ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0181.v2
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: metamaterials; negative effective mass; negative density; negative thermal capacity; resonance.
Online: 26 January 2021 (11:36:03 CET)
One-dimensional chain of core-shell pairs connected by ideal springs enables design of the metamaterial demonstrating the negative effective density and negative specific thermal capacity. We assume that the molar thermal capacity of the reported metamaterial is governed by the Dulong-Petit law in its high temperature limit. The specific thermal capacity depends of the density of the metamaterial; thus, it is expected to be negative, when the effective density of the chain is negative. The range of the frequencies enabling the effect of the negative thermal capacity is established. Dependence of the effective thermal capacity on the exciting frequency for various core/shell mass ratios is elucidated. The effective thermal capacity becomes negative in the vicinity of the local resonance frequency ω0 in the situation when the frequency ω approaches ω0 from above. The effect of the negative effective thermal capacity is expected in metals in the vicinity of the plasma frequency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0357.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: metamaterial; negative electrical conductivity; negative mass; Drude-Lorentz model; negative refraction
Online: 28 March 2022 (08:56:05 CEST)
The system of non-interacting electrically charged core-massless spring-shell mechanical units, demonstrating negative effective mass, is considered, seen as a Drude-Lorentz gas. When such an ideal gas is exposed to the external harmonic field, it demonstrates as the certain conditions the negative frequency-dependent electrical conductivity. The negative value of the electrical conductivity implies that the electrical current will flow against the direction of the electric field and correspondingly the direction of the electrical force. Low- and high-frequency asymptotic behavior of the electrical conductivity is addressed. The same system demonstrates at low frequencies the negative asymptotic refraction. Experimental realization of the introduced model system, based on the exploitation of plasma oscillations of the free electron gas is suggested.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0387.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Mathematical Physics Keywords: universal gravitation; negative energy; repulsion; negative mass; MOND (Modified Newtonian Dynamics)
Online: 26 March 2020 (14:03:36 CET)
The gravitational charge should be the energy instead of mass. This modification will lead to some different results and the experiments to test are also presented. Especially, we propose a scheme to achieve the negative energy and gravitational repulsive force in the lab.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0255.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: electromagnetic tuned mass damper; H2 optimization; structural vibration control; negative inductance; negative resistance.
Online: 18 October 2021 (15:37:50 CEST)
To realize structural vibration control,a two parameters H2 optimization design was proposed to optimize the tuning ratio and damping ratio for electromagnetic tuned mass damper (EMTMD). The control effect of this two parameters optimization design is better than that of classical tuned mass damper (TMD).For this two parameters optimization,the most important thing is that the inductance of the coil can be set very small and the external load resistance can be positive ,which can avoid the use of complex negative impedance circuit. If Ref. were designed according to the H2 optimization of two parameters, the EMTMD can be used for multi-modal vibration control of structures without connecting negative inductance and negative resistance spontaneously.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0981.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: EGF; sarcosine; schizophrenia; negative symptoms
Online: 14 August 2023 (04:47:40 CEST)
Sarcosine (N-methylglycine), a glutamatergic modulator, reduces the primary negative symp-toms of schizophrenia. These beneficial changes might be mediated by trophic factors such as ep-idermal growth factor (EGF). We assessed associations between initial serum EGF levels or changes in serum EGF levels and symptom severity during the addition of sarcosine to stable an-tipsychotic treatment and thereby evaluate the associations between glutamatergic modulation, clinical changes and peripheral EGF concentrations. 58 subjects with a diagnosis of chronic schizophrenia with dominant negative symptoms, stably treated with antipsychotics completed a prospective 6-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Subjects received orally 2 grams of sarcosine (n=28) or placebo (n=30) daily. Serum EGF levels and symptom se-verity (using Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale - PANSS and Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia - CDSS) were assessed at baseline, 6 weeks, and 6 months follow-up. Augmenta-tion antipsychotic treatment with sarcosine had no effect on EGF serum levels at any time-points. Only the sarcosine group showed a significant improvement in negative symptoms, general psy-chopathology subscales, and the overall PANSS score. We found reduction of serum EGF levels in the placebo group, but levels in the sarcosine remained stable during the study. Our data indicate that improvement in negative symptoms due to sarcosine augmentation is not mediated by EGF, but effective treatment may induce the production or block the decrease in EGF concentrations, which indicates the neuroprotective effect of treatment and confirms the relationship between neuroprotection and EGF levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0315.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Crash counts; Hazardous Road Locations; Pearson correlation; Random effect negative binomial; Negative binomial model
Online: 13 November 2018 (13:02:16 CET)
The purpose of the present study is to explore the linkage between Hazardous Road Locations-based crash counts and a variety of geometric characteristics, roadway characteristics, traffic flow characteristics and spatial features in the region of Sousse, Tunisia. For this purpose, collision data was collected from at 52 hazardous road sections including 1397 crash records for a 11-year monitoring period from January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2014 obtained from National Observatory for Information, Training, Documentation and Studies on Road Safety in Tunisia (NOITDRS). The matrix of Pearson correlation was used in order to avoid inclusion of both variables, which were highly correlated. Both the Random Effects Negative Binomial model and the Negative Binomial model were estimated. To evaluate the models, the Random Effect Negative Binomial model improves the goodness-of-fit compared to the Negative Binomial model. Average Daily Traffic volume, Curved alignment, Presence of public lighting, Visibility, Number of lane, Presence of vertical/horizontal sign, Presence of rural segment, Presence of drainage system, Roadway surface condition, Presence of paved shoulder and presence of major road were found as significant variables influencing accident occurrences. Overall, the current research contributes to the literature from empirical, modeling methodological standpoints since it was the first study conducted in Tunisia to use crash prediction models for hazardous road locations, and that portrays Tunisian reality. The research findings present advantageous insights on hazardous road locations in the region of Sousse, Tunisia and present useful planning tools for public authorities in Tunisia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0104.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: green logistics; negative externality of logistics; internalization of logistics negative external cost; incentive mechanism
Online: 20 December 2016 (10:37:21 CET)
The implementation of green logistics can reduce the increasingly serious environmental damage and improve the operating efficiency of logistics enterprises. In this paper, through quantitative calculation of logistics negative external costs, including traffic accidents, atmospheric pollution, noise pollution, and pollution caused by packaging, we build accounting standards to calculate the negative external cost of logistics enterprises that mainly generate pollution from transportation and packaging. Then, assuming the impetus provided by government implementing incentive mechanisms in a free market economy, we establish a ‘Logistics Negative External Cost Internalizing’ model, which quantitatively analyzes the relationships among freight rate, freight volume, investment of enterprise for implementing green logistics, and the subsidy given by government, under the comparison of the two modes ‘enterprise operates first’ and ‘government subsidizes first’. The results show that the introduction of ‘government subsidizes first’ incentive mechanism and increasing freight rate are helpful in promoting the process of logistics market greening.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0263.v9
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Geometry And Topology Keywords: regular convex polytopes; negative dimensions; fractal dimensions
Online: 8 June 2022 (12:29:03 CEST)
The study examines n-balls, regular n-simplices, and n-orthoplices in real dimensions using novel recurrence relations that removed indefiniteness present in known formulas. They show that in the negative, integer dimensions volumes of n-balls are zero if n is even, positive if n = -4k - 1, and negative if n = -4k - 3, for natural k. Volumes and surfaces of n-cubes inscribed in n-balls in negative dimensions are complex, wherein for negative, integer dimensions they are associated with integral powers of the imaginary unit. The relations are continuous for n Î ℝ and show that the constant of π is absent for 0 ≤ n < 2. For n < -1 self-dual n-simplices are undefined in the negative, integer dimensions, and their volumes and surfaces are imaginary in the negative, fractional ones, and divergent with decreasing n. In negative, integer dimensions n-orthoplices reduce to the empty set, and their real volumes and imaginary surfaces are divergent in negative, fractional ones with decreasing n. Out of three regular, convex polytopes present in all natural dimensions, only n-orthoplices, n-cubes (and n-balls) are defined in the negative, integer dimensions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0217.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: aptamer: acoustophoresis; microfluidics; gram-negative bacteria
Online: 18 October 2019 (11:41:41 CEST)
Here, we report a simple and effective method for separation of gram-negative bacteria using aptamer-modified microbeads and acoustophoresis. As acoustophoresis allows for simultaneous washing and size-dependent separation in continuous flow mode, we efficiently obtained gram-negative bacteria that showed high affinity without any additional washing steps. The proposed device has a simple and efficient channel design, utilizing a long, square-shaped microchannel that shows excellent separation performance in terms of the purity, recovery, and concentration factor. Microbeads (10 µm) coated with the GN6 aptamer can specifically bind gram-negative bacteria. Using acoustophoresis, gram-negative bacteria-bound microbeads and other unbound/contaminants can be separated by size with high purity and recovery. The device demonstrated excellent separation performance, with high recovery (up to 98%), high purity (up to 99%), and a high volume rate (500 µL/min), and a concentration factor of up to 20×. The acoustophoresis microfluidic device also showed binding affinity to multiple strains of gram-negative bacteria, but not to gram-positive bacteria. This study presents a new paradigm for early diagnosis of bacterial infectious diseases. In addition to detecting living bacteria or bacteria-derived biomarkers, this protocol can be extended to monitoring the contamination of water resources, and may aid quick responses to bioterrorism and pathogenic bacterial infections.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0230.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: perceiving campus non-physical bullying; Refusal parenting style; negative affect experiences; negative coping style; mediating effect
Online: 17 January 2022 (14:09:27 CET)
To explore the impact of parenting styles on the perception of campus non-physical bullying, 492 students in upper elementary school grades were surveyed by using the Delaware Bullying Victimization Scale, the Negative Coping Style Scale, the Negative Affect Scale, and the Egna Minnen Beträffende Uppfostran Questionnaire. The questionnaire survey was conducted in the fifth and sixth grades of eight primary schools in Zhejiang province. The results showed that cyberbullying was not significantly related to an anxious parenting style, but negative affect experiences, negative coping styles, negative family parenting styles, and the perception of campus non-physical bullying were all positively correlated with each other (p < 0.05). The refusal parenting style was shown to be an important factor that affected students’ perception of campus non-physical bullying; it was observed to directly affect students’ perception of campus non-physical bullying and indirectly affect students’ perception of campus non-physical bullying by influencing negative affect experiences and negative coping styles. In conclusion, negative affect experiences and negative coping styles had a chain-like mediating effect between the refusal parenting style and students’ perception of campus verbal bullying. Moreover, negative affect experiences had a partial mediating effect between the refusal parenting style and students’ perceptions of campus cyberbullying, relationship bullying, and non-physical bullying total scores. Implications and suggestions based on these results are also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1702.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: BRD4; radiation therapy; triple-negative breast cancer
Online: 26 July 2023 (10:08:44 CEST)
Bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) is an intracellular protein that regulates expression of various cellular functions. This study investigated whether BRD4 inhibition can alter the immunomodulatory and antitumor effects of radiation therapy (RT). A murine breast cancer cell line was implanted into BALB/c mice. The dual-tumor model was used to evaluate the abscopal effects of RT. A total of 24 Gy was delivered and BRD4 inhibitor was injected intravenously. Tumor size was measured and in vivo imaging was performed to evaluate tumor growth. Flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry were performed to examine immunologic changes upon treatment. The combination of BRD4 inhibitor and RT significantly suppressed tumor growth compared to RT alone. BRD4 inhibitor reduced the size of the unirradiated tumor indicating that it may induce systemic immune responses. Expression of HIF-1α and PD-L1 in tumor was significantly downregulated by the BRD4 inhibitor. Proportion of M1 tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) increased, and proportion of M2 TAMs decreased upon BRD4 inhibition. BRD4 inhibitor expanded CD4+ and CD8+ T cell populations and reduced the population of monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (M-MDSCs). RT-induced splenic M-MDSCs decreased upon addition of BRD4 inhibitor. Therefore, addition of BRD4 inhibition significantly enhanced the systemic antitumor responses of local RT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0112.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: auxetic structures; metamaterials; negative Poisson’s ratio (NPR)
Online: 8 February 2022 (13:15:25 CET)
The article deals with auxetic structures made on the basis of suitably connected rigid rotating squares (from Grima and Evans), with axes of rotation on the squares’ surface. The geometric model and the resulting relationships that allow for the determination of Poisson’s ratio are considered in detail. It is demonstrated that changing the rotation axis position does not affect the negative Poisson’s ratio, equal to -1. The models built confirm the initial considerations and can offer new application possibilities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0174.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: gene expression obesity triple negative breast cancer
Online: 20 March 2018 (07:56:33 CET)
Background: Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most aggressive form of breast cancer with poor outcomes. The molecular basis of TNBC remains poorly understood. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between obesity and TNBC in premenopausal and postmenopausal Caucasian women using whole genome transcription profiling. Methods: We compared gene expression levels of tumor samples drawn from normal weight, overweight and obese in pre and postmenopausal women diagnosed with TNBC. We performed hierarchical clustering to assess similarity in patterns of gene expression profiles, and conducted network and pathway analysis to identify molecular networks and biological pathways. Results: We discovered gene signatures distinguishing normal weight from obese, normal weight from overweight and overweight from obese individuals in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. The analysis revealed molecular networks and biological pathways dysregulated in response to obesity. Among the discovered pathways included the unfolded protein response, endoplasmatic reticulum stress, B cell receptor and the autophagy signaling pathways in obese premenopausal women and the integrin, axonal guidance, ERK/MAPK and Glutathione biosynthesis signaling pathways obese postmenopausal women. Conclusions: The results suggest that both overweight and obesity are associated with TNBC, highlighting the need for conformation of these results in independent studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0486.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Quantum Science And Technology Keywords: Dirac equation; Klein-Gordon equation; Schrödinger equation; negative kinetic energy; Decoupled Klein-Gordon equation; negative kinetic energy Schrödinger equation
Online: 25 August 2021 (10:50:21 CEST)
Up to now, Schrödinger equation, Klein-Gordon equation (KGE) and Dirac equation are believed the fundamental equations of quantum mechanics. Schrödinger equation has a defect that there is no NKE solutions. Dirac equation has positive kinetic energy (PKE) and negative kinetic energy (NKE) branches. Both branches should have low momentum, or nonrelativistic, approximations: one is Schrödinger equation and the other is NKE Schrödinger equation. KGE has two problems: it is an equation of second time derivative, and calculated density is not definitely positive. To overcome the problems, it should be revised as PKE and NKE decoupled KGEs. The fundamental equations of quantum mechanics after the modification have at least two merits. They are of unitary in that everyone contains the first time derivative and are symmetric with respect to PKE and NKE. This reflects the symmetry of the PKE and NKE matters, as well as matter and dark matter, of our universe. The problems of one-dimensional step potentials are resolved by means of the modified fundamental equations for a nonrelativistic particle.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0368.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: psychological well-being; young offenders; social support; pretrial detention; correctional camps; positive and negative feelings; positive and negative affects
Online: 29 November 2019 (04:16:05 CET)
The present article aims at investigating the role of social support in the emotional well-being of young offenders. We hypothesized that perceived social support would be positively related to the emotional well-being of juvenile offenders. The methods were worked out to study perceived and received social support, psychological well-being and emotional state of the juvenile offenders. The entire sample consisted of 56 males aged from 15 to 18 years old (M = 16.5; SD = 0.8). 32 subjects (57%) were in pretrial detention and 24 participants (43%) were in a correctional camp located in the central region of Russia. The study detected that the level of psychological well-being of the respondents from the camp was correlated neither with perceived social support nor with the frequency of seeking assistance from the different sources of support. For the respondents in the pretrial detention, the level of psychological well-being was directly connected to the degree of the perceived support from the friends. The obtained differences might be associated with the influence of social environment in the pretrial detention and in the camps.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1769.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Multi-drug resistance; Gram-negative bacteria; Enterobacterales; carbapenemases
