bacteriophage; antibiotic therapy; phage therapy; review
Online: 5 July 2018 (10:09:09 CEST)
Bacteriophages, viruses that are widespread throughout the world, are highly specific for bacteria, usually of a single species and often of a particular strain. After being discovered and isolated 100 years ago, their use, called phage therapy, was instituted in medicine two years later and quickly used around the world to treat various bacterial infections. In the West, phage therapy was overshadowed in the second half of the 20th century by antibiotic therapy, which was then thought to be the definitive solution. But because of the increase in bacterial resistance to antibiotics, the idea of using bacteriophages in medicine has been reawakened. The innumerable observations reported over the years in the literature constitute an invaluable experience. We and some of our colleagues have, in the last decade treated some patients compassionately. With the available documentation and our own experience we discuss the potential indications and limitations of phage therapy. The observation of the increasing number of therapeutic failures in the announced perspective of a post-antibiotic era, we believe, that the introduction of bacteriophages into the therapeutic arsenal seems conceivable today to two preconditions: that their production as biologic drug meets current regulatory standards and that the benefit-risk assessment was conducted in a modern setting. Phage therapy could be applied as a substitution or supplement to antibiotic therapy under multiple circumstances in different modes, precise indications and limits.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0590.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Hydrogel; Extracellular matrix hydrogels; Myocardial infarctions; Myocardial infarction therapy; Cardiac stem cell therapy; Tissue engineering; Cell-based therapy.
Online: 22 April 2021 (08:16:51 CEST)
The peril of a 3-dimensional, robust and sustained myocardial restoration by means of Tissue Engineering is that it still remains a largely experimental approach. Prolific protocols have been developed and tested in small and large animals, but as clinical cardiac surgeons, we have not come to the privilege of utilizing any of them in our clinical practice. The question arises: why? The heart is a unique organ, anatomically and functionally. It is not an easy target to replicate with current techniques, or even to support its viability and function. Currently available therapies fail to reverse the loss of functional cardiac tissue, the fundamental pathology remains unaddressed and a heart transplantation is an ultima ratio treatment option. Owing to equivocal results of cell-based therapies, several strategies have been pursued to overcome limitations of the current treatment options. Preclinical data as well as first-in-human studies conducted to date have provided important insights into the understanding of injection-based approaches for myocardial restoration. In the light of the available data, injectable biomaterials suitable for transcatheteter delivery appear to have the highest translational potential,. This article presents a current state-of-the-art in the field of hydrogel-based myocardial restoration therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0141.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Anesthesiology Keywords: hemorrhagic shock; multimodal monitoring; individualized therapy; fluid therapy; critical care; trauma
Online: 8 August 2022 (09:56:33 CEST)
Worldwide, one of the main causes of death among young adults is multiple trauma. In these pa-tients hemorrhagic shock represents the leading cause for worsening of the clinical status and for increased morbidity and mortality. This is due to a multifactorial complex involving cellular, bi-ological, and biophysical mechanisms. The most important mechanisms affecting clinical out-come are oxidative stress, the augmentation of pro-inflammatory status, immune deficiency, dis-ruptions in the coagulation cascade, imbalances in electrolyte and acid-base homeostasis. Poly-trauma patients in hemorrhagic shock need adequate fluid management to ensure hemodynamic stability that must consider not only the maintenance of adequate blood pressure, but also the ad-equate oxygenation of tissues for optimal cellular function. In the current clinical practice, fluid resuscitation in polytrauma patients uses a variety of widely studied pharmacological products, such as crystalloids, colloids, blood transfusions, and the infusion of other blood products. Alt-hough these products exist, an agreement was not reached on a standard administration protocol that could be generally applied for all patients. Moreover, numerous studies have reported a se-ries of adverse events related to fluid resuscitation and to the inadequate use of these products. This review aims at describing the impact the administration of all the solutions used in fluid re-suscitation might have on the cellular and pathophysiological mechanisms in the case of poly-trauma patients suffering from hemorrhagic shock.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0453.v3
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: BNCT; targeted therapy; biological dosimetry; boron imaging; personalized oncology; personalized medicine
Online: 16 May 2022 (15:22:13 CEST)
Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a promising binary disease-targeted therapy, as neutrons preferentially kill cells labeled with boron (10B), which makes it a precision medicine treatment modality that provides a therapeutic effect exclusively on patient-specific tumor spread. Contrary to what is usual in radiotherapy, BNCT proposes cell-tailored treatment planning rather than to the tumor mass. The success of BNCT depends mainly on the sufficient spatial biodistribution of 10B located around or within neoplastic cells to produce a high-dose gradient between the tumor and healthy tissue. However, it is not yet possible to precisely determine the concentration of 10B in a specific tissue in real-time using noninvasive methods. Critical issues remain to be resolved if BNCT is to become a valuable, minimally invasive, and efficient treatment. Moreover, functional imaging technologies such as PET can be applied to determine biological information that can be used for the combined-modality radiotherapy protocol for each specific patient. Anyway, not only imaging methods but also proteomics and gene expression methods will facilitate BNCT becoming a modality of personalized medicine. This work provides an overview of the fundamental principles, recent advances, and future directions of BNCT as cell-targeted cancer therapy for personalized radiation treatment.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: music therapy; telemedicine; telehealth; remote therapy; COVID-19; adaptation; scoping review
Online: 24 March 2021 (17:10:58 CET)
Background: In the midst of a worldwide COVID-19 pandemic music therapists previously not involved in telehealth had to develop effective remote forms of music therapy. The objective of this review was to systematically explore how music therapists previously working in-person adapted to the transfer to remote forms of therapy in the context of the coronavirus outbreak. Methods: We searched Scopus, Web of Science Core Collection, CINAHL, Medline, ProQuest Central, PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO and PsyARTICLES, grey literature (October 2020), and websites of professional organizations. We followed the JBI methodology for scoping reviews. Results: Out of the 194 screened texts, we included ten very heterogenous articles with an overall very low quality. Most texts described remote therapy in the form of synchronous video calls using the Internet, one paper described a concert in a patio of a residential home. We report the authors´ experience with the adaptation and activities, challenges and benefits of remote forms of therapy, recommendations of organizations, and examples and tips for online therapies. Conclusions: Music therapists have adapted the musical instruments, the hours, the technology used, the therapeutic goals, the way they prepared their clients for sessions, and other aspects. They needed to be more flexible, consult with colleagues more, and mind the client-therapist relationship's boundaries. It seems, when taken as a necessary short-term measure, online music therapy works sufficiently well. The majority of papers stated that benefits outweighed the challenges, although many benefits were directly linked with the pandemic context.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: humans; infection control; therapy; coronavirus; immunoglobulins; drug therapy; therapeutic use; corticosteroid
Online: 8 March 2020 (17:04:19 CET)
Background: The coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) has spread globally with more than 80,000 people infected, and nearly 3000 patients died. Currently, we are in an urgent need for effective treatment strategy to control the clinical deterioration of COVID-19 patients. Methods: The clinical data of 10 COVID-19 patients receiving short-term moderate-dose corticosteroid (160mg/d) plus immunoglobulin (20g/d) were studied in the North Yard of The First Hospital of Changsha, Hunan from January 17th to February 27th, 2020. Epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, radiological findings were analyzed. Results: After treatment with combination of low-dose corticosteroid (40-80mg/d) and immunoglobulin (10g/d), patients’ lymphocyte count (0.88±0.34 vs 0.59±0.18, P<0.05), oxygenation index including SPO2 (94.90±2.51 vs 90.50±5.91, P<0.05) and PaO2/FiO2 (321.36±136.91 vs 129.30±64.97, P<0.05) were significantly lower than pre-treatment, and CT showed that the pulmonary lesion deteriorated in all patients. While after treatment of short-term moderate-dose corticosteroid plus immunoglobulin, patients’ APACHE Ⅱ score (9.10±6.15 vs 5.50±9.01, P<0.05), body temperature (37.59±1.16 vs 36.46±0.25, P<0.05), lymphocyte count (0.59±0.18 vs 1.36±0.51, P<0.05), Lactate dehydrogenase (419.24±251.31 vs 257.40±177.88, P<0.05), and C-reactive protein (49.94±26.21 vs 14.58±15.25, P<0.05) significantly improved compared with post-treatment with low-dose therapy. In addition, oxygenation index including SPO2 (90.50±5.91 vs 97.50±1.18, P<0.05), PaO2 (60.47±14.53 vs 99.07±34.31, P<0.05), and PaO2/FiO2 (129.30±64.97 vs 340.86±146.72, P<0.05) significant improved. Furthermore, CT showed that pulmonary lesions obviously improved in 7 patients. After systematic therapy, 4 out of 10 COVID-19 patients recovered and discharged. Conclusions: Short-term moderate-dose corticosteroid plus immunoglobulin is effective for reversing the continued deterioration of COVID-19 patients who failed to respond to the low-dose therapy. Funding: This work was supported by the Innovative Major Emergency Project Funding against the New Coronavirus Pneumonia in Hunan Province (Dr. Ji-Yang Liu, number 2020SK3014; Dr. Yuan-Lin Xie, number 2020SK3013).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0623.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Glioblastoma; Neural Stem Cells; Mesenchymal Stem Cells; Stem Cell Therapy; Enzyme/Prodrug Therapy; Oncolytic Virotherapy; Nanoparticles; TRAIL; Cytokine Therapy
Online: 29 October 2020 (15:51:04 CET)
The potential of Neural Stem Cells (NSCs) to provide therapeutic benefit for a variety of neurological disorders, including brain malignancies, has been long recognized and has inspired many scientists to design, test and successfully demonstrate that NSCs are efficient and effective therapeutic agents. Glioblastoma, the deadliest form of primary brain tumor, despite extensive and sustained efforts to find better therapies, remains a disease without cure, with a median survival after diagnosis of less than two years. Treatment resistance in glioblastoma is in large part attributed to limitations in the delivery and distribution of therapeutic agents administered either systemically or directly into the tumor due to the highly invasive nature of this cancer and its abnormal intratumoral vasculature. Stem Cells (SCs) have an innate tumor-tropic migratory behavior, can be modified to deliver a variety of therapeutic agents and efficiently distribute their cargo into brain tumors, pursuing invading streams of tumor cells, deep into the brain parenchyma. Over the last twenty years, numerous preclinical trials have demonstrated the feasibility and efficacy of SCs as antiglioma agents, leading to the development of trials to test these therapies in the clinic. In this review we present and analyze these studies and discuss mechanisms underlying their beneficial effect, highlighting experimental progress, limitations and the emergence of promising new therapeutic avenues. We hope to increase awareness of the advantages of using SCs for the treatment of glioblastoma and inspire further studies that will lead to accelerated implementation of effective therapies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0148.v1
Online: 5 April 2021 (14:33:27 CEST)
Play therapy is an approach to providing assistance in overcoming problems using media such as toys, art media, games, and communication. The purpose of this paper is to find out that play therapy can reduce anxiety in children. The research design used in this study was a study-literature review. The data used in this research comes from the results of research that have been conducted and published in national and international online journals. The method of analysis used in this study is the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis) method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0078.v1
Online: 4 September 2020 (03:29:10 CEST)
Introduction: The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of animal therapy in alleviation of anxiety in pre-school children.Method: The study was carried out as a quasi-experimental study with pre-test and post-test design and control group. The study population consisted of 33 anxious 5-7years old children (participated in a welfare anxiety screening plan held by Counseling Center, Tehran-Iran) between 2018 and 2019. The participants took part in the study voluntarily.The subjects were randomly divided into experimental and control groups (10 in each group). The experimental group was exposed to 8 sessions of animal therapy. The research instrument was Spence Preschool Anxiety Scale (Parent Form) and the data were analyzed on SPSS 21 software.Results: The results showed that animal therapy had a significant effect on general anxiety score after adjusting for post-test scores (f= 32.49 and p= 0.001) with the effect equal to 0.70. In addition, the effect of animal therapy on anxiety of separation (f= 5.63, p= 0.03), generalized anxiety disorder (f= 8.56, p= 0.01), social phobia (f= 14.58, p= 0.002) and specific anxiety (f= 11.63, p= 0.005) was significant with effects equal to 0.30, 0.40, 0.53, and 0.47, respectively. The results also showed that the effect of animal therapy on obsession was not significant (p>0.05).Conclusion: Therefore, it can be concluded that Animal therapy is effective in alleviating anxiety in children.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0022.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Fabry disease; globotriaosylceramide; α-galactosidase-A; enzyme replacement therapy; chaperone therapy; migalastat
Online: 1 December 2022 (09:50:49 CET)
Fabry disease is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by the deficiency of the α-galactosidase-A enzyme. Cardiac, renal, and neurological involvement significantly reduces life expectancy. Until a few years ago, treatment options for Fabry disease were limited to enzyme replacement therapy with agalsidase alfa or beta administered by intravenous infusion every 2 weeks. Migalastat (Galafold®) is an oral pharmacological chaperone that increases enzyme activity of “amenable” mutations. The safety and efficacy of migalastat were supported in the phase III FACETS and ATTRACT studies, compared to available enzyme replacement therapies; showing a reduction in left ventricular mass, and stabilization of kidney function and plasma Lyso-Gb3. Similar results were confirmed in subsequent extension publications, both in patients who started migalastat as their first treatment and in patients who were previously on enzyme replacement therapy and switched to migalastat. In this review we describe the safety and efficacy of switching from enzyme replacement therapy to migalastat in patients with Fabry disease and “amenable” mutations, referring to publications available to date.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0145.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: emotion and will; music therapy; five phases, five phases music therapy; psychology
Online: 29 November 2017 (09:54:48 CET)
Music therapy has served as complementary and alternative medicine for various neurological disorders. Five Phases Music Therapy (FPMT) employs the theory of five phases and five music scales or tones (宫Gong (do), 商Shang (ri), 角Jue (mi), 徵Zhi (so) and 羽Yu (la)) to analyze and treat mind-body illness. In Chinese Medicine (CM), the five music scales are used to connect the human body and the universe, interpret personalities and constitution and analyze the influences of climatic changes on health. FPMT has a self-contained theory and routine of practice application. Large amounts of clinical and fundamental reports have been available and clinical benefits have been obtained. However more systemic clinic research esp. evidence-based and random controlled trials must be performed to validate and optimize its routines and biological and neurological mechanism must be further explored. It’s reasonable to believe that the effective music therapy will attract more attention from the world outside China with the introduction of FPMT.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0076.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: innate lymphoid cells; cell therapy; cancer; immunotherapy; antitumor immune response; adoptive cell therapy
