REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0346.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: mental health; COVID-19; school-going children; lockdown
Online: 22 July 2020 (07:43:01 CEST)
During this epidemic of COVID-19, children are in need of much concentration and profound love of the senior family members. Although the measures taken by the organizations are necessary to prevent the spread of the novel coronavirus, they may be causing widespread mental health issues, including depression and loneliness. Therefore, it is imperative that parents have to spend the lion-share of time with children while listening to them cordially. Parents can participate in sports with them to help them stay fit so that they can enjoy commemorating moments. However, in this additional time, the parents can also make them habituated to practice the rules of health, so does social distancing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0449.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Suicidal ideation; suicide plans; suicide attempts; middle school students; Sierra Leone
Online: 17 November 2020 (12:25:51 CET)
Background: The study aimed to assess the prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation, plans and attempts among middle school students in Sierra Leone. Method: Data from 2,798 adolescents (15 years of median age) that responded to the cross-sectional “2017 Sierra Leone Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS)” were analysed. Results: The prevalence of past 12-month suicidal ideation was 14.2%, suicide plans 16.0%, and suicide attempts 19.1%. In adjusted logistic regression analysis, worry-induced sleep disturbance (Adjusted Odds Ratio-AOR: 1.84, 95% Confidence Interval-CI: 1.32-2.57), bullied (AOR: 2.90, 95% CI: 1.77-4.74), trouble from alcohol use (AOR: 1.90, 95% CI: 1.03-3.50), and leisure-time sedentary behaviour (AOR: 2.42, 95% CI: 1.18-4.98) were associated with suicidal ideation. Bullied (AOR: 2.40, 95% CI: 1.46-3.95) and current cannabis use (AOR: 2.48, 95% CI: 1.51-4.09) were associated with suicide plans in the past 12 months. No close friends (AOR: 2.63, 95% CI: 1.46-4.72) loneliness (AOR: 1.69, 95% CI: 1.08-2.66), bullied (AOR: 2.33, 95% CI: 1.66-3.28), trouble from alcohol use (AOR: 4.01, 95% CI: 2.25-7.13) and current cannabis use (AOR: 2.93, 95% CI: 1.37-6.25) were positively and school attendance (AOR: 0.62, 95% CI: 0.42-0.92) negatively associated with suicide attempts in the past 12 months. Conclusion: Almost one in five students had made suicide attempts in the past 12 months and several associated variables were discovered that can assist in designing interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0523.v1
Online: 26 October 2020 (12:24:42 CET)
Introduction: Enrolment in school in India does not necessarily translate into attendance, and absenteeism is an early indicator of lower levels of academic performance and school dropout and has its origins in early life. EAG states of India already have some of the lowest school enrolment rates; therefore, it becomes necessary to keep the children in school by curtailing absenteeism to reduce the dropout rates. Objective: This study attempts to understand the factors which affect absenteeism and chronic absenteeism in EAG states. Data and Analysis: This study uses IHDS-II (2012) data for children 8-11 years of age currently enrolled in primary school. Bivariate analysis and logistic regression analysis are done. Results: The results show that children were more likely to be absent when experiencing morbidity (OR:1.9, 95% CI 1.6-2.3) got a beating in school (OR:1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.6) and repeating grade morbidity (OR:1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.1). Children were more likely to be chronically absent due to morbidity (OR:1.6, 95% CI 1.3-1.8) and getting beating (OR:1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.6) in school. Fathers schooling of more than five years and the increased time spent by the children in doing homework, parents' involvement in school and performance in Maths reduced their odds of absenteeism and chronic absenteeism. Conclusions: The increased involvement of parents and conducive school learning environment in school could encourage children to take an interest in school activities, prevent the children from being absent which can have curtail dropping out of primary school to some extent.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0498.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: children; resilience; disaster; behavior; school; factor
Online: 25 January 2021 (13:10:04 CET)
Annually, millions of people (including children) across the world face minor to severe impact from natural or human-induced disasters. Diverse models have been conceptualized and adopted at global scale to increase resiliency of children from disasters focusing on preparedness, response and recover. As children spend most of their lives at school or at home, this paper discusses on factors contributing towards improving or degrading resiliency of children from disasters. Giving low priority to institutional resilience, this paper highlights the behavioral aspects of children which becomes their strength on demonstrating appropriate practices to mitigate disaster risks on self at school, home and community. While doing so, attributes from Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behavior has been linked with the components of resilience to explain the causative factors. Adopting desk review, this paper describes behavioral attributes of children and emphasizes on need of having multi-dimensional framework to enhance resiliency of children.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0418.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: COVID-19; vaccination; adolescents; parents; school
Online: 27 July 2022 (10:00:43 CEST)
Objectives: This study assessed the associations between parent intent to have their child receive COVID-19 vaccination, and demographic factors and various child activities including attendance at in-person education or childcare. Methods: Persons undergoing COVID-19 testing residing in Minnesota and Los Angeles County, California with children aged <12 years completed anonymous internet-based surveys between May 10 and September 6, 2021 to assess factors associated with intention to vaccinate their child. Factors influencing parents’ decision to have their child attend in person school or childcare were examined. Estimated adjusted odds rations (AORs, 95% CI) were computed between parents’ intentions regarding children’s COVID-19 vaccination and participation in school and extra-curricular activities using multinomial logistic regression. Results: Compared to parents intending to vaccinate their children (n=4,686 [77.2%]), those undecided (n=874 [14.4%] or without intention to vaccinate (n=508 [8.4%]) tended to be younger, non-White, less educated and themselves not vaccinated against COVID-19. Their children more commonly participated in sports (aOR:1.51 1.17-1.95) and in-person faith or community activities (aOR:4.71 (3.62-6.11). They further indicated that additional information regarding vaccine safety and effectiveness would influence their decision. COVID-19 mitigation measures were the most common factors influencing parents’ decision to have their child attend in-person class or childcare. Conclusions: Several demographic and socioeconomic factors are associated with parents’ decision whether to vaccinate their <12-year-old children for COVID-19. Child participation in in-person activities was associated with parents’ intentions not to vaccinate. Tailored communications may be useful to inform parents’ decisions regarding safety and effectiveness of vaccination.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0378.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: rabies; school children; knowledge; attitude; practice; education; Bhutan
Online: 19 January 2021 (12:42:55 CET)
Rabies is endemic in southern Bhutan and children were reported to be the most frequent victims. We surveyed the knowledge, attitude, and practices on rabies among school children in three schools located in southern Bhutan. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were performed to analyze the level of knowledge and variation of perception towards rabies among secondary school children. A total of 701 students (57.9% female, 42.1% male) had participated in the survey of which 98.2% heard about rabies. Most of the students demonstrated a good level of knowledge (59.7%) and a favorable perception towards rabies (57.7%). Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed the importance of previous rabies awareness campaign increasing the likelihood of positive knowledge about rabies at the individual student and the school level. Similarly, higher grades of students’, employed mothers of the students, and students from villages were associated with more favorable perceptions. Overall, our study in rabies endemic areas of Southern Bhutan showed that most of the students have good knowledge and favorable perception towards rabies. However, we identified several knowledge gaps. Therefore, efforts should be made to address the knowledge gaps through regular awareness programs by actively engaging key stakeholders such as school-teachers and parents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0007.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Robotics Keywords: Social robot; mobile app; e-learning; language education; kindergarden, pre-school
Online: 1 September 2021 (11:46:18 CEST)
We transformed the existing learning program Language Shower, which is used in some Norwegian day-care centers in the Grorud district of Oslo municipality, into a digital solution using an app for smartphone or tablet with the option for further enhancement of presentation by a NAO robot. The solution was tested in several iterations and multiple day-care centers over several weeks. Measurements of the children’s progress across learning sessions indicate a positive impact of the program using a robot as compared to the program without robot. In-situ observations and interviews with day care center staff confirmed the solution’s many advantages, but also revealed some important areas for improvement. In particular, the speech recognition needs to be more flexible and robust, and special measures have to be in place to handle children speaking simultaneously.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0093.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: children; face masks; school; cognitive impairment; concentration
Online: 6 December 2021 (17:31:38 CET)
In the current Sars-CoV-2 pandemic, wearing a face mask was mandatory and is still desired during school lessons. There are no controlled studies in children to date indicating an effect on cognitive performance wearing face masks. In a randomized controlled trial, we analysed the influence of face masks on cognitive performance of pupils during regular school lessons. Pupils (n=133, 5th to 7th grade) were randomized by alternating allocation into control (with masks, n=65) and intervention groups (without mask, n=68). After two school lessons with (control) and without (intervention) face masks in class all pupils performed digital tests for cognitive performance regarding attention and executive functions (Switch, CORSI block tapping, 2-back and flanker task). Overall, there were no significant differences in cognitive performance between both groups, masks vs. no masks. Wearing face masks has no significant influence on attention and executive functions of pupils and can still be recommended during school lessons.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0447.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic; school closures; school-aged children; physical activity; screen time; sleep; Hong Kong
Online: 29 July 2022 (03:57:32 CEST)
Despite concerns about the negative effects of social distancing and prolonged school closures on children’s lifestyle and physical activity (PA) during the COVID-19 pandemic, robust evidence is lacking on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on children’s wellbeing and daily life. This study aimed to examine changes in the PA levels, sleep patterns and screen time of school-aged children during the different phases of COVID-19 outbreak in Hong Kong using a repeated cross-sectional design. School students (Grades 1 to 12) were asked to report their daily electronic device usage and to fill in a sleep dairy recording their daily sleep and wake-up time. They were equipped with a PA monitor, Actigraph wGT3X-BT, to obtain objective data on their PA levels and sleep patterns. Students were recruited before the pandemic (Sep 2019 – Jan 2020; n=577), during school closures (Mar 2020 – Apr 2020; n=146), and after schools partially reopened (Oct 2020 – Jul 2021; n=227). Our results indicated lower PA levels, longer sleep duration, and longer screen time among participants recruited during school closures than those recruited before the COVID-19 outbreak. Primary school students were found to sleep on average for an extra hour during school closures. Our findings illustrate the impact of social distancing policies during the COVID-19 pandemic on the sleep pattern, screen time, and PA level in school-aged children in Hong Kong. Professionals should reinforce the importance of maintaining a physically active lifestyle, good sleep hygiene, and healthy use of electronic devices to parents and school-aged children during the COVID-19 Pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1011.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Vitamin B12 deficiency; Folate deficiency; School-age children; Adolescents; CNNS
Online: 15 May 2023 (09:45:12 CEST)
Deficiencies of vitamin B12 (B12) and folate (FA) are of particular interest due to their pleiotropic role in 1-carbon metabolism. In addition to adverse birth outcomes, deficiencies of B12 and FA, or an imbalance in FA/B12 status, are linked to metabolic disorders. Indian diets that are predominantly plant food-based could be deficient in these vitamins, but there are no national estimates of the prevalence of B12 and FA deficiency in Indian children and adolescents, nor of their associations with age, sex, and growth indicators. The recent Comprehensive National Nutrition Survey (CNNS-2016-18) provided estimates of the prevalence of B12 and FA deficiency at the national and state level among preschool (1-4y: 9,976 and 11,004 children respectively), school-age children (5-9y: 12,156 and 14,125) and adolescents (10-19y: 11,748 and 13,621). Serum B12 and erythrocyte FA were measured by the direct chemiluminescence method and their deficiency was defined using WHO cut-offs. The prevalence of B12 and FA deficiency was high among adolescents (31.0%, CI: 28.7-33.5 and 35.6%, CI: 33.1-8.2), compared to school-age (17.3%, CI: 15.4-19.3 and 27.6%, CI: 25.5-29.9) and preschool children (13.8%, CI: 11.7-16.2 and 22.8%, CI: 20.5-25.2, respectively). The prevalence of both B12 and FA deficiency was significantly higher by 8 and 5% points respectively, in adolescent boys compared to girls. The prevalence of B12 deficiency was higher in moderately stunted school children (by 18.9% points) than in normal children, but no such difference was observed for FA deficiency. There was wide regional variation in the prevalence of B12 and FA deficiency, but no rural-urban differences were observed across all age groups. The national prevalence of B12 deficiency among preschool or school-age children was <20% (the cut-off that indicates a public health problem). However, FA deficiency in these age groups and both FA and B12 deficiencies in adolescents were >20%, which warrants further investigation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0048.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: attentional functions; primary school; KiTAP; healthy children; gender; delays
Online: 2 November 2018 (10:25:44 CET)
This research revealed the children with difficulties in attentional functions in healthy children attending primary school and aimed to identify the possible socio-demographic factors such as child’s age, gender and school’s grade that could influence attentive performance. The participants were 105 children aged 6-10 years (M age=8.6; SD=1.04), 57 females, attending primary schools. Family economic condition attested mostly at a medium level (63.5%) and parents had more frequently 13 years of schooling. The computerized test KiTAP was administered to children to assess attentional functions. Results showed higher frequency of omissions and false alarms and a reduced speed in Alertness, Go/No go and Sustained Attention tasks comparing to Italian norms. A series of hierarchical regression analyses were run with school grade, gender and current age as independent variables and mean reaction times (and standard deviation), number of omissions and of false alarms as dependent ones. Results showed male gender and attending a lower primary school grade impacting on lower attentional performance in several subtests. Females showed the best performances in distractibility and impulsive reaction tendencies tests, while higher school grade positively influenced the divided and sustained attention. These results could be useful to identify children with major attentional difficulties and some recommendations for futures studies and implement attention empowerment programmes were proposed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1857.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: sports club membership, primary school, children, physical activity, health
Online: 27 September 2023 (08:48:41 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic globally had worrisome effects on health-promoting behaviors of children. Currently, the impact on primary school children's membership in sports clubs, especially considering gender differences, is poorly studied. The main objective of this study was to analyze the status of sports club memberships among children in Austria after the stringent COVID-19 restrictions in June 2021 and to identify gender differences. 755 Austrian school children (mean age 9.9 years, 49.9% girls) were interviewed about their sports club memberships. Our results show significantly lower self-reported sports club membership in June 2021 compared to pre-pandemic studies. 50% of boys reported being a member of a sports club, while the percentage for girls was only at 29.7% (p<0.001). Besides, a significant gender difference in the type of sports club membership was observed with most boys being members of ball sports clubs, while girls were more likely to be members of other sports clubs (p<0.001). Reduced rates of sports club membership after the COVID-19 pandemic underline the need of intervention programs. Health authorities, schools, sports clubs and families should form an alliance to promote an overall increase of physical activity and thus to support the long-term healthy development of children.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0148.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: oveweight; obesity; public policy; nutrition education; malnutrition; school
Online: 12 September 2022 (12:26:50 CEST)