Online: 26 June 2023 (09:40:12 CEST)
Buckground: Although ceftazidime/avibactam (CAZ/AVI) has become important option for treating adults and children, no recommendations exist for neonates. We report a neonatal sepsis case due to CAZ/AVI-resistant KPC-2 producing-Klebsiella pneumoniae carrying blaVEB-25 and the use of a customized active surveillance program in conjunction to infection control measures. Methods: The index case was an extremely premature neonate hospitalized for 110 days that had been previously treated with multiple antibiotics. Customized molecular surveillance was implemented at hospital level and enhanced infection control measures were taken for early recognition and prevention of outbreak. Detection and identification of blaVEB-25 was performed by next-generation sequencing. Results: That was the first case of a bloodstream infection caused by KPC producing K. pneumoniae that was resistant to CAZ/AVI without the presence of a metalo-β-lactamase in the multiplex PCR platform in a neonate. All 36 additional patients tested (12 in the same NICU and 24 from other hospital departments) carried wild-type blaVEB-1 but they did not harbor blaVEB-25. Conclusion: The emergence of VEB-25 is signal for horizontal transfer of plasmids at hospital facilities and it is of greatest concern for maintaining a sharp vigilance for surveillance of novel resistance mechanisms. Molecular diagnostics can guide appropriate antimicrobial therapy and early implementation of infection control measures against antimicrobial resistance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0074.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Triple negative breast cancer; chemotherapy; immunotherapy; limitations; nanotechnology
Online: 1 June 2023 (08:58:25 CEST)
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) has a negative expression of estrogen receptors (ER), progesterone receptors (PR), or human epidermal growth factor receptors (HER2). The survival rate for TNBC is generally worse than other breast cancer subtypes. TNBC treatment has made significant advances, but certain limitations remain. Treatment for TNBC can be challenging since the disease has various subtypes. Individualized therapy is recommended rather than generalized therapy, given the genetic variations among these TNBC subtypes. A precise and effective treatment for TNBC requires identifying prognostic markers. Depending on the type and stage of TNBC, patients are treated with various therapeutic interventions. A variety of treatment options are available, such as chemotherapy, immunotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery. Chemotherapy is the most common of these options. TNBC is generally treated with systemic chemotherapy using drugs such as anthracyclines and taxanes in the neoadjuvant or adjuvant settings. Developing resistance to anticancer drugs and off target toxicity are the primary hindrances to chemotherapeutic solutions for cancer. It is imperative that researchers, clinicians, and pharmaceutical companies work together to develop effective treatment options for TNBC. Several studies have suggested nanotechnology as a potential solution to the problem of suboptimal TNBC treatment.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0170.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: sphingomonas; gram-negative bacterial infection; skin disease; bacterial
Online: 12 December 2019 (10:01:35 CET)
Sphingomonas paucimobilis is an opportunist pathogen bacillus gram-negative aerobic with a rare occurrence. We present a case in an immunocompetent man successfully treated by surgical debridement, purulent drainage and with an associated course of antibiotics. A large necrotic infection, approximately 5 cm x 3 cm, in a 74-year-old man was identified. Empirical antibiotic therapy with ciprofloxacin 400mg EV 12/12 hours, associated with clindamycin 600mg EV 6/6 hours and pain control was done through dipyrone 1gr, tramadol 400 mg. Deep venous thrombosis was prevented through the prescription of enoxaparin 40mg subcutaneous once a day during hospitalization. The case was well illustrated with pictures throughout treatment. Complete healing was achieved after 90 days. Herein, we present a case of cutaneous contamination. The presented case is the third cutaneous contamination case reported in the literature and the first reported case in the Amazonia region in Brazil.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0405.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Jackknife; Kibria-Lukman; estimator; Maximum Likelihood; Negative Binomial regression
Online: 6 July 2023 (08:58:10 CEST)
The negative binomial regression model (NBRM) is a generalized linear model which relaxes the restrictive assumption by the Poisson regression model when the variance is equal to the mean. The estimation of the parameters of the NBRM is obtained using the maximum likelihood (ML) method. Maximum likelihood estimator becomes unstable when the explanatory variables are linearly dependent, a situation known as multicollinearity. Based on this, we developed a new estimator called modified jackknifed Negative Binomial Kibria-Lukman (MJNBKL) estimator for the radiation of multicollinearity in NBRM using four different biasing (shrinkage) parameters. We establish superiority condition for MJNBKL estimator over the ones. The performance MJNBKL estimator was ascertained by comparing it with the existing ones through a Monte Carlo simulation study and two real life application datasets. The results of the simulation and real life application show that MJNBKL estimator outperformed the other estimators compared with by having the smallest MSE across all sample sizes and for different levels of correlation for the four biasing parameters used and the third biasing parameter is the optimal shrinkage parameter with the lowest MSE.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1575.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: complicated appendicitis; negative appendectomy; Heisenberg’s principle; diagnostic uncertainty; children
Online: 23 May 2023 (04:58:36 CEST)
Abstract Background. There is an inherent limit in the accuracy of our measurements, set by nature itself and predicted by Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, which defines the properties of nature in the microcosmos. There is a fundamental limit to the accuracy with which complementary phys-ical quantities of a particle can be predicted from their initial conditions. As classical physics is essentially considered at borderline of quantum mechanics, so the power of uncertainty princi-ple is limited in describing everyday life perceived or managed phenomena. Method. In this study, we apply Heisenberg's uncertainty principle to children under diagnostic uncertainty re-garding appendicitis. We analyze this phenomenon in clinical practice. Results. Medical practice is full of uncertainty. False negative decisions correlate with delays in treatment and adverse outcomes in children with atypical appendicitis. On the other hand, false-positive surgery deci-sions result in negative appendectomies. With improvement of technology, the incidence of complicated appendicitis or negative appendectomies due to diagnostic uncertainty has de-creased but cannot be ignored or eliminated. Conclusion. According to the principle, there is a fundamental limit to the accuracy with which the complementary variables of negative appen-dectomy and complicated appendicitis can be observed or measured simultaneously. What does all this mean for the physician?
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0146.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: prosthetic devices; metamaterials; auxetic structure; negative Poisson’s ratio; metastructure
Online: 3 May 2023 (12:31:06 CEST)
Prosthetics have come a long way since their inception, and recent advancements in materials science have enabled the development of prosthetic devices with improved functionality and comfort. One promising area of research is the use of auxetic metamaterials in prosthetics. Auxetic materials have a negative Poisson's ratio, which means that they expand laterally when stretched, unlike conventional materials, which contract laterally. This unique property allows for the creation of prosthetic devices that can better conform to the contours of the human body and provide a more natural feel. In this review article, we provide an overview of the current state of the art in the development of prosthetics using auxetic metamaterials. We discuss the mechanical properties of these materials, including their negative Poisson's ratio and other properties that make them suitable for use in prosthetic devices. We also explore the limitations that currently exist in implementing these materials in prosthetic devices, including challenges in manufacturing and cost. Despite these challenges, the future prospects for the development of prosthetic devices using auxetic metamaterials are promising. Continued research and development in this field could lead to the creation of more comfortable, functional, and natural-feeling prosthetic devices. Overall, the use of auxetic metamaterials in prosthetics represents a promising area of research with the potential to improve the lives of millions of people around the world who rely on prosthetic devices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0026.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy And Astrophysics Keywords: Neutrino, Dark Matter, Dark Energy, Black Holes, Negative Temperature
Online: 2 February 2022 (09:35:52 CET)
It is proven that the Clapeyron-Mendeleev equation, originally discovered for gases with large entropy, describes the state of dark matter and energy due to enormous self-gravitation. It is shown that the dark matter exists as compact cold neutrino stars at positive temperature with size twice the Schwarzschild radius. In contrast, the dark energy is dark matter at temperature below the absolute zero, which is locked entirely in black holes, where the pressure is negative as required for the Universe intrinsic expansion. The derived dark phase diagram predicts negative critical temperatures for the Big Bang and the Big Rip of black holes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0047.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Triple Negative Breast Cancer; Cancer Stem Cell; TGF-β
Online: 8 September 2021 (20:53:29 CEST)
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a subtype of breast cancer that disproportionally accounts for the majority of breast cancer-related deaths due to the lack of specific targets for effective treatments. In this review, we highlight the complexity of the transforming growth factor-beta family (TGF-β) pathway and discuss how the dysregulation of the TGF-β pathway promotes oncogenic attributes in TNBC which negatively affects patient prognosis. Moreover, we discuss recent findings highlighting TGF-β inhibition as a potent method to target mesenchymal (CD44+/CD24-) and epithelial (ALDHhigh) cancer stem cell (CSC) populations. CSCs are associated with tumorigenesis, metastasis, relapse, resistance, and diminished patient prognosis; however, due to differential signal pathway enrichment and plasticity, these populations remain difficult to target and persist as a major barrier barring successful therapy. This review highlights the importance of TGF-β as a driver of chemoresistance, radioresistance and reduced patient prognosis in breast cancer and highlights novel treatment strategies which modulate TGF-β, impede cancer progression and reduce the rate of resistance generation via targeting the CSC populations in TNBC and thus reducing tumorigenicity. Potential TGF-β inhibitors targeting based on clinical trials are summarized for further investigation which may lead to the development of novel therapies to improve TNBC patient prognosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0195.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Environmental pollution; air purification; negative ion generators; particulate matter.
Online: 10 May 2021 (14:02:23 CEST)
Today, air quality is one of the global concerns that governments are facing. One of the main air pollutants is the particulate matter (PM) that affects human health. This article presents the modeling of a purification system by means of negative air ions (NAIs) for air pollutant removal, using computational intelligence methods. The system uses a high voltage booster output to ionize air molecules from stainless steel electrodes; its particle-capturing efficiency reaches up to 97%. With two devices (5 x 2 x 2.5 cm), 2 trillion negative ions are produced per second, and the particulate matter (PM 2.5) can be reduced from 999 to 0 mg / m3 in a period of approximately 5 to 7 minutes (in a 40 x 40 x 40 cm acrylic chamber). This negative ion generator is a viable and sustainable alternative to reduce polluting emissions, with beneficial effects on human health.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0782.v2
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: electrospinning; negative electrode materials; carbon nanofibers; free-standing; supercapacitor
Online: 10 May 2021 (09:34:34 CEST)
The development of smart negative electrode materials with high capacitance for use in supercapacitors remains challenging. Although there have been several types of electrode materials with high capacitance used in energy storage, carbon-based materials are the most reliable electrodes due to their high conductivity, high power density and excellent stability. The most common complaint about general carbon materials is that these as-formed electrode materials can hardly ever be used as free-standing electrodes. Free-standing carbon-based electrodes are in high demand and are a passionate topic of energy storage research. Electrospun nanofibers are a potential candidate to fill this gap. However, the as-spun carbon nanofibers (ECNFs) have low capacitance and energy density on their own. To this end, several attempts have been made to improve these characteristics. In this review, we introduce negative electrode materials that have been developed. Moreover, this review places special attention to the advances of electrospun nanofiber-based negative electrode materials and their limitations. Based on the above information, we put forth a future perspective on how these limitations can be overcome to meet the demands of next-generation smart devices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0078.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Negative life events; Suicidal ideation; Suicidalogy; Adolescents; Gender difference
Online: 4 March 2021 (15:56:04 CET)
Background: We attempted to find if there were gender differences in different types of Negative life events and Suicidal ideation among Chinese adolescents, then analyze the relationship between different types of Negative life events and Suicidal ideation among these young students. Methods: Based on the data from 6 middle-schools and 3 universities in 3 cities of Western China, the gender difference in different types of Negative life events and Suicidal ideation and their related factors were investigated and analyzed in the study. Results: Gender differences were found during different types of Negative life events and Suicidal ideation; Negative life events could predict the intensity of Suicidal ideation by gender, to some specific types. Conclusions: Negative life events were proved to be risk factors of adolescents’ Suicidal ideation regardless of different gender stereotypes, but the specific classification of negative life events which had significant impact on adolescents’ Suicidal ideation also indicated significant gender divisions. For males, negative life events of punishment and adaptation had a significant and boosting impact on their Suicidal ideation, the higher the scores of punishment and adaptation negative life events had, the greater intensity of male adolescents were to have Suicidal ideation. Thus, the above two types of negative life events may be the main stressors predicting male adolescents' Suicidal ideation; For females, in addition to punishment, other types of negative life events all had significant impacts on their Suicidal ideation, which can be treated as the main stressors to trigger female adolescents' Suicidal ideation; Additionally, parents’ marital status of remarriage and divorce were proved to be significant indicators to adolescents’ Suicidal ideation, the age variable was proved to be strongly correlated with Suicidal ideation among female adolescents.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0517.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Gram-negative bacterial; Metabolite transporter; pathways; metabolic engineering approaches
Online: 25 January 2021 (15:49:13 CET)
Metabolite transport across cellular membranes is a key feature of living organisms. Specialized proteins or protein complexes mediate such transport processes and are accessible to genetic engineering approaches. This special issue will reflect on the different transport between cellular compartments. It will provide an overview about different transporter classes and metabolic engineering approaches in different organisms ranging from Bacteria to Eukarya. The transport mechanisms energetics of these compounds were thought little of, and most consideration was given to the designing of metabolic pathways. Gram-negative microbes discharge a wide scope of proteins whose capacities incorporate biogenesis of organelles, for example, pilli and flagella, supplement securing, destructiveness, and efflux of medications and different poisons. Six particular emission frameworks have been appeared to intervene protein send out through the inward and external layers of Gram-negative microbes. These pathways are exceptionally monitored all through the Gram-negative bacterial species. In Gram-positive microscopic organisms, discharged proteins are usually moved across the single layer by the Sec pathway or the two-arginine (Tat) pathway. Recently efforts focused on transporter and metabolite engineering, visualize the improvement and enhancement of microbial cell to pass such metabolites these metabolite carrier proteins are inserted into the inner membrane of mitochondria across the inner membrane, specialized carrier proteins are necessary that mediate the transport into and out of the mitochondrial matrix. Two main strategies for metabolic engineering in plants: the introduction of genes encoding new enzymes and the use of TFs controlling specialized metabolic pathways
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0076.v6
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Unification; Composite Photon; Negative Mass; Antimatter; Grand Unification Theory, Dark Energy, Dark Matter
Online: 28 October 2021 (10:06:39 CEST)
A deep relationship is identified between the Coulomb Force and Gravity. A gravitational constant for strong gravity is calculated from the relationship. The equivalence between mass and charge is explored. Implications are given for the expansion of Einstein's Field Equations to include vector gravity.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aging Keywords: breast cancer; BOLD-100; olaparib; triple negative breast cancer
Online: 22 July 2020 (10:00:52 CEST)
BOLD-100, a ruthenium-based complex, sodium trans-[tetrachloridobis(1H-indazole)ruthenate(III)] (also known as IT-139, NKP1339 or KP1339), is a novel small molecule drug that demonstrated a manageable safety profile at the maximum tolerated dose and modest antitumor activity in a phase I clinical trial. BOLD-100 has been reported to inhibit the upregulation of the endoplasmic reticulum stress sensing protein GRP78. However, response to BOLD-100 varies in different cancer models and the precise mechanism of action in high-response versus low-response cancer cells remains unclear. In vitro studies have indicated that BOLD-100 induces cytostatic rather than cytotoxic effects as a monotherapy. To understand BOLD-100 mediated signaling mechanism in breast cancer cells, we used estrogen receptor positive (ER+) MCF7 breast cancer cells to obtain gene-metabolite integrated models. Particularly, BOLD-100 significantly reduced expression of genes involved in the DNA repair pathway. BOLD-100 also induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and phosphorylation of histone H2AX, gH2AX (Ser139), suggesting disruption of proper DNA surveillance. In estrogen receptor negative (ER-) breast cancer cells, combination of BOLD-100 with a PARP inhibitor, olaparib, induced significant inhibition of cell growth and xenografts and increased gH2AX. Thus, BOLD-100 is a novel DNA repair pathway targeting agent and can be used with other chemotherapies in ER- breast cancer.