Online: 6 September 2022 (03:17:36 CEST)
Although the first cancer immunotherapy was given in the clinic more than a century ago, this line of treatment has remained more of a distant goal than a practical therapy due to limited understanding of the tumor microenvironment and the mechanisms at play within it, which lead to failures of numerous clinical trials. However, in the last two decades, the immune checkpoint inhibitors and chimeric antigen receptor-T cell therapies have revolutionized the treatment of cancer and provided proof-of-concept that immunotherapies are a viable option. So far, immunotherapies have majoritarily focused on utilizing T cells, however T cells are not autonomous but rather function as part of, and therefore are influenced by, a vast cast of other immune cells, including innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). Here, we summarize the role of ILCs, especially helper ILCs, in tumor development, progression and metastasis, as well as their potential to be used as immunotherapy for cancer. By reviewing the studies that used helper ILCs as adoptive cell therapy, we highlight the rationale behind considering these cells as novel adoptive cell therapy for cancer as well as identify open questions and areas for future research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0037.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Antimicrobial nanomaterials; Carbon Nanotubes; Graphene; Magnetic Nanoparticles; hydrogel; Photodynamic Therapy; Photothermal Therapy; Nanocarrier
Online: 5 January 2022 (12:02:34 CET)
Microbial diseases have been declared one of the main threats to humanity, which is why, in recent years, great interest has been generated in the development of nanocomposites with antimicrobial capacity. In the present work, two magnetic nanocomposites, based on Graphene Oxide (GO) and Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) were studied. The synthesis of these magnetic nanocomposites consisted of three phases: first, the synthesis of Iron Magnetic Nanoparticles (MNPs) was carried out in the presence of MWCNTs and GO using the Co-precipitation method. The second phase consisted of the adsorption of photosensitizer menthol-Zinc phthalocyanine (ZnMintPc) into MWCNTs and GO, and the third phase was the encapsulation in poly (N-vinylcaprolactam-co-poly(ethylene glycol diacrylate)) poly (VCL-co-PEGDA) polymer VCL/PEGDA a biocompatible hydrogel, in order to obtain the magnetic nanocomposites: VCL/PEGDA-MNPs-MWCNTs-ZnMintPc and VCL/PEGDA-MNPs-GO-ZnMintPc. In vitro studies were carried out using Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria and the Candida albicans yeast based on the PTT/PDT effect. This research describes the optical, morphological, magnetic and photophysical characterizations of nanocomposites and their application as antimicrobial agents. It was evaluated the antimicrobial effect of magnetics nanocomposites based on the Photodynamic/Photothermal (PDT/PTT) effect; for this purpose, doses of 65 mW cm-2 at 630 nm of light were used. The VCL/PEGDA-MNPs-GO-ZnMintPc nanocomposite was able to eliminate colonies of E. coli and S. aureus, while VCL/PEGDA-MNPs-MWCNTs-ZnMintPc nanocomposite was able to eliminate the three types of microorganisms; consequently, the latter is considered a broad-spectrum of antimicrobial agent in PDT and PTT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0257.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: metastatic melanoma; targeted therapy; immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy; survival; statutory health insurance data
Online: 15 November 2021 (11:50:07 CET)
(1) Background: Targeted (TT) and immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapies have become available in the routine care of metastatic melanoma in recent years. (2) Objective: We compared mortality in patients with metastatic melanoma and different systemic therapies. (3) Methods: A retrospective cohort study, based on pseudonymized health insurance data of about 2 million individuals from Saxony, Germany, was conducted for the years 2010 to 2020. Only patients with an advanced stage, i.e. distant metastases were considered for the main analysis. Relative survival since metastasis and predicted survivor curves derived from a Cox model were used to assess potential differences in mortality. (4) Results: Relative survival was highest in the subgroup with sequential use of ICI and TT. All treatments except interferon had significant hazard ratios (HR) in the Cox model with time-dependent effects indicating a protective effect after treatment initiation (HR 0.01-0.146) but decreasing over time (HR 1.351-2.310). The predicted survivor curves revealed best survival under ICI-TT treatment and worst survival under TT treatment alone. (5) Conclusions: We found real-world evidence for survival benefits of patients with metastatic melanoma who received sequential ICI and TT treatment. It is conceivable that the observed high survival differences were overestimated due to bias, such as confounding by indication.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0065.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: Cervical spinal cord injury; Arm function; Exoskeleton; Robot-assisted therapy; Robotic therapy; Rehabilitation.
Online: 3 November 2021 (08:35:46 CET)
The upper extremities limitation represents one of the essential functional impairments in patients with cervical spinal cord injury. Electromechanics assisted devices and robots are increasingly used in neurorehabilitation to help functional improvement in patients with neurological diseases. This review aimed to systematically report the evidence-based, state-of-art on clinical applications and robotic-assisted arm training (RAT) in motor and functional recovery in subjects affected by cervical spinal cord injury. The present study has been carried out within the framework of the Italian Consensus Conference on "Rehabilitation assisted by robotic and electromechanical devices for persons with disability of neurological origin" (CICERONE). PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) databases were systematically searched from inception to September 2021. The 10-item PEDro scale assessed the study quality for the RCT and the AMSTAR-2 for the systematic review. Two different authors rated the studies included in this review. If consensus was not achieved after discussion, a third reviewer was interrogated. The 5-item Oxford CEBM scale was used to rate the level of evidence. A total of 11 studies were included. The selected studies were: two systematic reviews, two RCTs, one parallel-group controlled trial, one longitudinal intervention study and five case series. One RCT was scored as a high-quality study, while the systematic review was of low quality. RAT was reported as feasible and safe. Initial positive effects of RAT were found for arm function and quality of movement in addition to conventional therapy. The high clinical heterogeneity of treatment programs and the variety of robot devices could severely affect the generalizability of the study results; therefore, future studies are warranted to standardize the type of intervention and evaluate the role of robotic-assisted training in subjects affected by cervical spinal cord injury.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0699.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Bismuth-213; Targeted Radionuclide Therapy; Targeted alpha Therapy; radiopharmaceutical; bifunctional chelator; vector molecule
Online: 29 March 2021 (14:43:57 CEST)
Besides external high-energy photon or proton beam therapy, targeted radionuclide therapy (TRNT) is an alternative approach to deliver radiation to cancer cells. TRNT is distributed within the body by the vascular system and allows targeted irradiation of a primary tumor and all its metastases, resulting in substantially less collateral damage to normal tissues as compared to ex-ternal beam radiotherapy (EBRT). It is a systemic cancer therapy, tackling systemic spread of the disease, which is the cause of death in most cancer patients. The α-emitting radionuclide bis-muth-213 (213Bi) has interesting properties and can be considered as a magic bullet for TRNT. The benefits and drawbacks of targeted alpha therapy with 213Bi are discussed in this review, covering the entire chain from radionuclide production to bedside. First, the radionuclide properties and production of 225Ac and its daughter 213Bi are discussed, followed by the fundamental chemical properties of bismuth. Next, an overview of available acyclic and macrocyclic bifunctional chelators for bismuth, and general considerations for designing a 213Bi-radiopharmaceutical are provided. Finally, we will provide an overview of preclinical and clinical studies involving 213Bi-radiopharmaceuticals, as well as the future perspectives of this promising cancer treatment option.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0368.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: family; infantile hemiplegia; modified Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy; Physical Therapy modalities; upper extremity.
Online: 17 July 2020 (08:04:27 CEST)
Objective: To assess the functionality of the affected upper limb in children diagnosed with hemiplegia aged between 4 and 8 years after applying low-intensity modified constraint-induced movement therapy(mCIMT). Methods: Prospective case series study. A mCIMT protocol was applied for five weeks, with two hours of containment per day. The study variables were: quality of movement of the upper limb, spontaneous use, participation of the affected upper limb in activities of daily living, dynamic joint position, grasp-release action, grasp strength, supination and extension elbow movements. Four measurements were performed, using the QUEST scale, the SHUEE Evaluation, a hand dynamometer and a goniometer. Results: The sample was composed of 8 children with moderate manual ability. Statistically significant differences were detected in all the studied variables (p<0.05). The greatest increase occurred in spontaneous use from assessment 1-4 (p = 0.01), reaching 88.87% active participation in bimanual tasks. The quality of movement of the upper limb obtained a significant value due to the increase in dissociated movements and grasp (p = 0.01). Conclusion: A low dose (50 hours) of mCIMT increased the functionality of children diagnosed with congenital hemiplegia between 4 and 8 years of age with moderate manual ability.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0130.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: extracorporeal shock wave therapy; ESWT; focused extracorporeal shock wave therapy; fESWT; mechanisms of action; radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy; rESWT; systematic review
Online: 14 April 2022 (07:42:55 CEST)
Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) is a safe and effective treatment option for various pathologies of the musculoskeletal system. Many studies addressed the molecular and cellular mechanisms of action of ESWT. However, no uniform concept could be established in this matter until now. We performed a systematic review of the effects of exposure of musculoskeletal tissue to extracorporeal shock waves (ESWs) reported in the literature. The key results were as follows: (i) compared to the effects of many other forms of therapy, the clinical benefit of ESWT does not appear to be based on a single mechanism; (ii) different tissues respond to the same mechanical stimulus in different ways; (iii) just because a mechanism of action of ESWT was described in a study does not automatically mean that this mechanism was relevant to the observed clinical effect; (iv) focused ESWs and radial ESWs seem to act in a similar way; and (v) even the most sophisticated research into the effects of exposure of musculoskeletal tissue to ESWs cannot substitute clinical research in order to determine the optimum intensity, treatment frequency and localization of ESWT.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0205.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Smoothened; cancer; precision medicine; therapy
Online: 14 September 2022 (09:23:16 CEST)
The G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) Smoothened (Smo) is a central signal transducer of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway which has been linked to diverse forms of tumours. Stimulated by advancements in structural and functional characterisation, the Smo receptor has been recognised as an important therapeutic target in Hh-driven cancers, and several Smo inhibitors have now been approved for cancer therapy. This receptor is also known to be an oncoprotein itself and its gain-of-function variants have been associated with skin, brain, and liver cancers. According to the COSMIC database, oncogenic mutations of Smo have been identified in various other tumours, although their oncogenic effect remains unknown in these tissues. Drug resistance is a common challenge in cancer therapies targeting Smo, and data analysis shows that healthy individuals also harbour resistance mutations. Based on the importance of Smo in cancer progression and the high incidence of resistance towards Smo inhibitors, this review suggests that detection of Smo variants through tumour profiling could lead to increased precision and improved outcomes of anti-cancer treatments.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0391.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: HNSCC; preclinical model; cancer therapy
Online: 30 March 2022 (14:49:26 CEST)
Head and neck cancer is the sixth most frequent cancer type. Drug resistance and toxicity are common challenges of the existing therapies, making the development of reliable preclinical models essential for the study of the involved molecular mechanisms as well as for eventual intervention approaches that improve the clinical outcome. Preclinical models of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma have been traditionally based in cell lines and murine models. In this review, we will go over the most frequently used preclinical models, from immortalized-cell and primary tumour cultures in monolayer or 3D, to the currently available animal models. We will scrutinize their efficiency in mimicking the molecular and cellular complexity of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Finally, the challenges and opportunities of other envisaged putative approaches, as well as the potential of the preclinical models to further develop customized therapies will be discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0065.v1
Online: 3 September 2021 (13:51:11 CEST)
Cancer is a prevalent disease worldwide and treatments such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy sometimes lead to adverse events. Oral mucositis is one of the most disabling and clinical guidelines do not take into account nutritional interventions. The primary endpoint was to gather the evidence about the efficacy of nutritional interventions in the prevention and/or treatment of antineoplastic induced oral mucositis in oncological patients. It was carried out a bibliographic review in PubMed data base by combining MesH terms with boolean operators. Articles were selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria; 50 final articles were found. Although further evidence is needed, glutamine, honey and vitamins appear to be a good therapeutic option. The rest of the compounds presented controversial or insufficient results to draw conclusions over their utilization as prevention or treatment options. Low evidence is reported about oral mucositis nutritional interventions in spite of being attainable and affordable compounds. Scarce evidence is shown in paediatric patients compared to adults. Developing higher quality studies and combinations with the compounds researched is necessary to create stronger evidence.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: SARS; Covid-19; Vitamins; Therapy
Online: 23 April 2020 (05:44:52 CEST)
In December 2019 a novel human-infecting coronavirus, named SARS-CoV-2 has been recognized to cause a pneumonia epidemic outbreak with different degree of severity in Wuhan, Hubei Province in China. Since then this epidemic spread worldwide an in the last week Europe and Italy also have been involved. Effective preventive and therapeutic strategies are absolutely required to block this serious public health concern. Unfortunately, SARS-CoV-2 has been isolated only recently, therefore a few studies concerning its immunopathogenesis and tretament are available. Therefore, on the basis of the assumption that the SARS-CoV-2 is genetically related to SARS-CoV (about 82% of genome homology) and that its characteristics, like the modality of transmission, the route of infection, the organ localization, the type of the immune response it may stimulate, the morbidity and the mortality rates are still poor-known, a literature search was performed to identify the reports assessing these elements in patients with SARS-CoV-induced infection. Therefore, we have analysed: 1) the structure of SARS CoV-2 and SARS CoV; 2) the clinical signs and symptoms and pathogenic mechanisms observed during the development of acute respiratory syndrome and the Cytokine Release Syndrome; 3) the modification of the cell microRNome and of the immune response in patients with SARS infection; 4) the possible role of some liposoluble compounds (such as vitamin A, D and E) in modulating directly or indirectly the replication ability of SARS-CoV-2 and host immune response.