Being overweight or obese is a public health problem. This work evaluated a food and nutrition education (EAN) intervention against overweight schoolchildren in four schools in the West Panama Province. A quasi-experimental before-and-after study that implemented a 34-week EAN intervention through workshops with didactic material to 403 children between 8 and 13 years old. The knowledge and attitude survey was used as an evaluation tool before and after the educational intervention. The prevalence of excess weight (40%) did not report differences after the intervention. No differences were reported in the median level of attitude, although higher levels of knowledge were reported in students of both sexes. EAN in schoolchildren can be effective in acquiring knowledge and maintaining a positive attitude towards food.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0443.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: learning disorders; working memory; school-age children; EEG power spectral density; source localization; sLORETA
Online: 18 September 2020 (18:54:54 CEST)
Learning disorders (LD) are diagnosed in children whose academic skills of reading, writing or mathematics are impaired and lagged according to their age, schooling and intelligence. Children with LD experience substantial working memory (WM) deficits, even more pronounced if more than one of the academic skills is affected. We compared the task-related EEG power spectral density of children with LD (n= 23), with a control group of children with good academic achievement (n= 22), during the performance of a WM task. sLoreta was used to estimate the current distribution at the sources, and 18 brain regions of interests (ROIs) were chosen with an extended version of the eigenvector centrality mapping technique. In this way, we lessen some drawbacks of the traditional EEG at the sensor space by an analysis at the brain sources level over data-driven selected ROIs. Results: The LD group showed fewer correct responses at the WM task, an overall slower EEG with more theta activity in all ROIs, less upper-alpha power at posterior areas, and less high-frequency beta activity in frontal areas. We explain these EEG patterns in LD children as indices of an inefficient neural resource management related with a delay in the neural development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0278.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: knowledge; food consumption behaviors; hematocrit level; school-age children
Online: 19 October 2022 (10:06:28 CEST)
Anemia is a significant public health problem among children, especially school-age children because their body quickly produces red blood cells to provide sufficient blood volume with plasma expansion to maintain blood concentration. This research aimed to study the anemia situation, knowledge about anemia, food consumption behaviors, and the association between knowledge, food consumption behaviors, and hematocrit level among school-age children in primary school, in Thasala district, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province. This is a descriptive study among 408 students, Grades 4 to 6, aged 9-12 years. Research instruments included the demographic data of the children and their knowledge about anemia, food consumption behaviors, and hematocrit assessment. Data were analyzed using descriptive, Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient, and logistic regression statistics. The results revealed that 23.2% of the samples had anemia, whereas 22.22% had mild anemia and 0.98% had moderate anemia. The children knew about anemia, where the mean score was at a moderate level (Mean= 6.63; SD= 2.51) out of 10. The mean score on food consumption behaviors was in the moderate level (Mean= 17.49; SD= 3.68) out of 24. There were significantly positive correlations between the knowledge about anemia and the hematocrit level at a moderate level (r= 0.45, p< 0.001). Correlation analysis revealed moderate food consumption behaviors with the hematocrit level (r= 0.40, p< 0.001). When confirm with Logistic regression found that knowledge about anemia (OR = 9.15, 95% CI: 4.57-18.34), and food consumption behaviors (OR = 19.09, 95% CI: 9.71-37.53) were significantly associated with the hematocrit level. Conclusions: This study showed that knowledge and appropriate food consumption behaviors are associated with hematocrit levels. Enhancing knowledge about anemia and food consumption behaviors may be reduced the prevalence of anemia in school-age children. The health care providers in primary care should be encouraged children to have health education and eat sufficient food.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: body posture defects; the shape of anterior-posterior spinal curvatures; body composition; school-children
Online: 11 April 2020 (05:38:01 CEST)
The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between the shape of the anterior-posterior curvature of the spine and body composition in school-children. The study included 257 children, aged 11-12. Correct spinal curvature was established in 106 (41.08%) subjects. Other types included: decreased kyphosis and correct lordosis - 40 participants (15.50%), correct kyphosis and decreased lordosis - 24 individuals (9.30%), increased kyphosis and correct lordosis - 17 subjects (6.59%), correct kyphosis and increased lordosis - 22 children (8.53%), decreased kyphosis and decreased lordosis - 32 people (12.40%), decreased kyphosis and increased lordosis - 4 of the examined subjects (1.55%), increased kyphosis and lordosis - 13 people (5.04%). In addition, 134 (51.94%) demonstrated scoliotic posture and 8 (3.10%) scoliosis. There were significant relationships between the shape of the anterior-posterior curvatures and body composition in school-children. Those with a strong body build (predominance of mesomorphs) were generally characterised by the correct formation of these curvatures. In contrast, lean people (with the predominance of ectomorphic factors) were more likely to experience abnormalities. No correlations with body composition were observed in the group with scoliotic posture or scoliosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0057.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: ultra-processed products; school feeding; nutrient profiling model
Online: 3 December 2021 (14:57:38 CET)
Unhealthy diet is an important health problem in the region of the Americas, and Uruguay does not escape this reality. Nutritional problems in Uruguayan school-age children are overweight and obesity. Caloric intake is excessive for 60% of children and 28% of calories come from ultra-processed products (UPP) [CODICEN 2021] [MIDES 2020) (Köncke, Toledo, 2021). In 2018, an evaluation of food intake was conducted in a representative sample of public schools in the city of Montevideo. Food and preparations were categorized according to the NOVA system, later they were analyzed according to the Pan American Health Oganization nutrient profile model (PAHO NPM). Only 0.52% of children consumed exclusively natural foods, unprocessed, minimally processed or culinary ingredients. Twenty-five percent of children consumed ≥ 4 products categorized with excessive content of free sugars, total fat or saturated fat according to the PAHO NPM; in the case of excessive sodium this was 40%. In general, children who included products with excessive free sugars, sodium or saturated fat in their diet exceeded the limits established by PAHO and as a result their diet is of poorer nutritional quality compared to children who did not consume such products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0517.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Neurofeedback; Learning Disorders; Working Memory; School-age Children; EEG Power Spectrum; Source Localization
Online: 21 May 2021 (09:53:46 CEST)
Learning disorders (LD) are diagnosed in children impaired in the academic skills of reading, writing and/or mathematics. Children with LD usually show a slower resting-state electroencephalogram (EEG), with EEG patterns corresponding to a neurodevelopmental lag. LD-children also show a consistent cognitive impairment in working memory (WM), including an abnormal task-related EEG with an overall slower EEG activity of more delta and theta power, and less gamma activity in posterior sites; task-related EEG patterns considered indices of an inefficient neural resource management. Neurofeedback (NFB) treatments aimed at normalizing the resting-state EEG of LD-children have shown improvements in cognitive-behavioral indices and diminished EEG abnormalities. Given the typical findings of a WM impairment in LD-children; we aimed to explore the effects of a NFB treatment in the WM of children with LD, by analyzing the WM-related EEG power-spectrum. We recruited 18 children with LD (8-10 years old). They performed a Sternberg-type WM-task synchronized with an EEG of 19 leads (10-20 system) twice in pre-post treatment conditions. They went through either 30 sessions of a NFB treatment (NFB-group, n= 10); or through 30 sessions of a placebo-sham treatment (Sham-group, n= 8). We analyzed the before-after treatment group differences for the behavioral performance and the WM-related power-spectrum. The NFB group showed faster response times in the WM-task post-treatment. They also showed an increased gamma power at posterior sites and a decreased beta power. We explain these findings in terms of NFB improving the maintenance of memory representations coupled with a reduction of anxiety.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0159.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: eye-tracking; reading modality; audio-assisted reading; text type; reading comprehension; school-age children
Online: 5 September 2023 (02:26:49 CEST)
This study examined the eye movement patterns of 317 elementary students across reading conditions (audio-assisted reading (AR) and reading-only (R)) and text types (fiction and non-fiction), and identified eye movement parameters that predict their literal comprehension (LC) and inferential comprehension (IC). Participants, randomly assigned to either reading condition and either text type, answered questions assessing their LC and IC. Average fixation duration (AFD), total fixation duration (TFD), and scanpath length were used as eye movement parameters. There were main effects of age on all parameters and interaction effects between age and reading condition on TFD and scanpath length. Controlling for age, TFD had a positive impact on LC of both text types in the AR, while under the R, it affected negatively on IC of both text types. Longer scanpaths predicted IC of fiction in the AR, LC and IC of non-fiction under the AR, and LC of non-fiction within the R. AFD influenced negatively on IC of fiction in the AR, LC and IC of non-fiction in the AR, and LC of non-fiction under the R. These eye movement patterns and predictors indicate children employ different reading strategies based on reading modality and text type.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0451.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: academic lessons; moderate-to-vigorous physical activity; MVPA; whole-school; physical activity; physically active learning; PAL
Online: 18 December 2020 (11:11:07 CET)
Background: A large majority of primary school pupils fail to achieve 30-minutes in-school moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The aim of this study was to investigate MVPA accumulation and subject frequency during academic lesson segments and the broader segmented school day. Methods: 122 children (42.6% boys; 9.9±0.3yrs) from six primary schools in North East England, wore uniaxial accelerometers for eight consecutive days. Subject frequency was assessed by teacher diaries. Multilevel models (children nested within schools) examined significant predictors of MVPA across each school-day segment (lesson one, break, lesson two, lunch, lesson three). Results: Pupils averaged 18.33±8.34 minutes of in-school MVPA and 90.2% failed to achieve the in-school 30-minute MVPA threshold. Across all school-day segments, MVPA accumulation was typically influenced at the individual level. Lesson one and two - dominated by Math and English - were less active than lesson three. Break and lunch were the most active segments. Conclusion: This study breaks new ground, revealing MVPA accumulation and subject frequency varies greatly during different academic lessons. Morning lessons were dominated by the inactive delivery of Math and English, whereas afternoon lessons involved a greater array of subject delivery that resulted in marginally higher levels of MVPA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0111.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS); Slovak school children; mental health; physical health; Columbia Impairment Scale; Behavioral Problem Index
Online: 7 May 2018 (09:23:27 CEST)
ETS exposure has been shown as an important environmental risk factor in vulnerable population groups. The aim of the project is to analyze the relationships among the ETS and behavior and health in 6−15-year-old children in Slovakia. The status of physical and mental health of children in relation to exposure to tobacco smoke was examined in the representative group of 1478 school children. The methods used, included anonymous questionnaires ﬁlled in by parents, Columbia Impairment Scale (CIS), Behavior Problem Index (BPI) and anthropometry. The prevalence of passive smoking is the highest in the capital (27%) and southern cities. Significant relationships have been confirmed between ETS and the age, socio-economic status, the incompleteness of the family, the level of mother's education and the significantly higher prevalence of respiratory diseases (26.7%).The relationships of ETS with emotional (CIS scores ≥16) and behavioral functions (BPI score ≥14) were significant in children exposed to mother‘s and father‘s smoking at home. In the multivariate analysis this association was not significant; the factors such as income and completeness of the family were dominant. The results confirmed the impact of ETS and social factors on health state and health behavior and could be the argumentation for legislative changes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0562.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: health equity; implementation; obesity; systematic review; CFIR; qualitative review; school-based interventions; children; facilitators
Online: 30 November 2022 (03:59:34 CET)
Background: Health inequity (HI) remains a major challenge in public health. Improving the health of children with low socioeconomic status (SES) can help to reduce overall HI in children. Childhood obesity is a global problem, entailing several adverse health effects. It is crucial to assess influencing factors for adoption, implementation and sustainment of interventions. This review aims to identify articles reporting about influencing factors for the implementation of school-based interventions promoting obesity prevention behaviors in children with low SES. It aims to critically appraise the articles’ quality, assess influencing factors, categorize and evaluate them, and to discuss possible implications. Methods: A systematic search was conducted in 7 databases with the following main inclusion criteria: 1) school-based interventions and 2) target group aged 5–14 years. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research, its five domains (intervention characteristics, inner setting, outer setting, characteristics of individuals, process) along with 39 constructs within these domains were used to deductively analyze the data. We grouped the articles with regard to the characteristics of the interventions in simple and complex interventions. For each domain, and for the groups of simple and complex interventions, the most commonly reported influencing factors are identified. Results: 6452 articles were screened, and 16 met all eligibility criteria. Included articles applied mixed methods (n=10), qualitative (n=5) and quantitative design (n=1). Of these, five were considered to report simple interventions and eleven were considered to report complex interventions. In total, 295 influencing factors were assessed. Aspects of the inner setting were reported in every study, aspects of the outer setting were the least reported domain, and in the group of simple interventions not reported at all. In the inner setting, most reported influencing factors were time (n=7), scheduling (n=6) and communication (n=6). Conclusion: This review found a wide range of influencing factors for implementation. Most important influencing factors need to be assessed for every setting. Including all stakeholders involved in the implementation process enhances the prioritization of the most important influencing factors for the specific setting. More empirical research and practical guidance are needed to promote obesity prevention behaviors among children with low SES.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0560.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Antimicrobial Resistance, stewardship, community, school, students, e-bug, education, pharmacists, India
Online: 23 November 2018 (11:33:55 CET)
Abstract Introduction: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a recognised public health threat today globally. Though many active and passive stewardship strategies are employed to counter AMR clinically, educating school going children on AMR could be a futuristic cost-effective measure to minimize AMR development. We hypothesised NICE’s e-bug module to class VII school students on AMR determinants. Methodology: A prospective non-randomized intervention study on 327 students belonging to 9 schools of class VII around Manipal town, Udupi district, Karnataka state, India were included for the study. 10 questions on AMR determinants extracted from NICE’s e-bug program were quizzed in written as pre-test followed by an education intervention on the same questions followed by a post-test to end the session. Descriptive statistics to estimate epidemiological characteristics, Wilcoxon Signed Ranks and Kruskal-Wallis tests were applied to analyse statistical significance of pre/post-test performance scores for the 10 questions and between schools respectively Results: Students had inadequate knowledge on 7 AMR determinants (antimicrobial indication, its course, hand hygiene, fermentation, spread of infection, microbial multiplication and characteristics of microbe) when analysed for post-test performance (p<0.05). Comparison of post-test performance of 9 participating schools revealed statistical significance (p<0.05) for 3 questions (definition on antimicrobial, cover while cough/sneezing and microbial characteristics) Conclusion: Although students exhibited sub-optimal knowledge on few AMR determinants, they showed keenness to learn exhibited by their performance. Our findings and previous similar studies from Europe are suggestive of early pedagogic interventions on AMR through inclusion of such education modules in the curriculum could be potential tool for AMR prevention for future generations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0157.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Biodiversity; Representations; school program; primary school; secondary school; Education for sustainable development.