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: thermal noise; negative feedback; low-noise resistors; theory; design
Online: 31 May 2020 (19:02:49 CEST)
The concept of using special electrical circuit design realize a "cold resistors", that is, an active resistor circuitry with lowered effective noise temperature, was first introduced about 80 years ago. Later on, various kinds of artificial resistors were applied in different research areas, such as gravitational wave detection, photo-amplifiers and quartz oscillators. Their proofs of concepts were experimentally proved. Unfortunately, the complete theory was not found even though several attempts had been published, sometimes with errors. In this paper, we describe a correct and complete circuit theoretical model of a cold resistor system. The results are confirmed by computer simulations. A design tools for this circuit is also shown.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0418.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: metamaterials; negative effective mass; plasma oscillations; low frequency plasmons
Online: 29 March 2020 (03:39:01 CEST)
We report the negative effective mass metamaterials based on the electro-mechanical coupling exploiting plasma oscillations of a free electron gas. The negative mass appears as a result of vibration of a metallic particle with a frequency of ω which is close the frequency of the plasma oscillations of the electron gas m_2 relatively to the ionic lattice m_1. The plasma oscillations are represented with the elastic spring k_2=ω_p^2 m_2, where ω_p is the plasma frequency. Thus, the metallic particle vibrated with the external frequency ω is described by the effective mass m_eff=m_1+(m_2 ω_p^2)/(ω_p^2-ω^2 ) , which is negative when the frequency ω approaches ω_p from above. The idea is exemplified with two conducting metals, namely Au and Li.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0147.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: deficit schizophrenia, positive symptoms, negative symptoms, inflammation, neuro-immune
Online: 10 July 2019 (11:02:41 CEST)
Schizophrenia comprises various symptom domains, including positive and negative symptoms. Machine learning showed that a) negative symptoms are significantly interrelated with PHEM (psychosis, hostility, excitation, and mannerism) symptoms, formal thought disorders (FTD) and psychomotor retardation (PMR); and b) stable phase schizophrenia comprises two distinct classes, namely Major Neuro-Cognitive Psychosis (MNP, largely overlapping with deficit schizophrenia) and Simple NP (SNP). In this study, we recruited 120 MNP patients and 54 healthy subjects and measured the above-mentioned symptom domains. In MNP, there were significant associations between negative and PHEM symptoms, FTD and PMR. A single latent trait, which is essentially unidimensional, underlies these key domains of schizophrenia and MNP and additionally shows excellent internal consistency reliability, convergent validity, and predictive relevance. Confirmatory Tedrad Analysis indicates that this latent vector fits a reflective model. The lack of discriminant validity shows that PHEM and negative symptoms greatly overlap and probably measure the same construct. Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) shows that MNP (diagnosis based on negative symptoms) is better modeled using PHEM symptoms, FTD, and PMR than negative symptoms. In conclusion, in stable phase MNP, a restricted sample of the schizophrenia population, negative and PHEM symptoms, FTD and PMR belong to one underlying latent vector reflecting overall severity of schizophrenia (OSOS). The bi-dimensional concept of “positive” and “negative” symptoms cannot be validated and, therefore, future research in stable phase schizophrenia should consider that the latent phenomenon OSOS as well as its 8 reflective manifestations are the key factors of schizophrenia phenomenology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0438.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Fluids And Plasmas Physics Keywords: entropy; thermodynamics; conservative hydrodynamics; rotations; meniscus; planets; negative pressure
Online: 19 November 2018 (09:42:08 CET)
This is a review of efforts to discover action principles for Hydrodynamics and Thermodynamics. The work began with a determined attempt to create sources for Einstein's equations that describe continuous matter - as opposed to point particles. This requires a relativistic action principle. This report is mainly about (non relativistic) Adiabatic Thermodynamics, non equilibrium thermodynamics based on the method of Gibbs. The main relations of classical thermodynamics can be derived from an action principle, in the classical global form and in the local form advocated by Callen. The entropy is defined as the negative derivative of the free energy (free energy density) with respect to the volume (density). This is integrated with an action principle for hydrodynamics that was known to Lagrange in 1760. It is strongly limited to irrotational velocity fields, nevertheless it provides the needed Lagrangian for a large part of thermodynamics. This is the subject of the first 3 sections. It includes a brief review of a new theory of mixtures. The most difficult part of the program has been the discovery of Conservative Hydrodynamics with the required four independent degrees of freedom, with general flows. We give an account of the genesis and the structure of this theory, then a tour of recent applications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0059.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: mitochondrial; muscle biopsy; ragged red; COX-negative; subsarcolemmal; immunohistochemistry
Online: 13 June 2017 (06:23:36 CEST)
Mitochondria are dynamic organelles ubiquitously present in nucleated eukaryotic cells, subserving multiple metabolic functions, including cellular ATP generation by oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). The OXPHOS machinery comprises five transmembrane respiratory chain enzyme complexes (RC). Defective OXPHOS gives rise to mitochondrial diseases (mtD). The incredible phenotypic and genetic diversity of mtD can be attributed at least in part to the RC dual genetic control (nuclear DNA [nDNA] and mitochondrial DNA [mtDNA]) and the complex interaction between the two genomes. Despite the increasing use of next-generation-sequencing (NGS) and various -omics platforms in unraveling novel mtD genes and pathomechanisms, current clinical practice for investigating mtD essentially involves a multipronged approach including clinical assessment, metabolic screening, imaging, pathological, biochemical and functional testing to guide molecular genetic analysis. This review addresses the broad muscle pathology landscape including genotype-phenotype correlations in adult and paediatric mtD, the role of immunodiagnostics in understanding some of the pathomechanisms underpinning the canonical features of mtD, and recent diagnostic advances in the field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0515.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: shared micromobility; e-scooters; spatiotemporal analysis; negative binomial regression analysis
Online: 8 November 2023 (04:46:20 CET)
Shared micromobility has gained significant attention in the field of transportation engineering in recent years as an environmentally friendly, convenient, and easily accessible transportation mode. Like other medium-sized cities, Birmingham, Alabama implemented a shared micromobility pilot program in 2021 that captured the attention of local travelers. This study examined shared e-scooter usage and associated travel patterns in Birmingham using 2021-2022 field data. From these data, ArcGIS maps were used to showcase trip origins and destinations. To gain a further understanding of e-scooter travel patterns in the study area, zip code and block group densities were calculated. Additionally, a negative binomial regression model was constructed to identify determinants of shared e-scooter trips. The analysis results showed that the usage of shared e-scooters was the highest during the nighttime, on weekends, and in the fall season. Furthermore, the research findings indicated that shared e-scooters experienced their highest utilization rates in areas with a higher proportion of educated and higher-income individuals. These findings suggest that travelers’ mode choice related to the use of micromobility modes is influenced by environmental and demographic factors. Overall, this case study offers valuable contributions to the understanding of the role of shared e-scooters in Birmingham's transportation landscape and can guide transportation authorities in other medium-sized cities in their efforts to plan for micromobility options.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1088.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Fetuin-A; Triple Negative; Breast Cancer; TLR4; Invasion; Basal-like
Online: 15 September 2023 (16:02:45 CEST)
The present studies were undertaken to address the role of fetuin-A in the growth and invasion potential in a triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell line, MDA-MB-468. Basal like TNBC that express high levels of ectopic fetuin-A have poorer prognosis for the patients compared to those that express low levels of the protein. We overexpressed fetuin-A in MDA-MB-468 and then determined the invasive potential of fetuin-A overexpressing cells vs controls transfected with empty vector. We also determined the adhesion and growth potential of the cells in the presence of only fetuin-A in serum free medium and also in complete medium. Our data suggest that fetuin-A overexpression significantly enhances the invasive potential of the cells and also the expression of Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) on these cells. More importantly, the cells rely on fetuin-A-TLR4 signaling network for growth and invasion because the specific TLR4 inhibitor CLI-095 (resatorvid) abrogates fetuin-A mediated growth and invasion. Taken together, the data suggest that fetuin-A-TLR4 signaling network plays a significant role in the growth and invasion potential of TNBC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0283.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: family environment; eating disorders; negative thoughts; mediation analysis; Saudi Arabia
Online: 5 July 2023 (10:40:23 CEST)
Eating disorders are a global burden and present personal, family, and societal costs. Most evidence in the literature is based on the relationship between a poor family environment and eating disorders, and the evidence of gender interaction in eating disorders is inconsistent. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between family functioning and disordered eating patterns, the mediating role of negative automatic thoughts, and the moderating role of gender. A sample of 440 (70.9% females, aged 18–21) participated in this study. They completed the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire (ATQ negative), and the Brief Family Relationship Scale (BFRS). PROCESS MACRO was used to study these relationships. The main findings revealed that family functioning was negatively associated with eating disorders, and that this relationship was negatively mediated by automatic thoughts. Moreover, gender moderated those relationships, and more intensely in females. The results of this study postulate that the prevention of eating disorders should be directed at training individuals to challenge negative thoughts and encourage healthy individuals to be gender mindful.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0268.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: wellness; health; user engagement; social media; instagram; negative binomial regression
Online: 12 April 2023 (09:46:13 CEST)
Wellness is a multidimensional concept that touches upon the various physical, mental, emotional, spiritual, social and environmental facets of health. Interest towards and importance of wellness have been growing constantly for the past two decades and thus makes it crucial to understand which factors affect public engagement with wellness information for multiple stakeholders. The Instagram account of New York Times (NYT) specifically for sharing wellness content with the handle nyt_well was selected as the object of study. 773 posts from this account between March of 2019 and December of 2022 were collected and analyzed to answer the research question of which factors are most influential to public engagement with wellness content. Two negative binomial regressions were run on features including the type of post, length, word count, sentiment score and topic with number of likes and comments as the dependent variables for each of those regression models. Results indicated that the type of post and its sentiment score were the two most influential determinants of public engagement with p-values smaller than 0.05. While the effects of some of these factors aligned with findings from previous studies conducted on social media content not related to wellness (e.g., marketing), some others affected the two separate public engagement metrics in opposite directions, warranting future studies to investigate further on the cause of this phenomenon.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0133.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: amino acid PET; FET PET; glioma; FET negative; photopenic; radiomics
Online: 9 September 2022 (09:31:45 CEST)
46 patients with a newly diagnosed, histologically verified glioma that was visually classified as [18F]FET-negative were included. Tumor volumes were defined using routine T2/FLAIR MRI data and applied to extract information from dynamic [18F]FET PET data, i.e. early and late tu-mor-to-background (TBR5-15, TBR20-40) images and time-to-peak (TTP) images. Radiomic features of healthy background were calculated from the tumor volume-of-interest mirrored to the con-tralateral hemisphere. Differences between tumor and healthy tissue features were compared us-ing Wilcoxon test. Additionally, the ability to distinguish tumor from healthy tissue was assessed using logistic regression. 5 % of features derived from TBR20-40 images were significantly differ-ent; 16 % of features derived from TBR5-15 images and 69 % of features derived from TTP images. The high number of significantly different features derived from TTP images was even found in isometabolic gliomas (after exclusion of photopenic gliomas) with visually normal [18F]FET up-take in static images. However, the differences did not reach satisfactory predictability for ma-chine learning based identification of tumor tissue. In conclusion, radiomic features derived from dynamic [18F]FET PET data may extract additional information even in [18F]FET-negative glio-mas, which should be investigated in larger cohorts and correlated with histological and out-come features in future studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0349.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Cyclograpsus cinereus; spatial distribution; intertidal; rocky shore; negative binomial distribution.
Online: 24 January 2022 (11:48:21 CET)
The decapod fauna in intertidal rocky shore in continental Chile has high species diversity mainly in northern and central Chile due high productivity of these coast due influence of cold Humboldt stream. One of the abundant species in these ecosystems is decapod Cyclograpsus cinereus Dana, 1851. The aim of the present study was determine the spatial distribution pattern of C. cinereus along rocky shore in Antofagasta bay, north of Chile between spring and summer 2018-2020. Data was obtained counting individuals from random quadrants in intertidal zones, to the obtained data was applied the variance mean ratio for determine if the specimens have random, aggregate or uniform distribution, that are associated to Poisson, negative binomial or positive binomial distributions respectively. Data obtained revealed the existence of associated distribution with respective negative binomial distribution pattern in 16 observations, and uniform distribution for 3 observations. The sites corresponds to rocky shores in urban zones, and in a protected zone, and the density does not have significant differences for both kind of sites. The observed data about aggregated pattern agree with observations for decapods for rocky shore in central and southern Chile, specifically in interpretative probabilistic models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0476.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Human Papillomavirus, vaccine, social inequality, NIS-Teen, false negative, SES.
