ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0161.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: neuroendocrine tumor; metastasis; lymphatic invasion; venous invasion
Online: 9 November 2021 (08:30:27 CET)
Neuroendocrine tumors develop from systemic endocrine and nerve cells, and their occurrence has increased recently. Since these tumors are heterogeneous, pathological classification has been based on the affected organ. In 2019, the World Health Organization introduced a change that is expected to influence neuroendocrine tumor research, as gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors are now included within a unified classification. In this retrospective study, we aimed to investigate the characteristics (e.g., lymph node metastases, all other metastases) of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors using this new classification in 50 cases. Tumor size, depth, MIB-1 index, lymphatic invasion, venous invasion, and neuroendocrine tumor grade were significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis and all other metastases. Venous invasion was more strongly correlated with lymph node metastasis and all other types of metastasis than with lymphatic invasion. Identification rates for lymphatic invasion were considered lower because of structural problems such as lymphatic vessels being much thinner than veins. However, venous invasion was considered effective in compensating for the low rate of identification in cases of lymphatic invasion. In future research, a unified classification and standardized framework for assessment will be important when analyzing the characteristics of neuroendocrine tumors, and large-scale studies are required.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0221.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: meningioma; CNS invasion; brain invasion; MIB1; Ki67; proliferation
Online: 10 August 2021 (09:52:39 CEST)
Conclusions: Meningiomas with histopathological CNS invasion show a higher proliferative activity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0189.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: exotic species; native communities; biological invasion; dynamics of invasion
Online: 16 April 2019 (12:50:43 CEST)
The establishment and spread of exotic species is a contemporary major concern. Alien species may become invasive in their new habitat, leading to both/either environmental and/or economic impacts. I briefly reviewed the literature in the last decade about the relationship of exotic species and native communities. I identified that professionals usually approach the subject in two main points of view: (1) researchers tend to point out the impacts of alien species on entire communities, evaluating if the relationship is positive, negative or neutral; (2) they focus on the eco-evolutionary processes involved in the introductions, the dynamics of invasion, and individual study cases. When evaluating the response of introductions to entire communities, evidence seems to be ambiguous and may support positive, negative or neutral relationship, especially depending on the scale approached. The unique eco-evolutionary pathways of each introduction may be a great shortcoming in the searching for generalities. On the other hand, advances have been made in understanding the dynamics of invasion on different lineages through a more selective/individualized approach. I suggest that the dynamics of invasion might be studied through a perspective in which different eco-evolutionary processes, levels of organization (from gene to entire communities), the history of the organism(s) and time are taken into account. Individual cases might be compared in attempt to understand how the relationship exotic and native works and in the search for generalities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0373.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: drosophila integrins; cancer; cell growth; invasion
Online: 9 October 2023 (04:37:46 CEST)
Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Key to cancer initiation and progression is the crosstalk between cancer cells and their microenvironment. The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a major component of the tumour microenvironment and integrins, main cell-ECM adhesion receptors, are involved in every step of cancer progression. However, accumulating evidence has shown that integrins can act as tumour promoter but also as tumour suppressor factors, revealing that the biological roles of integrins in cancer are complex. This incites a better understating of integrin function in cancer progression. To achieve this goal, simple model organisms, such as Drosophila, offer a great potential to unravel underlying conceptual principles. Here, we find that in the Drosophila wing disc epithelium the PS integrins act as suppressors of tumours induced by a gain of function of the oncogenic form of Ras, RasV12. We show that PS integrin depletion enhances the growth, delamination and invasive behaviour of RasV12 tumour cells, as well as their ability to affect the tumour microenvironment. These results strongly suggest that integrin function as tumour suppressors might be evolutionary conserved. Drosophila can be used to understand the complex tumour modulating activities conferred by integrins, thus facilitating drug development.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0564.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aging Keywords: cellular senescence; metastasis; metabolic adaptation; invasion
Online: 30 November 2022 (04:23:43 CET)
Metastasis is a systemic condition and the major challenge among cancer types, as it can lead to multiorgan vulnerability. Recently, attention has been drawn to cellular senescence, a complex stress response condition, as a factor implicated in metastatic dissemination and outgrowth. Here, we examine the current knowledge of the features required for cells to invade and colonize secondary organs and how senescent cells can contribute to this process. First, we described the role of senescence in placentation, itself an invasive process which has been linked to higher rates of invasive cancers. Second, we describe how senescent cells can contribute to metastatic dissemination and colonization. Third, we discuss several metabolic adaptations by which senescent cells could promote cancer survival along the metastatic journey. In conclusion, we posit that targeting cellular senescence may have a potential therapeutic efficacy to limit metastasis formation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1717.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Ecological networks; bioengineering; synthetic biology; invasion dynamics
Online: 24 October 2023 (16:46:07 CEST)
The possibility of abrupt transitions threatens to poise ecosystems into irreversibly degraded states. Recently, it has been proposed the use of engineered microbiomes in endangered ecosystems to prevent them to cross tipping points and avoid collapse. Potential targets for such interventions include some of the most prominent life-support systems in the biosphere: drylands and coral reefs. Since engineering can require the introduction of microorganisms not present in resident communities, how can we weight the potential outcomes? One way is to use general models of species interactions where the "synthetic" strain is incorporated into a standard multispecies model. Here we follow this approach by modelling a resource-consumer community where one of the species is a modified one that acts by preserving some key resource. We show how the indirect effect of damping the decay of shared resources results in biodiversity increase, and last but not less, the successful incorporation of the synthetic within the ecological network. Further extensions and implications for future restoration and terraformation strategies are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0462.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Hypoxia; Extracellular vesicles; Breast Cancer; Cell Invasion
Online: 26 August 2022 (14:08:23 CEST)
Hypoxia, a condition of low oxygenation frequently found in triple-negative breast tumors (TNBC), promotes extracellular vesicle (EV) secretion and favors cell invasion, a complex process in which cell morphology is altered, dynamic focal adhesion spots are created, and ECM is re-modeled. Here, we investigated the invasive properties triggered by TNBC-derived hypoxic small EV (SEVh) in vitro in cells cultured under hypoxic and normoxic conditions, using pheno-typical and proteomic approaches. SEVh characterization demonstrated increased protein abundance and diversity over normoxic SEV (SEVn), with enrichment in pro-invasive pathways. In normoxic cells, SEVh promotes invasive behavior through pro-migratory morphology, in-vadopodia development, ECM degradation and matrix metalloprotease (MMP) secretion. Pro-teome profiling of normoxic cells exposed to SEVh determined enrichment in metabolic processes and cell cycle, modulating cell health to escape apoptotic pathways. In hypoxia, SEVh was re-sponsible for proteolytic and catabolic pathway inducement, interfering with integrin availabil-ity and gelatinase expression. Overall, our results demonstrate the importance of hypoxic signal-ing via SEV in tumors for the early establishment of metastasis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0101.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: prostate cancer; lymph node invasion; radical prostatectomy
Online: 11 April 2022 (14:13:34 CEST)