Online: 5 September 2023 (02:19:03 CEST)
The preservation of biodiversity has become a major concern in contemporary society. It is essential to understand teachers' representations of biodiversity to effectively guide educational efforts because of the significant role of education in raising awareness and promoting sustainable behavior. Through a survey of a sample of 118 teachers, we adopted a mixed-method approach combining both a closed questionnaire and interviews. We used these methods to explore teachers' representations of the concept of biodiversity as an integral part of the school curriculum, as well as to gather their views on certain features of its teaching. The results state that the majority of teachers perceive biodiversity as a whole and in its most complex relationships. During their professional experience, they have developed a biocentric and anthropocentric conception of biodiversity. This study provides valuable information to guide future pedagogical practices and educational policies in sustainable education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1858.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Weighted student funding; School financial management; Principal leadership; School innovations; Failing school
Online: 27 June 2023 (08:25:25 CEST)
Weighted Student Funding (WSF) systems have been implemented in various countries to give schools more autonomy over how to allocate their funding. School principals use funding to maintain school operations and foster innovation for achieving educational goals. However, despite the importance of this process, scholarly research has largely overlooked how principals make decisions about their financial resources. Accordingly, this study seeks to provide practical insights into the strategies used by one school by highlighting their staff’s perceptions about using their WSF to maintain school operations and spur innovation. Using a case study approach, we investigated a principal who effectively used a school’s WSF to transform a failing school into an innovative one. The findings revealed that the principal strategically implemented financial management mechanisms in a way that inspired teachers to deeply consider how a school's WSF can help achieve educational goals. The principal fostered consensus on the school's direction, encouraged innovation through hands-on experiential learning and strategic planning, and facilitated funding for innovative teachers by guiding proposal development. Insights into the shifting cultural and practical landscape of financial resource utilization within schools are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0372.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: School governance; General education innovation; School Autonomy.
Online: 30 June 2020 (11:49:23 CEST)
Innovation in general education governance is one of the development trends not only in Vietnam but also in the world. This is also an important measure to change and improve the quality of education, especially expand autonomy of high schools and universities. The paper focuses on some main contents: overview of general education; the experiences of some countries in the implementation of the school administration model towards the school autonomy model so that give lessons for Vietnam’s education can be learned in the context of development conditions nowadays. The results in this work would be used to classify the schools into the various groups. The data also analysts on decision-making capability, on what we called an “index of school autonomy”, expressed the possible level of school-level decision-making.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0335.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: knowledge; attitude; practice; children’s oral health practice; school going children; rural area
Online: 21 May 2020 (04:01:10 CEST)
Introduction: Oral health knowledge, beliefs and attitudes of parents have a direct influence on their child’s oral health maintenance, dietary habits and encourage healthy behaviors. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, and attitude of parents with regards to the oral health practice of their children and its associated factors. Methods: A self -administered structured questionnaire was administered to parents or guardians of learners aged 5 to 12 years at a low socio-economic rural primary school in the uGu district, KwaZulu Natal, South Africa to collect demographic variables, knowledge of dental health, use of toothbrush, use of toothpaste, dietary practices and dental visits; practice with respect to dental care and attitudes towards oral health. The questionnaire was translated from English to IsiZulu was used. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to assess the association between parent’s sociodemographic factors with their oral health knowledge and practice scores. Results: One hundred and forty four completed survey instruments were received with an eighty percent (118) representation of mothers. Ninety five percent of the parents (136) had a positive attitude towards oral health with 86% (124) of the children brushed their tongue and 89% (128) of the children brushed their teeth happily. The mean knowledge score was 70% with a median of 72%. Children were significantly more likely to brush their tongues (AOR: 3.20 95% CI: 1.06-9.66) and were more likely to be happier when brushing their teeth (AOR: 4.65 95% CI: 1.41-15.38) when the caregivers were their mothers, and when parents had an above average knowledge score (AOR: 1.86 95% CI: 0.72-4.85) and had positive attitudes (AOR: 3.20 95%CI: 0.46-22.00). Conclusion: To reduce the gaps in knowledge, oral health promotion should be integrated into all point of care contact with parents at health facilities, increased community awareness and advertising campaigns as well as a more focused school health oral program that addresses primary prevention, screening and appropriate referrals to health facilities
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: school health; child/adolescent health; health education; health promotion; school nutrition; school health; policy
Online: 22 April 2019 (11:57:43 CEST)
Supporting the implementation of school food and nutrition policies (SFNPs) is an international priority to encourage healthier eating among children and youth. Schools are an important intervention setting to promote childhood nutrition, and many jurisdictions have adopted policies, guidelines, and programs to modify the school nutrition environment and promote healthier eating. The purpose of this study was to explore the association between perceived adequacy and capacity for SFNP implementation on food availability and policy adherence in the province of Nova Scotia (NS), Canada, one of the first regions in Canada to launch a comprehensive SFNP. A cross sectional online survey was conducted in 2014-15 to provide a current-state of policy implementation and adherence. Adequacy and capacity for food policy implementation was used to assess policy adherence through the availability of prohibited ‘minimum’ nutrition foods. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted on a selected of available foods and ‘slow’ and ‘quick’ service food composition measures were dichotomized for food availability. Schools with above perceived average adequacy and capacity for policy implementation had more than three times (3.62) greater odds of adhering to a lunch policy, while schools that adhered to a snack and lunch policy had 52% and 82% lower odds of serving quick service foods, respectively. This study identified the need for appropriate adequacy and capacity for policy implementation to ensure policy adherence and improve the school food environment. These findings highlight the potential of SFNPs to have a positive impact on childhood nutrition, but adequately supporting their implementation is critical to ensure their impact.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0462.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: adolescents; dating violence; school social climate; school social support
Online: 22 October 2020 (12:07:46 CEST)
(1) To analyse the potential association between school social support CECSCE and school social climate CASSS and experiences of dating violence among adolescents in Europe; (2) Cross-sectional design. We recruited 1,555 participants age 13-16 from secondary schools in Spain, Italy, Romania, Portugal, Poland and UK. The analysis in this text concerns student with dating experience (n=993) (57.2% of girls and 66.5% of boys). The association of the exposure to physical and/ or sexual dating violence, control dating violence and fear was measured by calculating the prevalence ratios (PR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI), estimated by Poisson regression models with robust variance. All the models were adjusted by country and by sociodemografic variables; (3) The results show that the average values of all types of social support are significantly lower in young people who have suffered any type of dating violence or were scared of their partner. The likelihood of suffering physical and/or sexual dating violence decreased when CECSCE increased [PR (CI95%): 0.96 (0.92; 0.99)]. In the same way, the likelihood of fear decreased when CASSS classmates increased [PR (CI95%): 0.98 (0.96; 0.99)]; (4) There is an association between school social support and school social climate and experiences of dating violence among adolescents in Europe. Our results suggest that in the prevention of dating violence, building a supportive climate at schools and building / using the support of peers and teachers should be important.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0006.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Covid-19; School Closure; Elementary School; Emotional Symptoms; Japan
Online: 2 June 2020 (14:58:33 CEST)
In Japan, schools were suddenly closed all over the country with one month left at the end of the school year to prevent the spread of new coronavirus infections. Although previous studies have shown that quarantine and isolation have a negative impact on mental health, the impact of school closure on children's mental health is not clear. This study examined mental health indicators, such as emotional symptoms, in addition to behavior during school closure and anxiety after school resumes, among children in three primary schools for which survey data existed in December before school closure. No cases of infection have been confirmed in the area where the school was located at the time of the survey. As a result, anxiety about whether they would be able to return to their normal routine after school resumed was associated with mental health. In addition, there was a worsening of emotional symptoms in those who were in medium group of school adjustment as of December.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2041.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: school effectiveness (research); SER; school performance/outcomes; systematic literature review
Online: 30 August 2023 (07:07:40 CEST)
This paper aims to provide a systematic review of the literature on school effectiveness, with a focus on identifying the main factors that contribute to successful educational outcomes. The research question that this paper aims to address is: What are the main factors of school effectiveness? The research was interested in several descriptors such as school, effectiveness/efficiency theories, effectiveness/efficiency research, and factors. Studies were reviewed through two databases: JSTOR and ERIC (published within the 2016-2022 period). The paper defines several categories that are exposed within school effectiveness research. Within these categories, various factors that affect the students’ outcomes and the defined effectiveness at school are listed. As the results show, the issue of school effectiveness is a multifaced challenge as the effectiveness of schools is a complex concept that can be measured through various indicators such as academic achievement, student engagement and teacher satisfaction. The review of school effectiveness has revealed that several factors contribute to effective schools, such as strong leadership, effective teaching practices, a positive school culture and parental involvement. Additionally, school resources, such as funding and facilities, can impact school effectiveness, particularly in under-resourced communities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0299.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: vocational interests; interests inventory; high-school students; middle-school students
Online: 20 December 2021 (09:50:31 CET)
Vocational interest inventories are widely used by career counselors to help individuals to make career choices. The most common approach to assess vocational interests is based on verbal or textual stimuli. However, some of them are based on pictorials to overcome reading limits and provide additional information about the working environment and the activities related to a particular job. This article aims to present two studies on the development and first validation of the Multilingual Iconographic Professional Interest Inventory (MIPII) on two samples, one composed of 792 high-school students, and one composed of 366 middle school students. The inventory aimed to assesses the vocational interests of people over 19 areas by illustrations representing 95 jobs, five for each one, combined with their title in six different languages (Arabic, German, English, Spanish, French and Italian in this order). Both illustrations and titles are provided separately in the male and female version on the same page.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0287.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Transition decisions; Secondary School; School tracks; Revealed students’ preferences; Satisfaction; Quantitative method; Optimization
Online: 13 August 2021 (08:33:25 CEST)
This study aims to better understand students who attend the Basic Vocational Training Cycles (FPB) regarding the measures to ensure diversity. This quantitative research project approximates the perception of students concerning their passage through their previous studies and their satisfaction and goals after finishing the school year. The sample con-sists of 352 students from Cordoba (Spain). A questionnaire has been used which follows the CIPP model. After the exploratory factor analysis was completed with the different groups of items and their descriptive analysis, various tests were carried out to consider the hypotheses (Pearson's correlation (r), one-factor analysis of variance and repeated ANOVA measures). The results indicate that the educational interest of the students is ac-ademic and professional. Likewise, there is no relationship detected between the appear-ance of socio-professional goals and average academic levels and the attributions with re-spect to repetitions of previous courses, although these goals vary depending on the satis-faction shown by the students with respect to the cycles. We conclude that the course of the FPB influences the adoption of decisions regarding academic-professional projects.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0193.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: piezoelectric tiles; school; sustainability; prototype
Online: 13 January 2022 (14:00:01 CET)
With the depletion of natural resources, it has become a topic of great concern to address the unsustainable way of life. In this study, we investigate the use of piezoelectric material - to generate electricity in schools. The use of these piezoelectric materials in floor tiles could enable us to generate energy from the footsteps of the children in school. The goal is to be able to power lights and fans in classrooms and reduce the consumption of conventional electricity - produced through the combustion of coal and other natural resources. The primary method of research is to develop a prototype with different choices of material and configurations of piezoelectric transducers to maximize power generation in a typical school setting. The results showed that the energy generated from one step needs to be improved by a factor of 100 for a typical classroom to generate enough power for a light and a fan. The research found that current technology although promising is incapable of producing enough power via piezoelectric tiles in a school setting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0390.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: school; water; sanitation and hygiene
Online: 18 August 2020 (12:07:32 CEST)
Background: Ongoing Primary and Secondary Education Development Program (PEDP & SEDP) has led to increase in enrollment of children in schools. This created a high demand for facilities such as classroom, chairs, laboratories, latrines and water supply. Water and latrines did not receive equal attention like others. National strategic plan for School Water Sanitation and Hygiene (SWASH) 2012-2017 was to address such challenges with objectives to improve SWASH by 2017. Hence this study aimed to evaluate the implementation of SWASH program in Ukerewe. Methodology: A cross sectional survey was done among 42 schools in the district with 40 schools being government owned. Systematic random sampling was used and data were collected using a structured interview which was pre-tested and amended prior to conducting fieldwork. UNICEF, WASH in Schools Monitoring Package observational check-list was used to assess sanitation facilities. Results: Findings from this study showed the latrine-hole to student ratio was 1:71 with only 31.3% of the latrines being in good clean condition and about half (59.5%) of the schools have no facilities for washing hands. For the schools with hand washing facilities only 21.4% have an effective hand washing practice (presence of soap and water). The most common source of water used was lake water (35.7%) with (42.9%) having water storage facilities. Conclusion: The study shows that most of the objectives of national strategic plan are yet to be implemented at Ukerewe. There is a need for minor repairs to complete new construction of SWASH facilities in Ukerewe.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0274.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: medical school; admissions; MCAT; COVID-19
Online: 11 February 2021 (10:21:35 CET)
As medical schools cope with the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic, a new cohort of students will be admitted in the fall. Administrators are again challenged to make unprecedented enrollment decisions without standardized exams. This challenge provides unique opportunities to support holistic admissions but also abruptly bypasses a process that has been employed since 1928. This article highlights key factors that are being considered during current medical school admission cycles, including limited opportunities to take standardized exams, heightened student anxiety, and potential exam alternatives. These factors are framed and discussed within the context of the medical college admission test (MCAT) exam.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0069.v3
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: high school; student; leisure; leisure constraints
Online: 18 May 2018 (05:54:20 CEST)