Online: 30 December 2021 (00:14:38 CET)
Background: Relatively little is known and inconclusive about social inequality in human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among teenagers in the United States. This study aims to investigate whether there is a social disparity in HPV vaccination among teenagers and if so, whether it can differ by the source of teen vaccination information (parental reports and provider records). Methods: We used the data from the 2019 National Immunization Survey-Teen (NIS-Teen; 42,668 teenagers, aged 13-17) including parental reported vaccination status. Among them, 18,877 teenagers had adequate provider reported vaccination records. Two socioeconomic status (SES) measures were used: mother’s education and annual family income. Multivariate logistic analyses were conducted. Results: False negatives of parental reports against provider records were more than two times higher (p < 0.001) in low SES teens than in high SES teens. In both SES measures, the proportion of HPV unvaccinated teenagers were lowest in the highest SES level in analyses with parental reports. However, it was the opposite in analyses with provider records. Interestingly, regardless of vaccination information source, the HPV unvaccinated rate was highest in the middle SES teens (>12 years, non-college graduates; and above poverty level, but not > $75K). Conclusion: A significant social inequality in HPV vaccination among teenagers exists in the United States. The pattern of social inequality in HPV vaccination can be distorted when only parent reported vaccination information is used.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0626.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: tilapia; negative-sense RNA virus; Tilapia lake virus; DNA vaccine
Online: 28 July 2021 (11:11:37 CEST)
Tilapia lake virus (TiLV) is the main tilapia-infecting virus worldwide, causing serious economic losses. However, there is no vaccine for this viral disease. Here, TiLV ORF10 (TiLV-ORF10) encoding a protein with abundant epitopes was constructed into the eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1, and used to evaluate the immune protective effects in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). RT-PCR and western blot analyses conﬁrmed vaccine plasmid expression in tilapia muscle tissues. Moreover, the transcription levels of immunoglobulin M, toll-like receptor 2, myeloid differentiation factor 88, interleukin 8, tumor necrosis factor alpha, gamma-IFN, and nuclear factor κB immune-related genes were statistically signiﬁcantly upregulated in the spleen, liver, and kidney of vaccinated tilapias (P < 0.05). TiLV challenge experiments showed that relative percent survival (RPS) was signiﬁcantly enhanced in ﬁsh by this DNA vaccine. Moreover, RPS was enhanced further when using a higher amount of the DNA vaccine (85.72% RPS at a DNA dose of 45 μg pcDNA3.1–ORF10). Vaccination with pcDNA3.1–ORF10 signiﬁcantly reduced virus replication, as evidenced by the low amount of virus in the spleen, liver, and kidney of vaccinated tilapias after TiLV challenge. Thus, pcDNA3.1–ORF10 could induce protective immunity in tilapia and may be a potential vaccine candidate for controlling diseases caused by TiLV.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0614.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Triple-negative breast cancer; cannabinoid; marijuana; cell signalling; medicinal plants
Online: 28 July 2021 (08:56:32 CEST)
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a subtype of breast cancer characterized by the lack of estrogen receptors (ER), progesterone receptors, and HER-2 receptors. Thus, TNBC tumours do not benefit from the current therapies targeting ER or HER-2. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop novel treatment for this subtype of breast cancer. Marijuana is a common name given to Cannabis plants, a group of plants in the Cannabis genus of the Cannabaceae family. Cannabis plants are among the oldest cultivated crops, traced back at least 12,000 years and are well known for their multi-purpose usage, including medicinal purposes. The main active compounds extracted from Cannabis plants are 21-carbon-containing terpenophenolics, which are referred to as phytocannabinoids. Of these, the tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) group contains highly potent cannabinoids, including delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (∆9-THC) and delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol (∆8-THC), which are the most abundant THCs and are largely responsible for psychological and physiological effects of marijuana. The use of Cannabis plants for medicinal purposes was first recorded in 2337 BC in China, where Cannabis plants were used to treat pains, rheumatism, and gout. Recently, several cannabinoids have been approved for a number of treatments, one of which is the treatment of nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy in cancer patients. Furthermore, increasing evidence shows that cannabinoids not only attenuate side effects due to cancer treatment, but might also potentially possess direct antitumor effects in several cancer types, including breast cancer. However, anti-tumour activity of marijuana has been variable in different studies and even promoted tumour growth in some cases. In addition, the mechanisms of cannabinoid action in cancer remain unclear. This review summarizes evidence about the mixed actions of cannabinoids in cancer in general and triple-negative breast cancer in particular.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0238.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Negative cosmic time; cosmological solutions; variable deceleration parameter; big rip
Online: 12 July 2021 (09:46:04 CEST)
In this article, we assume that the beginning of the universe was before the Big Bang. In the beginning, all matter in the universe was combined in an infinitesimal spherical shape. This sphere was compressed to an incomprehensible value for a period, and then exploded and expanded time and space. We are referring to the negative time before the Big Bang. The evolution of the universe before the Big Bang, passing through the moment of the explosion to the end of the universe at the Big Rip, has been studied. In this article, we try to answer the questions; did the universe exist before the Big Bang? What is the origin of the universe and how did it arise? What are the stages of the evolution of the universe until the moment of the Big Rip? What is the length of time for the stages of this development?
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: triple-negative breast cancer; prognosis; immune system; immunoglobulin kappa C
Online: 31 May 2021 (12:27:49 CEST)
We studied the prognostic impact of tumor immunoglobulin kappa C (IGKC) mRNA expression as a marker of the humoral immune system in the FinHer trial patient population, where 1,010 patients with early breast cancer were randomly allocated to either docetaxel-containing or vinorelbine-containing adjuvant chemotherapy. HER2-positive patients were additionally allocated to either trastuzumab or no trastuzumab. Hormone receptor-positive patients received tamoxifen. IGKC was evaluated in 909 tumors using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and the influence on distant disease-free survival (DDFS) was examined using univariable and multivariable Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier estimates. Interactions were analyzed using Cox regression. IGKC expression, included as continuous variable, was independently associated with DDFS in a multivariable analysis including also age, molecular subtype, grade, and pT and pN stage (HR 0.930, 95% CI 0.870 – 0.995, P = 0.034). An independent association with DDFS was also found in a subset analysis of triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) (HR 0.843, 95% CI 0.724 – 0.983, P = 0.029), but not in luminal (HR 0.957, 95% CI 0.867 – 1.056, P = 0.383) or HER2-positive (HR 0.933, 95% CI 0.826 – 1.055, P = 0.271) cancers. No significant interaction between IGKC and chemotherapy or trastuzumab administration was detected (Pinteraction = 0.855 and 0.684, respectively). These results show that humoral immunity beneficially influences the DDFS of patients with early TNBC.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: triple negative breast cancer; immunotherapy; immune checkpoint therapy; radionuclide therapy
Online: 9 April 2021 (13:26:23 CEST)
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive subtype of the disease with poor clinical outcomes and limited therapeutic options. Immune checkpoint blockade (CP) has surged to the forefront of cancer therapies with widespread clinical success in a variety of cancer types. However, the percentage of TNBC patients that benefit from CP as a monotherapy is low and clinical trials have shown the need for combined therapeutic modalities. Specifically, there has been interest in combining CP therapy with radiation therapy where clinical studies primarily with external beam have suggested their therapeutic synergy, contributing to the development of anti-tumor immunity. Here, we have developed a therapeutic platform combining radionuclide therapy (RT) and immunotherapy utilizing a radiolabelled biomolecule and CP in an E0771 murine TNBC tumor model. Survival studies show that while neither monotherapy is able to improve therapeutic outcomes, the combination of RT + CP extended overall survival. Histologic analysis showed that RT + CP increased necrotic tissue within the tumor and decreased levels of F4/80+ macrophages. Flow cytometry analysis of the peripheral blood also showed that RT + CP suppressed macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressive cells, both of which actively contribute to immune escape and tumor relapse.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0689.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Tropical Medicine Keywords: Plasmodium vivax; Erythrocyte Invasion Mechanisms; Duffy Negative; Africa; Immunology; Epidemiology
Online: 27 November 2020 (13:08:59 CET)
Plasmodium vivax malaria is a neglected tropical disease, despite being more geographically widespread than any other form of malaria. The documentation of P. vivax infections in different parts of Africa where Duffy-negative individuals are predominant suggested that there are alternative pathways for P. vivax to invade human erythrocytes. Duffy-negative individuals may be just as fit as Duffy-positive individuals and are no longer resistant to P. vivax malaria. In this review, we describe the complexity of P. vivax malaria, characterize pathogenesis and candidate invasion genes of P. vivax, and host immune responses to P. vivax infections. We provide a comprehensive review on parasite ligands in several Plasmodium species that further justify candidate genes in P. vivax. We also summarize previous genomic and transcriptomic studies related to the identification of ligand and receptor proteins in P. vivax erythrocyte invasion. Finally, we identify topics that remain unclear and propose future studies that will greatly contribute to our knowledge of P. vivax.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0178.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: triple negative breast cancer; African Ancestry; RNAseq analysis; oncologic pathways
Online: 12 April 2020 (04:22:51 CEST)
Triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are molecularly heterogeneous, and the link between their aggressiveness with African ancestry is not established. We investigated primary TNBCs for gene expression among self-reported race (SRR) groups of African American (AA, n=42) and European American (EA, n=33) women. Using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) approaches, we analyzed RNA sequencing data to measure changes in genome-wide expression and used logistic regressions to identify ancestry-associated gene expression signatures. To determine global ancestry, GATK best practices were followed for variant calling, and used the 1000 Genomes Project as reference data. We identified >150 African ancestry-associated genes and found that, compared to SRR, quantitative genetic analysis was a more robust method to identify racial/ethnic-specific genes that were differentially expressed. A subset of African ancestry-specific genes that were upregulated in TNBCs of our AA patients were validated in TCGA data. In AA patients, there was a higher incidence of basal-like 2 tumors and altered TP53, NFB1, and AKT pathways. The distinct distribution of TNBC subtypes and altered oncologic pathways show that the ethnic variations in TNBCs are driven by shared genetic ancestry. Thus, to appreciate the molecular diversity of TNBCs, tumors from patients of various ancestral origins should be evaluated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0064.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Probability And Statistics Keywords: birth; death; trends; generalized linear models (GLMs); poisson; negative binomial
Online: 5 August 2019 (14:36:49 CEST)
This study investigated the trends of registered Death and Birth in Nigeria using Generalized Linear Models. Annual data on Death and Birth was collected from National Population Commission for the period of 2004 to 2017. The Natural increase calculated revealed a positive trend in the natural increase in Nigeria from 2004 to 2017. Evidence from summary statistics revealed some level of over dispersion (variance > mean). This study explored Poisson Regression Models and Negative Binomial Regression Models using two links (identity and log). The results revealed a positive increase in registration of birth and death rates in Nigeria and among the competing the models, Negative Binomial regression model with identity link emerged as the best model for modeling birth and death rates registration in Nigeria. Data on numbers of deaths and causes of death are essential if countries are to determine priorities, formulate and monitor policies for public health care as well as other government policies that may be based on such data
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0436.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: sentiment analysis; opinion mining; linguistic features; classification; very negative opinions
Online: 19 November 2018 (09:35:13 CET)
In this paper, we examine the performance of several classifiers in the process of searching for very negative opinions. More precisely, we do an empirical study that analyzes the influence of three types of linguistic features (n-grams, word embeddings, and polarity lexicons) and their combinations when they are used to feed different supervised machine learning classifiers: Support Vector Machine (SVM), Naive Bayes (NB), and Decision Tree (DT).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0098.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Probability And Statistics Keywords: ecological niche model; environment; overdispersion; negative binomial; leishmaniasis; infectious disease
Online: 27 September 2016 (10:17:31 CEST)
Leishmaniasis is the third most common vector-borne disease and a very important protozoan infection. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is one of the most common types of leishmaniasis infectious diseases with up to 2 million occurrences of new cases each year worldwide. A dynamic transmission multivariate time series model was applied to the data to account for overdispersion and evaluate the effects of three environmental layers as well as seasonality in the data. Furthermore, ecological niche modeling was used to investigate the geographical suitable conditions for cutaneous leishmaniasis using temperature, precipitation and altitude as environmental layers, together with the leishmaniasis presence data. A retrospective analysis of the cutaneous leishmaniasis spatial data in Afghanistan between 2003 and 2009 indicates a steady increase from 2003 to 2007, a small decrease in 2008, then another increase in 2009. An upward trend and regularly repeating patterns of highs and lows was observed related to the months of the year which suggests seasonality effect in the data. Two peaks were observed in the disease occurrence-- January to March and September to December -- which coincide with the cold period. Ecological niche modelling indicates that precipitation has the greatest contribution to the potential distribution of leishmaniasis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0406.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computational Mathematics Keywords: Singular perturbation; Boundary layer; Interior layer; Negative shift term; Uniform convergence
Online: 7 October 2023 (09:31:16 CEST)
This research work deals with the formulation of numerical scheme with algorithm to compute singularly perturbed partial differential equations(SP-PDEs) involving a significant negative shift. The problem involves small parameter which causes a rapidly changing boundary layers in the vicinity of a body, and the negative shift term causes interior layer. Such appearance of an abruptly varying layers causes difficulties to find the exact solution and it is not adequate to employ classical numerical methods. The technique presented in this research work simplifies these challenges and yields accurate numerical solution.The stability and convergence analyses of the methods are examined and proven. To test the developed technique, numerical experiments are carried out and confirmed with theoretical analysis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1363.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Breast Cancer; Malignancy; Gulf Cooperation Council(GCC); Survival; HER2; Triple Negative
Online: 20 September 2023 (13:51:45 CEST)
Breast cancer stands as the prevailing malignancy across all six Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) nations. In this literature review, we highlighted the incidence and trend of BC in the GCC. Most of the studies reported a consistent increase in BC incidence over the past decades, which was particularly attributed to the adoption of a westernized lifestyle in the region and the implications of emerging risk factors and other environmental and societal factors, the increase in screening uptake, as well as the improvement in data collection and reporting in the GCC. The data about BC risk factors in GCC was limited. In this geographic region, breast cancer frequently manifests with distinctive characteristics, including an early onset, typically occurring before the age of 50, an advanced stage at presentation, and a higher pathological grade. Additionally, it often exhibits more aggressive features such as human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positivity or the presence of triple-negative (TN) attributes, particularly among younger patients. Despite the growing body of literature on breast cancer in the GCC, data pertaining to survival rates are, regrettably, meager. Reports on breast cancer survival rates emanating from the GCC region are largely confined to Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). In the UAE, predictive modeling reveals 2-year and 5-year survival rates of 97% and 89%, respectively, for the same period under scrutiny. These rates, when compared to Western counterparts such as Australia (89.5%) and Canada (88.2%), fall within the expected range. Conversely, Saudi Arabia reports a notably lower 5-year survival rate, standing at 72%. This disparity in survival rates underscores the need for further research directed towards elucidating risk factors and barriers that hinder early detection and screening. Additionally, there is a pressing need for expanded data reporting on survival outcomes within the GCC. In sum, a more comprehensive and nuanced understanding of breast cancer dynamics in this region is imperative to inform effective strategies for prevention, early detection, and improved patient outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0109.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: triple negative breast cancer; MCAK/KIF2C; aneuploidy; chromosomal instability; drug discovery
Online: 1 June 2023 (15:47:29 CEST)
Standard of care for triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) involves the use of microtubule poisons like paclitaxel, which are proposed to work by inducing lethal levels of aneuploidy in tumor cells. While these drugs are initially effective in treating cancer, dose-limiting peripheral neuropathies are common. Unfortunately, patients often relapse with drug resistant tumors. Identifying agents against targets that limit aneuploidy may be a valuable approach for therapeutic development. One potential target is the microtubule depolymerizing kinesin, MCAK, which limits aneuploidy by regulating microtubule dynamics during mitosis. Using publicly available datasets, we found that MCAK is upregulated in triple negative breast cancer and is associated with poorer prognoses. Knockdown of MCAK in tumor-derived cell lines caused a two- to five-fold reduction in the IC50 for paclitaxel, without affecting normal cells. Using FRET and image-based assays, we screened compounds from the ChemBridge 50k library and discovered three putative MCAK inhibitors. These compounds reproduced the aneuploidy-inducing phenotype of MCAK loss, reduced clonogenic survival of TNBC cells regardless of taxane-resistance, and the most potent of the three, C4, sensitized TNBC cells to paclitaxel. Collectively, our work shows promise that MCAK may serve as both a biomarker of prognosis and as a therapeutic target.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1852.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: diagnostic instrument; employee wellbeing; harm; Negative Work Behavior (NWB); bystander roles