Lymph node invasion in prostate cancer is a significant prognostic factor indicating worse prognosis. While it affects significantly both survival rates and recurrence, proper management remains a heated issue. Thorough evaluation of risk factors associated with nodal involvement, such as lymph node density or extracapsular extension, is crucial to establish potential expansion of the disease and to substratify patients clinically. There are multiple strategies that may be taken into consideration for patients with positive lymph nodes. Nowadays therapeutic methods are generally based on observation, radiotherapy, and androgen deprivation therapy. However current guidelines are incoherent in terms of indication of the most effective management approach. Future management strategies will be expected to reach for novel diagnostic tools and therapies, such as photodynamic therapy or diagnostic imaging with prostate specific membrane antigen. Nevertheless, this heterogeneous group of men remains a vast therapeutic concern, and both clarification of the guidelines and optimal substratification of patients is required.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: pregnancy; implantation; invasion; conflict; evolutionary innovation; feminism
Online: 14 April 2020 (15:17:44 CEST)
Embryo implantation is a hallmark of the female reproductive biology of eutherian (placental) mammals and does not exist in a sustainable form in any other vertebrate group. Implantation is the initial process that leads to a sustained fetal-maternal unit engendering a complex functional relationship between the mother and the embryo/fetus. The nature of this relationship is often portrayed as one of conflict between an aggressive embryo and a passive or defensive maternal organism. Recent progress in elucidating the evolutionary origin of eutherian pregnancy leads to a different picture. The emerging scenario suggests that the very initial stages in the evolution of embryo implantation require evolutionary changes to the maternal physiology, which modified an ancestral generic mucosal inflammation in response to the presence of the embryo into an active embedding process. This “female-first” evolutionary scenario also explains the role of endometrial receptivity in human pregnancy. On the marsupial side, where in most animals the fetal-maternal interaction is short and does not lead to a long term sustainable placentation, the relationship is mutual. In these mammals uterine inflammation is followed by parturition in short order. The inflammatory signaling pathways, however, are cooperative, i.e. they are performed by both the fetus and the mother and therefore we call this relationship “cooperative inflammation.” Based on these discoveries we reconceive the narrative of the maternal-fetal relationship.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0097.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Indirubin; Td-EC; proliferation; migration; invasion; angiogenesis
Online: 20 June 2017 (11:30:51 CEST)
Hepatocellular Carcinoma is one of the most predominant malignancies with high fatality rate and is rising at an alarming rate because it is quite resistant to radioand chemotherapy. The proliferation, migration and activation of endothelial cells are involved in tumor occurrence and development. Indirubin is the major active anti-tumor ingredient of a traditional Chinese herbal medicine. In this research, Td-ECs were derived from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by treating HUVECs with the conditioned medium of human liver cancer cell line HepG2. The effects of indirubin on cell proliferation, migration, invasion and angiogenesis of Td-ECs were assessed. Indirubin significantly inhibited Td-EC cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Indirubin also inhibited Td-EC migration and angiogenesis. However, indirubin’s effects on HUVECs were weaker than on Td-ECs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0190.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: breast cancer; neoadjuvant chemotherapy; vimentin; vascular invasion; prognosis
Online: 4 October 2023 (11:22:07 CEST)
To clarify whether changes in biological features of breast tumor cells and intra-tumor immunity after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) may correlate with pathological responses and prognosis in breast cancer patients treated with NAC, we investigated various biomarkers using both pre- and post-NAC tumor samples. The study subjects were 24 primary breast cancer patients, who were treated with NAC at the Department of Breast and Thyroid Surgery, Kawasaki Medical School Hospital between 2010 and 2011. All of them had a non-pathological complete response (pCR) to NAC and their pre- and post-NAC tumor samples were available for biomarker assays. Ki67 labeling index, apoptosis, factors related to cancer stem cells and epithelial-mesenchymal transition, tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), and expression levels of CD-8, CD-4, FoxP3, PD-L1, and PD-1 were studied using the paired samples. Biological characteristics of residual tumors such as nuclear grade (NG) and vascular invasion (v) were also investigated. The median age was 53 years-old and 14 patients had stage III tumors, while 10 had stage II tumors. A higher expression level of CD8, CD4, or PD-1 in pre-NAC samples and of CD8, CD4 or PD-L1 in post-NAC samples was significantly correlated with a better pathological response to NAC. Positivity of ZEB1, vimentin, and v or NG 3 in post-NAC samples was significantly correlated with either worse disease-free survival (DFS) or worse overall survival (OS) by univariate analyses. Multivariate analyses for DFS and OS revealed that positivity for v and vimentin expression in residual tumors were independent prognostic factors in this study. These findings indicate that activated intra-tumor immune microenvironments may play significant roles in pathological responses to NAC, and that the up-regulation of vimentin and v-positivity in residual tumors may be pivotal prognostic factors in non-pCR cases to NAC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1232.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Nudt2, TNBC, anchorage-independent growth, migration and invasion.
Online: 18 July 2023 (11:55:05 CEST)
The main known function of Nudix hydrolase 2 (Nudt2) is to hydrolyze the secondary messenger diadenosine 5', 5’’’-p1, p4-tetraphosphate (Ap4A). In this study we examined the role of Nudt2 in breast carcinoma through its expression in the human invasion ductal carcinoma tissues, and its functions in human triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines. A significantly high expression of Nudt2 in the human invasion ductal carcinoma tissues was observed in our study. Knockdown of Nudt2 in TNBC cell lines showed a significant reduction in cellular proliferation via the Ki67 marker, accompanied by G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest. A significant reduction in the migration and invasion of Nudt2 knockdown TNBC cell lines was also observed. The effect of Nudt2 knockdown in the TNBC cell lines on tumorigenicity and anchorage-independent growth was assessed, where significant reductions in the Nudt2 knockdown TNBC cell lines were found. It can therefore be concluded that Nudt2 plays a significant role in promoting TNBC growth.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2054.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: CDK1; RO-3306; ovarian cancer; apoptosis; invasion; prognosis
Online: 28 June 2023 (16:02:31 CEST)
Ovarian cancer is the deadliest gynecological malignancy of the reproductive organs in the United States. Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) is an important cell cycle regulatory protein that spe-cifically controls the G2/M phase transition of the cell cycle. RO-3306 is a selective, ATP-competitive, and cell-permeable CDK1 inhibitor that shows potent anti-tumor activity in multiple pre-clinical models. In this study, we investigated the effect of CDK1 expression on the prognosis of patients with ovarian cancer and the anti-tumorigenic effect of RO-3306 in both ovarian cancer cell lines and a genetically engineered mouse model of high-grade serous ovarian cancer (KpB model). In 147 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer, overexpression of CDK1 was significantly associated with poor prognosis, compared with a low expression group. RO-3306 significantly inhibited cellular proliferation, induced apoptosis, caused cellular stress, and reduced cell migration. Treatment of KpB mice with RO-3306 for four weeks showed a significant decrease in tumor weight under obese and lean conditions without obvious side effects. Overall, our results demonstrate that inhibition of CDK1 activity by RO-3306 effectively reduces cell proliferation and tumor growth, providing biological evidence for future clinical trials of CDK1 inhibitors in ovarian cancer
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0315.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, History Keywords: France; Spain; Da Nang; Gia Dinh; invasion; alliance
Online: 23 March 2022 (11:05:00 CET)
This article analyzes the Franco-Spanish invasion of Vietnam from 1858 to 1860. Research is based on documents such as correspondence, reports, archives and diplomatic treaties as well as monographs from the time France intended to invade Vietnam through missionary activities until the end of the Franco-Spanish invasion. The article focuses on three basic issues that are the causes of the alliance, the evolution of the French and Spanish coalition invasion in Vietnam and its impact on stakeholders. The research results on the Franco-Spanish invasion of Vietnam indicated that the invasion carried out by this alliance was more special than that of the other French coalitions before. The invasion was based on an alliance without any commitment to the interests and responsibilities of the parties. The goals of France and Spain in this invasion were different. That led to conflict between France and Spain during the invasion and the fall of the alliance. France achieved its goal through an invasion that turned Vietnam into a colony, while Spain had barely achieved its desire to have commercial and missionary interests in the area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0229.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Canary Islands; cryptic invasion; molecular phylogeny; Persicaria; taxonomy