The aim of this research is to determine the factors that may prevent high school students from participating in recreational activities and to investigate whether these factors differ within the scope of various variables. This study consisted of total 1459 (681 women and 778 men) student volunteers who educated in high school level. Sampling method was preferred for easy sampling. The face-to-face survey method was used to collect the data. The "Leisure Constraints Scale" developed by Alexandris and Carroll (1997) and adapted to Turkish by Gürbüz, Öncü, and Emir (2012) was used to determine the factors that might prevent individuals from participating in leisure activities. The data obtained for the research were first transferred to the computer and then analyzed by SPSS packet program. The error margin level in the study was taken as p<0.05. The cronbach alpha of the study was found to be 0.91. As a result, it was found that women participated in the leisure time more than men. It was also observed that the participants met with more leisure constrain in Turkey's eastern regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0055.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: religious, children, Reading books, school, Iran
Online: 18 July 2016 (10:48:05 CEST)
Transmission of values and religious concepts to children is one of the most important issues in the third millennium and it has drawn varied and different views among experts and scholars in the world. Research specialized in religious literature for children and adolescents create new capacities in the presentation of religious concepts to the group. Plans have been considered to transfer values and religious concepts in the curricula of primary school children in the group in Iran. It is one of the topics that the authors note to the introduction of the minutiae of religion in the first three elementary grades. In this study, the collection and analysis methods providing content related to the minutiae of religion in reading books the first till third sections of the years 2013-2015. In addition, the plan includes aspects of other branches of religion in these books on information collected from text books that collected and classified. The result is that "definitely good and forbidding the evil" and "prayer" have the highest frequency of applications in the selected books. Further branches made of branches of religion in these books, represents the values of religious, moral and social as well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0351.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: family-school; home-school; parent engagement; family engagement; parent involvement; recruitment; prevention; intervention; mental health; partnership
Online: 12 March 2021 (20:10:14 CET)
Parent education programs, offered via family-school partnerships, offer an effective means for promoting the mental health and educational functioning of children and adolescents at a whole-of-school level. However, these programs often have low uptake. This study aimed to identify strategies for increasing the uptake of parent education programs within preschool and school settings. A three-round Delphi procedure was employed to obtain expert consensus on strategies that are important and feasible in educational settings. First, thirty experts rated statements identified from the literature and a stakeholder forum. Next, experts re-appraised statements, including new statements generated from the first round. Ninety statements were endorsed by ≥ 80% of the experts. Primary themes include strategies for program selection, strategies for increasing the accessibility of programs and the understanding of educational staff on parent engagement and child mental health, strategies for program development, promotion, and delivery, as well as strategies for increasing parent and community engagement. This study offers a set of consensus strategies for improving the uptake of parent education programs within family-school partnership.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0908.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: health; bodyweight; well-being; adolescents; HRQoL; school
Online: 14 November 2023 (10:22:52 CET)
Adolescents experience rapid physical, cognitive, and psychosocial growth with different factors that contribute to health and well-being. In this view, an important role is played by body weight and its perception. The aim of this study was to determine, in a sample of Italian late adolescents, whether health related quality of life (HRQoL) is associated with the different weight status categories (underweight, normal weight, overweight, obese), even considering sex differences. Data were collected from 1826 adolescents (n=735 males). HRQOL was analyzed using the Italian version of KIDSCREEN-52. Overweight adolescents showed a reduced psychological well-being (p<0.05) and self-perception (p<0.05), then other BMI categories. Subjects with obesity reported an increased bullying victimisation (p<0.05), reduced self-perception and eating disorders (p<0.001), while underweight were characterised by an altered adherence to the Mediterranean diet (p<0.001), eating disorders (p<0.001), and problematic use of social media (p<0.05). No sex differences were found, except for socio-economic status perception, where underweight girls reported a higher economic well-being than boys (p<0.05). Our results may suggest that there is an association between weight status categories and HRQoL, more pronounced in underweight and overweight adolescents. The association between BMI categories and psychosocial dimensions opens the need to define specific domains on which such preventive interventions should focus, always through a personalized perspective.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0435.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Museology Keywords: school heritage; Collegio Nazareno; cataloging; Joseph II
Online: 7 November 2023 (10:00:42 CET)
School-museum relations have gained considerable attention in the academic literature in recent decades. However, there still needs to be more research on their role in enhancing science education. This work reports the outcomes of the recovery, study, and valorization of the 18th-century geo-mineralogical collection belonging to the Collegio Nazareno, now housed at the Istituto San Giuseppe Calasanzio in Rome. The project consisted of four phases: 1) the securing of more than 1720 specimens; 2) their cataloging using the Italian national catalographic standards for the mineralogical and petrological heritage; 3) the establishment of new exhibit and storage areas; 4) the development of a self-instructive exhibition itinerary. The project, which was participated by the students enrolled in the fourth and fifth high school classes, revealed fascinating and unique specimens such as the ones collected by prominent Italian naturalists –e.g., Scipione Breislak (1750–1826) and Carlo Giuseppe Gismondi (1762–1824) – or those comprising the mineralogical collection donated by the Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II (1741–1740) to the Mineralogical Cabinet of the Collegio Nazareno in 1785. This work thus offers significant insights into the importance of natural history school museums as useful (and oft-forgotten) learning tools in science education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1891.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: parental pressure; academic; achievement; school; students; survey
Online: 30 October 2023 (09:43:00 CET)
This research aims to investigate the effects of parental pressure on students' academic achievement at the school level. The research objectives include examining the relationship between parental pressure and academic achievement and identifying potential moderating variables. A sample of middle and high school students will be utilized in this study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0928.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: social stigma; Psychotic disorders; Faculty; School teachers.
Online: 14 September 2023 (10:57:32 CEST)
Abstract Psychiatric care in Spain has experienced relevant changes both in the legislative and conceptual frameworks. This new approach advocates for the combination of carrying out mental health promotion, prevention of alterations and early diagnosis and treatment, enhancing actions against stigma and emphasising the attention on the most vulnerable groups, like childhood and youth. For that, it has seen fit to perform a nursing intervention on Education and Promotion of mental health for teachers and counsellors of a secondary school located in Valencia, with the general objective of assessing their impact on stigma. Non-randomised clinical trial in which a nursing intervention on Education and Promotion of mental health was performed. Pre-intervention tools: multiple choice test validated by a group of experts; pre and post-intervention: AQ-27 (stigma attribution); in order to check its acceptance, satisfaction surveys were used. The inferential analysis included the Wilcoxon Test (pre and post AQ-27) and the Pearson Correlation Test for the quantitative variables of interest. Sample (n=22): women aged 47.96 ± 10.12 years with 18.64 ± 10.34 years of work experience. The predominant stigmatising attitude before and after intervention was “Coercion”. The ones with lower score were “Segregation” and “Anger”. The p-values obtained in the Wilcoxon Test were statistically significant (p-value <0.05) except for “pre and post Responsibility” and “pre and post Pity”. The following constructs of interest were faced: “Age” vs “Fear” (r= -0.48, moderate), “Professional experience” and “Fear” (r= -0.46, moderate) and “Help” and “Psychosis test” (r= 0.51, severe). The overall satisfaction score was 9/10. Despite the scores obtained in “Coercion” and “Psychosis”, the intervention was useful for reducing stigma in the sample.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0208.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: behaviour change; digital intervention; COVID-19; school
Online: 15 March 2022 (11:05:30 CET)
The rapid transmission of COVID-19 in school communities has been a major concern. To ensure that mitigation systems were in place and support was available, a digital intervention to encourage and facilitate infection control behaviours was rapidly adapted and optimised for implementation as a whole school intervention. Using the person-based approach, ‘Germ Defence’ was iteratively adapted, guided by relevant literature, co-production with Patient and Public Involvement representatives, and think aloud interviews with forty-five school students, staff, and parents. Suggested infection control behaviours deemed feasible and acceptable by the majority of participants included handwashing/hand-sanitising and wearing a face covering in certain contexts such as crowded public spaces. Promoting a sense of collective responsibility was reported to increase motivation for the adoption of these behaviours. However, acceptability and willingness to implement recommended behaviours seemed to be influenced by participants’ perceptions of risk. Barriers to the implementation of recommended behaviours in school and at home primarily related to childcare needs and physical space. We conclude that it was possible to rapidly adapt Germ Defence to provide an acceptable resource to help mitigate against infection transmission within and from school settings. Adapted content was considered acceptable, persuasive, and accessible.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0257.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: health education; secondary school; physical education teacher
Online: 18 October 2021 (15:42:33 CEST)
Preparation of students for adult life also includes the area of health care. Health education is part of the core curriculum of Polish schools. The leading role of the health educator is assumed by the physical education teacher, but many other educational tasks are carried out by all school staff. The present study attempts to answer the question: How is health education implemented at school? The research project was carried out among students of various colleges in the city of Szczecin in Poland. At the same time, similar studies were conducted among students from other university in other cities. The research method was a diagnostic survey, with the main assessment tool being the ‘Questionnaire for Assessment of Implementation of Physical Education at Secondary School’ by Krystyna Górna-Łukasik from the Jerzy Kukuczka Academy of Physical Education in Katowice. On the basis of the study results, an attempt was made to determine the forms and methods of work and the involvement of various types of teachers in health education. The statistical analysis sought correlations between the students' opinions about the ways in which the curriculum content was implemented, university majors, and PE teachers’ sex.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0636.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: motivation; self-regulated learning; transition; secondary school
Online: 26 September 2020 (13:40:55 CEST)
Transition from primary to secondary school is more successful when students’ learning is consistent. Students are also more likely to enjoy the school, engage with learning, and have a high academic achievement in the secondary school when they feel motivated. This is a critical aspect especially in cases when global pandemics situations allow only the online schooling opportunity. Students that are away from school lack the traditional sources of motivation and self-regulated learning skills, thus research is needed to identify other important factors that can be developed in remote settings. The aim of this study was to find out how students perceive their experience with the transition from primary to secondary school and how such a transition influences students’ self-regulated learning (SRL) and motivation. Self-reported data were collected during the COVID-19 breakout from a total of N=80, 6th and 7th grade students aged 12-14 years old. Results showed that students had a successful transition, especially when they are supported by their parents and teachers. Next, Bivariate Pearson Correlation analysis indicated that students’ perceptions about their experience with the transition from primary to secondary school and their self-regulated learning and motivation are significantly correlated. No gender differences were found among all main study variables.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0087.v2
Online: 27 July 2020 (08:38:04 CEST)
South America has become the new epicenter of the coronavirus, especially in Brazil where the disease continues to spread exponentially across the country. This text aims to analyze the psychosocial factors of Covid-19 on back to school strategies in Brazil from a bioecological perspective. At the microsystem level, the population is experiencing different levels of stress and fear; at the mesosystem level, changes in routines, separation from family and friends, and closure of schools; and at the macrosystem level, national guidelines to control the pandemic, institutional standards on a national and international scale. Therefore, the main focus for the success of school return must be in the prevention of contagion and with physical and psychological health, and should not only consider the demands of curricula, financial or administrative management. For this reason, it is paramount that greater female representativeness is increased in decision-making levels of the meso and macrosystem, regarding the resumption of school and academic activities in the pandemic period, since the number of female leaders in decision-making, is still insufficient.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0253.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Disasters, Preparedness, Lembang Fault, Community Base, School
Online: 27 February 2019 (11:55:21 CET)
This research was conducted on the Maribaya Timur school community in Lembang Subdistrict, West Bandung Regency, Indonesia, which is an active community in the area that is threatened by the potential for earthquake disasters due to the active Lembang fault. Disaster risk reduction efforts are pursued through increasing school-based preparedness that involves members of the school community, surrounding communities and various institutions that are associated with reducing the risk of school-based earthquake. Increasing preparedness against earthquakes focuses more on aspects of capacity building of school communities in reducing disaster risk, while aspects of vulnerability and threats have not been the focus of disaster risk reduction. The steps taken refer to the element of preparedness by aligning with the conditions, needs and potential that exist in the school community. Theoretically, if the school community has preparedness to face an earthquake disaster, the risk of earthquake disaster in the school community will be reduced so that it can minimize losses, victims and suffering that will be caused by the earthquake disaster.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0005.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: School manager; knowledge management practices; Organizational processes
Online: 1 October 2018 (11:38:31 CEST)
Knowledge management gains space within the school organization and can contribute satisfactorily to the quality of teaching. In everyday life the school manager intuitively uses knowledge management practices without exploiting the potentials they offer or allow. In this context, the purpose of this work is to identify the level of implementation of knowledge management practices aimed at structuring the organizational processes used by the public school manager. The methodology adopted was exploratory, with a qualitative and quantitative approach. For data collection, an already validated instrument with twenty-seven questions was used. Respondents to the questionnaires, one hundred and eleven managers of the basic education schools that make up the public school system in a city in the northwestern region of Paraná, Southern Brazil. In analyzing the results, it was only at this point that we investigated only those practices that were related to the structuring of organizational processes. This decision is justified because of the responsibilities of the school manager in the execution of his work. The results indicated that the school in its daily life, makes use of practices of Knowledge Management related to the structuring of the organizational processes and that many are already applied by the managers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0329.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: school connectedness; substance abuse; LGBTQ youth; bullying
Online: 26 April 2018 (04:47:30 CEST)
Transgender youth experience elevated levels of victimization and may therefore report greater drug use than their cisgender peers, yet little is known about protective factors like school belonging that may mediate this relationship. Further, scant research has explored the experiences of youth at the intersection of transgender identity and youth of color status or low socioeconomic status, especially with respect to these multiple minority statuses’ associations with peer victimization, drug use, and school belonging. Using data from the California Healthy Kids Survey, the current study employs structural equation modeling to explore the relationships among school belonging, peer victimization, and drug use for transgender youth. Findings indicate that school belonging does mediate the pathway between peer victimization and drug use for transgender youth and that although youth of color experience greater victimization, they do not engage in greater drug use than their white transgender peers. Based on these results, those concerned with the healthy futures of transgender youth should advocate for more open and affirming school climates that engender a sense of belonging and treat transgender youth with dignity and fairness.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0114.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: WASH; school; developing countries; costing; financing; cost
Online: 16 March 2017 (09:28:52 CET)