Online: 26 May 2023 (04:41:39 CEST)
Negative work behavior (NWB) threatens employee well-being. There are numerous constructs that reflect NWBs, such as bullying, aggression, and discrimination and they are often examined in isolation of each other, limiting scientific integration of these studies. We aim to contribute to this research field by developing a diagnostic tool with content validity on the full spectrum of NWBs. First, we provide a full description of how we tapped and organized content from 44 existing NWB measurement instruments and 48 studies. Second, we discussed our results with experts (N = 3) in this research field to check for missing studies and to discuss our integration results. This two-stage process yielded a questionnaire measuring physical, material, psychological, sociocultural, and digital NWB. Furthermore, the questions include a range of potential actors of NWB, namely internal (employees, managers) and external actors (clients, customers, public, family members) at work and their roles (i.e., target, perpetrator, perpetrator's assistant, target's defender, outsider, and witness of NWBs). Finally, the questionnaire measures what type of harm is experienced (i.e., bodily, material, mental, and social harm).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0028.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: 310-helix; hydrogen bond energy; density functional theory; negative fragmentation analysis
Online: 2 August 2022 (03:15:55 CEST)
Hydrogen-bond (H-bond) energies in 310-helices of short alanine peptides were systematically examined by precise DFT calculations with the negative fragmentation approach (NFA), a modified method based on the molecular tailoring approach. The contribution of each H-bond was evaluated in detail from the 310-helical conformation of total energies (whole helical model; WH3-10 model), and the results were compared with the property of H-bond in a-helix from our previous study. The H-bond energies of the WH3-10 model exhibited tendencies different from those exhibited by the -helix, in that they depended on the helical position of the relevant H-bond pair. H-bond pairs adjacent to the terminal H-bond pairs were observed to be strongly destabilized. The analysis of electronic structures indicated that structural characteristics cause the destabilization of the H-bond in 310-helices. We also found that the longer the helix length, the more stable the H-bond in the terminal pairs of the WH3-10 model, suggesting the action of H-bond cooperativity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0080.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: core-spring-shell system; gravitating system; negative mass; Coulomb-like forces
Online: 8 April 2022 (11:12:34 CEST)
The effect of the negative effective mass emerging in the gravitating core-spring-shell system is considered. The effect appears when the entire system is exerted to the external harmonic force and the frequency of external force approaches to the critical frequency from above. The critical frequency depends on the density of the self-gravitating system only. The scaling law predicting the value of for condensed phases is derived. The generalization of the effect for the Coulomb-like forces is reported
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0133.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Intratumoral heterogeneity; Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC); Macc1; Phenotypic heteroge-neity
Online: 9 February 2022 (10:40:54 CET)
The triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtype is one of the most aggressive forms of breast cancer that has poor clinical outcome and still remains as an unmet clinical challenge. Accumulating evidence suggests that intratumoral heterogeneity or the presence of phenotypically heterogeneous cell populations within a tumor plays a crucial role in chemoresistance, tumor progression and metastasis. Increased understanding of the molecular regulators of intratumoral heterogeneity will enable the development of effective therapeutic strategies in TNBC. We have identified a molecular mediator involved in intratumoral heterogeneity in breast cancer using an unbiased approach. We isolated two heterogeneous tumor cell populations from the 4T1 TNBC tumor model and phenotypic characterization revealed that the cells are distinct in terms of their morphology, proliferation and self-renewal ability in vitro; as well as primary tumor formation and metastatic potential in vivo. Further, RNA sequencing on both cell populations was performed to identify the molecular mediators underlying this heterogeneity. Bioinformatic analysis performed on the differentially expressed genes along with the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis in TNBC patients identified Metastasis associated colon cancer 1 (Macc1) as the top candidate gene mediating the aggressive phenotype. The role of Macc1 in regulating the proliferative phenotype was validated using siRNA mediated gene knockdown. The role of Macc1 in the aggressive cancer cell phenotypes and disease progression is being studied further using a small molecule transcriptional inhibitor of Macc1 in cell line and animal models, thus increasing our understanding of the molecular underpinnings of intratumoral heterogeneity in breast cancer that is critical to the improvement in the treatment of women currently living with the highly aggressive TNBC subtype.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0042.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Mathematical Physics Keywords: Wind wave; Ice cover; Vortex sheet; Negative energy wave; Modulation instability
Online: 2 November 2021 (10:53:15 CET)
An interesting physical phenomenon was recently observed when a fresh-water basin is covered by a thin ice film that has properties similar to that of a rubber membrane. Surface waves can be generated under the action of wind on the air-water interface that contains an ice film. The modulation property of hydro-elastic waves (HEWs) in deep water covered by thin ice film blown by the wind with a uniform vertical profile is studied here in terms of the air-flow velocity versus a wavenumber. The modulation instability of HEWs is studied through the analysis of coefficients of the nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation with the help of the Lighthill criterion. The NLS equation is derived using the multiple scale method in the presence of airflow. It is demonstrated that the potentially unstable hydro-elastic waves with negative energy appear for relatively small wind speeds, whereas the Kelvin–Helmholtz instability arises when the wind speed becomes fairly strong. Estimates of parameters of modulated waves for the typical conditions are given.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0626.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Isolation; Identification; gram positive; gram negative; tests staining; microbio metabolic activities
Online: 25 November 2020 (08:36:32 CET)
AbstractBaraton University dairy farm is an environment that attracts a microbiologist to inquire the composition of bacteria that exist there in. The knowledge of bacteria has in time and again amazed the life scientist community that have invested to acquire more information in this microbiology world.The study engages fundamental tests such as gram stain, endospore stain, and assays for specific microbial activities & enzymes, susceptibility on disinfectant and antibiotic, utilization of specific substrate and culture characteristics. The two organisms (gram negative and positive) tested positive for sucrose & lactose fermentation, Indole & Methly red, catalase & Oxidase, were both facultative and motile. On contrary, gram positive bacteria had spores and had a gamma haemolysis on Blood Agar, while gram negative bacteria haemolysed beta haemolysis. To draw a conclusion on the identity of the two organisms is that, the gram positive is a Bacillus ........ while gram negative is Escherichia coli.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0041.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: negative-curvature spacetime; field theories in lower dimensions; graphene theoretical physics
Online: 2 November 2020 (13:24:36 CET)
We provide a detailed analysis of the electronic properties of graphene-like materials with charge carriers living on a curved substrate, focusing in particular on constant negative-curvature spacetime. An explicit parametrization is also worked out in the remarkable case of Beltrami geometry, with an analytic solution for the pseudoparticles modes living on the curved bidimensional surface. We will then exploit the correspondent massless Dirac description, to determine how it affects the sample local density of states.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0527.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Triple Negative Breast Cancer; Cancer Stem Cell; Hypoxia; EGFR; Cisplatin; PDX
Online: 22 July 2020 (11:32:30 CEST)
Development of targeted therapies for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an unmet medical need. Cisplatin has demonstrated its promising potential for the treatment of TNBC in clinical trials; however, cisplatin treatment is associated with hypoxia that in turn promotes cancer stem cell (CSC) enrichment and drug resistance. Therapeutic approaches to attenuate this may lead to increased cisplatin efficacy in the clinic for the treatment of TNBC. In this report, we analyzed clinical dataset of TNBC and found that TNBC patients possessed higher levels of EGFR and hypoxia gene expression. A similar expression pattern was also observed in cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells. We thus developed a new therapeutic approach to inhibit EGFR and hypoxia by combination of metformin and gefitinib that sensitized TNBC cells to cisplatin and led to the inhibition of both CD44+/CD24- and ALDH+ CSCs. We demonstrated a similar inhibition efficacy on organotypic cultures of TNBC patient samples ex vivo. Since these drugs have already been used frequently in the clinic, this study illustrates a novel, clinically translatable therapeutic approach to treat patients with TNBC.
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: positive-negative relationship quality; reliability; validity; confirmatory factor analysis (CFA); bifactor
Online: 16 September 2019 (16:33:17 CEST)
The present study investigates the reliability and validity of the Positive-Negative Relationship Quality (PN-RQ) scale in Turkey. In order to determine the validity and reliability of the scale, two studies were performed. The first was carried out with emerging adults (university students) who were in a romantic relationship (148 females, 43 males, and 2 unkown) and had the main purpose to examine the structure validity of the measurement tool in the Turkish sample with an exploratory analysis. Study 2 was performed online with 513 married adults (359 females, 149 males, and 5 unknown); confirmatory findings and criterion validity studies were added. Exploratory factor analyses revealed that relationship quality had a two-factor structure and that there was also a negative relationship between the factors. Confirmatory factor analyses on the married sample showed that the bi-factor model provided evidence for the multidimensional nature of the scale. Both studies demonstrated high internal consistency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0314.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: political skill; job satisfaction; turnover intention; popularity; positive affect; negative affect
Online: 26 December 2018 (12:16:31 CET)
From the perspective of individual resource and social capital, this paper aims to explain how employees’ political skill affect their job satisfaction and turnover intention, through the mediating role of popularity. Using a sample of 237 dyad surveys from supervisors and employees in the Yangtze River Delta of China, we found that: 1) political skill is positively correlated with job satisfaction and negatively correlated with turnover intention, and that these correlations are partially mediated by individual popularity; 2) positive affect (PA) moderates the relationship between political skill and job satisfaction, and negative affect (NA) moderates the relationship between political skill and turnover intention. The implications of our findings and future research directions are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0263.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: CO2 lasers; negative curvature fibers; chalcogenide glass; fiber loss; mid-IR
Online: 16 July 2018 (08:40:16 CEST)
We study impact of geometry on leakage loss in negative curvature fibers made with As2Se3 chalcogenide and As2Se3 chalcogenide glasses for carbon dioxide (CO2) laser transmission. The minimum leakage loss decreases when the core diameter increases both for fibers with six and for fibers with eight cladding tubes. The optimum gap corresponding to the minimum loss increases when the core diameter increases for negative curvature fibers with six cladding tubes. For negative curvature fibers with eight cladding tubes, the optimum gap is always less than 20 μm when the core diameter ranges from 300 μm to 500 μm. The influence of material loss on fiber loss is also studied. When material loss exceeds 102 dB/m, it dominates the fiber leakage loss for negative curvature fiber at a wavelength of 10.6 μm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1720.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: climate change; positive and negative affect; pro-environmental behavioural intentions; climate anxiety
Online: 28 November 2023 (08:15:55 CET)
The study aimed to investigate the effect of climate change exposure on affect and pro-environmental behavioural intentions in a randomised controlled trial. An online survey was completed by 100 adult participants and included measures of affect and pro-environmental behavioural intentions pre- and post-exposure. Participants were randomly allocated to a group that saw a climate change video (n=55) or a group that saw a non-climate change video (n=45). The findings showed were that participants in the climate change group showed a significant increase in negative affect and pro-environmental behavioural intention scores post-video exposure compared to the non-climate change video group. This suggests that climate change video exposure negatively influences affect but also potentially increases the intention to act pro-environmentally. These findings have the potential to support policies and societal change, however further investigation into the type of contents, actual behaviour change, and impacts on diverse populations (e.g., minority groups) is needed that influences pro-environmental behaviours is required. Furthermore, to achieve a greater impact, future research should be conducted measuring actual pro-environmental behaviour change, including with those from diverse populations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0110.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Gram negative bacteria; multidrug resistance; plasmids; carbapenemase; carbapenems; mobile genetic elements (MGEs)
Online: 4 September 2023 (07:17:41 CEST)
Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is a public health menace that needs urgent efforts to mitigate and forestall their transmission in the general environment. Plasmid-mediated metallo beta-lactamase (MBL) gives bacteria an exceptional ability to transmit resistance genes. This study investigated plasmid-mediated resistance in MBL P. aeruginosa isolates from poultry food chain settings. Cloacal swab samples (n=120) were bacteriologically analyzed for the isolation of P. aeruginosa isolates. Susceptibility studies were performed by the CLSI guideline using selected antibiotics. MBL was phenotypically detected using modified Hodges test, and confirmed using PCR technique. Plasmid curing studies detected the presence of plasmids in the isolates. P. aeruginosa isolates (n=48) showed high levels of reduced susceptibility to cefoxitin (93.8%), imipenem (81.3%), gentamicin (85.4%), amikacin (85.4%), nitrofurantoin (83.3%), ofloxacin (72.9%) and cefotaxime (77.1%). MBL was phenotypically detected in 7 (14%) isolates of P. aeruginosa. The presence of blaIMP-1 and blaIMP-2 MBL genes in P. aeruginosa (n=5) isolates was confirmed by PCR. The PCR did not detect blaVIM-1 and blaVIM-2 MBL genes. The P. aeruginosa isolates were multidrug resistant, with about 50% of the isolates showing multidrug resistance (MDR) to the antibiotics. The genes for MDR in the P. aeruginosa isolates were borne on plasmids, indicating a high possibility of community transmission of MBL resistance genes. Finally, the P. aeruginosa isolates from poultry food chain milieus are multidrug resistant, produce MBL, and harbour their resistance genes on plasmids. Since many antibiotic resistance genes in bacteria are associated with mobile genetic elements (MGEs) like plasmids, it is important to step up actions to mitigate incessant use of antibiotics in poultry and other agricultural practices in Nigeria in order to diminish the evolution and spread of plasmid-mediated resistance which is capable of initiating community acquired infections that may prove difficult to treat in our hospitals with the available antibiotics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2077.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: sepsis; lipopolysaccharide; gram-negative bacteria; covid pandemic; hyperinflammation; TLR4; cytokines; ARDS; Aspidasept
Online: 31 August 2023 (03:41:27 CEST)
Sepsis is a life-threatening condition caused by the body's overwhelming response to an infection, such as pneumonia or urinary tract infection. It occurs when the immune system releases cytokines into the bloodstream, triggering widespread inflammation. If not treated, it can lead to organ failure and death. Unfortunately, sepsis has a high mortality rate, with studies reporting rates ranging from 20% to over 50%, depending on the severity and promptness of treatment. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the annual death toll in the world is about 11 million. One of the main toxins responsible for inflammation induction are lipopolysaccharides (LPS, endotoxin) from Gram-negative bacteria, which ranks among the most potent immunostimulants found in nature. Antibiotics are consistently prescribed as a part of anti-sepsis-therapy. However, antibiotic therapy (i) is increasingly ineffective due to resistance development and (ii) most antibiotics are unable to bind and neutralize LPS, a prerequisite to inhibit the interaction of endotoxin with its cellular receptor complex, namely Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/MD-2, responsible for the intracellular cascade leading to pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion. The pandemic virus SARS-CoV-2 has infected hundreds of millions of humans worldwide since its emergence in 2019. The COVID-19 (Coronavirus disease-19) caused by this virus is associated with high lethality, particularly for elderly and immunocompromised people. As of August 2023, nearly 7 million deaths were reported worldwide due to this disease. According to some reported studies, upregulation of TLR4 and the subsequent inflammatory signaling detected in COVID-19 patients “mimics bacterial sepsis”. Furthermore, the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 was described by others as “mirror image of sepsis”. Similarly, the cytokine profile in sera from severe COVID-19 patients was very similar to those suffering from the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and sepsis. Finally, the severe COVID-19 infection was frequently accompanied by bacterial co-infections, as well as by the presence of significant LPS concentrations. These data indicate similarity and interdependences of both syndromes, but also significant differences which will be discussed in the present review.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1836.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: Polypropylene; foam; upcycling; negative Poisson's ratio; auxetic materials; cellular structure; mechanical properties.