Online: 15 October 2021 (14:34:13 CEST)
A cryptic invader of the genus Persicaria is recently increasing in the damper, northern parts of La Palma and Gran Canaria in the Canary Islands (Spain) and locally behaves as an invasive species. Examination of historical herbarium specimens showed this species to be present in Gran Canaria since the 1960’s and the same probably applies to La Palma. Up to now, this species had been assigned to the Old World weed P. maculosa. However, morphologically these plants clearly correspond with P. hydropiperoides, a common and widespread weed native to the New World, and morphologically similar indeed to P. maculosa. Diagnostic features for these two species, as well as for another similar species (P. decipiens, originally described from the Canary Islands), are compared, thoroughly discussed and copiously illustrated. The current distribution, ecology and naturalization status of P. hydropiperoides in the Canary Islands are also assessed. The variability of P. hydropiperoides is discussed, more precisely the taxonomic position of a southern ‘race’ of it that is sometimes referred to as a distinct species, P. persicarioides. In addition to our morphology-based study, a molecular phylogenetic analysis has been conducted on the nuclear ITS region and the plastid DNA region trnL-F.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0240.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: epoxyqinomicin; DHMEQ; metastasis; invasion; adhesion; 3D cell culture
Online: 25 January 2018 (10:27:11 CET)
We previously designed and synthesized dehydroxyepoxyquinomicin (DHMEQ) as an inhibitor of NF-κB based on the structure of microbial secondary metabolite epoxyquinomicin C. DHMEQ showed anti-inflammatory and anticancer activity in various in vivo disease models without toxicity. Cell detachment from the primary tumor and subsequent invasion are considered to be early phase of metastasis, while tumor cell attachment to the tissue and secondary tumor formation the late phase. The assay system for late phase was set up with intra-portal-vein injection of pancreatic cancer cells. Administration of DHMEQ was found to inhibit the liver metastasis possibly by decreasing the expression of MMP-9 and IL-8. Also when the pancreatic cancer cells treated with DHMEQ was inoculated into the peritoneal cavity of mice, the metastatic foci formation was inhibited. These results indicate that DHMEQ is likely to inhibit the late phase of metastasis. Meanwhile, we have recently employed three-dimensional (3D) culture of breast cancer cells for the model of early phase metastasis. DHMEQ inhibited the 3D invasion of breast cancer cells without toxicity. In this way, DHMEQ was shown to inhibit the late and early phases of metastasis. Thus, DHMEQ is likely to be useful for the suppression of cancer metastasis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1354.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Ecology Keywords: Urbanization; Green infrastructure; Urban forestry; Biological invasion; Ecological restoration
Online: 22 November 2023 (07:46:31 CET)
With the liberalization of the mining sector, a considerable demographic explosion is witnessed in Lubumbashi city (southeastern of the D.R. Congo). The resulting spatial urban expansion is unplanned, reducing the vegetation cover abundance within and around the city. To address this situation, Acacia auriculiformis, an alien species, has been planted without planning and monitoring. We quantify the spatio-temporal pattern dynamics of A. auriculiformis along the urban-rural gradient from the digitisation of Google Earth images from 2006, 2014 and 2021, and evaluate tree diversity through floristic inventory. Results showed that the plantation of A. auriculiformis, belonging to park, street trees and green spaces-types, increased in patch number and acreage, mostly in urban zone. The values of the patch which were highest in 2006 decreased in 2021, especially in the urban zone. Thirty-nine trees species were founded on A. auriculiformis plantations, with Albizia lebbeck, Albizia alba and Leucaena leucocephala being the most common. However, results showed that 20 species out of 39 species found are exotic, half of which are invasive species. However, 19 trees species are indigenous, mainly found in peri-urban zones. Although most tree species were observed in urban zones, the average diameters were greater in the peri-urban zone. Overall, obtained results appear to suggest that the sustainability of A. auriculiformis within the urban and peri-urban zones of Lubumbashi city appears uncertain since a considerable number of attracted species are found to be alien invasive trees that pose a threat to biodiversity conservation. There is an urgent need for adoption of a master plan for sustainable integration and monitoring of trees plantations for limiting erosion of indigenous phytodiversity and the spread of alien invasive species populations in the adjacent rural area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1803.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aquatic Science Keywords: freshwater ecosystems; pollution; bioinvasion; co-invasion; establishment; ensemble model
Online: 28 August 2023 (03:48:06 CEST)
In the present study, we implemented species distribution models (SDMs) to determine the potential invasive distribution range of a cichlid fish, Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, in a very sensitive inland water system in the southeastern Arabian Peninsula where it is now established and spreading. By using the “Biomod2” package, and the latest CMIP6 climate data, four single species distribution models and EM were built, and the results were evaluated by operating characteristic (ROC) and the true skill statistic (TSS). Based on the relative importance of climate factor analysis the mean diurnal range and precipitation seasonality were useful predictors of habitat suitability for O. niloticus. The response curve analysis indicated that the presence probability of O. niloticus decreased with increasing mean diurnal range and decreasing precipitation seasonality. The suitable distribution ranges for O. niloticus in the studied area were mainly distributed in the northeast of this region. The ensemble model results specified a significant impact of climate change on O. niloticus distribution, so highly suitable areas for this species will be reduced, while areas with low to moderate suitability increase slightly or remain unchanged. Based on the available data, Nile tilapia fulfills all four criteria to be considered as an invasive species: colonization in a new area, direct or indirect impacts of anthropological activity on its distribution range, geographical discontinuity between its native area (Africa) and the Arabian Peninsula (remote dispersal), and finally, its successful breeding in situ without human assistance resulting establishment of this biopollutant. Species distribution modeling provides insights into the factors that can reduce the risks and negative impacts of this biological pollutant on aquatic ecosystems of the southeastern Arabian Peninsula which harbors about 22 recognized fish species in 16 genera, 10 families, seven orders, and a class including 20 natives (seven endemic) species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2070.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Grass carp; Grass carp reovirus; Invasion portal; Nostril; Gill
Online: 29 June 2023 (07:12:41 CEST)
Type II grass carp reovirus (GCRV-II) with high pathogenicity and infectivity causes severe hemorrhagic disease, which leads to extensive death in the grass carp and black carp aquaculture. However, the early invasion portal remains unclear. In this study, we explored the invasion portal, time, and pathway of GCRV-II by immersion infection in grass carp. Through the detection of the infected grass carp external body surface tissues, most of them could be detectable to carry GCRV-II within 45 minutes except for the skin covered by scales. Further shortening the duration of infection, we proved that GCRV-II rapidly invades through the nostril (especially), gill, and skin on head at only 5 min post immersion, rather than merely adhesion. Subsequently, visual localization investigations of GCRV-II were conducted on the nostril, olfactory system (olfactory bulb and olfactory tract), and brain by immunofluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. We found that few viruses were located in the nostril at 5 min post immersion infection, while significantly increased viruses were distributed in all these tissues at 45 min. Furthermore, semi-qRT-PCR and western blotting results of different infection time confirmed that GCRV-II invades grass carp via nostril-olfactory system-brain axis and then unfolds viral replication. These results revealed the infection mechanism of GCRV-II on the invasion portal, time, and pathway in grass carp. This study aims to understand the invasion mode of GCRV-II in grass carp, which provides theoretical support for the prevention and control strategies of hemorrhagic disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0709.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: invasion sport; gender; primary school; sport experience; structural equation