Despite the success of recent efforts to increase access to improved water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) globally, approximately one-third of schools around the world still lack adequate WASH services. A lack of WASH in schools can lead to the spread of preventable disease and increase school absences, especially among women. Inadequate financing and budgeting has been named as a key barrier for integrating successful and sustainable WASH programs into school settings. For this reason, the purpose of this review is to describe the current knowledge around the costs of WASH components as well as financing models that could be applied to WASH in schools. Results show a lack of information around WASH costing, particularly around software elements as well as there is a lack of data overall for WASH in school settings as compared to community WASH. This review also identifies several key considerations when designing WASH budgets or selecting financing mechanisms. Findings may be used to advise future WASH in school programs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0113.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: pedestrian; traffic; ultrafine particles; school; children; exposure
Online: 26 October 2016 (10:31:30 CEST)
Walking School Buses (WSBs) provide a safe alternative to being driven to school. Children benefit from the contribution the exercise provides towards their daily exercise target, it gives children practical experience with respect to road safety and helps to relieve traffic congestion around the entrance to their school. Walking routes are designed largely based in road safety considerations, catchment need and the availability of parent support. However, little attention is given to the air pollution exposure experienced by children during their journey to school, despite the commuting microenvironment being an important contributor to a child’s daily air pollution exposure. This study aims to quantify the air pollution exposure experienced by children walking to school and those being driven by car. A school was chosen in Bradford, UK. Three adult participants carried out the journey to and from school each carrying a P-Trak ultrafine particle (UFP) count monitor. One participant travelled the journey to school by car while the other two walked, each on opposite sides of the road for the majority of the journey. Data collection was carried out over a period of two weeks, for a total of five journeys to school in the morning and five on the way home at the end of the school day. Results of the study suggest that car commuters experience lower levels of air pollution dose due to lower exposures and reduced commute times. The largest reductions in exposure for pedestrians can be achieved by avoiding close proximity to traffic queuing up to intersections, and, where possible, walking on the side of the road opposite the traffic, especially during the morning commuting period. Major intersections should also be avoided as they were associated with peak exposures. Steps to ensure that the phasing of lights is optimized to minimize pedestrian waiting time would also help reduce exposures. If possible, busy roads should be avoided altogether. By the careful design of WSB routes, taking into account air pollution, children will be able to experience the benefits that walking to school brings while minimizing their air pollution exposure during their commute to and from school.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0496.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: School feeding programme; Osun Elementary School Feeding and Health Programme (O-MEALS); enrolment and retention; rural pupils; primary schools
Online: 26 November 2021 (10:08:06 CET)
School Feeding Programmes are social safety net interventions providing educational and health benefits to vulnerable children in developing countries. This study assessed the impact of Osun Elementary School Feeding and Health Programme (O-MEALS) on the enrolment and retention of rural primary schools in Osun State. Multi stage sampling technique was used to select 188 respondents while data was collected through interview schedule. Percentages, Chi-square, PPMC and T-test were used for data analysis. Findings revealed that over half (51.6%) of the respondents were male, aged 9.38 ± 1.84 years and majority (83.0%) had a family size of 6-10 people. Food incentives (=1.25), health challenge (=0.69), and peer influence (=0.67) were major factors affecting school attendance. More than half (53.2%) of the respondents had unfavourable perception towards the school feeding programme. Results showed a significant difference between pupils’ enrolment (t = 5.332, p = 0.006) and retention rate (t = 58.386, p = 0.000) before and after the commencement of O-MEALS. Furthermore, pupils’ enrolment and retention (r = 0.993, p = 0.001) after the commencement of O-MEALS was significantly related. Food incentive was a major factor affecting school attendance, which fostered an improvement in the poor enrolment and retention previously experienced. Since a good number of the pupils possessed unfavourably perception towards the school feeding programme, it was recommended that effective monitoring be established to checkmate food vendors’ activities in delivering quality and satisfactory services. Likewise, the Government’s policies on school restructuring and levy, which had proved counterproductive, should be reviewed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0590.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Physical education; COVID-19; primary school; self-efficacy; work engagement; school closure; classroom teachers; digital competence; online teaching; lockdown
Online: 26 July 2021 (15:41:22 CEST)
This study aimed to evaluate whether primary school classroom teachers reported changes in physical education teaching self-efficacy (SE-PE) and work engagement (WE) during the first COVID-19 wave. Six-hundred-twenty-two classroom teachers filled in an online questionnaire on SE-PE and WE, referring to before and during the lockdown, and on perceived digital competence. While controlling for perceived digital competence, a mixed between-within Repeated Measures Multivariate Analysis of Covariance (RM-MANCOVA) was performed, with a two-time (before vs. during the lockdown) and three age-categories (≤40 vs. 41-50 vs. ≥51 years) factorial design. The RM-MANCOVA revealed that perceived digital competence significantly adjusted teachers’ SE-PE and WE values (p<0.001). The analysis yielded a significant multivariate main effect by time (p< 0.001) and by time × age-categories (p=0.001). Follow-up univariate ANCOVA showed significant differences by time in teachers’ SE-PE (p<0.001) and WE (p < 0.001), with a reduction of both values from before to during the lockdown. A Bonferroni post hoc pairwise comparisons showed teachers’ SE-PE significantly decreased in all age categories (p<0.001). The present findings confirm the importance of promoting SE-PE among primary school teachers, regardless of the crisis due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Teachers’ self-efficacy and WE are essential to master the challenges of PE teaching.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0492.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: sustainable cooperation; evolutionary game theory; school; enterprise; government
Online: 7 September 2023 (10:15:37 CEST)
Promoting close and sustainable cooperation between schools, enterprises, and government has become an important concern in many countries. Based on evolutionary game theory, this paper constructs a tripartite evolutionary game model of schools, enterprises, and government in order to analyze the stability of strategies of the different players. The results show that the main factor that influences the stability of the strategies of schools and enterprises is the reward of positive cooperation from sources other than the government, and the main factor that influences the stability of the strategy of the government is the benefit of positive cooperation strategy under the scenario where schools cooperate with enterprises. Therefore, the government should focus on implementing more effective policies, such as increasing the incentives and penalties, improving the mechanism for managing conflicts, ensuring the fairness of benefits distribution, and clarifying the responsibilities of different departments; schools should focus on providing more practical curricula and programs for students, training high-quality teachers, and perfecting talent cultivation to meet the needs of enterprises; and enterprises should focus on providing job experiences for students and transforming the results of schools’ teaching and theoretical research into practical productivity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0864.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Covid-19; death education; children; primary school; spirituality
Online: 13 July 2023 (12:34:48 CEST)
Background: The Covid-19 pandemic has globally impacted the lives of individuals, families, and children. In Italy, measures such as lockdowns and distance learning were implemented in schools, which affected the mental health of children and families. Methods: This article employs qualitative methodology to explore the experiences of children, parents, and teachers during the pandemic and lockdown, as well as the implementation of a death education project aimed at primary school children to help them process emotions and losses experienced during this period. Results: Distance learning posed challenges to the learning process and exacerbated social inequalities. Children suffered from limited social contact with friends and experienced negative emotions, including anger, fear, and concern for the health of their loved ones. The death education project provided a safe space for emotional expression and facilitated the acquisition of coping strategies. Open communication between adults and children about illness and death proved effective in mitigating the psychological impacts of loss and preventing traumatic bereavement. Conclusions: The findings highlight the utility of death education in enhancing children's ability to express their emotions and approach the topic of death morefrankly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0214.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: rural environment; sustainability; educational projects; representation; school geography.
Online: 14 October 2022 (13:48:13 CEST)
Rural environment has experienced changes as a result of Covid-19, which encourage the introduction of sustainability in education. However, the representation of rurality in school geography and in the 2030 Agenda are factors that continue to present rurality as a concept opposed to urban spaces. The objective was to investigate the perception that the student has about the rural environment from an instrument and his drawings to understand if the explanation of it allows to introduce elements related to sustainability in educational projects. The quantitative research approach allows analyzing the psychometric properties of an instrument to measure the perception of the rural environment of a sample of 300 fifteen-year-old students from Brazil, Colombia and Spain. Those school knowledges that idealize rurality warn of the pedagogical difficulties to promote the teaching of rurality from sustainability criteria and condition the formation of students from a citizenship committed to social problems. This study is important because it diagnoses the elements that intervene in the teaching of rurality from school geography and provides some suggestions to include sustainability in educational projects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0154.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: sports participation; junior middle school students; prosocial behavior
Online: 8 September 2021 (14:21:00 CEST)
Based on the 2014-2015 China Education Panel Survey (CEPS) and using the propensity score matching method, we studied the causal relationship between physical exercise and prosocial behavior of junior middle school students in China. Ordinary least squares regression and propensity score matching estimation results showed that participation in physical exercise significantly increases students’ prosocial behavior by more than 0.2 standard points. The results of this study were tested and found to be robust.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0115.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Health Status; National Survey; KSA; School Health; Students
Online: 7 September 2021 (09:59:44 CEST)
The Ministry of Health (MOH) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) established a National School-based Screening Program (NSBSP) for health screening of school-going children. Students from specific grades were systematically screened for several health problems including obesity, visual and auditory problems, dental cavities, scoliosis, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of these health problems among primary school students based on secondary data obtained from the NSBSP. We included 444,259 screened school children from the 1st and 4th grades of 50% of the selected schools (both private and public) across the KSA during the academic year 2018-2019. Among them, the most prevalent health problems identified were dental cavities (38.7%), eye refractory errors (10.9%), and overweight and obesity (10.5%); the less prevalent problems included ADHD (2.81%), auditory problems (0.6%), and scoliosis (0.48%). A greater prevalence of most health problems was observed in girls than boys. The NSBSP successfully aided the detection of health conditions with high and low prevalence among primary school students in the KSA, and thus, identification of health problems of specific concern. Implementation of effective school health services for the prevention, early detection, diagnosis, and treatment of these health problems is imperative.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0580.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Exercise; Sport; Team Sport; Resilience; Identity; Health; School
Online: 26 July 2021 (14:24:29 CEST)
Covid-19 restrictions impacted many people’s daily lives through infection, fear of infection and the implementation of restrictions on movement. Restrictions and fear of contamination impacted physical activity patterns activity and increased mental health issues globally across a variety of ages. This re-issue of a questionnaire sought to examine the impact of Covid-19 restrictions on frequency of physical activity, participation in sports, wellbeing and symptoms of anxiety and depression in Irish adolescents. 3,021 adolescents from 61 post-primary schools in the Republic of Ireland completed questionnaires. Consistent with a previous issue of the questionnaire, a minority of adolescents were found to meet the WHO’s physical activity guidelines (11.6% of males and 5.2% of females) although there were large decreases in 1st year males and females. Adolescents reporting elevated symptoms of depression increased from 39% to 46% with almost 3 in 5 females reporting symptoms of depression ranging from mild to extreme. Highest levels of wellbeing were found in adolescents who participated in 3 or more sports, although there was an 8% reduction in the amount of adolescents who participated in 3 or more sports. There were no changes in physical activity levels overall, despite changes within sub-groups and patterns of physical activity. There was a clear increase in symptoms of depression, with females impacted more than males. Previously active individuals were more likely to increase activity and therefore report higher levels of mental health while those who were less active were more likely to decrease activity and report lower mental health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0338.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: parental warmth; gratitude; prosocial behavior; school climate; adolescent
Online: 14 June 2021 (09:09:26 CEST)
Parental warmth plays an important role in the development of adolescents’ physical and mental health. There are numerous empirical studies indicating a relationship between parental warmth and prosocial behavior among adolescents, although the underlying mechanisms of this association remain unclear. Adopting a longitudinal design across two time points, the present study proposes a moderated mediation model to explore the mediating role of gratitude and the moderating role of the school climate between parental warmth and prosocial behavior. The sample consisted of 943 participants (483 boys and 451 girls) who participated in the second assessment and completed questionnaires assessing gratitude, school climate, and prosocial behavior in April 2019. Their parents participated in the first assessment and completed a questionnaire pertaining to parental warmth in October 2018. After controlling for the gender and age of the adolescents, the results showed that the positive association between parental warmth and prosocial behavior is mediated by gratitude, and school climate does play a moderating role in the second half of the mediating path. Specifically, the school climate can play a protective role in adolescents with low levels of gratitude. For adolescents with less gratitude, a strong school climate can promote more prosocial behaviors and can effectively alleviate the negative prediction of low levels of gratitude. This study provides a theoretical explanation for the generation of adolescents’ prosocial behavior, and provides theoretical guidance for the interventions of schools and parents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0126.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: municipality; profession; school leaders; retention and working conditions
Online: 4 June 2021 (08:23:20 CEST)
This article reports on the findings of a research project examining how to create a profession that is attractive and fulfilling for new and existing school leaders in two different municipalities in Sweden. The project set out to explore how work environments, career structures, salaries, and working conditions can contribute to attracting, retaining, and motivating school leaders to stay longer in the profession. To realise this objective, the study adopted a qualitative research design. Data was collected by carrying out semi-structured interviews with a sample of five school leaders in two different municipalities to investigate their experiences and views of the profession. The findings demonstrate that school leaders’ working conditions play a more critical role in their decisions to stay or leave the profession than financial compensation. The study also shows an unequal allocation of resources, both in terms of support functions and the limited time available for in-service education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0290.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: creativity; high ability; scientific creativity; secondary school students
Online: 12 April 2021 (12:34:19 CEST)
Abstract: Abstract: The objective of this article is to analyze the dimensions of creativity concerning students with high abilities. Firstly a review of the most relevant scientific contributions on creativity is carried out. Next the dimensions of creativity in secondary school students who have been previously identified as high- ability students are analyzed. Those abilities associated to di-vergent thinking were assessed by means of the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking . The flu-ency, flexibility and originality dimensions were assessed with the Scientific-Creative Thinking Test (TPCC, ). The results obtained evidence that high-ability students achieve greater scores in both the figurative creativity and scientific-creativity dimensions. A significant relationship between creativity and high ability can therefore be established. This study is of an exploratory nature and the results obtained contribute to develop future studies in application of its findings in the teaching-learning process..