Online: 26 June 2023 (21:55:19 CEST)
In this work, a simple and environmentally friendly process combining low pressure (vacuum) and mechanical compression is proposed to convert recycled polypropylene (PP) foams (28 kg/m3) into low density foams (90-131 kg/m3) having negative tensile and compressive Poisson's ratios (NPR). The effect of processing conditions (vacuum time, temperature, and mechanical pressure) was studied. Based on the optimized conditions, the tensile Poisson’s ratio of the resulting auxetic foams reached −1.50, while the minimum compressive Poisson's ratios was −0.32 for the same sample. The foam structure was characterized via morphological analysis (SEM) to determine any changes related to the treatment applied. Finally, tensile and compressive properties (Young's modulus, strain energy, energy dissipation and damping capacity) are also presented and discussed. It was observed that the mechanical properties of the resulting auxetic foams were improved compared to the original PP foam (PP-O) for all tensile properties in terms of modulus (19.9 to 59.8 kPa), strength (0.298 to 1.43 kPa) elongation at break (28 to 77%), energy dissipation (14.4 to 56.3 mJ/cm3) and damping capacity (12 to 19%). Nevertheless, improvements were also observed under compression in terms of energy dissipation (1.6 to 3.6 mJ/cm3) and damping capacity (13 to 19%). These auxetic foams can find applications in sport and military protective equipment, as well as any energy mitigation system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0434.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Tumor progression; cancer stem cells; gene signature; NACC1; triple negative breast cancer
Online: 27 February 2023 (03:10:34 CET)
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), characterized by deficiency in estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor2 (HER2), is among the most lethal subtypes of breast cancer (BC). Nevertheless, the molecular determinants that contribute to its malignant phenotype such as tumor heterogeneity and therapy resistance remain elusive. In this study, we sought to identify the stemness-associated genes involved in TNBC progression. Using bioinformatics approach, we found 55-up and 9-down regulated genes in TNBC. Out of the 55 upregulated genes, a 5 gene-signature (CDK1, EZH2, CCNB1, CCNA2, and AURKA) involved in cell regeneration, was positively correlated with status of tumor hypoxia and clustered with stemness-associated genes, as recognized by Parametric Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (PGSEA). Also, enhanced infiltration of immunosuppressive cells was positively correlated with the expression of these 5 genes. Moreover, our experiments showed that depletion of the transcriptional co-factor nucleus accumbens-associated protein 1 (NAC1), which is highly expressed in TNBC, reduced the expressions of these genes. Thus, the five genes signature identified by this study warrants further exploration as a potential new biomarker of TNBC heterogeneity/stemness characterized by high hypoxia, stemness enrichment, and immune-suppressive tumor microenvironment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0296.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: antimicrobial resistance; broad-spectrum antibiotics; antibacterial drug discovery; gram-negative bacteria; pyrrolobenzodiazepines
Online: 16 November 2022 (04:20:55 CET)
It is urgent to find new antibiotic classes to replenish the empty development pipeline of antibiotics. Recently, pyrrolobenzodiazepines (PBDs) with a C8-linked aliphatic-heterocycle have been identified as a new broad spectrum antibiotic class with activity against Gram-negative bacteria. The active imine moiety of the reported lead pyrrolobenzodiazepine compounds was replaced with amide to obtain the non-DNA binding and non-cytotoxic dilactam analogues to further understand the structure activity relationship and improve the safety potential of this class. The synthesized compounds were tested against panels of multidrug resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including WHO priority pathogens. Minimum inhibitory concentrations for the dilactam analogues ranged from 4 – 32 mg/L for MDR Gram-positive bacteria, compared to 0.03 to 2 mg/L for the corresponding imine analogues while they were found to be inactive against MDR Gram-negative bacteria, with an MIC >32 mg/L, compared to an MIC of 0.5 to 32 mg/L. A molecular modelling study suggests the lack of imine functionality also affects the interaction of PBDs with DNA gyrase. This study suggests the presence of N10-C11 imine moiety is crucial for broad spectrum activity of pyrrolobenzodiazepines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0433.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Physical Chemistry Keywords: spiropyran/merocyanine isomerization; negative photochromism; time-resolved UV-vis measurements; molecular modeling
Online: 25 August 2022 (10:22:35 CEST)
This joint experimental-theoretical work focuses on molecular and photophysical properties of the spiropyran-containing amphiphilic molecule in organic and aqueous solutions. Being dissolved in tested organic solvents, the system demonstrates positive photochromism, i.e. upon UV stimulus the colorless spiropyran form is transformed into colorful merocyanine isomer. However, aqueous solution of the amphiphile possesses a negative photochromism: the orange-red merocyanine form turns to be thermodynamically more stable in water, and both UV and vis stimuli lead to the partial or complete photobleaching of the solution. The explanation of this phenomenon is given on the basis of density functional theory calculations and classical modeling including thermodynamic integration. The simulations reveal that stabilization of merocyanine in water proceeds with the energy of ca. 70 kJ mol−1, and that the Helmholtz free energy of hydration of merocyanine form is 100 kJ mol−1 lower as compared to the behavior of SP isomer in water. The explanation of such a difference lies in the molecular properties of the merocyanine: after ring-opening reaction this molecule transforms into a zwitterionic form, as evidenced by the electrostatic potential plotted around the opened form. The presence of three charged groups on the periphery of a flat conjugated backbone stimulates the self-assembly of merocyanine molecules in water, ending up with the formation of elongated associates with stack-like building blocks, as shown in molecular dynamics simulations of the aqueous solution with the concentration above critical micelle concentration. Our quantitative evaluation of the hydrophilicity switching in spiropyran/merocyanine containing surfactants may prompt the search for new systems, including colloidal and polymeric ones, aiming at remote tuning of their morphology, which could give new promising shapes and patterns for the needs of modern nanotechnology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0233.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: social media; social robots; negative mood; self-disclosure; intervention design; anthropomorphic design
Online: 16 June 2022 (06:11:48 CEST)
COVID-19 may not be a ‘youth disease’ but nevertheless impacts the life of young people dramatically, loneliness and negative mood being an unexpected additional pandemic. Many young people rely on social media for their feeling of connectedness with others. However, social media are suggested to have many negative effects on people’s anxiety. Instead of self-disclosing to others, design may develop alternatives to employ social robots for self-disclosure. In a follow-up on Duan et al. (2021), we report on a lab experiment of self-disclosing negative emotions to a social-media group as compared to writing a conventional diary journal or to talk to an AI-driven social robot after negative mood induction (i.e. viewing shocking earthquake footage). Participants benefitted the most from talking to a robot rather than from writing a journal page or sharing their feelings on social media. Self-disclosure on social media or writing a journal page did not differ significantly. In the design of interventions for mental well-being, human helpers thus far took center stage. Based on our results, we propose design alternatives for an empathic smart-home, featuring social robots and chatbots for alleviating stress and anxiety: a social-media interference chatbot, smart watch plus speaker, and a mirror for self-reflection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0297.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: regulatory T cell; tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte; neoadjuvant chemotherapy; triple-negative breast cancer
Online: 22 March 2022 (07:50:45 CET)
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is characterized by an active immune response. We evalu-ated intratumoral interrelation between FOXP3+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and other cy-tokines in TNBC. Network analysis refined cytokines significantly correlate with FOPX3 in TNBC. Treatment response and prognosis imformation of patients and survival data from the TGCA and METABRIC databases were analyzed according to refined cytokines. Interleukin (IL)-33 was sig-nificantly expressed by TNBC cell lines than luminal cell lines (log2 fold change: 5.31, p <0.001) and IL-33 and TGFB2 showed a strong correlation with FOXP3 in the TNBC cell line. Immunohisto-chemistry demonstrated IL-33 high group was a significant predictor of complete response of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (odds ratio (OR) 4.12, p<0.05) and a favorable survival compared to IL-33 low group (OR 6.48, p<0.05) in TNBC. Survival data from TGCA and METABRIC revealed that FOXP3 was a significantly favorable marker in IL-33 high group com-pared to the low IL-33 low group (hazard ratio (HR) 2.1, p=0.02), and IL-33 high/TGFB2 high subgroup showed significant favorable prognosis in the FOXP3 high group compared to the FOPX3 low group in TNBC (HR 3.5, p=0.01). IL-33 and TGFB2 were key cytokines of intratumoral interrelation among FOXP3 in TNBC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0130.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Josephson effect; transport properties; critical current; tunnelling; superconducting-normal transition; negative resistance
Online: 4 February 2021 (10:01:16 CET)
A new picture of the Josephson effect is devised. The radio-frequency (RF) signal, observed in a Josephson junction, is shown to stem from bound electrons, tunneling periodically through the insulating film. This holds also for the microwave mediated tunneling. The Josephson effect is found to be conditioned by the same prerequisite worked out previously for persistent currents, thermal equilibrium and occurence of superconductivity. The observed negative resistance behaviour is shown to originate from the interplay between the normal and superconducting currents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0568.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: service accessibility; dementia knowledge; affordability; carer role strain; self-criticism; negative emotions
Online: 27 January 2021 (16:15:14 CET)
Because of an often complicated and difficult-to-access care system, help-seeking for people with suspected dementia can be stressful. Difficulty in help-seeking may contribute to carer burden, in addition to other known stressors in dementia care. This study examined the relationship between perceived help-seeking difficulty and carer burden, and the barriers contributing to perceived difficulty. We interviewed 110 carers accessing a community-based dementia assessment service for suspected dementia of a family member for their perceived difficulty, delays, and barriers in help-seeking, and carers burden in terms of role strain, self-criticism, and negative emotions. Linear regression models showed that perceived help-seeking difficulty is associated with carer self-criticism, while carer role strain and negative emotions are associated with symptom severity of the person with dementia but not help-seeking difficulty. Inadequate knowledge about symptoms, service accessibility, and affordability together explained more than half of the variance in perceived help-seeking difficulty (Nagelkerke R2 = .56). Public awareness about symptoms, support in navigating service, and financial support may reduce perceived difficulty in help-seeking, which in turn may reduce carer self-criticism during the early course of illness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0279.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: COVID19; risk; clinical; metrics; cost; false-positive; false-negative; prevalence; sensitivity; specificity
Online: 9 July 2020 (15:57:30 CEST)
Since the beginning of the year 2020, the global healthcare system has been challenged by the threat of the SARS-COV 2 virus. Molecular, antigen, and antibody testing are the mainstay to identify infected patients and fight the virus. Molecular and antigen tests that detect the presence of the virus are relevant in the acute phase only. Serological assays detect antibodies to the Sars-CoV-2 virus in the recovering and recovered phase. Each testing methodology has its advantages and disadvantages. To evaluate the test methods, sensitivity (percent positive agreement - PPA) and specificity (percent negative agreement – PNA) are the most common metrics utilized, followed by the positive and negative predictive value (PPV and NPV), the probability that a positive or negative test result represents a true positive or negative patient. In this paper, we illustrate how patient risk and clinical costs are driven by false-positive and false-negative results. We demonstrate the value of reporting PFP (probability of false positive results), PFN (probability of false negative results), and costs to patients and healthcare. These risk metrics can be calculated from the risk drivers of PPA and PNA combined with estimates of prevalence, cost, and Reff number (people infected by one positive SARS COV-2).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0117.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: acute compartment syndrome; negative pressure wound therapy; vacuum assisted wound closure; fasciotomy
Online: 8 April 2020 (04:50:32 CEST)
Background and Objectives: Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) is an emergency condition of the lower limb in which prophylactic fasciotomy is required to prevent complications. A negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) used to the treatment of fasciotomy wounds provide beneficial clinical results. This study aimed to exchange the authors’ experience of using the NPWT installation system on the lower limb wounds after fasciotomy in ACS. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study enrolled consecutive patients with ACS, who underwent fasciotomy and was treated with the NPWT installation system at Department of Vascular Surgery, Provincial Hospital in Kielce from April 2016 to July 2017. Results: The study enrolled 15 patients with a diagnosis of ACS (87% men, mean age 65 years old). An open four-compartment fasciotomy (87%) or two-compartment fasciotomy (13%) was performed. The NPWT was applied on the first day after fasciotomy in 87% of patients. Therapy was initiated by the negative pressure of 125 mm Hg, which maintained at this level until the therapy was finalized. In 80% of patients, the vacuum-assisted wound closure (VAC) dressing changes were performed every 3 days. The first approximation of fasciotomy wounds margins occurred on the 4th day after surgery among 67% of individuals. The average time of using VAC on fasciotomy wounds was 9 days. The average time to definitive closure edges of fasciotomy wounds was 12 days. The average time of hospital stay was 17 days. Conclusions: Our experience indicates the legitimacy of using NPWT in wound treatment after fasciotomy in ACS. The NPWT enables faster primary closure of wounds, reduces edema, as well as decreases hospitalization time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0225.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: water bodies; satellite images; vector data; SVM; positive and negative buffering; polygons