Online: 21 April 2023 (10:03:41 CEST)
The satisfaction of basic psychological needs leads students to engage in a sport modality on their own initiative. In the Spanish public educational system, mixed and heterogeneous, the gender and sport experience of students influence the teaching and motivation of invasion sports. This study investigated whether students' gender and sport experience, and method influence the psychological variables (basic psychological needs and sport adherence) when teaching school soccer and basketball. Furthermore, correlations were calculated between these psychological variables. The study involved 165 fifth and sixth grade students (age, 11.27 ± 0.68 years old) from several Spanish state schools in the same autonomous community. A non-random convenience sample was used. The needs for autonomy, perceived competence and social relationships were measured using the Basic Psychological Needs in Physical Exercise Scale. Sport adherence was measured using the Measure of Intentionality to be Physically Active. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Cronbach's alpha were used to analyze the psychometric properties of the scales. Descriptive and inferential analyses were performed with the Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis H tests. There were significant differences in the needs for autonomy and perceived competence according to the students’ gender (boys > girls). Attending to sport adherence, there were also significant differences according to the students’ gender (boys > girls) and sport experience (experienced students > inexperienced students). Likewise, a regression analysis (structural equation model) revealed that the autonomy need showed low association with sport adherence. Higher perceived competence (β = 0.52) and social relationships (β = 0.36) were associated with greater adherence to sport (R2 = 0.65). Increased sport adherence will have health benefits.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0256.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: marmoset; Neotropical; Brazil; biomedical; arbovirus; conservation; hybridization; biological invasion
Online: 18 February 2021 (15:52:32 CET)
We provide here a current overview of marmoset (Callithrix) evolution, hybridization, species biology, basic/biomedical research, and conservation initiatives. Composed of two subgroups, the aurita group (C. aurita and C. flaviceps) and the jacchus group (C. geoffroyi, C. jacchus, C. kuhlii and C. penicillata), this relatively young primate radiation is endemic to the Brazilian Cerrado, Caatinga, and Atlantic Forest biomes. Significant impacts on Callithrix within these biomes resulting from anthropogenic activity include: (1) population declines, particularly for the aurita group; (2) widespread geographic displacement, biological invasions, and range expansions of C. jacchus and C. penicillata; (3) anthropogenic hybridization; and (4) epizootic Yellow Fever and Zika viral outbreaks. A number of Brazilian legal and conservation initiatives are now in place to protect the threatened aurita group and increase research about them. Due to their small size and rapid life history, marmosets are prized biomedical models. As a result, there are increasingly sophisticated genomic Callithrix resources available and burgeoning marmoset functional, immuno-, and epi- genomic research. In both the laboratory and the wild, marmosets have given us insight into cognition, social group dynamics, human disease, and pregnancy. Callithrix jacchus and C. penicillata are emerging Neotropical primate models for arbovirus disease, including Dengue and Zika. Wild marmoset populations are helping us understand sylvatic transmission and human spillover of Zika and Yellow Fever viruses. All of these factors are positioning marmosets as preeminent models to facilitate understanding of facets of evolution, hybridization, conservation, human disease, and emerging infectious diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1088.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Fetuin-A; Triple Negative; Breast Cancer; TLR4; Invasion; Basal-like
Online: 15 September 2023 (16:02:45 CEST)
The present studies were undertaken to address the role of fetuin-A in the growth and invasion potential in a triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell line, MDA-MB-468. Basal like TNBC that express high levels of ectopic fetuin-A have poorer prognosis for the patients compared to those that express low levels of the protein. We overexpressed fetuin-A in MDA-MB-468 and then determined the invasive potential of fetuin-A overexpressing cells vs controls transfected with empty vector. We also determined the adhesion and growth potential of the cells in the presence of only fetuin-A in serum free medium and also in complete medium. Our data suggest that fetuin-A overexpression significantly enhances the invasive potential of the cells and also the expression of Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) on these cells. More importantly, the cells rely on fetuin-A-TLR4 signaling network for growth and invasion because the specific TLR4 inhibitor CLI-095 (resatorvid) abrogates fetuin-A mediated growth and invasion. Taken together, the data suggest that fetuin-A-TLR4 signaling network plays a significant role in the growth and invasion potential of TNBC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1585.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Offshore drilling; overflow; kick; gas invasion; pattern recognition; threshold method
Online: 23 May 2023 (05:36:50 CEST)
In offshore drilling, accidents such as gas invasion, overflow, and kicks are inevitable, and they can escalate into blowouts and other catastrophic events that result in casualties and substantial economic losses. Therefore, maintaining drilling safety requires accurate monitoring of gas invasion and overflow. The majority of overflow monitoring methods currently utilized at drilling sites are threshold-based. However, monitoring parameters acquired during actual drilling operations frequently contain noise signals, making it difficult for threshold-based methods to strike a balance between improving accuracy and minimizing false positives. In this paper, Pattern Recognition-based Kick Detection (PRKD) is proposed as a novel method for diagnosing overflow in offshore drilling. This method utilizes the overflow evolution process by integrating multi-phase flow calculations, data filtering theory, pattern recognition theory, the Bayesian framework, and other theoretical models. The PRKD effectively detects and monitors gas intrusion and overflow based on single parameters by analyzing the shape and wave characteristics of the curves. The case analysis demonstrates that the proposed method for monitoring drilling overflow achieves high precision while maintaining a low false positive rate. By combining advanced computational techniques with pattern recognition algorithms, the PRKD improves the accuracy and reliability of kick detection, enabling proactive responses to potential risks, protecting the environment and human lives, and optimizing drilling operations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0023.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: cooperation; conditioned media; TGF-β1; intratumour heterogeneity; metastasis; EMT; invasion
Online: 14 November 2022 (10:58:41 CET)
Intratumour heterogeneity is often associated with poor response to treatment and bad prognosis. In addition to constitutive genetic/epigenetic sources, phenotypic and functional heterogeneity can reflect cell plasticity due to changes in gene expression patterns induced by signals from the tumour microenvironment or other cells. Positive interactions between cancer clones can increase their fitness and contribute to tumour growth, resistance to drugs and metastasis. Consequently, understanding the pathways involved in such behaviours is of great significance for cancer treatment. To explore if and how genetically distant clones can synergistically enhance each other's metastatic potential, this study used three (two breast and one lung) cancer cell lines with different aggressiveness levels. We found that (i) the conditioned media from the breast and lung aggressive lines induce mesenchymal features and increase the migration and invasion potential of the poorly metastatic breast line, and (ii) in both cases, this interclonal communication is based on the same soluble factor – namely, the tumour growth factor TGF-β1. Furthermore, when the two breast lines are mixed and co-cultured, the invasive potential of both lines is enhanced, and this outcome is dependent on the recruitment of the less aggressive clone into expressing a malignant phenotype. Based on our findings, we propose a two-tier model whereby highly metastatic clones can recruit weakly metastatic clones into acquiring an invasive phenotype, which in turn augments the invasion ability of the former (i.e., a “help me help you” strategy) through shared proteases and/or ECM remodelling. We suggest that such synergistic cooperation can easily emerge via cross-talk involving metastatic clones able to constitutively secrete signalling molecules that induce and maintain their own malignant state (i.e., autocrine/cell-autonomous signalling) and clones that have the ability to respond to those signals (i.e., paracrine/non-cell-autonomous signalling) and express a metastatic phenotype. Taking into account the lack of therapies to directly affect the metastatic process, interfering with such cooperative behaviours that tumour cells engage in during the early steps in the metastatic cascade could provide an additional strategy to increase patient survival.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0059.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geochemistry And Petrology Keywords: microporous carbonates; multimodal porosity; primary drainage; capillary invasion; mixed wettability