Online: 5 January 2020 (15:16:56 CET)
Photodynamic therapy has been applied endoscopically to treat early esophageal cancer. However, the long-term survival outcome of this treatment option is unknown in literature. Patients and Method: The patients of early esophageal cancer (clinical stage I) treated with photophrin based photodynamic therapy were analyzed for their long-term survival outcome and compared to those patients undergoing esophagectomy by a single surgeon for stage I disease. Results: There were 15 and 16 patients undergoing PDT and esophagectomy enrolled in the current study respectively. Complete response was achieved in 10 (66.7%) patients after PDT. After adjuvant chemoradiation (CCRT) complete response was achieved in 13 patients (86%). There is no mortality after PDT. Severe complication was detected in 3 patients including trachea-esophageal fistulae, esophageal stenosis and skin photosensitivity respectively. With a median follow-up duration of 110.2 months (+9.6 months) for the patients after PDT, there were 4 and 3 recurrence in the primary tumor site and regional lymph node respectively with 73.3% of successful local control rate of the primary tumor. There were 7 (46.7%) patients died during clinical follow-up of this cohort with 5 (33.3%) from disease progression of esophageal cancer and two from other diseases respectively. The five-year survival rate after PDT is 64.3%, whereas 70.9% of the patients after esophagectomy without significant difference of these two group of patients (P=0.72). Conclusion: Our preliminary results suggested that PDT might provide an equivalent long-term oncological outcome as compared to that done by esophagectomy for early esophageal cancer. A prospective randomized clinical trial comparing the results with esophagectomy and other endoscopic abrasive therapies is warrant in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0197.v1
Online: 12 June 2018 (14:51:34 CEST)
Glioblastoma (GBM) is often resistant to conventional and targeted therapeutics. ERBB4 is expressed throughout normal brain and is an oncogene in several pediatric brain cancers; therefore, we investigated ERBB4 as a prognostic marker and therapeutic target in GBM. Using RT-qPCR, we quantified mRNA encoding total ERBB4 and known ERBB4 variants in GBM and non-neoplastic normal brain (NNB) samples. Using immunohistochemistry, we characterized the localization of total and phosphorylated ERBB4 (p-ERBB4) and EGFR protein in archived GBM samples and assessed their association with patient survival. Furthermore, we evaluated the effect of ERBB4 phosphorylation on angiogenesis and tumorigenicity in GBM xenograft models. Total ERBB4 mRNA was significantly lower in GBM than NNB samples, with the JM-a and CYT-2 variants predominating. ERBB4 protein was ubiquitously expressed in GBM but was not associated with patient survival. However, high p-ERBB4 in 11% of archived GBM samples, independent of p-EGFR, was associated with shorter patient survival (12.0±3.2 months) than was no p-ERBB4 (22.5±9.5 months). Increased ERBB4 activation was also associated with increased proliferation, angiogenesis, tumorigenicity and reduced sensitivity to anti-EGFR treatment in xenograft models. Despite low ERBB4 mRNA in GBM, the functional effects of increased ERBB4 activation identify ERBB4 as a potential prognostic and therapeutic target.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0300.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: CAR T; Targeted Radionuclide Therapy; TRT; Mathematical Model; Multiple Myeloma; Immunotherapy; Daratumumab; CS1; Combination Therapy
Online: 17 September 2021 (09:32:33 CEST)
Targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) has recently seen a surge in popularity, with the use of radionuclides conjugated to small molecules and antibodies. Similarly, immunotherapy also has shown promising results – an example being chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cells therapy in hematologic malignancies. Moreover, TRT and CAR T therapies possess unique features that require special consideration when determining how to dose, time, and sequence combination treatments, including the distribution of TRT dose in the body, the decay rate of the radionuclide, and the proliferation and persistence of the CAR-T cells. These characteristics complicate additive or synergistic effects of combination therapies and warrant a mathematical treatment which includes these dynamics in relation to the proliferation and clearance rates of the target tumor cells. Here we combine two previously published mathematical models in a multiple myeloma setting to explore the effects of dose, timing, and sequencing of TRT and CAR-T cell based therapies. We find that for a fixed TRT and CAR-T cell dose, the tumor proliferation rate is the most important parameter in determining the best timing of TRT and CAR T therapies.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0249.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Crizotinib; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphomas ALK+; bridge therapy in NHL ALK+; ALK+ patients; anticancer therapy
Online: 13 January 2021 (12:58:38 CET)
Background: The t (2; 5) chromosomal rearrangement and resulting nucleophosmin (NPM1) -ALK fusion was first observed in 1994 in anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL), a T-cell lymphoma responsive to cyclophosphamide, abriblastine, vincristine and prednisone in approximately 80% of cases; refractory cases usually respond favorably to brentuximab-vedotin. These treatments are regarded as a bridge to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). Nowadays, transplant procedures and monitoring of chemotherapy patients proceed very slowly because the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has heavily clogged the hospitals in all countries. Results: A 40-year-old Caucasian woman was first seen at our clinical center in June 2020. She had ALCL ALK +, a history of failure to two previous therapeutic lines and was in complete remission after 12 courses of Brentuximab, still pending allo-SCT after two failed donor selection. Facing of a new therapeutic failure, we requested the Italian drug regulatory agency, and obtained the authorization, to administer 250 mg twice a day of Crizotinib, a drug incomprehensibly not registered for ALCL ALK +. Conclusions: The response to Crizotinib was optimal, since no adverse event occurred, and CT-PET persisted negative; this drug has proved to be a valid bridge to allo-SCT
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0166.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: antibacterial photodynamic therapy; Oral hygiene; Periodontitis
Online: 12 October 2022 (08:59:58 CEST)
A single-site, randomized clinical trial was designed to determine the efficacy of regular home use of Lumoral® dual-light antibacterial aPDT in periodontitis patients. For the study, 200 patients are randomized to receive non-surgical periodontal treatment (NSPT), including standardized hygiene instructions and electric toothbrush, and scaling and root planing, or NSPT with adjunctive Lumoral® treatment. A complete clinical intraoral examination is conducted in the beginning, at three months, and at six months. This report presents the three-month results of the first 59 consecutive randomized subjects. At three months, bleeding on probing (BoP) was lower in the NSPT+Lumoral®-group than in the NSPT group (p=0.045), and more patients in the NSPT+Lumoral®-group had their BoP below 10% (52% vs. 29%, respectively, p=0.008). Patients in the NSPT+Lumoral®-group improved their oral hygiene by visible-plaque-index (p=0.0002), while the NSPT group showed no statistical improvement as compared to baseline. Both groups significantly reduced the number of deep periodontal pockets, but more patients with a reduction in their deep pocket number were found in the NSPT+Lumoral® group (92% vs. 63%, p=0.01). Patients whose number of deep pockets was reduced by 50% or more were also more frequent in the NSPT+Lumoral®-group (70% vs. 33%, p=0.01). Patients with initially less than ten deep pockets had fewer deep pockets at three-month follow-up in the Lumoral® group (p=0.02). In conclusion, adjunctive use of Lumoral® in NSPT results in improved treatment outcomes at three months post-therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0037.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii; Phage therapy
Online: 2 September 2022 (09:51:24 CEST)
Acinetobacter baumannii is a multidrug-resistant and invasive pathogen associated with the etiopathology of both an increasing number of nosocomial infections and of relevance to poultry production systems. Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii has been reported in connection to severe challenges to clinical treatment, mostly due to an increase rate of resistance to carbapenems. Amid the possible strategies aiming to reduce the insurgence of antimicrobial resistance, phage therapy has gained particular importance for the treatment of bacterial infections. This review summarises the different phage-therapy approaches currently in use for multiple-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, including single phage therapy, phage cocktails, phage -antibiotic combination therapy, phage coding Acinetobacter baumannii and the novel phage enzyme treatment. Although phage therapy represents a potential treatment solution for multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, further research is needed to unravel some unanswered questions especially in regard to its in vivo applications, before possible routine clinical use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0015.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: lung cancer; gene therapy; retrovirus vector
Online: 1 July 2022 (15:28:59 CEST)
Therapeutic efficacy of retroviral replicating vector (RRV)-mediated prodrug activator gene therapy has been demonstrated in a variety of tumor models, but clinical investigation of this approach has so far been restricted to glioma and gastrointestinal malignancies. In the present study, we evaluated replication kinetics, transduction efficiency, and therapeutic efficacy of RRV in experimental models of lung cancer. RRV delivering GFP as a reporter gene showed rapid viral replication in a panel of lung cancer cells in vitro, as well as robust intratumoral replication and high levels of tumor transduction in subcutaneous and orthotopic pleural dissemination models of lung cancer in vivo. Toca 511 (vocimagene amiretrorepvec), a clinical-stage RRV encoding optimized yeast cytosine deaminase (yCD) which converts the prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) to the active drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), showed potent cytotoxicity in lung cancer cells upon exposure to 5-FC prodrug. In vivo, Toca 511 achieved significant tumor growth inhibition following 5-FC treatment in subcutaneous and orthotopic pleural dissemination models of lung cancer in both immunodeficient and immunocompetent hosts, resulting in significantly increased overall survival. This study demonstrates that RRV can serve as highly efficient vehicles for gene delivery to lung cancer, and indicates the translational potential of RRV-mediated prodrug activator gene therapy with Toca 511/5-FC as a novel therapeutic strategy for pulmonary malignancies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0139.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: CD15; Lewis X; Lex; Cancer; Therapy
Online: 10 March 2022 (04:15:33 CET)
CD15 (Lewis X/Lex) is a fucosyl (3-fucosly-N-acetyl-lactosamine) moiety found on membrane proteins of various cancer cells. These include renal cancer, prostate and bladder cancers, acute leukemias, hepatocellular carcinoma, breast cancer and melanoma. The antigen plays an espe-cially significant role in renal cell carcinoma. Its high expression serves as a good prognostic marker for patients and high hopes are related to its use in the immunotherapy of the tumor. The biological role of CD15 is the interaction with E-, L- and P-selectins (adhesion molecules) and al-lowing for the adhesion with the endothelial cells. In this way, cancer cells start to interact with the endothelium of blood vessels and consequently move out from the blood flow to the sur-rounding tissues. The blockage of antigen’s function results in reduced metastatic potential. Moreover, the molecule may be a therapeutic target against cancer in monoclonal antibod-ies-based therapies. CD15s is a sialyl derivative of CD15, that possess its own unique characteris-tics. Unlike high expression of CD15, which is a prognostic factor in Hodgkin lymphoma, CD15s relate to poor prognosis for the patients. Due to the high abundance in cancer cells, CD15 is con-sidered as a marker of Cancer Stem Cells. This review presents a comprehensive description of the role of CD15 and CD15s in cancer development and metastasis and overviews the clinical appli-cations of the anti-CD15 therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0242.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Colorectal cancer; Targeted therapy; Clinical trial
Online: 21 February 2022 (03:05:05 CET)
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common type of cancer and the second leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Surgery or surgery plus radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy for patients with metastatic CRC (mCRC) were accepted as the main therapeutic strategies until the early 2000s, when targeted drugs, like cetuximab and bevacizumab were developed. The use of targeted drugs in clinical practice has significantly increased patients’ overall survival. To date, the emergence of several types of targeted drugs has opened new possibilities and revealed new prospects for mCRC treatment. Therapeutic strategies are continually being updated to select the most suitable targeted drugs based on the results of clinical trials that are currently underway. This review discusses the up-to date molecular evidence of targeted therapy for mCRC and summarizes the Food and Drug Administration-approved targeted drugs including the results of clinical trials. We also explain their mechanisms of action and how these affect the choice of a suitable targeted therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0021.v1
Online: 1 November 2021 (14:24:45 CET)
Background: Menopause symptoms and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) are among the most common reasons patients seek gynecological advice. Although at least half of all women in developed countries will take HRT during their lifetime, the treatment is not without risk and guidance on HRT is mixed. Greater awareness of negative HRT health effects from extended use has piqued interest in ‘safer options’. Menopause reversal with autologous ovarian platelet-rich plasma (OPRP) has brought this restorative approach forward for consideration, but appropriateness and cost-effectiveness require examination. Methods: HRT and OPRP data from USA were projected to compare cumulative 1yr patient costs using stochastic Monte Carlo modeling. Results: Mean±SD cost-to-patient for HRT including initial consult plus pharmacy refills was estimated at about USD 576±246/yr. While OPRP included no pharmacy component, an estimated 4 visits over 1yr for OPRP maintenance entailed ultrasound, phlebotomy/sample processing, surgery equipment, and incubation/laboratory expense, yielding mean±SD cost for OPRP at USD 8,710±4,911/yr (p<0.0001 vs. HRT, by t-test). Upper-bound estimates for annual HRT and OPRP costs were USD 1,341 and USD 22,232, respectively. Conclusions: While HRT and OPRP may have similar efficacy and safety for menopause therapy, they diverge sharply in cost-effectiveness. Most patients would likely find OPRP too complex, invasive, and expensive to be competitive vs. HRT. Although OPRP is an interesting and cautiously useful technique for selected menopause patients reluctant to use HRT, repurposing this infertility treatment for wider use appears inefficient compared to standard HRT currently available.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0033.v1
Online: 4 October 2021 (08:58:52 CEST)
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the top 10 threats affecting global health. AMR defeats the effective prevention and treatment of infections caused by microbial pathogens including bacteria, parasites, viruses and fungi (WHO). Microbial pathogens have natural tendency to evolve and mutate over time resulting in AMR strains. The set of genes involved in antibiotic resistance also termed as “antibiotic resistance genes” (ARGs) spread through species by lateral gene transfer thereby causing global dissemination. While this biological mechanism is prevalent in the spread of AMR, human methods also augment through various mechanisms such as over prescription, incomplete treatment, environmental waste etc. A considerable portion of scientific community is engrossed in AMR related work trying to discover novel therapeutic solutions for tackling resistant pathogens. Comprehensive inspection of the literature shows that diverse therapeutic strategies have evolved over recent years. Collectively, these therapeutic strategies include novel small molecules, newly identified antimicrobial peptides, bacteriophages, phytochemicals, nanocomposites, novel phototherapy against bacteria, fungi and virus. In this work we have developed a comprehensive knowledgebase by collecting alternative antimicrobial therapeutic strategies from literature data. We have used subjective approach for datamining new strategies resulting in broad coverage of entities and subsequently add objective data like entity name, potency, safety information etc. The extracted data was organized KOMBAT (Knowledgebase Of Microbes’ Battling Agents for Therapeutics). A lot of these data are tested against AMR pathogens. We envision that this database will be noteworthy for developing future therapeutics against resistant pathogens. The database can be accessed through http://kombat.igib.res.in/.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0153.v2