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0068.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Humanities Keywords: humanistic values; principal's leadership; a character school environment
Online: 2 November 2020 (19:21:43 CET)
This research described the fundamental inspiration behind the implementation of a humanistic approach to the principal's leadership and the steps of the principal's humanistic approach that have an impact on optimizing the implementation of the program for strengthening character education. This research used a qualitative approach, a case study design. The data collection was performed through in-depth interviews, participant observation, and documentation studies to achieve the research objectives. Data analysis used a modified analytic analysis method. The level of credibility, transferability, dependability, and confirmability was the basis of data validity. The research findings explained that personal excellence (integrity, wholeness, and self-authenticity) and the humanistic spirituality of inspirational figures inspired the principal’s humanistic approach. In addition, the application of the principal's humanistic approach had adequate impacts on optimizing the implementation of a program for strengthening character education and influenced the strengthening of the student's character. Through the principal's humanistic approach, school becomes an environment for empowering the character of the students.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0371.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: General education; Basic education; School governance; Secondary education.
Online: 30 June 2020 (11:45:45 CEST)
In Vietnam, general education includes primary education, lower secondary education (the period of basic education) and upper secondary education (the period of vocational orientation education). In particular, primary education is compulsory for all children from 6 to 14 years old, is implemented in 5 school years, from first grade to fifth grade. The age of students entering first grade is six years old. Primary education aims to help students form the initial foundations for proper and long-term development of morality, intelligence, physicality, aesthetics and basic skills for students to continue high school. Secondary education is conducted in four school years, from grade six to grade nine. Students entering sixth grade must have an elementary school diploma. Secondary education aims to help students consolidate and develop the results of primary education; have basic secondary education and initial knowledge about technology and career to continue high school, vocational high school, vocational training or enter a working life. High school education is conducted in 3 school years, from grade ten to grade twelve. Students entering tenth grade must have a junior high school diploma. High school education is aimed at helping students consolidate and develop the outcomes of lower secondary education, complete high school education and common knowledge about technology and career guidance for further college education, college, professional secondary school, apprenticeship or enter the working life. Thus, the term general education is a term with broad connotation including primary education, lower secondary education (basic education period) and upper secondary education (education period) career orientation. Within the scope of this research, we use the term school governance used to mean a mode of action, which is directed toward the goal of being accomplished effectively, by and through others. Governance activities are indispensable activities that arise when people work together to accomplish goals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0178.v4
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Behavioral Sciences Keywords: nutrition; children; greenhouse gas emissions; school meals; sustainability; Agenda 2030
Online: 8 July 2019 (14:52:09 CEST)
There is great potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) from public sector meals. This paper aimed to develop a strategy for reducing GHGE in the Swedish school food supply without compromising nutritional adequacy, affordability, and cultural acceptability. Amounts, prices and GHGE-values for all foods and drinks supplied to three schools over one year were gathered. The amounts were optimized by linear programming. Four nutritionally adequate models were developed: Model 1 minimized GHGE while constraining relative deviation (RD) from observed food supply; Model 2 minimized total RD while imposing stepwise GHGE reductions; Model 3 additionally constrained RD for individual foods to an upper and lower limit; and Model 4 further controlled how ratios between food groups could deviate. Models 1 and 2 reduced GHGE by up to 95% but omitted entire food categories or increased the supply of some individual foods by more than 800% and were deemed unfeasible. Model 3 reduced GHGE by up to 60%, excluded no foods, avoided high RDs of individual foods, but resulted in large changes in food group ratios. Model 4 limited changes in food group ratios but resulted in a higher number of foods deviating from the observed supply and limited the potential of reducing GHGE. Cost was reduced in almost all solutions. An omnivorous, nutritionally adequate, and affordable school food supply, with considerably lower GHGE is achievable with moderate changes to the observed food supply. Trade-offs will always have to be made between achieving GHGE reductions and preserving similarity to the current supply.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0081.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: empowerment; innovation culture; inclusive leadership; innovation capacity; school
Online: 6 June 2018 (10:07:23 CEST)
This paper has two objectives: the first, to analyze the mediating effect of teacher empowerment between innovation culture and innovation capacity, and between inclusive leadership and innovation capacity; the second, to analyze the moderating effects of the school context on the innovation capacity. Data were collected in a representative sample of secondary schools in Valencia, Spain. The research model adopted is structural equation modeling, using the partial least squares (PLS) technique. The model has confirmed that teacher empowerment mediates between innovation culture and innovation capacity and between inclusive leadership and the innovation capacity. It is found that the educational context does not moderate the relationships in the proposed analysis model. This paper emphasizes the role of teacher empowerment in educational innovation and extends the knowledge of culture and leadership in the school organization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0874.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: bullying; enabling environment; health promoting school; occupational health and safety; safe school; teaching and learning; workplace violence; employee assistance program
Online: 13 June 2023 (04:21:13 CEST)
Despite several studies on learner-to-teacher workplace violence and harassment, the problem persists in some South African schools. Learner-to-teacher violence and harassment is a form of workplace violence and harassment as schools are workplaces for teachers. Learner-to-teacher violence and harassment is therefore an important occupational health and safety issues for teachers. The employer is obliged to provide a safe working environment for the teachers to enable quality teaching and learning in the schools. The purpose of this interpretative phenomenological study was to explore and describe the lived experiences of high school teachers who have been targets of workplace violence and harassment perpetrated by learners at selected schools in Limpopo province of South Africa. Many teachers were willing to share their lived-experiences but due to data saturation, only eleven participated after being selected through purposive sampling from seven high schools under a particular circuit. Research ethics of voluntary participation, informed consent, ethical clearance and gatekeeper permission were observed. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews using an interview guide. Interviews were audio-taped, and field notes were also taken. Voice recordings were transcribed verbatim and analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis into themes and sub-themes. Findings were confirmed by an independent coder to achieve trustworthiness. Teachers experienced physical workplace violence and harassment, verbal workplace violence and harassment as well as nonverbal workplace violence and harassment from learners. Learner-to-teacher workplace violence and harassment affects teachers emotionally and in turn affects quality teaching and learning in the schools. Some teachers propose involvement of community policing forum, strengthening of School Governing Bodies as well as reducing overcrowding in the classroom as possible solutions to deal with learner-to-teacher bullying.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1534.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic; school health; BMI; underweight; overweight; obesity
Online: 24 October 2023 (10:57:42 CEST)
Background: Several reports indicate that long stay at home for online schools due to the COVID-19 pandemic changed the normal physical activity and body weight of school-age students. Previous studies revealed that almost 50% of school students complained of increased or decreased more than 3 kg of weight due to lower physical activity. This study aims to provide insight about the Body Mass Index (BMI) among school students during COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A retrospective matched-longitudinal study was conducted in 2022 based on previous data about BMI-for-age percentile in school-age students aged 6 to 18 years. These data were collected the year before and during COVID-19 pandemic (2019-2021). Results: All the included students were Arabic (N = 53,580) and were not diagnosed with chronic illness. The outcomes showed that the overall percentage of students with normal weight was 54%, 56%, and 53% during the 2019-2021 years, respectively. Overweight among students increased during the COVID-19 pandemic years, as almost 10% of the students were overweight in 2019 compared with 12% in 2020 and 2021 years. Besides, obese students also increased in the 2020-2021 period compared with the 2019 year (15-17% vs. 10%). In contrast, underweight trends among students declined, as 26% reported in 2019 compared to 17-18% in 2020 and 2021. Conclusion: There are significant variations in Arabic school-age students regarding their BMI values. Obesity was highly detected among children and adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic years compared to 2019, while underweight cases declined.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2068.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: school buildings; building dynamic energy loss; microenvironment; occupants’ behavior
Online: 30 September 2023 (10:16:05 CEST)
The utilization of primary school buildings is multifaceted, primarily due to the high occupancy density, varying thermal preferences among occupants, diverse indoor activities (such as walking, sports, and conversation), and a constant flow of individuals entering and exiting the building. This results in frequent opening and closing of external windows and doors and fluctuations in internal heat gain. Consequently, frequent interactions between the indoor and outdoor microenvironments lead to energy losses. This study conducts a comprehensive literature review on building energy loss stemming from occupant behavior and the interactions between indoor and outdoor microenvironments. Furthermore, it proposes a dynamic real-time monitoring system based on a computer data capture and visualization platform foundation for building energy loss. The research methods include data crawling, data association rule mining, and data association analysis. The research findings yield a universally applicable and informative building energy-saving design theory based on extensive data analysis. Additionally, the system presents information on occupants' behavior and the microclimate data of indoor and outdoor environments on a computer screen, facilitating human-machine communication and enabling timely adjustments to design strategies for new buildings and operation and maintenance strategies for existing buildings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1804.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: psychological anti-doping intervention; serious game; sport high school
Online: 27 September 2023 (02:55:45 CEST)
The use of substances to improve sports performance is a widespread phenomenon among adolescents. Several anti-doping programs have been developed, mainly based on knowledge-based evidence. The main aim of the present study was to implement an anti-doping intervention in sports high school students, based on psychological framework, such as Socio-Cognitive Theory, through the development of a Serious Game (SG), i.e., a digital learning based on the game. The experimental design included an intervention group (n=167; F=37.7%; Meanage=17.5 years) and a control group (n=112; F=42%; Meanage=17.6). Both of groups completed the same questionnaire in two different occasions (i.e., time 1 and time 2), for measuring doping intention, self-regulatory efficacy to resist social pressure for the use of substances, moral disengagement, and doping knowledge. Data were analyzed through repeated measures of Group X Time ANOVA, demonstrating some degree of efficacy of the intervention, in particular, in terms of decrease of doping intention and the strengthening of doping knowledge. Moreover, we demonstrated that the score obtained during the implementation of the Serious Game partially could represent a coherent measure of the participants’ beliefs regarding doping. These results could be considered a starting point for future research to better develop technological anti-doping interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0683.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: school; security; police officer; trust; perception; sustainable; development; serbia
Online: 12 September 2023 (02:35:52 CEST)
The study aims to determine the trust and presence of police officers in schools in Serbia, as well as the perception of the principals and secretaries, teachers and staff, parents and students on how successful the certain police units dedicated to schools were in fulfilling their tasks. The ex–post analysis was conducted through PEST/SWAT analysis, mapping of the key actors and using batteries of online questionnaires. Besides interviews with the MOI representatives, there were conducted: Survey with personal interviewing, Computer–aided surveying and Desk analysis and content analysis. The survey was conducted in the period from September 2021 to June 2022. The research methods were implemented in 1140 schools in Serbia and 8,617 people were included in surveys: police officers (308); principals and secretaries (1085); the team for protection against discrimination (982); teachers and staff (2988); parents (938) and students (2316). The relationships between the covariates and perception were investigated using the t–test, one–way ANOVA, multivariate linear regression, and binary regression. The results showed that a project of school police officers was not fully recognized as one of the strategically important instruments for safe schools, trust is low but presence is high. Besides that, the results suggest that the entire public believe that a police is needed in schools and that it has a very positive effect on school safety. Regarding school safety policy, it is necessary to undertake three types of measures for sustainable development of trust and presence of police in school: regulatory, informa-tive-educational and institutional-organizational.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1179.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Participation; secondary school learners; organised sport; adolescent; sport clubs
Online: 18 July 2023 (07:52:20 CEST)