Online: 6 January 2022 (10:03:11 CET)
Improved oil recovery from tight carbonate formations may provide the world with a major source of lower-rate power over several decades. Here we provide an overview of the Arab D formation in the largest oil field on earth, the Ghawar. We investigate the occurrence of microporosity of different origins and sizes using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and pore casting techniques. Then, we present a robust calculation of the probability of invasion and oil saturation distribution in the nested micropores using mercury injection capillary pressure data available in the literature. We show that large portions of the micropores in Arab D formation would have been bypassed during primary drainage unless the invading crude oil ganglia were sufficiently long. Considering the asphaltenic nature of oil in the Ghawar, we expect the invaded portions of the pores to turn mixed-wet, thus becoming inaccessible to waterflooding until further measures are taken to modify the system’s chemistry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0019.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Renal Cell Carcinoma; Pathological staging; Extrarenal extension; Renal vein invasion
Online: 4 January 2021 (11:31:46 CET)
(1) Background: Overall survival of the patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) depends mostly on extra-renal extension, documented by the invasion of the pelvicalyceal system, or the perinephric/renal sinus fat or the renal vein/its segmental intraparenchymal branches. Staging may be challenging because of the high inter-observer variability. We have introduced a more accurate procedure to detect the extra-renal extension and, to possibly evaluate the impact of such more laborious approach, we have compared the RCC pathological staging obtained following both standard and modified procedures; (2) Methods: We selected 54 consecutive cases of RCC diagnosed 18 months before and 54 consecutive cases diagnosed 18 months after the introduction of the new method of sampling. Clinico-pathological characteristics have been statistically analyzed; (3) Results: Most of the features analyzed were non statistically significative, except the extra-renal invasion. More precisely, the occurrence of retrograde venous invasion was higher in the cases grossly approached with the more accurate method; (4) Conclusions: Extra-renal extension to intraparenchymal renal vein branches may be underestimated, leading to an inappropriate under-staging. Using more accurate staging procedures, to disclose the occurrence of intra-renal veins tumoral thrombosis, helps to better define the pathological stage, allowing patients to benefit of better fitting treatments.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0689.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Tropical Medicine Keywords: Plasmodium vivax; Erythrocyte Invasion Mechanisms; Duffy Negative; Africa; Immunology; Epidemiology
Online: 27 November 2020 (13:08:59 CET)
Plasmodium vivax malaria is a neglected tropical disease, despite being more geographically widespread than any other form of malaria. The documentation of P. vivax infections in different parts of Africa where Duffy-negative individuals are predominant suggested that there are alternative pathways for P. vivax to invade human erythrocytes. Duffy-negative individuals may be just as fit as Duffy-positive individuals and are no longer resistant to P. vivax malaria. In this review, we describe the complexity of P. vivax malaria, characterize pathogenesis and candidate invasion genes of P. vivax, and host immune responses to P. vivax infections. We provide a comprehensive review on parasite ligands in several Plasmodium species that further justify candidate genes in P. vivax. We also summarize previous genomic and transcriptomic studies related to the identification of ligand and receptor proteins in P. vivax erythrocyte invasion. Finally, we identify topics that remain unclear and propose future studies that will greatly contribute to our knowledge of P. vivax.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0380.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: malignant pleural mesothelioma; CXCL12/CXCR4; EAAT1; glutamine synthetase; invasion; migraiton
Online: 17 September 2020 (07:29:16 CEST)
Purpose: To elucidate the mechanism of CXCR4/EAAT1/GS pathway in CXCL12 regulating invasion and migration in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Methods: Immunohistochemistry for CXCL12, CXCR4, EAAT1 and GS stainings and correlation analysis between them were conducted in MPM and normal tissues. Western blot and real-time PCR were performed to examine the CXCR4, EAAT1 and GS expression in H2052 cells. Wound healing and transwell assay were applied to determine the cell migration and invasion. MTT was utilized to assess cell viability. Results: CXCL12, CXCR4, EAAT1 and GS were highly expressed in MPM tissues and correlated with each other. CXCL12 upregulated both in protein and mRNA levels of CXCR4, EAAT1 and GS in H2052 cells. The EAAT1 and GS expression upregulated or not by CXCL12 were decreased by CXCR4 and EAAT1 knockdown. CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 and EAAT1 antagonist TFB-TBOA also resulted in the same effects as CXCR4 and EAAT1 knockdown, respectively. CXCL12 promoted cell invasion and migration and increased the Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) mRNA level. CXCR4 and EAAT1 knockdown suppressed all these functions. Furthermore, CXCL12 promoted H2052 cells growth in nude mice, both AMD3100 and TFB-TBOA inhibited this promotion. Conclusions: CXCL12 regulated the invasion and migration through CXCR4/EAAT1/GS pathway in H2052 cells.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0235.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: strap muscle invasion; prognosis; differentiated thyroid carcinoma; meta-analysis; review
Online: 14 May 2020 (11:35:41 CEST)
Gross strap muscle invasion (gSMI) in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) was defined as high-risk recurrent group in the 2015 American Thyroid Association guidelines. However, controversy persists because several studies suggested gSMI had little effect on disease outcome. Herein, a systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to investigate impact of gSMI on outcome of DTC. Methods: A systematic search of electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and MEDLINE) for studies published until February 2020 was performed. Case-control studies and randomized controlled trials that studied the impact of gSMI on outcome of DTC were included. Results: Six studies (all retrospective studies) involving 13639 patients met final inclusion criteria. Compared with no extrathyroidal extension (ETE), patients with gSMI were associated with increased risk of recurrence (P=0.0004,OR, 1.46; 95% CI: 1.18 to 1.80) and lymph node metastasis (LNM) (P<0.00001,OR 4.19;95% CI. 2.53 to 6.96). For mortality (P=0.34,OR 1.47;95% CI:0.67 to 3.25), ten-year disease-specific survival (P=0.80, OR 0.91;95% CI:0.44 to 1.88) and distant metastasis (DM) (P=0.21, OR 2.94;95% CI. 0.54 to 15.93), there was no significant difference between gSMI and no ETE group. In contrast with maximal ETE, patients with gSMI were associated with decreased risk of recurrence (P<0.0001,OR, 0.58; 95% CI: 0.44 to 0.76) , mortality (P=0.0003,OR 0.20;95% CI:0.08 to 0.48), LNM (P=0.0003,OR 0.64;95% CI. 0.50 to 0.81) and DM (P=0.0009,OR 0.28;95% CI. 0.13 to 0.59). Conclusions: DTC patients with gSMI had a higher risk of recurrence and LNM than those without ETE. However, in contrast with maximal ETE, a much better prognosis was observed in DTC patients with only gSMI. The findings of our meta-analysis provide supportive evidence for the validity of the T category changes in the 8th edition American Joint Committee on Cancer system. The actual impact of gSMI should be re-evaluated and revised in the recurrent risk stratification system in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0051.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: angiogenesis; cell invasion; cell migration; Flavone derivative (TTF1); hepatoma; STAT3
Online: 9 November 2016 (10:21:43 CET)
TTF1-NP(5,2′,4′-trihydroxy-6,7,5′-trimethoxyflavone nanoparticles), derived from the traditional Changbai Mountain medicinal plant Sorbaria sorbifolia (SS), has been showedits anti-cancer effect in various liver cancer cell types and tissues. The present study was designed to evaluate the antitumor mechanism of the TTF1-NP against HepG2 hepatoma cells and HepG2 cells-induced hepatocarcinoma (HCC) in nude mouse model. Here we demonstrated that TTF1-NP inhibits tube formation of HUVECs and HepG2 cell migration and invasion, and inhibits tumor growth in nude mice implanted with HepG2 cells through the downregulation of STAT3 protein and activation, along with VEGF, KDR, bFGF, MMP2 and MMP9 levels. We further revealed that TTF1-NP decreased the DNA-binding capacity of STAT3. Together our results provide a mechanism by which TTF1-NP suppresses cancer cell migration, invasion and angiogenesis through the action of STAT3 and suggests TTF1-NP as a potential therapy for hepatocellular cancer treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0014.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: biological invasion; interspecific competition; mosquitoes; trash; urban greenspace; West Nile virus
Online: 1 October 2021 (11:58:15 CEST)