Online: 21 August 2019 (10:30:16 CEST)
The technique of obtaining information or data about any feature or object from afar, called in technical parlance as remote sensing, has proven extremely useful in diverse fields. In the ecological sphere, especially, remote sensing has enabled collection of data or information about large swaths of areas or landscapes. Even then, in remote sensing the task of identifying and monitoring of different water reservoirs has proved a tough one. This is mainly because getting correct appraisals about the spread and boundaries of the area under study and the contours of any water surfaces lodged therein becomes a factor of utmost importance. Identification of water reservoirs is rendered even tougher because of presence of cloud in satellite images, which becomes the largest source of error in identification of water surfaces. To overcome this glitch, the method of the shape matching approach for analysis of cloudy images in reference to cloud-free images of water surfaces with the help of vector data processing, is recommended. It includes the database of water bodies in vector format, which is a complex polygon structure. This analysis highlights three steps: First, the creation of vector database for the analysis; second, simplification of multi-scale vector polygon features; and third, the matching of reference and target water bodies database within defined distance tolerance. This feature matching approach provides matching of one to many and many to many features. It also gives the corrected images that are free of clouds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1186.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Electrochemistry Keywords: IR-drop; negative capacitance; double layer capacitance; fast scan cyclic voltammograms; microelectrode reactions
Online: 16 August 2023 (10:44:41 CEST)
Diffusion-controlled cyclic voltammograms at fast scan rates show peak shifts as well as decreases in the peak currents from the predicted diffusion-controlled currents especially when currents are large in low concentration of supporting electrolyte. This has been conventionally recognized as an IR-drop effect by solution resistance on the peaks as well as heterogeneous kinetics. It is also brought about by negatively capacitive currents associated with charge transfer reactions. The reaction product generates dipoles with counterions to yield a capacitance, of which current flows oppositely to that of the double layer capacitance. The three effects are specified here in the oxidation of a ferrocenyl derivative by fast scan voltammetry. The expression for voltammograms complicated with IR-drop is derived analytically, and yields deformed voltammograms. The peak shift is approximately linear with the IR-term, but exhibits a convex variation. Dependence of some parameters on the peaks by the IR-drop is compared with those by the negative capacitance. The latter is more conspicuous than the former under conventional conditions. The two effects cannot be distinguished specifically except for variations of conductance of the solution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1601.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: diatoms; cyanobacter; green microalgae; Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria; Mycobacteria; antimicrobial potential
Online: 24 July 2023 (10:46:37 CEST)
Microalgae are a source of carotenoids, phycocyanin, phenol, amino acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, sulfated polysaccharides, pigments, and other bioactive molecules with antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiviral, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and fat-burning properties. The increasing incidence of infectious processes, including tuberculosis, caused by antimicrobial resistant strains of microorganisms necessitates the search for alternative sources of compounds with antimicrobial activity, including microalgae. In this study, the antimicrobial properties of marine and freshwater microalgae extracts were evaluated against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Streptococcus pyogenes) and Gram-negative (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Rv and Mycobacterium smegmatis. Water, dimethyl sulfoxide, and ethanol were used as extractants. The obtained microalgae extract exhibited cytotoxicity against splenocytes and, to a lesser extent, against peritoneal macrophages of CBA mice. The bacteriostatic effect of the microalgae extracts against bacteria and mycobacteria was demonstrated by MTT test. In addition, activation of bacterial and mycobacterial growth was observed in a number of cases with high levels of microalgae extracts in the medium. In an expression model of tuberculosis in mice, a decrease in mycobacterial load in the lungs and spleen was observed. Thus, microalgae have moderate to weak antimicrobial activity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0858.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Gram-negative bacilli bacteremia; multidrug resistance; 28-day mortality; procalcitonin; rapid molecular diagnostics
Online: 11 May 2023 (13:34:03 CEST)
The incidence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bloodstream infections (BSI) is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Little evidence exists regarding the epidemiology of BSIs and the use of appropriate empirical antimicrobial therapy in endemic regions. Novel diagnostic tests (RDTs) may facilitate and improve patient management. Data from patients with MDR GNB bacteremia at a university tertiary hospital were assessed over a 12-month period. 157 episodes of MDR GNB BSI were included in the study. Overall mortality rate was 50,3 percent. Rapid molecular diagnostic tests were used in 94% of BSI episodes. In univariate analysis, age (OR 1.05 (95% CI 1.03, 1.08) p<0.001), Charlson Comorbidity Index (OR 1.51 (95% CI 1.25, 1.83) p<0.001), Procalcitonin≥1(OR 3.67 (CI 95% 1.73, 7.79) p<0.001) and monotherapy with tigecycline (OR 3.64 (95% CI 1.13, 11.73) p=0.030) were the only factors associated with increased overall mortality. Surprisingly, time to appropriate antimicrobial treatment had no impact on mortality. MDR pathogen isolation, other than Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumanii was associated with decreased mortality (OR 0.35 (95% CI 0.16, 0.79) p=0.011). In multivariate analysis though the only significant factor for mortality was Procalcitonin≥1(OR 2.84 (95% CI 1.13, 7.11) p=0.025). In conclusion, in an endemic area, mortality rates in MDR BSI remain high. High procalcitonin was the only variable that predicted death. The use of rapid diagnostics did not improve mortality rate.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0481.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; Wastewater; Surveillance; False-positive; False-negative; RT-PCR
Online: 19 April 2021 (13:08:13 CEST)
Wastewater surveillance for pathogens using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is an effective, resource-efficient tool for gathering additional community-level public health information, including the incidence and/or prevalence and trends of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). Surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater may provide an early-warning signal of COVID-19 infections in a community. The capacity of the world’s environmental microbiology and virology laboratories for SARS-CoV-2 RNA characterization in wastewater is rapidly increasing. However, there are no standardized protocols nor harmonized quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) procedures for SARS-CoV-2 wastewater surveillance. This paper is a technical review of factors that can lead to false-positive and -negative errors in the surveillance of SARS-CoV-2, culminating in recommendations and strategies that can be implemented to identify and mitigate these errors. Recommendations include, stringent QA/QC measures, representative sampling approaches, effective virus concentration and efficient RNA extraction, amplification inhibition assessment, inclusion of sample processing controls, and considerations for RT-PCR assay selection and data interpretation. Clear data interpretation guidelines (e.g., determination of positive and negative samples) are critical, particularly during a low incidence of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater. Corrective and confirmatory actions must be in place for inconclusive and/or potentially significant results (e.g., initial onset or reemergence of COVID-19 in a community). It will also be prudent to perform inter-laboratory comparisons to ensure results are reliable and interpretable for ongoing and retrospective analyses. The strategies that are recommended in this review aim to improve SARS-CoV-2 characterization for wastewater surveillance applications. A silver lining of the COVID-19 pandemic is that the efficacy of wastewater surveillance was demonstrated during this global crisis. In the future, wastewater will play an important role in the surveillance of a range of other communicable diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0147.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Dehumanisation; dementia care; healthcare education; residential aged care facilities; positive dehumanisation; negative dehumanisation
Online: 8 January 2021 (11:23:42 CET)
The term dehumanisation refers to the ways in which a person is perceived to be less than human or treated as if they are less than human. It involves treating a person as if they are a child or infant, like an animal or non-living object, or as if they are dead, or any other way in which someone fails to be treated like a human being with an adult identity. Dehumanisation is widespread in dementia care; it is a major obstacle to person-centred care and has poor outcomes for people with dementia. This article proposes a new model of dehumanisation. The New Model presents a new way of describing dehumanisation that has been synthesised from current understanding about the phenomenon and reflects what is presently known about the subject. The model aims to summarise existing theories and models of dehumanisation and make dehumanisation theory accessible to students and trainees in healthcare. This article describes the new model, discusses existing models and theories in the literature, and explores the potential role of the new model in solutions for reducing dehumanisation in dementia care.
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: metamaterials; negative effective mass; plasma oscillations; low frequency plasmons; optical and acoustical branches.
Online: 21 July 2020 (13:38:18 CEST)
We report the negative effective mass metamaterials based on the electro-mechanical coupling exploiting plasma oscillations of a free electron gas. The negative mass appears as a result of vibration of a metallic particle with a frequency of ω which is close to the frequency of the plasma oscillations of the electron gas m_2 relatively to the ionic lattice m_1. The plasma oscillations are represented with the elastic spring k_2=ω_p^2 m_2, where ω_p is the plasma frequency. Thus, the metallic particle vibrated with the external frequency ω is described by the effective mass m_eff=m_1+(m_2 ω_p^2)/(ω_p^2-ω^2 ) , which is negative when the frequency ω approaches ω_p from above. The idea is exemplified with two conducting metals, namely Au and Li embedded into various matrices. The one-dimensional lattice built of the identical metallic micro-elements m_eff connected by ideal springs k_1 representing various media such as polydimethylsiloxane and soda-lime glass is treated. The optical and acoustical branches of longitudinal modes propagating through the lattice are elucidated for various ratios ω_1/ω_p . The 1D lattice built of the thin metallic wires giving rise to the low frequency plasmons is treated. The possibility of the anti-resonant propagation, strengthening the effect of the negative mass occurring under = p = 1 is addressed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0255.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: antimicrobial resistance; biofilm; efflux pump inhibitors; antibiotic potentiation; eskapee pathogens; gram-negative bacteria
Online: 22 October 2019 (10:22:56 CEST)
Antibiotic resistance represents a significant threat to the modern healthcare provision. The ESKAPEE pathogens, in particular, have proven to be especially challenging to treat, due to their intrinsic and acquired ability to rapidly develop resistance mechanisms in response to environmental threats. The development of biofilm has been characterised as an essential contributing factor towards antimicrobial-resistance and tolerance. Several studies have implicated the involvement of efflux pumps in antibiotic resistance, both directly, via drug extrusion and indirectly, through the formation of biofilm. As a result, the underlying mechanism of these pumps has attracted considerable interest due to the potential of targeting these protein structures and developing novel adjunct therapies. Subsequent investigations have revealed the ability of efflux pump-inhibitors (EPIs) to block drug-extrusion and disrupt biofilm formation, thereby, potentiating antibiotics and reversing resistance of pathogen towards them. This review will discuss the potential of EPIs as a possible solution to antimicrobial resistance, examining different challenges to the design of these compounds, with an emphasis on Gram-negative ESKAPEE pathogens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0026.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Probability And Statistics Keywords: weighted distribution; Poisson-Lindley distribution; discrete distribution; weighted negative binomial Poisson-Lindley distribution
Online: 2 May 2018 (11:47:51 CEST)
This study introduces a new discrete distribution which is a weighted version of Poisson-Lindley distribution. The weighted distribution is obtained using the negative binomial weight function and can be fitted to count data with over-dispersion. The p.m.f., p.g.f. and simulation procedure of the new weighted distribution, namely weighted negative binomial Poisson-Lindley (WNBPL), are provided. The maximum likelihood method for parameter estimation is also presented. The WNBPL distribution is fitted to several insurance datasets, and is compared to the Poisson and negative binomial distributions in terms of several statistical tests.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0674.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: bone metastasis segmentation; Double U-Net; pre-train; negative mining; transfer learning; deep learning
Online: 11 July 2023 (10:18:40 CEST)
Bone metastasis detection and quantification on bone scintigraphy is challenging and clinical important for treatment and patient’s life quality. To develop a CNN based diagnostic system for automated segmentation on bone metastasis regions is non-trivial, especially for a small dataset. A dataset in house comprising 100 breast cancer patients and 100 prostate cancer patients is utilized for this research. The Double U-Net model is adapted through the integration of background removal, adding negative samples, and transfer learning methods for bone metastasis detection. The performance is investigated via 10-fold cross-validation and computed in pixel-wise scale. The best model we achieved has precision of 63.08%, sensitivity of 70.82%, and F1-score of 66.72%. The developed system has the potential to provide pre-diagnostic reports for physicians in final decisions and the calculation of the bone scan index (BSI) with the combination with bone skeleton segmentation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1209.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: End-stage renal disease; medication review; drug-related problems; negative outcomes associated with medication.