Online: 22 July 2021 (09:45:08 CEST)
The human adenovirus phylogenetic tree is split across seven species (A-G). Species D adenoviruses offer potential advantages for gene therapy applications, with low rates of preexisting immunity detected across screened populations. However, many aspects of the basic virology of species D, such as their cellular tropism, receptor usage and in vivo biodistribution profile, remain unknown. Here, we have characterized human adenovirus type 49 (HAdV-D49), a relatively understudied species D member. We report that HAdV-D49 does not appear to use a single pathway to gain cell entry but appears able to interact with various surface molecules for entry. As such, HAdV-D49 can transduce a broad range of cell types in vitro, with variable engagement of blood coagulation FX. Interestingly, when comparing in vivo biodistribution to adenovirus type 5, HAdV-D49 vectors show reduced liver targeting whilst maintaining transduction of lung and spleen. Overall, this presents HAdV-D49 as a robust viral vector platform for ex vivo manipulation of human cells and for in vivo applications where the therapeutic goal is to target the lung or gain access to immune cells in the spleen whilst avoiding liver interactions, such as intravascular vaccine applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0124.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Anesthesia; Anxiety; Regional anaesthesia; Music Therapy
Online: 6 July 2021 (08:15:16 CEST)
In this study, the effects of music therapy on anxiety for patients undergoing regional anaesthesia in an operating room was succinctly investigated. This investigation was largely based on the adapted Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score (HADS) and Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S), of patients undergoing regional anaesthesia in an operating room. A randomized control trial was performed on 90 patients due for surgery. The selected patients for regional anaesthesia were allocated to either the music therapy group who listened to music using headphones for the entire surgery or the no-treatment control group. Based on the findings, it has been conclusively demonstrated that music can decrease the patient's anxiety level. According to the socio-demographic evaluation, elderly patients have the highest stress hormones levels when compared to young patients. Although elderly patients are more likely to choose religious songs to help them relax, cortisol analysis revealed an increase in cortisol levels among the elderly compared with younger patients. As a result, music is especially important to be delivered to elderly patients. Nonetheless, there is no restriction against administering music to elderly patients because evidence from the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score (HADS) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S) has shown that music helps to shift their attention away from pain and complications and makes them feel tranquil. Similarly, the HADS and modified Spielberger STAI (STAI-S) analyses demonstrate a substantial outcome for both groups, with respondents responding positively. The study found that listening to music during regional anaesthesia might help people feel less worried.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0345.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Respiratory Failure; COVID19; Intravenous Immunoglobulin Therapy
Online: 14 May 2021 (15:04:29 CEST)
Adjunctive therapy with polyclonal intravenous immunoglobins (IVIg) is currently used for preventing or managing infections and sepsis, especially in immunocompromised patients. The pathobiology of COVID19 and the mechanisms of action of Ig led to consider this adjunctive therapy also in patients with respiratory failure by SARS-CoV2 infection. This manuscript report the rationale, the available data and the results of a structured consensus on intravenous Ig therapy in patients with severe COVID19. METHODS A panel of multidisciplinary experts defined the clinical phenotypes of COVID19 patients with severe respiratory failure and, after literature review, voted for the agreement on the rationale and the potential role of IVIg therapy for each phenotype. Due to the scarce evidence available, a modified RAND/UCLA appropriateness method was used. RESULTS Three different phenotypes of COVID19 patients with severe respiratory failure were identified: patients with an abrupt and dysregulated hyperinflammatory response (early phase), patients with suspected immune-paralysis (late phase), and patients with sepsis by hospital-acquired superinfection (sepsis by bacterial superinfection). The rationale for intravenous Ig therapy in the early phase was considered uncertain whereas the panellists considered appropriate its use in the late phase and patients with sepsis/septic shock by bacterial superinfection. CONCLUSION As with other immunotherapies, IVIg adjunctive therapy may a potential role in the managing of COVID19 patients. The ongoing trials will clarify the appropriate target population and the true effectiveness.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0676.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: RNA; Protamine; Transfection; Cancer Therapy; Vaccines
Online: 26 April 2021 (13:37:51 CEST)
Protamine is a natural cationic peptide mixture mostly known as a drug for the neutralization of heparin and as a compound in formulations of slow-release insulin. Protamine is also used for cellular delivery of nucleic acids due to opposite charge-driven coupling. This year marks60 years since the first use of Protamine as a transfection enhancement agent. Since then, Protamine has been broadly used as a stabilization agent for RNA delivery. It has also been involved in several compositions for RNA-based vaccinations in clinical development. Protamine stabilization of RNA shows double functionality: it not only protects RNA from degradation within biological systems, but also enhances penetration into cells. A Protamine-based RNA delivery system is a flexible and versatile platform that can be adjusted according to therapeutic goals: fused with targeting antibodies for precise delivery, digested into a cell penetrating peptide for better transfection efficiency or not-covalently mixed with functional polymers. This manuscript gives an overview of the strategies employed in protamine-based RNA delivery, including the optimization of the nucleic acid’s stability and translational efficiency, as well as the regulation of its immunostimulatory properties from early studies to recent developments.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: breast cancer; endocrine therapy; neoadjuvant; resistance
Online: 12 April 2021 (13:55:10 CEST)
Endocrine therapy (ET) has established itself as an efficacious treatment for estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancers, with a reduction in recurrence rates and increased survival rates. The pre-surgical approach with chemotherapy (NCT) has become a common form of management for large, locally advanced or high-risk tumors. However, a good response to NCT is not usually expected in ER+ tumors. Good results with primary ET, mainly in elderly women, have encouraged studies in other stages of life, and nowadays neoadjuvant endocrine treatment (NET) has become a useful approach to many ER+ breast cancers. The aim of this review is to provide an update on the current state of art regarding the present and the future role of NET.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0314.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: PET; theranostics; radionuclide therapy; cancer; prognosis
Online: 22 February 2021 (07:51:33 CET)
Theranostics covers combination of diagnostic and therapeutic techniques for various cancers throughout body using suitable drug combination. This review covers well-known treatment of thyroid cancer and pheochromocytoma with I-131 compounds and also new radiopharmaceuticals for prostatic cancer and pancreatic cancer. Of particular, new trends toward patient outcome has been focused. A recent clinical study highlighted the ability of alpha-radiotherapy with high LET to overcome treatment resistance to beta--particle therapy. The theranostics will become an ever-increasing part of clinical nuclear medicine these days.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0265.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Peptides; Clinical Practice; Drug Therapy; Therapeutic
Online: 10 February 2021 (15:51:13 CET)
The treatment of peptides has played an important role in clinical practice since the discovery of insulin therapy in the 1920s. Over 60 peptide drugs are approved in the United States (US and other regional mar-kets, and peptides continue to undergo drug discovery steadily. Peptide research and development has lev-eraged a wider range of structures known from other plant sources, via pharmacology and medicinal molecular biology, beyond its conventional focus on individual endogenous peptides. We build a comprehensive database of peptides that have met scientific studies with more than 150 constantly evolving peptides. Here we provide a simple overview of the peptide-based drug therapy environment, comprising evolutionary points of view, structural properties, operational thresholds, and explanation of the therapeutic area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0640.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: diagnosis; metabolomics; periodontal therapy; periodontitis; saliva
Online: 30 October 2020 (13:28:58 CET)
Pattern analysis of salivary metabolic profile has been proven accurate to discriminate generalized periodontitis (GP) patients from healthy individuals (HI) as disease modifies the salivary concentrations of specific metabolites. Due to the scarcity of data in the literature, the aim of this study was to determine whether non-surgical periodontal therapy (NST) could change salivary metabolomic profile in GP to one more similar to HI. Unstimulated whole saliva of 11 HI and 12 GP patients were obtained prior to and 3 months after NST. Metabolic profiling was performed using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, followed by supervised multivariate statistical approach on entire saliva spectra and partial least square (PLS) discriminant analysis. In GP group, periodontal treatment improved all clinical parameters, but not all the diseased sites were eradicated. PLS revealed an accuracy of 100% in discriminating the metabolomic profile of each GP patient before and after NST. OPLS was able to discriminate the 3 groups of subjects with an accuracy of 85.6%. However the post-NST metabolic profile of GP patients could not be completely assimilated to that of HS. Although NST may produce significant changes in the metabolic profile, GP patients maintained a distinctive fingerprint compared to HI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0537.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Cranial Traction Therapy; Correcting Facial Asymmerty
Online: 27 October 2020 (07:58:12 CET)
The purpose of this study is to develop a cranial traction therapy program to help correct facial asymmetry of the hard tissues through the means of the treatment of soft tissues—a non-surgical therapeutic method for the correcting of facial asymmetry. We have formed a group of experts who have agreed to the study. In the primary survey, open questions were used. In the second survey, the results of the first survey were summarized and the degree of agreement was presented to the questions in each category. In the third survey, we conducted a statistical analysis of the degree of agreement on each item of question. All surveys also performed email. The distribution was calculated using the SPSS (ver.23.0) program, and the mean difference between the result and X² was calculated. The significance level was set to p<.05. Most of the questions attained a certain level of consensus by the experts (average of 4.0 or higher), it can be said that most are important and suitable questions. the results regarding the degree of importance for each of the points of evaluation made by the groups of experts in both the second and third stage of the cranial traction therapy program were verified using content validity ratio (CVR 77). The ratio for the cranial traction 13 points of evaluation was within the range of 0.40∼1.00, so the Delphi program for the cranial traction therapy verified that the content was valid.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0353.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Copper homeostasis; Cancer; Prognostic; Diagnostic; Therapy
Online: 16 October 2020 (14:32:16 CEST)
In the human body, Copper (Cu) is a major and essential player in a large number of cellular mechanisms and signaling pathways. The involvement of Cu in oxidation-reduction reactions requires close regulation of copper metabolism in order to avoid toxic effects. In many types of cancer, variations in copper protein levels have been demonstrated. These variations result in increased concentrations of intra-tumoral Cu and alterations in the systemic distribution of copper. Such alterations in Cu homeostasis may promote tumor growth or invasiveness, or even confer resistance to treatments. Once characterized, the dysregulated Cu metabolism is pinpointing several promising biomarkers for clinical use, with prognostic or predictive capabilities. The altered Cu metabolism in cancer cells and the different responses of tumor cells to Cu are strongly supporting the development of treatments to disrupt, deplete or increase Cu levels in tumors. The metallic nature of Cu, as a chemical element, is key for the development of anticancer agents via the synthesis of nanoparticles or copper-based complexes with antineoplastic properties for therapy. Finally, some of these new therapeutic strategies such as chelators or ionophores have shown promising results in a preclinical setting, while others are already in the clinic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0635.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: burning mouth syndrome; photobiomodulation therapy; capillaroscopy
Online: 26 July 2020 (15:26:40 CEST)
Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS) is an idiopathic condition that manifests itself primarily with the onset of burning sensation. The aim of the research was to perform Photobiomodulation Therapy (PBM) using a diode laser on the oral mucosa of BMS patients, followed by an objective evaluation of the morphological changes in the vascular bed underlying the mucosa using polarized light videocapillaroscopy. A group of 40 patients were included in the study. The patients were randomly divided into two groups (using simple randomization): 20 patients were assigned to the laser group and 20 patients were assigned to the placebo group. Each patient of the laser group received 8 irradiations (with 4 Watt of power, wavelength 800nm, energy 1200 Joules, irradiation time for 300 seconds of time, energy density 50J/cm2 , 60 mW continuous wave laser, irradiance 180mW/cm2 ), twice a week, blinded to the type of irradiation administered, for four consecutive weeks. The patients in the placebo group underwent the same sessions as the others, the only difference being the non-emission of the laser. An initial check of the vascular bed was performed with a polarized light videocapillaroscope. This was followed by treatment with a therapeutic diode laser and a subsequent check with a videocapillaroscope. It was possible to observe that in the group of patients that underwent laser therapy, there was a lasting improvement in symptoms. The capillary oral bed in the placebo groups did not show any statistically significant difference (P>0.05). In the laser group we observed: in the buccal mucosa the diameter of the capillary had a reduction of 3μm; in the upper lip mucosa a reduction of 3μm; in the lower lip mucosa, there was a reduction of 3μm; in the dorsal lingual surface, there was a reduction of 2 μm. An increase in capillary length was also obtained in all irradiated regions in the laser group patients (P < 0.05). PBM induces microcirculatory changes that are still present at a distance of time, such as an improvement in the clinical picture. The improvement in the symptoms has been correlated to the reduction of the capillary diameter. Placebo effect only leads to a temporary improvement in symptoms that are unrelated to changes in the microcirculatory pattern.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Disability, function, knee osteoarthritis, physical therapy.