Condition-specific competition, when environmental conditions alter the outcome of competition, can foster the persistence of resident species after the invasion of a competitively superior invader. We test whether condition-specific competition can facilitate the areawide persistence of the resident and principal West Nile virus vector mosquito Culex pipiens with the competitively superior invasive, Aedes albopictus, in water from different urban container habitats. (2) Methods: We tested the effects of manipulated numbers of A. albopictus on C. pipiens survival and development in water collected from common functional and discarded containers in Baltimore, Maryland, USA. The experiment was conducted with typical numbers of larvae found in field surveys of C. pipiens and A. albopictus and container water quality. (3) Results: We found increased densities of A. albopictus negatively affected the survivorship and development of C. pipiens in water from discarded containers but had little effect in water from functional containers. This finding was driven by water from trash cans, which allowed consistently higher C. pipiens survival and development and had greater mean ammonia and nitrate concentrations that can promote microbial food than other container types. (4) Conclusions: These results suggest that the contents of different urban containers alter the effects of invasive A. albopictus competition on resident C. pipiens, that trash cans, in particular, facilitate the persistence of C. pipiens, and that there could be implications for West Nile virus risk as a result.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0676.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: ultrasound; endometrial cancer; lymph nodes metastasis; myometrial invasion; tumor-free distance
Online: 30 July 2021 (09:06:16 CEST)
Background: Ultrasonography’s usefulness in endometrial cancer (EC) diagnosis consists of its staging and predictive roles. Ultrasound-measured tumor-free distance from the tumor to the uterine serosa (uTFD) is a promising marker for this variable. The aim of the study was to determine the usefulness of this biomarker in locoregional staging, and thus in the prediction of lymph node metastasis (LNM). Methods: We conducted a single-institutional, prospective study on 116 consecutive patients with EC who underwent 2D transvaginal ultrasound examination. The uTFD marker was compared with the depth of ultrasound-measured myometrial invasion (uMI). Univariate and multivariate logit models were evaluated to assess the predictive power of the uTFD and uMI in regard to LNM. The reference standard was a final histopathology result. Survival was assessed by the Kaplan-Meyer method. Results: LNM was found in 17% of the patients (20/116). In the univariate analysis, uMI and uTFD were significant predictors of LNM. Accuracy was 70.7%, and NPV was 92.68% (OR 4.746, 95% CI 1.710-13.174) for uMI (p = 0.002), and 63.8%, and 89.02% (OR 0.842, 95% CI 0.736 – 0.963), respectively, for uTFD (p = 0.01). The cut-off value for uTFD in the prediction of LNM was 5.2 mm. The absence of LNM was associated more with biomarker values uMI <1/2 and uTFD >=5.2 mm than with the presence of metastases with uMI >1/2 and uTFD values <5.2 mm. In the multivariate analysis, the accuracy of the uMI-uTFD model was 74%, and NPV was 90.24% (p = NS). Neither uMI nor uTFD are surrogates for overall and recurrence-free survivals in endometrial cancer. Conclusions: Both uMI and uTFD, either alone or in combination, are valuable tools for gaining additional preoperative information on expected lymph node status. Negative lymph nodes status is better described by ultrasound biomarkers than a positive status. It is easier to use uTFD measurement as a biomarker of EC invasion than uMI, and the former still maintains a similar predictive value for lymph node metastases to the latter at diagnosis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0553.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: brain tumour; satellitosis; tumour heterogeneity; glioblastoma; perineuronal satellitosis; perivascular satellitosis; invasion
Online: 21 November 2020 (08:41:01 CET)
The secondary structures of Scherer commonly known as perineuronal and perivascular satellitosis have been identified as a histopathological hallmark of diffuse, invasive, high-grade gliomas. They are recognized as perineuronal satellitosis when clusters of neoplastic glial cells surround neurons cell bodies and perivascular satellitosis when such tumour cells surround blood vessels infiltrating Virchow-Robin spaces. In this review, we provide an overview of emerging knowledge regarding how interactions between neurons and glioma cells can modulate tumour evolution and how neurons play a key role in glioma growth and progression, as well as the role of perivascular satellitosis into mechanisms of glioma cells spread. At the same time, we review the current knowledge about the role of perineuronal satellitosis and perivascular satellitosis within the tumour microenvironment (TME), in order to highlight critical knowledge gaps in research space.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0484.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Gastric cancer; Submucosal invasion; Intestinal stem cell; Cancer stem cell; Prognosis
Online: 21 July 2020 (12:34:02 CEST)
Submucosal invasion is a critical step in gastric cancer (GC) progression, which greatly enhances metastasis risk. Cancer stem cells are responsible for invasion, metastasis, and tumor growth. To identify stem cell-related markers associated with submucosal invasion in GCs, we investigated the expression of candidate cancer stem cell (CSC) markers (CD133, CD44, and ALDH1A) and intestinal stem cell (ISC) markers (EPHB2, OLFM4, and LGR5) in early GCs with submucosal invasion. Remarkably, expression of all ISC markers and CD133 was frequently confined to the basal area of the lamina propria (basal pattern) in mucosal cancer. The proportion of stem cell marker-positive cells substantially increased during submucosal invasion. Given that ISC markers are restricted to the crypt base of the normal intestinal mucosa, these findings suggest that many early GCs may retain hierarchical characteristics. CD44 expression showed a focal pattern, ALDH1A was predominantly expressed diffusely, and there was no expansion of CD44 or ALDH1A expression in the submucosal cancer cells. RSPO2 from muscularis mucosa seem to be partly responsible for the increased expression of ISC markers in GC cells at the basal areas. We also found that ISC markers were correlated with CDX2 expression in GCs, indicating that ISC markers are involved in the intestinal differentiation in GCs. Interestingly, ISC markers (EPHB2 and OLFM4) and CD133 showed a positive impact on clinical outcomes. In particular, the prognostic value of EPHB2 was significant for intestinal-type GCs in a multivariate analysis. In summary, ISC markers and CD133 showed a basal distribution pattern along with enhanced expression in submucosal invading cells in early GCs. EPHB2 was an independent prognostic marker in intestinal-type GCs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0410.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Chikungunya virus; invasion; transmission dynamics; Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; mathematical model
Online: 19 July 2020 (14:40:22 CEST)
: Arboviruses transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus have been introduced to Florida on many occasions. Infrequently, these introductions lead to sporadic local transmission and, more rarely, sustained local transmission. Both mosquito species are present in Florida, with spatio-temporal variation in population composition. We developed a 2-vector compartmental, deterministic model to investigate factors influencing Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) establishment. The model includes a non-linear, temperature-dependent mosquito mortality function based on minimum mortality in a central temperature region. Latin Hypercube sampling was used to generate parameter sets used to simulate transmission dynamics, following the introduction of one infected human. The analysis was repeated for 3 values of the mortality function central temperature. Mean annual temperature was consistently important in the likelihood of epidemics, and epidemics increased as the central temperature increased. Ae. albopictus recruitment was influential at the lowest central temperature while Ae. aegypti recruitment was influential at higher central temperatures. Our results indicate that the likelihood of CHIKV establishment may vary, but overall Florida is permissive for introductions. Model outcomes were sensitive to the specifics of mosquito mortality. Mosquito biology parameters are variable, and improved understanding of this variation will improve our ability to predict the outcome of introductions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0086.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: praeruptorin A; human cervical cancer; ERK; Invasion; MMP-2; TIMP-2
Online: 19 September 2017 (07:45:00 CEST)
