Soh, J.; Hamada, A.; Fujino, T.; Mitsudomi, T. Perioperative Therapy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer with Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors. Cancers2021, 13, 4035.
Soh, J.; Hamada, A.; Fujino, T.; Mitsudomi, T. Perioperative Therapy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer with Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors. Cancers 2021, 13, 4035.
The emergence of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has dramatically changed the treatment landscape for patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). These achievements inspired investigators and pharmaceutical companies to conduct clinical trials in patients with early-stage NSCLC because both adjuvant and neoadju-vant platinum-based doublet chemotherapies (PT-DCs) showed only a 5% improve-ment in the 5-year overall survival. IMpower010, a phase 3 trial (P3), showed that ad-juvant PT-DC followed by maintenance atezolitumab significantly prolonged dis-ease-free survival than adjuvant PT-DC alone (hazard ratio, 0.79; stage II to IIIA). Since conventional therapies, including chemotherapy and radiotherapy, can promote im-munogenic cell death, which releases tumour antigens from dead tumour cells, ICI combination therapies with conventional therapies are widely proposed. Checkmate 816 trial (P3) indicated a significantly higher pathological complete response rate of neoadjuvant nivolumab/PT-DC combination therapy than neoadjuvant PT-DC alone (odds ratio, 13.9, for stage IB to IIIA). Detection of circulating tumour DNA is highly anticipated for the evaluation of minimal residual disease. Multimodal approaches and new ICI agents are being attempted to improve the efficacy of ICI treatment in phase 2 trials. This review presents the development of perioperative treatment using ICIs in patients with NSCLC while discussing problems and perspectives.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.