Online: 22 March 2019 (10:10:19 CET)
BACKGROUND: Knee osteoarthritis (OA) commonly causes increase in the patients’ disability and reduce their function because it causes pain, limitation in knee range of motion and decrease in muscle power.AIM: This study investigated the effect of three different physical therapy programs on knee range of motion , pain level, muscle strength and functional condition in patients with knee OA. DESIGN: Randomized comparative study.SETTING: Outpatient Rehabilitation clinic of Tongji Hospital (Wuhan, China).POPULATION: Seventy-two patients of Knee OA (aged 40-70) enrolled and randomly allocated into three groups. Group A (n=24) received physical agents and isometric quadriceps exercises, group B (n=24) received same physical agents as group A in addition to open kinetic chain exercises and group C (n=24) received physical agents as group A in addition to closed kinetic chain exercises.METHODS: knee range of motion (by electro goniometer), knee pain level (by VAS), quadriceps muscle strength (by isokinetic dynamometer) and functional condition (by WOMAC) were assessed before and after 5 weeks of treatment.RESULTS: In between group analysis, there were significant differences (P<0.05) between the three groups for all outcome measure. In within-group analysis, group C was the only group that showed significant differences (P<0.05) in all the outcomes. Group A and B showed significant differences (P<0.05) in quadriceps muscle strength and knee pain and no significant differences (P>0.05) in knee ROM and functional condition.CONCLUSIONS: After the study, our solid conclusion is that in physical therapy programs or protocols, closed kinematic chain exercise is very effective, it improves knee ROM, and help in reducing knee pain, muscle strength, function and disability for patients with knee osteoarthritis.CLINICAL REHABILITATION IMPACT: Comparison between different physical therapy programs provides the rehabilitation team with the best treatment intervention that is more effective in treating the problems associated with knee osteoarthritis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0340.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: photodynamic therapy; photobleaching; photosensitizers; fluorescence imaging
Online: 24 May 2018 (08:32:27 CEST)
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer is dependent on three primary components: photosensitizer (PS), light, and oxygen. Because these components are interdependent and vary during the dynamic process of PDT, assessing PDT efficacy may not be trivial. Therefore, it has become necessary to develop pre-treatment planning, on-line monitoring and dosimetry strategies during PDT, which become more critical for two or more chromophore systems, e.g. PS-CD conjugates developed in our laboratory for fluorescence-imaging and PDT of cancer. In this study, we observed a significant impact of variable light dosimetry; (i) high light fluence and fluence rate (light dose: 135 J/cm2, fluence rate: 75 mW/cm2) and (ii) low light fluence and fluence rate (128 J/cm2 and 14 mW/cm2 and 128 J/cm2 and 7 mW/cm2) in photobleaching of the individual chromophores and their long-term tumor response. The fluorescence at the near-infrared (NIR) region of the PS-NIR fluorophore conjugate was assessed intermittently via fluorescence imaging. The loss of fluorescence, photobleaching, caused by singlet oxygen from the PS was mapped continuously during PDT. The tumor responses (BALB/c mice bearing Colon26 tumors) were assessed after PDT by measuring tumor sizes daily. Our results showed distinctive photobleaching kinetics rates between the PS and CD. Interestingly, compared to higher light fluence, the tumors exposed at low light fluence showed reduced photobleaching and enhanced long-term PDT efficacy. The presence of NIR fluorophore in PS-CD conjugates provides an opportunity of fluorescence imaging and monitoring the photobleaching rate of the CD moiety for large and deeply seated tumors and assessing PDT tumor response in real-time.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0275.v3
Online: 14 May 2018 (10:46:26 CEST)
Antisocial behavior is a behavior disorder inherited according to the inheritance of X-linked chromosome. This disorder derives from mutations in the MAOA gene. One of the mutations results in the MAOA-L allele activity. The MAOA-L allele activity can cause antisocial behavior in both healthy and unhealthy people. Antisocial behavior from healthy males can originate from maltreatment during childhood. Currently, MAOA inhibitor can reverse antisocial behavior to normal behavior in animal models. However, this disorder cannot be treated permanently; to treat it permanently in the future, technologies such as CRISPR/Cas9, iPSCs and ssODN are required. These technologies have succeeded to correct erroneous segments in the F8 gene and F9 gene. Both genes occupy the X chromosome. The MAOA gene also occupies the X chromosome. Therefore, it is reasonable to state that CRISPR/Cas9 and iPSCs technique for instance can be beneficial tools to edit the MAOA gene to treat antisocial behavior. CRISPR/Cas9 can be used in combination with iPSCs or ssODN for instance. This combination can greatly help the permanent healing of antisocial behavioral disorders.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0077.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: systematic review; forest therapy; depression; adults
Online: 14 March 2017 (08:45:56 CET)
The purpose of this study was to systematically review forest therapy programs designed to decrease the level of depression among adults and subsequently identify the gaps in the literature. This systematic review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The authors independently screened full-text articles from various databases using the following criteria: 1) intervention studies assessing the effects of forest therapy on depression in adults aged 18 years and over; 2) studies including at least one control group or condition; 3) been peer-reviewed; and 4) been published either in English or Korean before July 2016. The Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network (SIGN) measurement tool was used to assess the risk of bias in each trial. In the final sample, a total of 28 articles (English: 13, Korean: 15) were included in the present systematic review. This review concluded that forest therapy is one of the emerging and effective interventions for decreasing the level of depression in adults. However, the studies included in this review lacked methodological rigor. Future studies assessing the long-term effect of forest therapy on depression using rigorous study designs are needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0156.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: obesity; obesity rehabilitation; weight maintenance; eating disorders; Acceptance and Commitment Therapy; Cognitive Behavioral Therapy; Clinical Psychology
Online: 6 July 2021 (13:38:20 CEST)
The purpose of this Individually Randomized Group Treatment Trial was to compare an Acceptance and Commitment Therapy-based (ACT) group intervention and a Cog-nitive Behavioral Therapy-based (CBT) group intervention for weight loss maintenance in a sample of adult patients with obesity seeking treatment for weight loss. 155 over-weight adults (BMI: Kg/m2= 43.8[6.8]) attending a multidisciplinary rehabilitation program for weight loss were randomized into two conditions: ACT and CBT. Demo-graphical, physical, and clinical data were assessed at the beginning of the program (t0), at discharge (t1), and at 6-month follow-up (t2). The following measures were ad-ministered: The Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II) and the Clinical Outcome in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure (CORE-OM). Generalized linear mixed models were performed to assess differences between groups. Moderation ef-fects for gender and eating disorders (ED) have been considered. From baseline to dis-charge no significant differences between interventions were found, with the only ex-ception of an improvement in the CORE-OM total score and in the CORE-OM subjective well-being subscale for those in the CBT condition. From discharge to follow-up ACT group participants showed significant results in terms of weight loss maintenance, CORE-OM total score, and CORE-OM and AAQ-II’s wellbeing, symptoms, and psy-chological problems subscales. Gender moderated the effects of time and intervention on the CORE-OM’ subscale reporting the risk for self-harm or harm others. The pres-ence of an eating disorder moderated the effect of time and intervention on the CORE-OM total score, on the CORE-Om’ symptoms and psychological problems sub-scales, and on the AAQ-II. Patients who received the ACT intervention were more likely to achieve a ≥5% weight loss from baseline to follow-up and to maintain the weight loss after discharge. The ACT intervention was thus effective in maintaining weight loss over time.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0372.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; Covid-19; Antiviral Drugs; Immunomodulators; Neutralizing Antibody Therapy; Cell Therapy; Current Vaccine Stage
Online: 13 November 2020 (12:30:08 CET)
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2(SARS-CoV-2) is the virus that caused COVID-19 around the world. The disease starts off as a flu-like symptom and then eventually spreads in the human body.Infections are easily transmitted from human to human which makes it more severe among individuals. SARS-CoV-2 virus is in the same family of viruses SARS and MERS.As of today, there is no approved vaccine that can cure COVID-19. However, potential treatments showing promising improvement results among affected COVID-19 patients. In this review, the effectiveness of the current treatments for COVID-19 has been explored.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0307.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: gastric cancer; ramucirumab; paclitaxel; second line therapy; vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2; targeted therapy; nutrition
Online: 24 April 2018 (06:01:56 CEST)
The RAINBOW Phase III study established the efficacy of the combination of paclitaxel and ramucirumab, a monoclonal antibody targeting VEGF receptor-2 (VEGF-R2), as second-line therapy. We retrospectively analyzed the data of patients treated with ramucirumab plus paclitaxel at our Institution to evaluate the impact of clinical heterogeneous figures on the efficacy and safety of this combination paclitaxel/ramucirumab in a real- life cohort of patients. After a median follow-up of 10.74 months, the median progression-free survival (PFS) was 5.8 months (95% CI: 3.04 - 5,63). Disease control rate (DCR) was 61% and the median duration of response (DOR) was 5.8 months. Median overall survival (OS) was 8.3 months. A trend toward better outcome was observed in HER2 positive patients. In multivariate analysis, nutritional status (p = 0.0001) and number of metastatic sites (p = 0.0266) resulted significantly related with longer PFS. Our analysis confirmed the efficacy and safety of the combination of ramucirumab with paclitaxel also in the real-life practice and the median PFS is significantly longer than that reported for Western population in previous studies. Subgroup analysis confirms the key-role of nutritional status as prognostic factor and suggests a possible interaction between EGF and angiogenesis pathways that deserves further investigations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0177.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: Nitric oxide delivery; mathematical modeling; Flow-mediated dilation; Inhaled NO therapy; Stem cell therapy; NO-releasing platform
Online: 12 October 2021 (11:40:24 CEST)
Nitric oxide (NO) is a key molecule in cardiovascular homeostasis and its abnormal delivery is highly associated with the occurrence and development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The assessment and manipulation of NO delivery is crucial to the diagnosis and therapy of CVD, such as endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerotic progression, pulmonary hypertension, and cardiovascular manifestations of Coronavirus (COVID-19). However, due to the low concentration and fast reaction characteristics of NO in cardiovascular system, the clinical applications centered on the NO delivery are challenging. In this tutorial review, we first summarized the methods to estimate the in vivo NO delivery process based on the clinical images and mathematical modeling to assess the endothelial function and vulnerability of atherosclerotic plaque. Then, the emerging bioimaging technologies that have the potential to directly measure the arterial NO concentration were discussed, including the Raman spectroscopy and electrochemical sensor. Aside from the diagnostic methods, therapies aimed at controlling NO delivery to regulate CVD were reviewed, including the inhaled NO therapy to treat the pulmonary hypertension and COVID-19, stem cell therapy and NO-releasing platform to treat endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0707.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, General Psychology Keywords: Palliative care; Meaning therapy; CALM therapy; COVID-19; Existential positive psychology; Good death; wellbeing; mature happiness; flourishing
Online: 30 July 2021 (14:27:09 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has exposed the inadequacies of the current healthcare system and needs a paradigm change, which is holistic, and community based illustrated by the healing wheel. The present paper proposes that existential positive psychology (PP 2.0) represents a promising approach to meet the rising needs in palliative care. This framework has a twofold emphasis on (a) How to transcend and transform suffering as the foundation for wellbeing, and (b) how to cultivate our spiritual and existential capabilities to achieve personal growth and flourishing. We propose that these objectives can be achieved simultaneously through dialectical palliative counselling, as illustrated by Wong’s integrative meaning therapy (Wong, 2020) and Lo’s Conceptual Model of CALM Therapy in palliative care (Lo et al., 2014). We then discuss existential suffering in general and at the last stage of life in particular; we also review recent research and interventions on existential suffering in palliative patients. Finally, we outline the objectives and the strategies of IMT in providing palliative counselling for palliative care and hospice patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0271.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: chiropractic; physical therapy; treatment outcome; low back pain; therapy; economics; patient satisfaction; recurrence; health care costs; illness
Online: 20 December 2019 (07:41:47 CET)