Praeruptorin A(PA), a naturally existing pyranocumarin, is isolated from the dried root of Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn. So far the anti-cancer effect and molecular mechanism behind Praeruptorin A action in human cervical cancer HeLa cells remain unknown. In the present study, we find that PA reduces cell proliferation and colony formation of human cervical cancer HeLa cells through inducing cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase. PA-upregulated p21 and p27 proteins are observed, accompanied with inhibition of cyclin D1 and S-phase kinase-associated protein 2(Skp2) proteins expression. PA could significantly inhibit migration and invasion of human HeLa cells. Meanwhile, PA significantly reduces invasive protein expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), and increases protein expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2). PA is observed to possess the capacity in suppressing ERK1/2 activation. PD98059 (ERK specific inhibitor) significantly enhances PA-induced downregulation of MMP-2 expression, and upregulation of TIMP-2 expression. Moreover, we found that PA treatment notably inhibits 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate(TPA)-upregulated ERK1/2 activation, MMP-2 expression, cellular migration and invasion in human HeLa cells. Taken together, these findings are the first to demonstrate the anti-cancer activity of PA, which may act as a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of human cervical cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0120.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: sinulariolide; human bladder cancer; migration; invasion; PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway
Online: 27 June 2017 (06:23:44 CEST)
Sinulariolide, a natural product extracted from cultured-type soft coral Sinularia flexibilis, possesses bioactivity against the movement of several types of cancer cell. However, the molecular pathway of its effects on human bladder cancer remain poorly understood. Using a human bladder cancer cell line as an in vitro model, this study investigated the underlying mechanism of sinulariolide against cell migration/invasion in TSGH-8301 cells. We found that sinulariolide inhibited TSGH-8301 cell migration/invasion, and the effect was concentration-dependent. Furthermore, the protein expressions of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) MMP-2 and MMP-9, as well as urokinase, were significantly decreased after 24-h sinulariolide treatment. Meanwhile, the increased expressions of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 were in parallel with an increased concentration of sinulariolide. Finally, the expressions of several key phosphorylated proteins in the mTOR signaling pathway were also downregulated by sinulariolide treatment. Our results demonstrated that sinulariolide has significant effects against TSGH-8301 cell migration/invasion, and its effects were associated with decreased levels of MMP-2/-9 and urokinase expression, as well as increased TIMP-1/TIMP-2 expression. The inhibitory effects were mediated by reducing phosphorylation proteins of the PI3K, AKT and mTOR signaling pathway. The findings suggested that sinulariolide is a good candidate for advanced investigation with the aim of developing a new drug for the treatment of human bladder cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1445.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aquatic Science Keywords: zebra mussel; dispersal; natural history, citizen science, invasion ecology, history of zoology
Online: 22 November 2023 (16:51:31 CET)
The case of naturalization of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas), in coun-tries lying beyond its native Ponto-Caspian range is remarkable as one of the first instances, when the scientific community as early as the mid-19th century was fully aware of the non-indigenous status of a particular species as well as of the need for the study and monitoring of this process. Based on a study of contemporary sources, I reconstruct the early response of the European naturalists (including those that today would be called ‘citizen scientist’) to the invasion of Dreissena and describe their attitudes to the problem, including the divergence of opinion about the origin and the means of dispersal of this bivalve species. An analysis of pa-pers of the English, French, German, and Russian authors published between 1774 and 1920 has shown that the invasion of D. polymorpha was by no means ‘silent’; quite opposite, it provoked an immediate reaction of naturalists, and the scientific agenda for the study of the new invader was proposed in England as early as 1838
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0810.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: cut chrysanthemum; continuous cropping wilt; pathogen invasion; plant physiological response; rhizosphere microorganisms
Online: 14 November 2023 (05:26:04 CET)
Cut chrysanthemum, renowned as a highly favored floral choice globally, experiences a significant decline in production due to the practice of continuous cropping. The adverse physiological effects on cut chrysanthemums have been observed as a result of the degradation of soil physical and chemical properties, coupled with the proliferation of pathogens. It is noteworthy that the 'Guangyu' cultivar in Xinxiang, Henan province, China, has been specifically impacted by these effects. This study effectively identified and validated the precise pathogen accountable for wilt disease initially. Subsequently, an analysis was conducted to examine the invasion pattern of the pathogen and the physiological response of the chrysanthemum. Finally, PacBio platform was employed to investigate the dynamic alterations in the microbial community within the soil rhizosphere, comparing the effects of seven years of monocropping with the first year. The findings indicated that Fusarium solani was the primary causative agent responsible for wilt disease, as it possessed the ability to invade and establish colonies in plant roots, leading to alterations in various physiological parameters of the plants. Furthermore, the practice of continuous cropping had been observed to significantly disturb the microbial community composition, potentially acting as an additional influential factor in the advancement of wilt.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1351.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: Biological invasion; Eichhornia crassipes; Multicriteria decision making; Salvinia minima; Ten-ner-grass
Online: 19 July 2023 (13:00:46 CEST)
Invasive macrophytes are considered problematic in natural environments and hydroelectric reservoirs. Climate changes, the occurrence of watercourses, and biotic interactions influence the biological invasion of macrophytes. Native species can correlate with invasives positively or negatively. Urochloa subquadripara is an invasive in natural or disturbed habitats co-occurring with the natives Eichhornia crassipes and Salvinia minima. Aquatic plant communities can be altered by climate change, so species distribution models (SDMs) are important tools for predicting in-vaded areas. This work aimed to make an SDM for U. subquadripara correlating with the poten-tial distribution of native species E. crassipes and S. minima. Occurrence data for U. subquadripara, E. crassipes, and S. minima were collected from databases and in consultation with the published literature. Parameters encompassing biological information of the species were entered into the CLIMEX software and used to generate the Ecoclimatic Index (EI). The species co-occurrence was performed based on multicriteria decision-making (MCDM), and weights were assigned using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP). It was observed that U. subquadripara, E. crassipes, and S. minima have a higher occurrence in tropical and subtropical regions; however, it is predicted that, from climatic changes, these species may move to high latitudes. According to climate change, the risk of invasion by U. subquadripara in the northern hemisphere is mainly in lakes, while in the southern hemisphere, the areas conducive to invasions are rivers and reservoirs. In general, emerging and floating macrophyte species such as U. subquadripara, E. crassipes, and S. minima will be favored, causing suppression of submerged species. Therefore, identifying the potential distribution of these species allows the creation of pre-invasion intervention strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0964.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: red palm weevil; pest invasion; metamorphosis; gut microbiota; growth hormone; pupation nature
Online: 12 May 2023 (15:04:41 CEST)
Red palm weevils (RPWs) are a major pest to coconut and palm trees, causing significant economic losses in many countries. The current control method involves using insecticides, which are unsustainable and environmentally damaging. Thus, it is necessary to develop an eco-friendly and sustainable approach to mitigate the RPW problem. Our studies have revealed that feeding RPWs with food containing specific herbs can affect the weevils' mutualistic relationship with gut microbiota or their growth hormones, resulting in a notable reduction in the metamorphosis rate at the pupation stage. For instance, the addition of Kra-jeab (a roselle Hibiscus sabdariffa) and Kra-pao (a holy basil Ocimum tenuiflorum) led to a reduction of 76.7% and 75.6%, respectively, in the metamorphosis rate, while combining the two herbs resulted in a higher reduction rate of 86.7%. In addition to these findings, altering their pupation nature by reducing the fiber length used in RPW feed to less than 1 centimeter can stop the weevil’s pupation entirely. These findings demonstrate the potential application of biological and physical factors to reduce RPWs' metamorphosis rate and control their destructive impact on palm industries, thus providing a promising solution for the conflict between palm and insect farmers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0438.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Food security; aquatic conservation; disease; Sphareothecum destruens; fungi; invasion; outbreaks; healthy carrier
Online: 25 January 2023 (03:36:44 CET)