Background: In South Africa, a relatively small number of children and adolescents belong to sports clubs, and adolescent participation in organised sport has steadily declined, especially in recent years. Participation levels in organised sport has decreased during late childhood and, more increasingly, as adolescents grow older. Aim: Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the participation of secondary school learners aged 14 to 16 years in organised sport. Methods: The study was a quantitative and descriptive, cross-sectional design. The study sample was 329 conveniently sampled secondary school learners, males, and females, aged 14 to 16 years from three state schools in Cape Town, Western Cape Province. A researcher-generated, self-administered questionnaire on organised sport participation was developed, piloted, and validated among 44 learners of similar background, who did not participate in the main study. The statistical software, SPSS version 27, was used to capture and analyse the research data. The level of statistical significance for the study was set at p < 0.05. Results: A total of 66.9% of participants in the study sample participated in organised sport. Low but significant correlations were reported between gender and participation in organised sport (r = 0.22; p < 0.001), gender and friend participation in organised sport (r = 0.24; p < 0.001), participants participation and sibling participation in organised sport (r = 0.23; p < 0.001), participants participation and friend participation in organised sport (r = 0.36; p < 0.001), and between participant participation and parental participation in organised sport (r = 0.17; p = 0.003). Conclusion: Adolescent participation in organised sport was lower in the present circumstances compared to participation in the past three years. Adolescent males had higher participation levels in organised sport compared to adolescent females. There is an urgent need for solutions to counteract the low levels of adolescent participation in organised sport, especially in adolescent females.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1112.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: GPA; high school; academic potential; predictive property; weighted GPA;
Online: 17 July 2023 (11:39:06 CEST)
The GPA is a universally recognised and utilised metric of academic performance that is considered to also measure a student’s potential for academic performance in the future. In this short communication we examine to what extent the GPA of the first grade of high school predicts performance in the later grades of high school, either generally (as classified in excellent student, strong student, weak student or very weak student) or more accurately (as indicated by the exact GPA in the next grade). We also put to the test the widely held notion that it might be best if core courses such as language and mathematics contributed more to the calculation of the GPA compared to secondary courses such as physical education or music. Our findings confirm the predictive properties of the GPA but strongly rebut the notion that a weighted GPA might achieve a better reflection of students’ potential. The study is based on the academic records of every student in Greece that progressed from first to third grade of high school in the 2016-2019 period. This data set contains records of more than 85,000 students, making it one of the most extensive studies ever conducted on the topic of the properties of the GPA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1972.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: instructional feedback; feedback design; cognitive diagnosis; visualization; high school
Online: 28 June 2023 (09:47:08 CEST)
Although instructional feedback plays an essential role in regulating learning and improving performance, few studies have systematically investigated the needs of teachers and students for instructional feedback system or developed designs and experiments, especially at the high school level. To address this research need, the present study investigated the needs of selected students and teachers in a high school in Hubei Province, China, and designed and developed a diagnostic visual feedback system for an experimental study with 125 students from a 10th-grade biology class in the same high school. The results showed that this diagnostic visual feedback report improved student performance (ES=0.37) and that functions such as misconception location, knowledge diagnosis, and knowledge alert were well received by students. These findings have multiple implications for facilitating the design and development of diagnostic visual feedback system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0709.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: invasion sport; gender; primary school; sport experience; structural equation
Online: 21 April 2023 (10:03:41 CEST)
The satisfaction of basic psychological needs leads students to engage in a sport modality on their own initiative. In the Spanish public educational system, mixed and heterogeneous, the gender and sport experience of students influence the teaching and motivation of invasion sports. This study investigated whether students' gender and sport experience, and method influence the psychological variables (basic psychological needs and sport adherence) when teaching school soccer and basketball. Furthermore, correlations were calculated between these psychological variables. The study involved 165 fifth and sixth grade students (age, 11.27 ± 0.68 years old) from several Spanish state schools in the same autonomous community. A non-random convenience sample was used. The needs for autonomy, perceived competence and social relationships were measured using the Basic Psychological Needs in Physical Exercise Scale. Sport adherence was measured using the Measure of Intentionality to be Physically Active. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Cronbach's alpha were used to analyze the psychometric properties of the scales. Descriptive and inferential analyses were performed with the Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis H tests. There were significant differences in the needs for autonomy and perceived competence according to the students’ gender (boys > girls). Attending to sport adherence, there were also significant differences according to the students’ gender (boys > girls) and sport experience (experienced students > inexperienced students). Likewise, a regression analysis (structural equation model) revealed that the autonomy need showed low association with sport adherence. Higher perceived competence (β = 0.52) and social relationships (β = 0.36) were associated with greater adherence to sport (R2 = 0.65). Increased sport adherence will have health benefits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0352.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: Education program; school students; knowledge; attitude; practice; choking person
Online: 28 March 2022 (03:17:55 CEST)
Choking and foreign body aspiration are significant causes of mortality and morbidity in young youngsters. This study aimed to investigate the effects of education programs on school students ' knowledge, attitude, and practice towards a choking person. This quasi-experimental study with a pretest-posttest control group design included a total of 282 school students. The students were divided into an intervention group (n = 141) and a control group (n = 141). After both groups completed the pretest, the intervention group received an education program on first aid for a choking person. Then, both groups were subjected to a posttest at the end of the program. The descriptive and inferential statistics analyzed the data. There were no significant differences between the two groups within the study parameters at the pretest (P = > 0.05). However, at posttest, a significant difference was observed in the knowledge (p = 0.001), attitude (p = 0.024), and practice (p = 0.001) of the intervention group compared to the control group. The intervention group showed significant improvement in the students’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding first aid for a choking person. We suggest a continuous training program to improve the competency of first aid for a choking person.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0132.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: child; play; risky play; adventurous play; school; qualitative synthesis
Online: 6 July 2021 (11:27:45 CEST)
Adventurous play, defined as exciting, thrilling play where children are able to take age-appropriate risks has been associated with a wide range of positive outcomes. Despite this, it remains unclear what factors might aid or hinder schools in offering adventurous play opportu-nities. The purpose of this systematic review is to synthesise findings from qualitative studies on the perceived barriers and facilitators of adventurous play in schools. A total of nine studies were included in the final synthesis. The review used two synthesis strategies: a meta-aggregative syn-thesis and narrative synthesis. Findings were similar across the two syntheses, highlighting that key barriers and facilitators were: adults’ perceptions of children; adults’ attitudes and beliefs about adventurous play and concerns pertaining to health; and, safety and concerns about legis-lation. Based on the findings of the review, recommendations for policy and practice as provided to support adventurous play in schools.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0079.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: online laboratories; virtual laboratories; Covid-19; simulations; science; school
Online: 5 July 2021 (08:16:17 CEST)
The Covid-19 pandemic has resulted in the closure of schools at every level, globally, forcing education to move online. Meeting the needs of students online for Science Lab classes, in particular, is a challenge since the physical labs are not available to the teachers or students. OLabs is a virtual Science Lab providing a complete learning environment of theory, experimental procedures, videos, animations, simulations, and assessments that capture real lab experiences with the relevant pedagogy. This study looks at the acquisition and behaviors of users, on the OLabs platform, during pre and Covid-19 times. Using Google Analytics, we observe that, during the pandemic time, users increasingly adopted OLabs as a new learning pedagogy for performing experiments as indicated by parameters like the number of users; the number of unique pages viewed per session; time spent on viewing content; bounce rate; and preference for content types such as theory, simulations, videos, and animations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0091.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: Sports injury, health-seeking behaviour, junior school footballers, Bangladesh
Online: 6 May 2021 (14:52:41 CEST)
Globally, football as a sport has recorded the highest rate of injury morbidity compared with other sports due to the high degree of contact between the players. Coaches play an important role in reducing injuries among the players. The objective of this study was to explore the pattern of football-related sports injuries among junior high school footballers in Dhaka, Bangladesh. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted between January 2019 to March 2019 in 20 junior high schools in Dhaka Metropolitan city. We observed 368 boys in the age range of 10 to 18 years old. A pre-structured questionnaire was provided to six trained junior physiotherapists to conduct the face-to-face interview with the boys in the school setting. Most students were from middle-income families. The injury prevalence of defenders was the most (157, 42.7%) followed by mid-fielders (132, 35.94%), forwards (63, 17.1%), and goalkeepers (16, 4.3%). Tackling was the main cause of injury in 21.1% of cases followed by foul play in 19.1% of the cases. In July, there were more injuries (69.0%) and associated muscle strain. Injured footballers did not visit sports physiotherapists as much as they did other health profession and the association was significant. When considering scientific knowledge, students were aware of fitness, flexibility & endurance (25.5%), sports massage (24.5%), the relation of body structure with sports Injury (21.2%), warm-up and/or cool down (19.6%). Based on the study, it was seen that students had no scientific knowledge of sports. As sports is a key activity for school-going children, comprehensive sports injury preventive knowledge is needed for students and sports teachers and coaches. Access to sports physiotherapists is also needed to prevent and manage sports injury at the field level and for rehabilitation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0144.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: sexual education; affective education; health education; school; qualitative research.
Online: 4 February 2021 (15:30:56 CET)
Sexual education is a part of the teaching-learning process that addresses cognitive, psychological, physical and social aspects of sexuality. The purpose of sexual education is to provide people with knowledge, abilities, attitudes and values that will help them to have good sexual health, well-being and dignity. The objective of this study was to explore the experiences and opinions of primary school teachers regarding Sexual Education in school. A descriptive qualitative study was designed based on content analysis. Twelve open-ended interviews with primary school teachers were carried out, followed by inductive data analysis using ATLAS.ti software. Two key themes emerged from the analysis: ‘In search of a comprehensive approach to Sexual Education’ and ‘Barriers to Sexual Education in schools: From the lack of training to fear of the families’. We conclude that despite the efforts to implement a comprehensive approach to Sexual Education that recognises sexuality as a right, primary school teachers face difficulties in delivering Sexual Education in schools due to a lack of training and the fear that parents will reject their children being spoken to about sexuality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0064.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: pedagogical model; physical education; school contents; methodology; psychology; motivation
Online: 1 February 2021 (17:30:38 CET)
The aim was to implement a value-promoting program (Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility, TPSR) and to assess its impact on students. Method: The program was applied for 8 months with 257 students from three secondary school centres (151 boys and 106 girls) with a mean of 15.97 years old (SD = 2.31). They were in three groups, 67 students (control group), 90 students receiving at least 60% of the total teaching time the value-promoting program (experimental group for global education, EG-GE) and 100 students (experimental group only for physical education, EG-PE). As main results improvements were found in the EG-GE for responsibility, psychological mediator index, self-determination index, resilience, climate and prosocial behaviours. In the EG-PE improved were observed in the self-determination index, classroom climate and prosocial behaviours. Female students and from EG-GE improve much more than males and from EG-PE. The outcomes in psychological variables can be higher if TPSR is applied to the whole subjects apart from physical education. These results are even more pronounced for female students in personal and social responsibility. It is worth highlighting the importance of coordinating educational institutions to facilitate the involvement of the greatest number of teachers.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: psychological basic needs; autonomous motivation; education; school; teenagers; children
Online: 5 January 2021 (11:53:46 CET)
The Self-determination theory and The Vallerand's Hierarchical Model has been studied with different types of social factors that can bring different consequences. The purpose of this work was if responsibility and social climate could predict the social and prosocial behaviors and vio-lence. For this, 429 students (M = 11.46, SD = 1.92) participated in this study answering a ques-tionnaire with five variables: school climate, responsibility, motivation, satisfaction of psycholog-ical needs, prosocial and antisocial behaviors and violence. The main results saw that the most part of variables were correlated positive and directly except with antisocial behaviors and vio-lence. On the other hand, prediction model (X2 = 584.145 (98); RMSEA = 0.104 [90% CI = 0.096, 0.112]; TLI = 0.849; CFI = 0.894) showed that responsibility and school climate can predict psy-chological basic needs and these needs, can improve the autonomous motivation and finally have positive consequences improving prosocial behaviors and reducing antisocial behaviors and vio-lence. In conclusion, school climate and responsibility can improve positive consequences to the classroom, specifically, prosocial behaviors and reducing violence and antisocial behaviors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0570.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Out of school activities (OSA); students' needs for movement.