Online: 16 June 2023 (10:13:13 CEST)
(1) Background: This article reviews the available scientific literature on drug-related problems and negative outcomes associated with medications identified by medication review with follow-up for end-stage renal disease and discussed with the physicians; (2) Methods: A systematic review was conducted of the scientific literature retrieved from the following databases: MEDLINE (via PubMed), Web of Science, SCOPUS, Cochrane Library: The Cochrane Central Register and Control Trials (CENTRAL) and Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe (LILACS), Medicina en Español (MEDES), and the SciELO bibliographic database (collection of scientific journals). The following terms were used as descriptors and searched in free text: "end-stage renal disease", "medication review", and "drug-related problems” and “negative outcomes associated with medication". The following limits were applied: "humans" and "adults (more than 18 years)”; (3) Results: A total of 59 references were recovered and after applying inclusion/exclusion criteria, 16 articles were selected. Of these selected articles, 15 provided information on drug-related problems and only 1 on negative outcomes associated with medications; (4) Conclusions: It can be concluded that drug-related problems and negative outcomes associated with medication affect patients with end-stage renal disease, mainly those receiving renal replacement therapy. More evidence is needed, especially on negative outcomes associated with medication.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1664.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: Soft tissue; necrotizing infection; water borne; vibrio; fungal; aeromonas; debridement; negative pressure wound care
Online: 23 May 2023 (14:43:28 CEST)
Background: Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) are common presentations to the emergency department. However, this is less common after contact with contaminated water, both salt or fresh. This review presents the diagnosis and the management of water-related soft tissue sepsis in this vulnerable and difficult to treat subgroup of necrotizing soft tissue sepsis. Methods: A summative literature overview regarding bacterial and fungal SSTI after contact with contaminated water, with practical diagnostic and management aspects addressed. Results: The literature indicates that these remain difficult to treat wounds and organisms. An approach using appropriate diagnostic tools with both medical and surgical management strategies is provided. Conclusion: SSTI due to water contamination of wounds involve unusual organisms with unusual resistance patterns and require a nuanced and directed diagnostic approach with adaptation of the normal antibiotic or antifungal selection to achieve cure, along with aggressive debridement and wound care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0089.v6
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Geometry And Topology Keywords: regular basic convex polytopes; circumscribed and inscribed polytopes; negative dimensions; fractal dimensions; complex dimensions; emergent dimensionality; mathematical physics
Online: 24 February 2023 (15:41:43 CET)
The study shows that the volumes and surfaces of $n$-balls, $n$-simplices, and $n$-orthoplices are holomorphic functions of $n$, which makes those objects omnidimensional, that is well defined in any complex dimension. Applications of these formulas to the omnidimensional polytopes inscribed in and circumscribed about $n$-balls reveal previously unknown properties of these geometric objects. In particular, for $0 < n < 1$, the volumes of the omnidimensional polytopes are larger than those of circumscribing $n$-balls, and both their volumes and surfaces are smaller than those of inscribed $n$-balls. The surface of an $n$-simplex circumscribing unit diameter $n$-ball is spirally convergent to zero with real $n$ approaching negative infinity but first has a local maximum at $n=-3.5$. The surface of an $n$-orthoplex circumscribing unit diameter $n$-ball is spirally divergent with real $n$ approaching negative infinity but first has a local minimum at $n=-1.5$, where its real and imaginary parts are equal to each other; similarly, as its volume, where the similar local minimum occurs at $n=-3.5$. Reflection functions for volumes and surfaces of these polytopes inscribed in and circumscribed about $n$-balls are proposed. symmetries of products and quotients of volumes in complex dimensions $n$ and $-n$ and of surfaces in complex dimensions $n$ and $2-n$ are shown to be independent of the metric factor and the gamma function. Specific symmetries also hold between volumes and surfaces in dimensions $n = -1/2$ and $n = 1/2$.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0219.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: 46,XX disorder of sex development; SRY-negative male; Testis determination; DMRT1; DMRT1 duplication
Online: 14 December 2021 (07:58:55 CET)
Background. 46,XX disorders of sex development are rare. Approximately, 90% of XX males are SRY-positive, while testicular development in the absence of SRY takes place in a minority. Methods: A boy with 46,XX karyotype (SRY-negative; absence of SOX9 duplications) was investigated by targeted Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), and Comparative Genomic Hybridization array (CGH-array). Results: The boy had normal male phenotype and normal prepubertal values of testicular hormones. He presented a heterozygous duplication of 49.626 bp, encompassing exons 2 and 3 of DMRT1. The result was arr[GRCh37] 9p24.3(845893_895518)x3. Since both breakpoints are harbored in the intronic regions, the duplication does not stop or shift the coding frame. Additional known pathogenic or uncertain variants in pro-testis gene cascade were not identified. Conclusions: This study report a boy with 46,XX testicular disorder of sex differentiation, showing a de novo partial intragenic duplication of DMRT1. This intragenic duplication may result in a gain of function, acting as primary pro-testis gene (or anti-ovary gene) in a 46,XX human foetus and permitting normal pre-pubertal endocrine testis function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0094.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-COV-2; False-Positive; False-Negative; Likelihood Ratio; Probability; Calculator; Interpretation
Online: 3 March 2021 (10:08:27 CET)
Identifying the SARS-CoV-2 virus has been a unique challenge for the scientific community. In this paper, we discuss a practical solution to help guide clinicians with interpretation of the probability that a positive, or negative, COVID-19 test result indicates an infected person, based on their clinical estimate of pre-test probability of infection.The authors conducted a small survey on LinkedIn to confirm that hypothesis that that the clinical pre-test probability of COVID-19 increases relative to local prevalence of disease plus patient age, known contact, and severity of symptoms. We examined results of PPA (Positive Percent Agreement, sensitivity) and NPA (Negative Percent Agreement, specificity) from 73 individual laboratory experiments for molecular tests for SARS-CoV-2 as reported to the FIND database 1, and for selected methods in FDA EUA submissions2,3. Authors calculated likelihood ratios to convert pre-test to post-test probability of disease and designed an online calculator to create graphics and text to report results. Despite best efforts, false positive and false negative Covid-19 test results are unavoidable4,5. A positive or negative test result from one laboratory has a different probability for the presence of disease than the same result from another laboratory. Likelihood ratios and confidence intervals can convert the physician or other healthcare professional’s clinical estimate of pre-test probability to post-test probability of disease. Ranges of probabilities differ depending on proven method PPA and NPA in each laboratory. We recommend that laboratories verify PPA and NPA and utilize a the “Clinician’s Probability Calculator” to verify acceptable test performance and create reports to help guide clinicians with estimation of post-test probability of COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0100.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: intra-abdominal pressure; abdominal compartment syndrome; pressure sensor; negative pressure wound therapy; open abdomen;
Online: 11 January 2018 (09:17:10 CET)
1) Introduction: Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is a frequently applied open abdomen (OA) treatment. There are only a few experimental data supporting this method and describing the optimal settings and pressure distribution in the abdominal cavity during this procedure. The aim of our study was to evaluate pressure values at different points of the abdominal cavity during NPWT in experimental abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) animal model. 2) Methods: In this study (permission Nr. 13/2014/UDCAR) 27 Hungahib pigs (15.4- 20.2 kg) were operated. ACS was generated by implanting a plastic bag in the abdomen through mini-laparotomy and filled with 2100- 3300 ml saline solution (37 C°) to an intraabdominal pressure (IAP) of 30 mmHg. After 3 hours, NPWT (Vivano Med ® Abdominal Kit, Paul Hartmann AG, Germany) or Bogota bag was applied. NPWT group was divided into -50, -100 and 150 mmHg suction group. Pressure distribution to the abdominal cavity was monitored at 6 different points of the abdomen via a multichannel pressure monitoring system. 3) Results: The absolute pressure levels were significantly higher above than below the layer. The values of the pressure were similar in the midline than laterally. Amongst the bowels, the pressure values changed periodically between 0 and -12 mmHg which might be caused by the peristaltic movements. 4) Conclusions: The porcine model of the present study seems to be well applicable for investigating ACS and NPWT. It was possible to provide valuable for clinicians. The pressure was well distributed by the protective layer to the lateral parts of the abdomen and this phenomenon did not change considerably during the therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0077.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: zoo; mobile zoo; mobile animal exhibits; animal display; mobile live animal programs; negative education
Online: 16 June 2017 (05:32:18 CEST)
This paper assesses whether there is intrinsic positive educational value in travelling animal presentations and exhibits, referred to here as Mobile Live Animal Programs (MLAPs). Given that educational claims serve as the basis for allowing MLAPs to operate in many jurisdictions throughout Canada and the United States, it is essential to examine whether these purported claims are valid. This study takes a twofold approach of examining first, what constitutes an MLAP and how such programs are situated within the larger context of animal observation and tourism, and second, what constitutes both positive and negative education, and how such learning can empirically be measured in these settings. This approach provokes the ethical question of whether or not MLAPs should be allowed to operate given the high price paid not only by the individual animals used, but also to our psychological, emotional, and intellectual relationship with other species when we use non-human animals for our own knowledge, pleasure or comfort. The paper concludes that we must consider that the pervasive problem of negative education, that using displaced captive wild animals as learning tools that highlights human control over them, their objectification and their exploitation, is not justified by the purported positive educational claims of MLAPs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0688.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: droplet digital PCR; real time RT-PCR; SARS-CoV-2; false negative; viral load; diagnosis
Online: 26 April 2021 (20:09:26 CEST)
Background: The reference test for SARS-CoV-2 detection is the reverse transcriptase real time PCR (real time RT-PCR). However, evidences reported that real time RT-PCR has a lower sensitivity compared with the droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) leading to possible false negative in low viral load cases. Methods: We used ddPCR for viral genes N1 and N2 on 20 negative (no detection) samples from symptomatic hospitalized COVID-patients presenting fluctuating real time RT-PCR results and 10 suspected samples (Ct value>35) from asymptomatic not hospitalized subjects. Results: ddPCR performed on RNA revealed 65% of positivity for at least one viral target in the hospitalized patients group of samples (35% for N1 and N2, 10% only for N1 and 20% only for N2) and 50% in the suspected cases (30% for N1 and N2, while 20% only for N2). On hospitalized patients’ samples, we applied also a direct ddPCR approach on the swab material, achieving an overall positivity of 83%. Conclusion: ddPCR, in particular the direct quantitation on swabs, shows a sensitivity advantage for the SARS-CoV-2 identification and may be useful to reduce the false negative diagnosis, especially for low viral load suspected samples.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0201.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2 Detection, SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Test, SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Test, False Negative, False Positive, Sensitivity, Specificity, Point-of-care testing (POCT), SARS-CoV-2 Mutants
Online: 25 March 2021 (15:33:14 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemic has created huge damage to society and brought panics around the world. Such panics can be ascribed to the seemingly deceptive features of the COVID-19: compared to other deadly viral outspreads, it has medium transmission and mortality rates. As a result, the severity of the causative coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, was deeply underestimated by the society at the beginning of the COVID-19 outbreak. Based on this, in this review, we define the viruses with features similar to those of SARS-CoV-2 as the Panic Zone viruses. To contain those viruses, accurate and fast diagnosis followed by effective isolation and treatment of patients are pivotal at the early stage of virus breakouts. This is especially true when there is no cure or vaccine available for a transmissible disease, which is the case for current COVID-19 pandemic. As of January 2021, more than two hundred kits for the COVID-19 diagnosis on the market are surveyed in this review, while emerging sensing techniques for SARS-CoV-2 are also discussed. It is of critical importance to rationally use these kits for the efficient management and control of the Panic Zone viruses. Therefore, we discuss guidelines to select diagnostic kits at different outbreak stages of the Panic Zone viruses, SARS-CoV-2 in particular. While it is of utmost importance to use nucleic acid-based detection kits with low false negativity (high sensitivity) at the early stage of an outbreak, the low false positivity (high specificity) gains its importance at later stages of the outbreak. When a society is set to reopen from the lock-down stage of the COVID-19 pandemic, it becomes critical to have antibody based immunoassay kits with high specificity to identify people who can safely return to the society after their recovery of SARS-CoV-2 infections. Given that the emergence of mutant viruses at the beginning of 2021 has complicated current battle against the COVID-19, we also discussed approaches and guidelines to detect viral mutants in the middle of the second wave of the pandemic that started at the end of 2020. Finally, since a massive attack from a viral pandemic requires a massive defense from the whole society, we urge both government and private sectors to research and develop more affordable and reliable point-of-care testing (POCT) kits, which can be used massively by the general public (and therefore called as massive POCT) to contain Panic Zone viruses in future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0049.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: mental accounting; agricultural water fee; behavioral economics; decision making; information processing; representativeness; negative psychological externalities
Online: 25 August 2016 (10:12:08 CEST)
To better understand farmers’ refusal and corresponding negative emotions to pay agricultural water fee under current policy in rural China, this paper applies mental accounting, a behavioral economics framework, to explore how the governmental policies of reform of rural taxes and fees, direct agricultural subsidy programs and agricultural water fee individually influence farmers’ decisions in paying agricultural water fee. Using fieldwork data from 577 farmers and 20 water managers in Sichuan, we explore farmers’ information processing regarding paying agricultural water fee via three sequential mental accounting processes, with the associated underlying principles and measures behind each process. We find that the information processing in three mental accounting scenarios related to the agricultural water fee elucidates farmers’ observed behaviors in rural China. Generally, in the three mental accounting scenarios, two conditional intuitive expectations and nine conditional intuitive preferences are formed, however, the conditions of those expectations or preferences cannot be matched with the facts due to the reform of rural taxes and fees, the direct agricultural subsidy programs and the internal attributes of agricultural water fee, which interpret those negative behaviors in rural China. Additionally, this paper offers a view into how previous policies create negative psychological externalities (such as farmers’ psychological dependence on the government) through mental accounting to negatively influence agents’ subsequent decision making; it highlights the significance of underlying mental factors and information processing of negative behaviors in policymaking for managing or conserving common pool resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0589.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus; Lupus nephritis; Double negative B lymphocytes; T lymphocytes; early differentiated cells; senescent lymphocytes
Online: 10 July 2023 (10:33:26 CEST)
B and T lymphocytes demonstrate important alterations in patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematous (SLE), with significant up-regulation of Double Negative (DN) B cells. Aim of this study was to evaluate correlation of T cell immunity changes with the distinct B cell-pattern SLE. In the present study, Flow cytometry was performed in 30 patients with SLE, on remission, and 31 healthy controls, to detect DN B cells (CD19+IgD-CD27-) and a wide range of T lymphocyte subpopulations, based on the presence of CD45RA, CCR7, CD31, CD28, CD57, defined as naive, memory and advanced differentiated/senescent T cells. Both B and T lymphocytes were significantly reduced in SLE patients. However, the percentage of DN B cells were increased, compared to HC, 12.9(2.3-74.2) vs. 8(1.7-35), p=0.04. Distribution of CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes demonstrated a shift to advanced differentiated subsets. The population of DN B cells had significant positive correlation with most of early differentiated T lymphocytes, CD4CD31+, CD4CD45RA+CD28+, CD4CD45RA+CD57-, CD4CD45RA-CD57-, CD4CD28+CD57-, CD4CD28+CD57+, CD4 CM, CD8 CD31+, CD8 NAÏVE, CD8CD45RA-CD57-, CD8CD28+CD57-, CD8CD28+CD57+. Multiple Regression analysis revealed CD4CD31+, CD8CD45RA-CD57- and CD8CD28+CD57- cells as independent parameters contributing to DN B cells, adjusted R2=0.534, p<0.0001. The predominance of DN B cells in patients with SLE is closely associated with early differentiated T lymphocyte subsets, indicating a potential causality role of DN B cells in T lymphocyte activation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0507.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: breast cancer; TILs; PD-L1; immunotherapy; chemotherapy, triple negative breast cancer; HER2; luminal breast cancer; CPS
Online: 7 June 2023 (08:04:20 CEST)
With the rise of novel immunotherapies able to stimulate the antitumor immune response, increasing literature data concerning the immunogenicity of breast cancer have been published in recent years. Numerous clinical studies have been conducted in order to identify novel biomarkers that could reflect the immunogenicity of BC and predict response to immunotherapy. In this regard, TILs have emerged as an important immunological biomarker related to the antitumor immune re-sponse in BC. TILs are more frequently observed in triple-negative breast cancer and HER2+ sub-types where increased TIL levels have been linked to better response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and with improved survival. PD-L1 is a type 1 transmembrane protein ligand expressed on T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells and is considered a key inhibitory checkpoint involved in cancer immune regulation. PD-L1 immunohistochemical expression in breast cancer is observed in about 10–30% of cases and is extremely variable based on tumor stage and molecular subtypes . In detail, TNBC shows the highest percentages of PD-L1 positivity, followed by HER2+ tumors. On the other hand, PD-L1 is rarely expressed (0-10% of cases) in hormone-receptor positive BC. The prognostic role of PD-L1 expression in BC is still controversial since different immunohistochemistry (IHC) clones, cut-off points and scoring systems have been utilized across published studies. In the present paper an extensive review on the current knowledge of immune landscape of BC is provided. In detail TILS and PD-L1 expression across different BC subtypes is discussed also providing a guide for their pathological assessment and reporting.