Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Upper Limb Robotic Rehabilitation for Patients With Cervical Spinal Cord Injury: A Comprehensive Review

Version 1 : Received: 1 November 2021 / Approved: 3 November 2021 / Online: 3 November 2021 (08:35:46 CET)

How to cite: Morone, G.; De Sire, A.; Martino Cinnera, A.; Paci, M.; Perrero, L.; Invernizzi, M.; Lippi, L.; Gandolfi, M.; Agostini, M.; Aprile, I.; Casanova, E.; Marino, D.; La Rosa, G.; Bressi, F.; Sterzi, S.; Giansanti, D.; Battistini, A.; Miccinilli, S.; Filoni, S.; Sicari, M.; Petrozzino, S.; Solaro, C.M.; Gargano, S.; Benanti, P.; Boldrini, P.; Bonaiuti, D.; Castelli, E.; Draicchio, F.; Falabella, V.; Galeri, S.; Gimigliano, F.; Grigioni, M.; Mazzoleni, S.; Mazzon, S.; Molteni, F.; Petrarca, M.; Picelli, A.; Posteraro, F.; Senatore, M.; Turchetti, G.; Straudi, S. Upper Limb Robotic Rehabilitation for Patients With Cervical Spinal Cord Injury: A Comprehensive Review. Preprints 2021, 2021110065 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202111.0065.v1). Morone, G.; De Sire, A.; Martino Cinnera, A.; Paci, M.; Perrero, L.; Invernizzi, M.; Lippi, L.; Gandolfi, M.; Agostini, M.; Aprile, I.; Casanova, E.; Marino, D.; La Rosa, G.; Bressi, F.; Sterzi, S.; Giansanti, D.; Battistini, A.; Miccinilli, S.; Filoni, S.; Sicari, M.; Petrozzino, S.; Solaro, C.M.; Gargano, S.; Benanti, P.; Boldrini, P.; Bonaiuti, D.; Castelli, E.; Draicchio, F.; Falabella, V.; Galeri, S.; Gimigliano, F.; Grigioni, M.; Mazzoleni, S.; Mazzon, S.; Molteni, F.; Petrarca, M.; Picelli, A.; Posteraro, F.; Senatore, M.; Turchetti, G.; Straudi, S. Upper Limb Robotic Rehabilitation for Patients With Cervical Spinal Cord Injury: A Comprehensive Review. Preprints 2021, 2021110065 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202111.0065.v1).

Abstract

The upper extremities limitation represents one of the essential functional impairments in patients with cervical spinal cord injury. Electromechanics assisted devices and robots are increasingly used in neurorehabilitation to help functional improvement in patients with neurological diseases. This review aimed to systematically report the evidence-based, state-of-art on clinical applications and robotic-assisted arm training (RAT) in motor and functional recovery in subjects affected by cervical spinal cord injury. The present study has been carried out within the framework of the Italian Consensus Conference on "Rehabilitation assisted by robotic and electromechanical devices for persons with disability of neurological origin" (CICERONE). PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) databases were systematically searched from inception to September 2021. The 10-item PEDro scale assessed the study quality for the RCT and the AMSTAR-2 for the systematic review. Two different authors rated the studies included in this review. If consensus was not achieved after discussion, a third reviewer was interrogated. The 5-item Oxford CEBM scale was used to rate the level of evidence. A total of 11 studies were included. The selected studies were: two systematic reviews, two RCTs, one parallel-group controlled trial, one longitudinal intervention study and five case series. One RCT was scored as a high-quality study, while the systematic review was of low quality. RAT was reported as feasible and safe. Initial positive effects of RAT were found for arm function and quality of movement in addition to conventional therapy. The high clinical heterogeneity of treatment programs and the variety of robot devices could severely affect the generalizability of the study results; therefore, future studies are warranted to standardize the type of intervention and evaluate the role of robotic-assisted training in subjects affected by cervical spinal cord injury.

Keywords

Cervical spinal cord injury; Arm function; Exoskeleton; Robot-assisted therapy; Robotic therapy; Rehabilitation.

Subject

MEDICINE & PHARMACOLOGY, Clinical Neurology

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