Low back pain (LBP) is a pandemic and costly musculoskeletal condition in the United States. Patients with LBP may endure surgery, injections, and expensive visits to emergency departments. Some suggest that using physical therapy or chiropractic in the earlier stage of LBP reduces the utilization of expensive health services and lowers the treatment costs. Nevertheless, there is no consistent evidence to declare which one of these methods is a cost-effective treatment within a short (less than a year) period of time. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cost-effectiveness of chiropractic versus physical therapy in the United States. A decision tree analytic model was used for estimating the economic outcomes. The findings showed that in the chiropractic group, the total average cost was $48.56 lower than the physical therapy group, and daily adjusted life years (DALY) was 0.0043 higher than the physical therapy group. Chiropractic care was shown to be a cost-effective alternative compared with physical therapy for adults with at least three weeks of low back pain over six months.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0079.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: Virtual reality; health professionals; anxiety; immersive therapy
Online: 5 July 2022 (16:01:27 CEST)
Background: Immersive therapy through virtual reality represents a novel strategy used in psychological interventions, but there is still a need to strengthen the evidence on its effects on health professionals’ mental health. Objective: To analyze the results of immersive therapy through virtual reality in the levels of anxiety and secondly, well-being of the health professionals working in a regional hospital in Olot (Spain). Methods: Pilot quasi-experimental study including a group of 35 women (mean age=45.7, SD=8.43) health professionals who undertook immersive therapy for 8 weeks. The intervention was implemented through virtual reality, and its effect on anxiety levels and well-being was evaluated through the Hamilton and Eudemon scales, respectively. Data on age, gender, active pharmacological or psychological treatment, mental health disorders and number of sessions were also collected. Results: Statistically significant (p<0.001) improvement in anxiety and well-being was found, with large and moderate effect sizes (0.90 and 0.63 respectively). In addition, these changes were clinically significant. No significant associations were found between the improvements and the different variables, but a greater trend was identified among the group of professionals with untreated or unidentified levels of anxiety. Conclusion: This group of health professionals showed statistically and clinically significant improvement in anxiety and well-being after the application of immersive therapy using virtual reality. Further studies with a control group are necessary to further analyze this novel intervention.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0258.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: prostate cancer; androgen deprivation therapy; exercise; adherence
Online: 27 April 2022 (10:43:52 CEST)
Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer treatment is associated with adverse physiological changes, however exercise can improve outcomes. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine exercise intervention adherence, and its effects on physiological outcomes in men diagnosed with prostate cancer undergoing ADT. Uniquely, this review incorporates a meta-aggregation of qualitative data, providing perspectives from the men’s experiences. A systematic review and meta-analysis were completed following PRISMA Guidelines. Databases (CINAHL, Cochrane, PubMed) were searched for studies using “prostate cancer”, “exercise intervention”, and “androgen deprivation therapy”. Quantitative randomised controlled trials describing adherence to exercise interventions were selected, with qualitative articles selected based on descriptions of experiences around participation. Subgroup meta-analyses of adherence, exercise mode, and intervention duration were completed for quality of life, aerobic fitness, fatigue, and strength. Articles (n=64) articles were identified, with 29 (n=23 quantitative; n=6 qualitative) articles from 25 studies included. Exercise had no effects (p<0.05) on quality of life and fatigue. Significant effects (all p<0.05) were observed for aerobic fitness, and upper- and lower-body strength. Adherence to exercise-based interventions was 80.38%, with improvements observed in aerobic fitness and strength. Subgroup analysis revealed exercise adherence impacted fatigue and strength, with greater improvements observed in programs >12-weeks.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0022.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: gingival cancer; mold brachytherapy; radiation therapy; outpatient
Online: 1 March 2022 (12:44:09 CET)
Brachytherapy is often applied to oral cancers, with good outcomes and minimal loss of oral function. Especially, mold brachytherapy is best suited for superficial oral cancers with little or no bone invasion, such as gingival cancer, palatal mucosal cancer, or buccal mucosal cancer because of the thin tissue thickness that needs to be irradiated. A few cases have been reported on mold brachytherapy for gingival cancers, especially with high-dose-rates (HDR), these treatments were performed during hospitalization. We report a case of lower gingival squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) treated with HDR mold brachytherapy in an outpatient setting. A 71-year-old male with lower gingival SCC had received HDR mold brachytherapy (54 Gy, 9 fractions, 5 days) as an outpatient. Eighteen months after the mold therapy, the patient had no recurrence and no metastasis. A search of the literature revealed no previous report of a case of gingival cancer treated with HDR mold brachytherapy in an outpatient.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0271.v2
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: mesothelin; ovarian carcinoma; biomarker; mesothelin-targeting therapy
Online: 9 February 2022 (12:59:34 CET)
Mesothelin is a protein that is expressed in the mesothelial cell lining in the pleura, peritoneum, and pericardium. The gene of mesothelin encodes a precursor protein that is processed to yield mesothelin, which is attached to the cell membrane by a glycophosphatidylinositol linkage and a shred fragment named the megakaryocytic-potentiating factor. The biological functions of this substance in normal cells are still unknown. Experimental studies on knockout mice suggest that this substance does not play an important role in development and reproduction. In contrast, it has been observed that mesothelin is produced in abnormal amounts in several malignant neoplasms, such as mesotheliomas and pancreatic adenocarcinomas. Given that mesothelin is overexpressed in many solid tumours and has antigenic properties, this molecule could be considered a tumour marker or an antigenic target for many malignancies. Many molecular studies also have demonstrated that mesothelin is overexpressed in serous ovarian carcinomas and may bind to ovarian cancer antigen Ca-125, favouring the spread of the tumour in the abdominal cavity. 3 Here, we discuss the current knowledge of mesothelin and focus on its role in clinical and pathological diagnoses as well as its impact on the prognosis in serous ovarian carcinomas. We also briefly discuss the latest progress of mesothelin-targeting therapies for this aggressive and lethal neoplasm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0158.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: low back pain; physical therapy; disability; hydrotherapy
Online: 12 January 2022 (08:23:24 CET)
Low back pain is a common problem in the active population, and the second reason for visiting a physician. In patients with lumbar disc protrusion, the nucleus pulposus bulges against the disc and the latter protrudes into the spinal column, but the annulus fibrosus remains intact. The purpose of this study was to prove that starting an early complex rehabilitation treatment results into pain and disability reduction, and increased muscle strength and mobility in patients with lumbar disc protrusions. We performed a prospective cohort study, enrolling 60 patients (25 men and 35 women) aged between 26 to 76 years, diagnosed with lumbar disc protrusion. Patients in the experimental group registered significant improvements in all studied variables (pain, mobility, muscle strength, disability) after 6 months of treatment. The results of our study suggest that, in the lumbar disc disease, a combined rehabilitation program may be more effective in terms of pain and disability reduction, if it starts early after diagnosis. The current study proves the importance of combining electrotherapy with hydrotherapy and physical therapy. Patients who received this treatment combination showed an extremely significant improvement in pain relief, and reduction of functional disability after 6 months of treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0020.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: P53; mutant p53; targeting therapy; immunotherapy; cancer
Online: 4 January 2022 (20:34:14 CET)
TP53 is a tumor suppressor gene that encodes a sequence-specific DNA-binding transcription factor activated by stressful stimuli and upregulates target genes involved in growth suppression, cell death, DNA repair, metabolism, among others. P53 is the most frequently mutated gene in tumors with mutations not only leading to loss-of-function (LOF), but also gain-of-function (GOF) which promotes tumor progression, and metastasis. The tumor-specific status of mutant p53 protein has suggested it is a promising target for cancer therapy. We summarize the current progress of targeting wild-type and mutant p53 for cancer therapy through biotherapeutic and biopharmaceutical methods for 1) boosting p53 activity in cancer, 2) p53-dependent and p53-independent strategies for targeting p53 pathway functional restoration in p53-mutated cancer, 3) targeting p53 in immunotherapy, and 4) combination therapies targeting p53, p53 checkpoints, or mutant p53 for cancer therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0397.v1
Online: 22 November 2021 (13:54:16 CET)
The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacterial strains, especially in the clinical setting, has renewed interest in alternative treatment methods. The utilization of prokaryotic viruses in phage therapy has demonstrated potential as a novel treatment method against multidrug-resistant bacterial infections. As the post-antibiotic era quickly approaches, the development and standardization of phage therapy is critically relevant to public health. This review serves to highlight the development of phage therapy against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), an antibiotic-resistant bacterial strain responsible for severe clinical infections.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0248.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Bacteriophage therapy; antimicrobial resistance; Salmonella; antibiotic synergy
Online: 15 November 2021 (10:44:07 CET)
The prevalence of multidrug resistant bacterial diseases is a major global health risk. Multidrug resistant bacterial diseases are prevalent, and the need for novel methods of treatment is essential to the preservation of public health. Annually foodborne pathogens cause 1.35 million infections and 26,500 hospitalizations in the United States alone. Foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella spp. are a major threat to public health. Bacteriophages offer a unique method for the treatment of these multidrug resistant bacteria. We studied the infection dynamics of a potential mono-phage therapy of Salmonella typhimurium under various pathophysiological conditions. Furthermore, we determined the resistance dynamics of Salmonella typhimurium against P22 phage treatment. We also determined synergy with antibiotics such as ampicillin and kanamycin. This research helps to further define and show the versatility of bacteriophages as potential novel treatment methods.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0084.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: Parkinson’s disease; gene therapy; mitochondria; genome editing
Online: 3 November 2021 (14:17:16 CET)
Background. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been identified as a pathophysiological hallmark of disease onset and progression in patients with Parkinsonian disorders. Besides the overall emergence of gene therapies in treating these patients, this highly relevant molecular concept has not yet been defined as a target for gene therapeutic approaches. Methods. This narrative review will discuss the experimental evidence suggesting mitochondrial dysfunction as a viable treatment target in patients with monogenic and idiopathic Parkinson’s disease. In addition, we will focus on general treatment strategies and crucial challenges which need to be overcome. Results. Our current understanding of mitochondrial biology in parkinsonian disorders opens up the avenue for viable treatment strategies in Parkinsonian disorders. Insights can be obtained from primary mitochondrial diseases. However, substantial knowledge gaps and unique challenges of mitochondria-targeted gene therapies need to be addressed to provide innovative treatments in the future. Conclusions. Mitochondria-targeted gene therapies are a potential strategy to improve an important primary disease mechanism in Parkinsonian disorders. However, further studies are needed to address the unique design challenges for mitochondria-targeted gene therapies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0187.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: pancreatic cancer; molecular markers; target therapy; nanomedicine
Online: 12 October 2021 (20:45:44 CEST)
Pancreatic cancer leads the most common lethal tumor in America. This lethality is related to limited treatment options. Conventional treatments involve a non-specific use of chemotherapeutical agents like 5-FU, capecitabine, gemcitabine, cisplatine, oxaliplatine, or irinotecan, that produce several side effects. This review we focus on the use of targeted nanoparticles as an alternative to the standard treatment for the pancreatic cancer. The principal objective of the use of nanoparticles is the reduction in side effects that conventional treatments produce, mostly because of their nonspecificity. Currently, several molecular markets of pancreatic cancer cells have been studied to target nanoparticles and improve the actual treatment. Therefore, properly functionalizated nanoparticles with specific aptamers or antibodies can be used to recognize pancreatic cancer cells and once cancer is recognized, these nanoparticles can attack the tumor by drug delivery, hyperthermia, or gene therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0495.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: NUTM1 gene; NUT protein; Neoplasms; Pathogenesis; Therapy
Online: 29 September 2021 (12:17:31 CEST)
