Kepple, D.; Pestana, K.; Tomida, J.; Abebe, A.; Golassa, L.; Lo, E. Alternative Invasion Mechanisms and Host Immune Response to Plasmodium vivax Malaria: Trends and Future Directions. Microorganisms2021, 9, 15.
Kepple, D.; Pestana, K.; Tomida, J.; Abebe, A.; Golassa, L.; Lo, E. Alternative Invasion Mechanisms and Host Immune Response to Plasmodium vivax Malaria: Trends and Future Directions. Microorganisms 2021, 9, 15.
Plasmodium vivax malaria is a neglected tropical disease, despite being more geographically widespread than any other form of malaria. The documentation of P. vivax infections in different parts of Africa where Duffy-negative individuals are predominant suggested that there are alternative pathways for P. vivax to invade human erythrocytes. Duffy-negative individuals may be just as fit as Duffy-positive individuals and are no longer resistant to P. vivax malaria. In this review, we describe the complexity of P. vivax malaria, characterize pathogenesis and candidate invasion genes of P. vivax, and host immune responses to P. vivax infections. We provide a comprehensive review on parasite ligands in several Plasmodium species that further justify candidate genes in P. vivax. We also summarize previous genomic and transcriptomic studies related to the identification of ligand and receptor proteins in P. vivax erythrocyte invasion. Finally, we identify topics that remain unclear and propose future studies that will greatly contribute to our knowledge of P. vivax.
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