Online: 23 December 2020 (07:24:19 CET)
This study aims to introduce out of school activities (OSA) to high school PJOK teachers in Padang Pariaman District, West Sumatra Province, Indonesia. As is known, OSA is an alternative for students in fulfilling their movement needs, especially during the COVID 19 pandemic. Currently, students mostly stay at home, such as studying from home, to doing activities from home. So that there is minimal possibility of carrying out the movement activities recommended by WHO. The research method used is action research. This method gets a problem, then arranges problem-solving, conducts treatment, and finally evaluates. The research results show no teachers who have ever carried out of school activities (OSA); understanding, implementation, and evaluation are also not understood by the teachers. After being given the treatment, the teachers became more aware and understood about out of school activities, starting from understanding, implementing to evaluating what had to be done.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0582.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Kampus Mengajar; MBKM; Students; Education; Dhaniswara Junior High School Surabaya
Online: 8 June 2023 (04:06:11 CEST)
Kampus Mengajar is a teaching and learning activity in schools as part of the independent campus learning policy (MBKM) initiated by Nadiem Anwar Makarim, B.A., M.B.A. as Minister of Education, Culture, Research, and Technology of the Republic of Indonesia. This article aims to find out the teaching campus, a form of direct student service in the world of education? This article is a qualitative descriptive with a literature study. The result of this article is that all work program designs that have been prepared together can be implemented well at SMP Dhaniswara Surabaya and get quite satisfactory results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2111.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: smallholder farmers; food security; school feeding; Nigeria; propensity score matching
Online: 30 May 2023 (10:31:25 CEST)
In various countries of the global south, school feeding programs are implemented in order to alleviate short-time hunger in children, improved their nutrition and provide employment for food vendors. The impact of these programs is important not only in terms of pupils’ nutrition but also in improving farmers’ livelihoods. This study analyzes the impact of the school feeding program on smallholders' food security based on data collected in 2021 from 240 farmers surveyed in northeast Nigeria. Differently from other studies, several econometric methods are used to analyze the data, namely, binary probit regression, propensity score matching, inverse probability weighted adjusted regression and endogenous switching regression. The results show that about 40% of the beneficial smallholder farmers are food secure compared to 20% of the non-beneficiary households. Findings revealed that the Homegrown school feeding program (HGSF) positively improved smallholder farmers improve household food security status. Results provide evidence for the need to expand school feeding programs vis-a-vis interventions in facilitating farmers’ access to capital and capacity building for better integration in the supply chain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0066.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Career development; career conceptions; career education; middle school; educational intervention
Online: 3 November 2022 (03:21:35 CET)
Several studies confirmed the importance of career education interventions since childhood. This study aimed at testing a career education intervention designed for middle school students, conducted, after a specific training on Social Cognitive Career Theory, by students’ teachers. The career conceptions were assessed in both experimental and control groups through the Conceptions of Career Choice and Attainment protocol before and after career education intervention. Result showed that. starting from the same level and increased their conceptions after the intervention. Experimental group increase, in a statistically significant way, more than the control group.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0332.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: Innovation in teaching; Electromagnetic induction; High school students; Qualitative methods
Online: 24 June 2022 (07:43:23 CEST)
We present here a five hours experimentation of a didactical path about the electromagnetic induction addressed to students of the last year of an Italian scientific high school and oriented to better understand the physical origin of the induced electromotive force. The expression of the induced electromotive force as the sum of the term linked to the time variation of the magnetic field and of the motional one has been obtained in a detailed way, still suitable for presentation at high school. Many examples have been proposed to the students in order to clarify the conceptual physical knots. The students’ responses to a 6-questions multiple choice questionnaire have been analyzed. It emerged that our approach is concretely feasible although we find the well-known difficulties in calculating flux and circulation of a vector field. Furthermore, it emerged that an integral approach to the problem masks the understanding of the nature of the forces acting locally on the charges. Hence our proposal of a “redefinition” of the induced electric field in terms of the magnetic vector potential is also presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0219.v3
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Questionnaire; back health; assessment; cross-cultural adaptation; adolescents; secondary school
Online: 22 December 2020 (16:03:09 CET)
The prevalence of back pain (BP) among children and adolescents has increased over recent years. Some authors advocate promoting back-health education in the school setting. It is therefore important to adopt a uniform suite of assessment instruments to measure the various constructs. The present study aimed to perform a cultural adaptation of a validated measurement instrument (BackPEI), beginning with a translation and cultural adaptation phase, followed by a second phase to test reliability using a test-retest design. The translation and cross-cultural adaptation were performed based on the guidelines. Reliability was tested by applying the questionnaire to 224 secondary school students, at two different times with a 7-day interval between the tests. In general, the Spanish version presented adequate agreement for questions 1–20, with only question 9 achieving a low Kappa range of .312 [-.152- .189]. The question about pain intensity did not show differences between the averages for the test (4.72 ± 2.33) and re-test (4.58 ± 2.37) (p = .333), and the responses for these two tests were highly correlated (ICC= .951 [.928- .966]; p= .0001). Psychometric testing indicated that the Spanish version of the BackPEI is well-adapted and reliable, based on the test-retest design, providing similar results to the original Brazilian version.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0242.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Working Student; Mathematics; Strategic Intervention Materials, SIM; Classroom; School Management
Online: 6 November 2020 (10:47:55 CET)
: The performance of the students in academics depends on many different factors. One of these factors is the economic status of their families. Education in public schools, though it is free, some parents cannot afford to send their children to school due to financial constraints. Education as a free is every individual's right in society, but it becomes a privilege because of a lack of financial support. This research work is a comparative study of students' or learners' performance in mathematics among students from working and non-working. This research article's ultimate objective is to investigate and compare a significant difference in their performance in the subject mathematics. The research methodology utilizes a t-test to analyze and synthesize primary data sources collected via interview and academic records, and diverse literature on the study area. However, the research findings revealed no significant difference in the two groups (the working and non-working group of learners). Therefore, it is recommended that secondary schools should be provided with adequate books and facilities and faculty school interventions and programs and promote the usage of SIM or Strategic Intervention Materials for learning and memory enhancement among learners.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0256.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: nhanes; foodservice; nutrition assessment; dietary reference intakes; school lunch program
Online: 22 October 2019 (10:31:57 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to select target nutrients to be included in the nutritional standards of school lunches in Korea. The dietary intake data of children and adolescents aged 6-17 years old from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Ⅵ were analyzed for eight groups based on gender and age (6-8, 9-11, 12-14, and 15-17 years old). First, the usual intake of the 3,091 subjects was estimated and assessed to identify nutrients with insufficient or excessive intake prevalence. Along with the nutrients identified by the assessment, the energy and nutrients prioritized in the meal planning procedure of the 2015 Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans were the initial candidates: energy, the percentages of energy from carbohydrates, protein, and fat, vitamin A, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin C, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, and iron. Phosphorus was excluded due to little evidence of clinical symptoms caused by insufficient intake. Sodium was excluded because reliable data on added salt were not available among the school lunch recipes in Korea. Therefore, energy, the percentages of energy from carbohydrates, protein, and fat, vitamin A, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin C, calcium, and iron were selected to be included in the nutritional standards of school lunches in Korea.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0060.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: School coexistence; cyberbullying; education; family; victims; prevention; management; training; perceptions
Online: 2 November 2018 (13:12:16 CET)
The present work analyzes university students' perceptions on cyberbullying. More specifically, the main objective was to understand the level of concern displayed by young students in teacher training programs regarding cyberbullying; our analysis includes their degree of self-confidence and their commitment when faced with this problem, their self-reported training on the subject, and the measures they consider adequate to approach it in the educational context. Using a survey research design, 408 students from Early Childhood Education, Primary Education Degrees, and the Master’s Degree in Secondary Education, and Vocational Training from national public universities participated. The results shed light upon the coexistence of three differentiated profiles of teachers in training when faced with cyberbullying. However, although there is clear evidence of the high level of concern regarding this problem in every case, they placed more importance on raising awareness of the issue with families, prevention, management and training as basic pillars for re-directing the worrisome reality experienced in educational centers. The need to include these contents in the initial training of future education professionals, for overcoming cyberbullying, and the importance of collaborative work between parents and educators are the conclusions of this research study that are in agreement with other studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0157.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, History Keywords: Emily Stowe; Canada; female school principal; female physician; suffragette; narrative research
Online: 4 December 2023 (07:47:48 CET)
Emily Howard Jennings Stowe is acclaimed as Canada’s first female school principal, physician to practice medicine, and a founding Canadian suffragette. Yet, relatively little has been investi-gated regarding the life-changing events permitting her to pioneer in these chosen fields. To reveal relationships among the life-changing events in Emily Stowe’s life, a unique narrative research process is engaged to take Stowe’s story and develop it into a particular point of view based on responses to questions posed regarding her life, ranging from those most objective and specific to those that are subjective and more general. This is accomplished by following a prescribed order of question-asking: when, where, who, what, how, and why. The aim is to facilitate a comparison and interpretation of the connections regarding twenty-two of her life-changing events. Four dis-tinct aspects of her life are noted: personal, teacher, physician, and suffragette. It is found that much of Stowe’s success originated from her family’s Establishment connections, her studious intellectual ability, and her decision to obtain her medical education in the United States. There were notable periods in her life that might have ended her career. However, the aforementioned protective features of her status permitted the successful withstanding of these difficulties.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2029.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Emotional Intelligence; Academic Achievement; Creativity; Emotional Awareness; School Setting; Prisma Methodology
Online: 31 October 2023 (08:03:03 CET)
The concept of Emotional Intelligence (EI) has gained prominence due to its substantial impact on a range of life outcomes, including academic performance. The present study aims to examine the relationship between Emotional Intelligence and academic accomplishment in the context of a school environment. Analyzing students' emotional skills and competencies makes it possible to uncover the potential of emotional intelligence (EI) in predicting their academic achievement. Additionally, the study emphasizes the importance of integrating emotional intelligence (EI) training within the educational curriculum. Developing students' emotional awareness, empathy, self-regulation, and social skills can yield notable academic benefits, cultivating an environment more favorable to learning. This systematic review examines the relationship between emotional intelligence and its impact on children and teachers by synthesizing several relevant research studies. This study encompasses a comprehensive review conducted from 2016 to 2023. A total of 64 publications were examined in this study, specifically chosen based on their relevance to the review's parameters. These articles were sourced from reputable academic databases, including Scopus, PsycINFO, PubMed, and WoS. The study revealed a correlation between the five dimensions of personality and emotional intelligence, creativity, resilience, the educational framework, and specific experimental programs about its education. The results mentioned above are of great significance, as they demonstrate that emotional intelligence (EI) is not solely a non-essential skill but a vital factor in education that can provide significant perspectives for students, educators, and politicians.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1214.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: virtual reality; reading fluency training; language learning; acceptance; students; secondary school
Online: 18 July 2023 (13:59:59 CEST)
Appropriate techniques for promoting reading fluency are difficult to implement in the classroom. There is little time to provide students with individualized feedback on reading aloud or to moti-vate them to do so. In this context, VR can be beneficial for learning, to provide individualized feedback and for increasing learners' engagement. Studies analyzing established methods of lan-guage learning in school in VR seem to be lacking so far. Therefore, this study project was the first to analyze the acceptance of students towards the implementation of a concept of reading fluency training with students at a secondary school in VR. The study method was developed based on the Technology Acceptance Model. The VR environment developed is web-based and provides indi-vidual and collaborative opportunities for training reading fluency, giving, and receiving feed-back, and deepening content understanding of the reading texts. To analyze the acceptance of the VR environment, 5 guided interviews were conducted. The results show that despite technical challenges with the VR environment, students accepted and appreciated the reading fluency training in VR. The integration of established concepts of reading fluency training in foreign lan-guage classrooms has great potential as additional added value can be created to address the challenges of face-to-face instruction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1977.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: bridging gaps; challenges; pioneering new perspectives; private school institutions; quality assurance
Online: 28 June 2023 (10:10:02 CEST)
This qualitative research examines the quality assurance practices in private school institutions in Iligan City during the first semester of 2020-2021. The study involves interviews with 30 school administrators and document analysis to uncover key themes and sub-themes. The findings reveal the significance of clear policies, professional development for teachers, stakeholder engagement, assessment strategies, and technology utilization in quality assurance. The study also identifies challenges such as the need for standardized assessment procedures, limited resources for professional development, and the integration of technology. Moreover, it emphasizes the importance of adaptability and flexibility in the face of changing educational landscapes, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic. Recommendations for further research include conducting a comparative analysis between private and public school institutions, investigating the long-term impacts of the pandemic on quality assurance, and exploring innovative strategies for online and blended learning environments. The paper concludes by highlighting the importance of addressing challenges and embracing new perspectives in quality assurance to improve the overall quality of education. The implications of the study emphasize the need for comprehensive quality assurance frameworks that encompass all aspects of education and the importance of ongoing evaluation and improvement. Ultimately, this qualitative research article contributes valuable insights for private school institutions and educational policymakers to enhance their quality assurance practices and provide better educational experiences for students.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0336.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: distributed leadership; school principal’s practices; teacher leadership; teacher profes-sional development
Online: 5 June 2023 (14:30:33 CEST)
Distributed leadership is based on increasing the knowledge of the skills of those who exercise the role of leaders in the school. The objectives are a) to analyse school principals’ practices aimed at creating professional development opportunities linked to teacher leadership for school improvement and b) to relate the perceptions of teacher leaders with professional development opportunities granted by principals. The methods of the study were based on an examination of 21 interviews, between individual semi-structured interviews with school principals and group interviews with teacher leaders at six public schools in Chile, as well as a documentary analysis of institutional educational projects using grounded theory and NVivo 12 software. The results are presented in three categories: management of principals about school organisation, development of the professional capacities of teacher leaders, and management of principals about school coexistence and participation of teacher leaders. The conclusions detailing school principal practices show that distributed leadership practices are helpful in developing teachers’ leadership competencies. Furthermore, this study suggests that training amplifies the beneficial effects of distributed leadership on teachers’ development. Finally, the findings imply that school principals should regularly fulfil their managerial responsibilities and pay more attention to teacher training to improve the school.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0449.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: STEM education; problem-solving; thinking types; space science at school; CanSat
Online: 31 January 2022 (11:11:31 CET)
Research has shown that hands-on projects promote stem education, namely, via problem-solving. CanSat, literally 'satellite in a can', is a stem educational project promoted by the European Space Agency. This paper addresses this issue by researching this STEM project, which demonstrates how problem-solving can be achieved in secondary-level students within the framework of the CanSat. We use qualitative techniques of data collection and analysis. The results showed that students use sophisticated thinking strategies to process information within this interdisciplinary project: (a) cognitive testing, cognitive organization, cognitive regulation, and monitoring, in addition to computer language and physical–mathematical calculations, are cognitive and metacognitive behavior strategies revealed in the CanSat; (b) problem-solving was suggested as a specific model, where students’ higher cognitive and metacognitive ordering processes deepen in project development; (c) computational, lateral, or divergent and convergent thinking were detected as thinking types of students associated with and mobilized in the course of problem-solving, The findings of this research have practical implications for STEM education in space science. Hands-on projects using problem-solving are an essential strategy to promote STEM education. Additionally, they are a starting point to promote meaningful learning and new thinking types.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0247.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: high school baseball; health; heatwave; heatstroke; sustainability; environment; gender difference; Japan
Online: 14 December 2021 (18:35:09 CET)
A summer high school baseball tournament is held every mid-summer in Koshien Stadium. “Koshien Baseball” is very popular in Japan; however, it faces the problem of extremely high temperatures during games. Thus, high school players are threatened by the harsh environment. For this reason, Internet surveys were conducted twice to purposefully engage the same individuals. Then, information on their views regarding the Koshien tournament before and after the provision of information regarding environmental change in Japan was gathered. Using data, this study examined how their views changed after having the information. Compared with the view before, it was found that (1) respondents were more likely to agree that the management rule of the Koshien tournaments should be altered to protect player’s health, and (2) the impact of providing information is larger for female respondents, young people, and highly educated respondents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0149.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Smartphone Addiction; Middle School Students; Smartphone Usage Types; Depression; Parenting Attitude
Online: 6 September 2020 (16:27:01 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between smartphone addiction of middle school students and smartphone usage types, depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), stress, interpersonal problems, and parenting attitude. This study was also performed with the aim of verifying the relationships among depression, ADHD, perceived stress, interpersonal problems, and parenting attitude, which are predictors of smartphone addiction. The subjects of this study were 487 local middle school students (234 males and 253 females). The measurement instruments used were the smartphone addiction scale, depression scale (PHQ-9), ADHD scale (K-ARS), perceived stress scale (PSS), interpersonal problem scale (KIIP-SC), and the parenting attitude scale. This study identified the relationships between the variables with correlation analysis and examined the predictors of smartphone addiction with hierarchical multiple regression analysis. According to the study results, the factors that influenced smartphone addiction were gender, stress, and interpersonal problems. In addition, when the confounding variables of smartphone addiction were controlled to examine the effects of smartphone usage types on smartphone addiction, social media use and music/videos were found to have a positively significant effect on smartphone addiction while study had a negatively significant effect. The order of the usage types with the highest influence on smartphone addiction was enjoying music/videos, social media use, and study. This suggests that selective intervention depending on the main smartphone usage type can be effective.