Nuclear protein of testis (NUT), a protein product of the NUTM1 gene (located on the long arm of chromosome 15) with highly restricted physiologic expression in post-meiotic spermatids, is the oncogenic driver of a group of emerging neoplasms when fused with genes involved in transcription regulation. Although initially identified in a group of lethal midline carcinomas in which NUT forms fusion proteins with bromodomain proteins, NUTM1-rearrangement has since been identified in tumors at non-midline locations, with non-bromodomain partners and with varied morphology. The histologic features of these tumors have also expanded to include sarcoma, skin adnexal tumors, and hematologic malignancies that harbor various fusion partners and are associated with markedly different clinical courses varying from benign to malignant. Most of these tumors have nondescript primitive morphology and therefore should be routinely considered in any undifferentiated neoplasm. The diagnosis is facilitated by the immunohistochemical use of the monoclonal C52 antibody, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and, recently, RNA-Sequencing. The pathogenesis is believed to be altered expression of oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes by NUT-mediated genome-wide histone modification. NUTM1-rearranged neoplasms respond poorly to classical chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Targeted therapies such as bromodomain and extraterminal domain inhibitor (BETi) therapy are being developed. This current review provides an update of NUTM1-rearranged neoplasms, focusing on the correlation between basic sciences and clinical aspects.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0242.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: PDK1; breast cancer; survival; prognosis; targeted therapy
Online: 14 September 2021 (14:51:06 CEST)
Given that 3-Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) plays a crucial role in malignant biological behaviors of a wide-range of cancers, we further review the influence of PDK1 in breast cancer (BC). First, we describe the power of PDK1 in cellular behaviors and extensively demonstrate the interacting networks of PDK1 via PI3K-dependent/ PI3K-independent pathway. Then we enlighten the roles of PDK1 in carcinogenesis, growth and survival, metastasis, and chemoresistance in BC cells. More important, we sort the current preclinical or clinical trials of PDK1 targeted therapy in BC and find that even though at present no selective PDK1 inhibitor is available for BC therapy, but the combination trials of PDK1 targeted therapy and other agents have demonstrated some benefit. Thus, there is increasing anticipations that PDK1 targeted therapy will have its space in future therapeutic concepts of BC, and we hope to feature PDK1 in BC to the clinic and bring the new promising to patients for targeted therapies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0134.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: Self-Regulation Therapy; coping strategies; emotionality; drugs
Online: 7 September 2021 (17:01:06 CEST)
Background: This study consists of a brief psychological intervention, which uses the Self-Regulation Therapy (SRT, procedure based on suggestion and classical conditioning), to improve coping with stress and emotionality by reproducing the positive effects of illegal drugs: cannabis, cocaine, ecstasy. Method: 15 volunteers (8 males, 7 females), with a mean age of 24.67 (SD = 4.43), underwent intervention to improve their coping with stress and emotionality using SRT. They carried out pre- and post-intervention scores for 10 days and during a 4-week fol-low-up. The employed instruments were: COPE (Coping Skills Inventory) and PNAS (Positive and Negative Affect Schedule). Results: SRT was superior to non-intervention for the 4 coping strategies (2= .829, .453, .411 and .606) and for positive (2= .371) and negative emotionality (2= .419). An improvement in scores was evidenced in the follow-up scores compared to the pre-intervention measures. Conclusions: This study shows for the first time that it is possible to use illegal drugs, considered harmful to public health, to improve young people’s coping capacity and emotionality by reproducing their positive effects with SRT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0044.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: CMV; herpesviruses; peptide therapy; tegument; nuclear egress
Online: 2 September 2021 (14:42:31 CEST)
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) tegument protein pp150 is essential for the completion of final steps in virion maturation. Earlier studies indicated that three pp150nt (N terminal one-third of pp150) conformers cluster on each triplex (Tri1, Tri2A and Tri2B) and extend towards small capsid proteins atop nearby major capsid proteins forming a net-like layer of tegument densities that enmesh and stabilize HCMV capsids. Based on this atomic detail, we designed several peptides targeting pp150nt. Our data show significant reduction in virus growth upon treatment with one of these peptides (pep-CR2) with an IC50 of 1.33 μM. Based on 3D modeling, pep-CR2 specifically interferes with the pp150-capsid binding interface. Cells pre-treated with pep-CR2 and infected with HCMV sequester pp150 in the nucleus indicating a mechanistic disruption of pp150 loading onto capsids and subsequent nuclear egress. To enhance the in-vivo inhibitory potential and bioavailability of pep-CR2, we conjugated it with a carrier molecule (elastin like polypeptide (ELP)). The ELP-pep-CR2 conjugate was expressed in E.coli and purified. Upon treatment with ELP-pep-CR2, HCMV showed significant titer reductions with no significant impact on cell viability. These results indicate that CR2 of pp150 is amenable to targeting by a peptide inhibitor and can be developed into an effective antiviral.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0420.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Hodgkin lymphoma, HIV,; antiretroviral therapy; prognosis; etiopathogenesis
Online: 20 August 2021 (14:08:47 CEST)
Despite widespread use of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) and increased life expectancy in people living with HIV (PLWH), HIV-related lymphomas (HRL) remain a leading cause of cancer morbidity and mortality for PLWH, even in patients optimally treated with cART. While incidence of aggressive forms of non-Hodgkin lymphoma decreased after cART advent, incidence of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) has increased among PLWH in recent decades. The coinfection of Epstein Barr virus plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of HL in the HIV setting. Currently, PLWH with HRL, including HL, are treated similarly to HIV-negative patients and, importantly, the prognosis of HL in PLWH is approaching to that of the general population. In this regard, effective chem-otherapy is strongly recommended since it has been shown to improve survival rates in all lymphoma subtypes, including HL. As a consequence, interdisciplinary collaboration between HIV specialists and hemato-oncologists for the management of potential drug-drug interactions and overlapping toxicities between antiretroviral and antineoplastic drugs is crucial for the op-timal treatment of PLWH with HL. In this article the authors review and update the epidemio-logical, clinical and biological aspects of HL presenting in PLWH with special emphasis in the improvement on prognosis and the factors that have contributed to it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0460.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: melanoma; targeted therapy; elderly people; side effects
Online: 17 June 2021 (13:59:08 CEST)
Purpose: Melanoma’s incidence is increasing, and elderly people could be significantly impacted since the majority occurs in people over 65 years of age. Combined targeted therapies (TT) are current standard regimen for BRAF mutated metastatic melanoma (MM). Except for subgroups of pivotal trials, little data are available for TT in this population. Materials and Methods: Outcomes were explored in real life patients from MelBase, a French multicentric biobank dedicated to the prospective follow-up of unresectable stage III or IV melanoma. Patients treated by BRAF TT and/or MEK TT combined or not, were included from 2013 to 2017 in 2 groups: group 1 <65-year-old (yo), group 2 >65 yo, analyzed for tolerance and efficacy. Results: 353 patients were included: 231 in group 1, 122 in group 2. Median follow-up was 12 months (M). Median time of treatment was 6.9 M. A total of 80% had at least one Adverse Effect (AE). Most frequent AE (all grades) were mainly skin and subcutaneous, general, and gastrointestinal disorders. A total of 31% of AE were grade 3–4: 28% in group 1 and 39% in group 2 (p = 0.05). No differences were observed in all AE grades proportion, dose modifications, interruptions, and discontinuations. For each group, median overall survival was 20.3 M (CI 95%: 15.5–27.9) and 16.3 M (CI: 14.5–26.9), respectively (p = 0.8). Median progression free survival was 7.8 M (6.4–9.9) and 7.7 M (CI: 5.8–11.3) (p = 0.4). Objective response rate was 59% and 50% (p = 0.6). Conclusion: This study on a large multicentric cohort is the first to assess that TT is well tolerated in elderly BRAF-mutated patients such as in patients younger than 65. Efficacy was similar between groups with outcomes reaching those from pivotal studies. There is thus no argument against using TT in elderly people, although an onco-geriatric opinion is welcome for the most vulnerable.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Hodgkin lymphoma, HIV; antiretroviral therapy; prognosis; etiopathogenesis
Online: 2 June 2021 (11:53:29 CEST)
Despite widespread use of combined antiretroviral therapy (ART) and increased life expectancy in people living with HIV (PLWH), HIV-related lymphomas (HRL) remain a leading cause of cancer morbidity and mortality for PLWH, even in patients optimally treated with ART. While incidence of aggressive forms of non-Hodgkin lymphoma decreased after ART advent, incidence of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) has increased among PLWH in recent decades. The coinfection of Epstein Barr virus plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of HL in the HIV setting. Currently, PLWH with HRL, including HL, are treated similarly to HIV-negative patients and, importantly, the prognosis of HL in PLWH is approaching to that of the general population. In this regard, effective chemotherapy is strongly recommended since it has been shown to improve survival rates in all lymphoma subtypes, including HL. As a consequence, interdisciplinary collaboration between HIV specialists and hemato-oncologists for the management of potential drug-drug interactions and overlapping toxicities between antiretroviral and antineoplastic drugs is crucial for the optimal treatment of PLWH with HL. In this article the authors review and update the epidemiological, clinical and biological aspects of HL presenting in PLWH with special emphasis in the improvement on prognosis and the factors that have contributed to it.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Epigenetics; Immunotherapy; Tumor microenvironment; Therapy; Bladder cancer
Online: 8 January 2021 (14:33:21 CET)
Epigenetic alterations are known contributors to cancer development and aggressiveness. Additional to alterations in cancer cells, aberrant epigenetic marks are present in cells of the tumor microenvironment, including lymphocytes and tumor-associated macrophages, which are often overlooked but known to be a contributing factor to a favorable environment for tumor growth. Therefore, the main aim of this review is to give an overview of the epigenetic alterations affecting immune cells in the tumor microenvironment to provoke an immunosuppressive function and contribute to cancer development. Moreover, immunotherapy is briefly discussed in the context of epigenetics, describing both its combination with epigenetic drugs and the need for epigenetic biomarkers to predict response to immune checkpoint blockage. Combining both topics, epigenetic machinery plays a central role in generating an immunosuppressive environment for cancer growth, which creates a barrier for immunotherapy to be successful. Furthermore, epigenetic-directed compounds may not only affect cancer cells but also immune cells in the tumor microenvironment, which could be beneficial for the clinical response to immunotherapy. Thus, modulating epigenetics in combination with immunotherapy might be a promising therapeutic option to improve the success of this therapy. Further studies are necessary to (1) understand in-depth the impact of the epigenetic machinery in the tumor microenvironment; (2) how the epigenetic machinery can be modulated according to tumor type to increase response to immunotherapy and (3) find reliable biomarkers for a better selection of patients eligible to immunotherapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0555.v1
Online: 21 November 2020 (10:50:28 CET)
What do you want to do ?New mailCopyBackground: to analyze the changes that a therapeutic physical exercise program is capable of causing in the functionality of patients suffering from ALS and in addition, to analyze the respiratory capacity. Methods: a systematic review of the PubMed, SCOPUS, Cochrane, SciELO, PEDro, CINAHL and MEDline databases is carried out. The information was filtered using the following MeSH terms: "Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis", "Physical Therapy", "Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine". Clinical trials published in the last 5 years were included in which one of the interventions was therapeutic physical exercise in patients with ALS, which included the ALSFRS-R as a result variable. Results: 10 clinical trials with a total of 421 patients were analyzed, of which 183 underwent rehabilitation with physical exercise and were part of the case group; the rest belong to the control group and their treatment was mostly passive. The observed trend is of a decrease of approximately 6 points in the ALSFRS-R scale at 6 months in the case groups; however, no behavior pattern was met in the controls. Conclusions: Therapeutic physical exercise could contribute to slow down the deterioration of the musculature of people with ALS, thus facilitating the performance of their daily activities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0540.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; physical therapy; rehabilitation; exercise
Online: 20 November 2020 (11:53:01 CET)
Background: to analyze the changes that a therapeutic physical exercise program is capable of causing in the functionality of patients suffering from ALS and in addition, to analyze the respiratory capacity. Methods: a systematic review of the PubMed, SCOPUS, Cochrane, SciELO, PEDro, CINAHL and MEDline databases is carried out. The information was filtered using the following MeSH terms: "Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis", "Physical Therapy", "Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine". Clinical trials published in the last 5 years were included in which one of the interventions was therapeutic physical exercise in patients with ALS, which included the ALSFRS-R as a result variable. Results: 10 clinical trials with a total of 421 patients were analyzed, of which 183 underwent rehabilitation with physical exercise and were part of the case group; the rest belong to the control group and their treatment was mostly passive. The observed trend is of a decrease of approximately 6 points in the ALSFRS-R scale at 6 months in the case groups; however, no behavior pattern was met in the controls. Conclusions: Therapeutic physical exercise could contribute to slow down the deterioration of the musculature of people with ALS, thus facilitating the performance of their daily activities.What do you want to do ?New mailCopy
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0273.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Mycobacterium abscessus, drug treatment, experimental therapy, review,
Online: 12 August 2020 (08:01:41 CEST)
Mycobacterium abscessus is a non-tuberculous mycobacteria notoriously known for causing severe, chronic infections. Treatment of these infections is challenging due to either intrinsic or acquired resistance of M. abscessus to multiple antibiotics. Despite prolonged poly-antimicrobial therapy, treatment of M. abscessus infections often fails, leading to progressive morbidity and eventual mortality. Great research efforts are invested in finding new therapeutic options for M. abscessus. Clofazimine and rifabutin are known anti-mycobacterial antibiotics, repurposed for use against M. abscessus. Novel antimicrobials active against M. abscessus include delamanid, pretomanid and PIPD1 and the recently approved beta-lactamase inhibitors avibactam, relebactam and vaborbactam. Previously unused antimicrobial combinations e.g. vancomycin-clarithromycin and dual beta-lactam therapy have been shown to have synergistic effect against M. abscessus in experimental models, suggesting their possible use in multiple-drug regimens. Finally, engineered phage therapy has been reported to be clinically successful in a severe case of disseminated M. abscessus infection. While many of these experimental therapeutics have shown activity against M. abscessus in vitro, as well as intracellular and/or animal models, most have little if any evidence of effect in humans infections. Clinical studies of M. abscesssus treatments are needed in order to reliably determine the value of their incorporation in therapeutic regimens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0445.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Colorectal cancer; CD133; siRNA; Oxaliplatin; combination therapy
Online: 19 July 2020 (21:01:21 CEST)
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is considered as one of the leading types of cancer in the world. CD133, as a cancer stem cell marker, has a pivotal role in the development of drug resistance, migration, and stemness properties of CRC cells. This study designed to check the combined effect of CD133siRNA and Oxaliplatin on proliferation, migration, apoptosis, and stemness properties of CRC cells in HT-29 cell line.MTT assay was performed to define the combined effect of CD133siRNA and Oxaliplatin on the viability of HT-29 cells. In order to figure out the effect of this combination therapy on CD133 expression at the gene and protein level, qRT-PCR and western blot were exploited, respectively. The ability of cell migration was tested by wound healing assay as well. Also, colony formation and sphere formation were conducted to assess the stemness properties in the combination group. Flow cytometry was conducted to investigate the apoptosis, cell cycle, and surface expression of CD133 in different groups. Finally, the expression of migration-, and stemness-associated genes were measured by qRT-PCR. We indicated that silencing of CD133 reduces the migration and stemness properties of colorectal cancerous cells. This suppression makes HT-29 cells more sensitive to Oxaliplatin and reduces the effective dose of this chemical drug. Therefore, the suppression of CD133 in combination with Oxaliplatin treatment might be a promising therapeutic approach in the treatment of colorectal cancer.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0305.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: multiple sclerosis; tuberculosis; immunosuppressive therapy; Latent tuberculosis
Online: 17 April 2020 (15:34:17 CEST)
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious-contagious disease caused by M. tuberculosis (Koch’s bacillus). About one-quarter of the world’s population is infected with that bacillus and at risk of developing TB disease. Latent tuberculosis corresponds to people who have been infected by TB bacteria but are not (yet) ill. The most vulnerable population to TB activation includes HIV infected, drug abuse and autoimmune disease patients. Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic and autoimmune neurological disease caused by lymphocytic infiltration. Its prevalence worldwide is 22.2 million cases of MS. There is a relation between TB and MS: due to immunomodulation or immunosuppression treatment of MS (reactivation of latent infection), or due to the intense inflammatory response before the infection of the bacillus (increased susceptibility to the development of autoimmune diseases). Screening for TB includes complete patient history, physical exam, chest radiography, and Tuberculin Skin Test or IGRA (Interferon Gamma Release Assay). This investigation is suggested when MS drugs (immunomodulatory and immunosuppressant medications) are prescribed. If a patient has positive results, the treatment for MS should not be delayed for the finishing TB treatment. In this paper, considering the high prevalence of tuberculosis, we recommend that TB screening should be also done at the moment of Multiple Sclerosis diagnosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0212.v1
Online: 13 April 2020 (11:38:46 CEST)
The study evaluates the toxic effects of acute and sub-acute oral administration of methanol extracts of Geophila obvallata in rats. During acute study, a dose of 1600, 2900 and 5000 mg/kg bw of extract was orally administered to rats. Rats were observed for signs of toxicity for two weeks. During sub-acute study (28 days), the extract, at doses of 100, 500 and 1000 mg/kg bw were administered orally to rats while control rats were given only tap water. At the end of the study, samples were collected for analyses. In acute toxicity studies, the extract did not induce death after single dose administration. Hence, the LD50 was estimated above 5000mg/kg. The results of sub-acute toxicity study show that no significant changes were observed in the body weights, organ weights, kidney function and organ histology. There were significant changes in hematology and biochemical indices investigated at elevated doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg bw compared to the control. GOE may be considered non-toxic at a dose of 100 mg/kg with promising applications in drug therapy.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0210.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: COVID-19; oxygen nanobubble; intravenous therapy; ventilator
Online: 13 April 2020 (10:53:28 CEST)
Critically ill patients with COVID-19 may develop serious respiratory difficulties, causing a significant reduction in blood oxygen saturation pressure. Physical Ventilation of the lungs is one of the main methods to help critically ill patients through the acute phase of infection. During extreme situations when dysfunctional lungs are filled with sticky sputum in the alveolus or when there are simply not enough ventilators to match the need, the mortality rate can be dramatically increased. Here, we propose an intravenous injection method that may increase and maintain the blood oxygen pressure at normal levels. The intravenous (IV) infusion contains oxygen nanobubbles in physiological saline solution (ONPS), in which the dissolved oxygen content can be 2-6 times higher than the normal oxygen solubility in pure water. This makes it possible to oxygenate blood with a small limited volume of IV fluid without the risk of gaseous bubble formation in blood vessels.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0271.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: composites; nanoparticles; photodynamic therapy; photosensitizer; titanium dioxide
Online: 19 February 2020 (10:44:08 CET)
Metallic nanoparticles (NPs), among polymeric NPs, liposomes, micelles, quantum dots, dendrimers, or fullerenes, are becoming more and more important due to their potential use in the novel medical therapies. Titanium dioxide (titanium(IV) oxide, titania, TiO2) is an inorganic compound that owes its recent rise in scientific interest to photoactivity. After the illumination in aqueous media with UV light, TiO2 produces an array of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The capability to produce ROS and thus induce cell death has found application in the photodynamic therapy (PDT) for the treatment of a wide range of maladies, from psoriasis to cancer. Titanium dioxide NPs were studied as photosensitizing agents in the treatment of malignant tumors as well as in photodynamic inactivation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Both TiO2 NPs themselves, as well as their composites with other molecules, can be successfully used as photosensitizers in PDT. Moreover, various organic compounds can be grafted on TiO2 NPs, leading to hybrid materials. These nanostructures can reveal increased light absorption allowing their further use in targeted therapy in medicine. In order to improve efficient anticancer therapy, many approaches utilizing titanium dioxide were tested. The most significant studies are discussed in this review.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0021.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: cerebral palsy; robot assisted therapy; EMG; kinematic
Online: 3 January 2020 (02:38:16 CET)
Aim: To develop an index for quantitative assessment of the upper limb motor function in children with cerebral palsy before and after robot-assisted therapy. Method: An upper limb motor function index was developed using kinematic, surface electromyography and three-axis inertial measurements unit data collected from 15 children with cerebral palsy (CP) and 15 typically developed children. Children with CP underwent 18 robot-assisted therapy sessions with the REAplan device. All children were evaluated, using kinematic data from the REAplan, electromyography and three-axis inertial measurements unit readings from its accelerometer. A principal component analysis was conducted to produce an evaluation index, which is able to detect the deviation from the upper limb motor function of typically developing children group. Children with CP were evaluated twice before and after the intervention with Box and Blocks test and Finger-To-Nose test. The discriminative and concurrent validity of the upper limb motor function index were investigated. Results: The upper limb motor function index was higher in children with CP post therapy (p<0.001). Finger-To-Nose test values improved after robot-assisted therapy (p<0.03). A weak but positive correlation was observed between upper limb motor function index and clinical tests (r=0.012, p=0.95 and r=0.13, p= 0.54 for Box and Blocks test and Finger-To-Nose test respectively). Interpretation: The upper limb motor function index successfully differentiated between the typically developing children and children with CP and was effective in assessing the improvement of the upper limb motor function after robot-assisted therapy. The upper limb motor function index could be extended to assess and monitor rehabilitation therapies of other populations, such as those with stroke and Parkinson’s disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0159.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: APL; Therapy; NGS; Resistance; ATO; ATRA; Ascorbate
Online: 14 October 2019 (10:49:36 CEST)
In this review, we highlight new findings that have deepened our understanding of the mechanisms of leukemogenesis, therapy and resistance in APL. PML-RARa sets the cellular landscape of Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) by repressing transcription of RARa target genes and disrupting PML-NBs. RAR receptors control the homeostasis of tissue growth, modeling and regeneration, PML NBs are involved in self-renewal of normal and cancer stem cells, DNA damage response, senescence and stress response. Additional somatic mutations in APL mainly involve FLT3, WT1, NRAS, KRAS, ARID1B and ARID1A genes. Treatment outcomes in patients with newly diagnosed APL improved dramatically since the advent of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (ATO). ATRA activates the transcription of blocked genes and degrades PML-RARα, while ATO degrades PML-RARa by promoting apoptosis and has a pro-oxidant effect. Resistance to ATRA and ATO may derive from mutations in the RARa ligand binding domain (LBD) and in the PML-B2 domain of PML-RARa, but such mutations cannot explain the majority of resistances experienced in the clinic, globally accounting for 5-10% of cases. Several studies are ongoing to unravel clonal evolution and resistance, suggesting the therapeutic potential of new retinoid molecules and combinatorial treatments of ATRA or ATO with different drugs acting through alternative mechanisms of action, which may lead to synergistic effects on growth control or induction of apoptosis in APL cells.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0410.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: long-term care, technology, therapy, virtual reality
Online: 20 September 2018 (13:34:02 CEST)
In this study, 6 residents of a long-term care facility were asked to try on Virtual Reality glasses and report their first experiences with Virtual Reality. The results show that Virtual Reality is of great interest to elderly residents of in-patient long-term care facilities. The wearing period was longer than expected and no symptoms of cyber sickness occurred. For the residents it was exciting to explore the virtual environments. Austrian destinations, nature scenes in the mountains and forests but also trips to the zoo, the museum, in churches or even densely populated areas like shopping streets or train stations would be places for the residents, they would like to explore virtually. Far-off destinations such as Rio de Janeiro or the Caribbean are more of an exception. Biographically relevant places such as the parental home or the location of their wedding were not named. Concerning the usability, an adjustment of the VR glasses is necessary for a longer-term use in any case.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0359.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: flavivirus; Zika virus; therapy; host-directed antivirals
Online: 19 July 2018 (11:45:59 CEST)
Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, was an almost neglected pathogen until its introduction in the Americas in 2015, where it has been responsible for a threat to global health, causing a great social and sanitary alarm due to its increased virulence, rapid spread, and an association with severe neurological and ophthalmological complications. Currently, no specific antiviral therapy against ZIKV is available, and treatments are palliative and mainly directed to symptoms relief, such as fever and rash, by administering antipyretics, anti-histamines, and fluids for dehydration. Nevertheless, lately, a great effort has been made to search for antiviral candidates using different approaches and methodologies, ranging from repurposing of specific compounds with known antiviral activity to the screening of libraries and of natural compounds. The identified antiviral candidates include drugs targeting viral components (structural proteins and enzymes), as well as cellular ones. Here, we present an updated review of current knowledge about anti-ZIKV strategies, focusing on host-directed antivirals as a realistic alternative to combat ZIKV infection.