The emergence of pathogenic fungi is a major and rapidly growing problem (7% increase) that affects human and animal health, ecosystems, food security and the economy worldwide. The Dermocystida group in particular has emerged relatively recently and includes species that affect both humans and animals. Within this group, one species in particular, Sphareothecum destruens, also known as the Rosette agent, represents a major risk to global aquatic biodiversity and aquaculture and has caused severe declines in wild fish populations in Europe and large losses in salmon farms in the USA. It is a species that has been associated with a healthy carrier for millions of years but the host has managed in recent decades to invade parts of Southeast Asia, Central Asia, Europe and North Africa. In order to better understand the emergence of this new disease, we have for the first time synthesised current knowledge on the distribution, detection, prevalence of S. destruens as well as the associated mortality curves, and the potential economic impact in countries where the healthy carrier has been introduced. Finally, we propose solutions and perspectives to manage and mitigate the emergence of this fungus in countries where it has been introduced.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0330.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: megalin; oral squamous cell carcinoma; lymph node metastases; vascular invasion; overall survival
Online: 21 October 2022 (10:17:46 CEST)
Megalin (LRP2) is a rapidly recycling multiligand endocytic receptor, primarily expressed in polarized epithelial cells. Despite megalin could promote tumor growth and invasiveness through several mechanisms, it has been understudied in the field of molecular oncology so far. The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of megalin expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) on disease progression. Megalin expression was evaluated immunohistochemically in 63 OSCC specimens. Data obtained were retrospectively compared with patients’ clinicopathological features and survival. The proportion of megalin-expressing cells in primary OSCC tissue was significantly associated with metastatic spreading to lymph nodes, vascular invasion and lower overall survival rate. Results obtained by the study suggest that megalin can be considered as a novel molecule involved in OSCC pathogenesis, but also useful as a potential biomarker for cancer progression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0445.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: oral cancer; cancer-associated fibroblasts; metastasis; cell migration; cell invasion; Akt; EGFR
Online: 27 May 2020 (08:25:20 CEST)
Oral cancer cells (TYS) and the signalling pathways involved in metastasis, in response to cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs, COM) and normal oral mucosal fibroblasts (MM1) was studied. Metastatic cell behaviour was observed by cell-scatter, 3D-collagen gel migration and 3D-spheroid invasion assays. Akt, MAPK, EGFR, TGFβRii and CXCR4 inhibitors were used to identify the signalling pathways involved. Signalling pathway protein expression and activation were assessed by SDS-PAGE and Western Blotting. COM-CM (conditioned medium) and MM1-CM stimulated cancer cell scattering, which was blocked only by the Akt inhibitor. COM-CM induced scattered cancer cells showed higher levels of Akt phosphorylation than the negative control and MM1-CM. Migration and invasion of TYS cells into the collagen gels from the spheroids was stimulated by CM from both sources, compared to the negative control. COM cells stimulated TYS, cancer cell invasion into the collagen more than MM1 and the control. Akt and EGFR inhibitors effectively blocked CM and COM cell-induced invasion. Akt-silenced cancer cells were not stimulated to migrate and invade by fibroblast-CM and did not survive addition of the EGFR inhibitor. This suggests that CAFs stimulate oral cancer cell migration and invasion in an Akt- dependent manner. EGFR and Akt are potential therapy targets in metastatic oral cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0253.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: vimentin; EMT; invasion; mechanotransduction; cell adhesion; cancer treatment; cancer drugs; amoeboid; mesenchymal
Online: 19 December 2019 (07:58:15 CET)
Intermediate filaments constitute the third component of the cellular skeleton. Unlike actin and microtubule cytoskeletons, the intermediate filaments are composed of wide variety of structurally related proteins showing distinct expression patterns in tissues and cell types. Changes in expression patterns of intermediate filaments are often associated with cancer progression, in particular with phenotypes leading to increased cellular migration and invasion. In this review we will describe the role of vimentin intermediate filaments in cancer cell migration, cell adhesion structures, and metastasis formation. The potential for targeting vimentin in cancer treatment and the development of drugs targeting vimentin will be reviewed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0054.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: human antibody; invasion; lung cancer; therapeutic target; VCAM-1; VCAM-1-D6
Online: 15 February 2017 (10:45:16 CET)
Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) is closely associated with tumor progression and metastasis. However, the relevance and role of VCAM-1 in lung cancer have not been clearly elucidated. In this study, we found that VCAM-1 was highly overexpressed in lung cancer tissue compared with that of normal lung, and high VCAM-1 expression correlated with poor survival of lung cancer patients. VCAM-1 knockdown reduced invasion in A549 human lung cancer cells, and competitive blocking experiments targeting the Ig-like domain 6 of VCAM-1 (VCAM-1-D6) demonstrated that the VCAM-1-D6 domain was critical for VCAM-1-mediated A549 cell invasion. Next, we developed a human monoclonal antibody specific to human and mouse VCAM-1-D6 (VCAM-1-D6 huMab), which was isolated from a human synthetic antibody library using phage display technology. Finally, we showed that VCAM-1-D6 huMab had a nanomolar affinity for VCAM-1-D6 and that it potently suppressed invasion in A549 and NCI-H1299 lung cancer cell lines. Taken together, these results suggest that VCAM-1-D6 is a novel therapeutic target in VCAM-1-mediated lung cancer invasion and that our newly developed VCAM-1-D6 huMab will be a useful tool for inhibiting VCAM-1-expressing lung cancer cell invasion.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: prostate cancer; radical prostatectomy; pelvic lymph node dissection; lymph node invasion; preoperative nomogram
Online: 11 May 2021 (10:39:13 CEST)
Introduction: The aim of the study was to test and validate the performance of the 2012 Briganti nomogram as a predictor for pelvic lymph node invasion (LNI) in men who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) with extended pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND), to examine their performance and to analyse the therapeutic impact of using different nomogram cut-off . Material and methods: The study group consisted of 222 men with clinically localized prostate cancer (PCa) who underwent RP with ePLND between 01/2012 and 10/2018. Measurements included: preoperative PSA, clinical stage (CS), primary and secondary biopsy Gleason pattern and percentage of positive cores. The area under curve (AUC) of the receiver operator characteristic analysis was appointed to quantify accuracy of the primary nomogram model to predict LNI. The extent of estimation associated with the use of this model was graphically depicted using calibration plots. Results: The median number of removed lymph nodes was 16 (IQR 12-21). A total of 53 of 222 patients (23,9%) had LNI. Preoperative clinical and biopsy characteristics differed significantly (all p<0.005) between men with and without LNI. A nomogram-derived cut-off of 7% could lead to a reduction of 43% (95/222) of lymph node dissection, while missing 19% (10/53) of patients with LNI. The sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive value associated with the 7% cut-off were 81.1%, 50.3%, and 96.3%, respectively. Conclusions: Analysed nomogram demonstrated high accuracy for LNI prediction. A nomogram-derived cutoff of 7% confirmed good performance characteristics within a first external validation cohort from Poland.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0089.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Asparagopsis armata; Biodiversity; Intertidal assemblages; Invasive exotics; Marine invasion; Non-indigenous species (NIS)
Online: 5 October 2020 (13:28:46 CEST)
Biological invasions represent a threat to ecosystems, through competition and habitat destruction, which may result in significant changes of the invaded community. Asparagopsis armata is a red macroalgae (Rodophyta) globally recognized as an invasive species. It is found from the intertidal to shallow subtidal areas, on rock or epiphytic, forming natural vegetation belts on exposed coasts. This study evaluated the variations on native intertidal seaweed and macroinvertebrate assemblages inhabiting rock pools with and without the presence of the invasive macroalgae A. armata. To achieve this, manipulation experiments on Atlantic (Portugal) rock pools were done. Three rock pools were maintained without A. armata by manual removal of macroalgae, and three others were not experimentally manipulated during the study period and A. armata was freely present. In this study the variations between different rock pools were assessed. Results showed different patterns in the macroalgae composition of assemblages but not for the macrobenthic communities. Ellisolandia elongata was the main algal species affected by the invasion of A. armata. Invaded pools tended to show less species richness, showing a more constant and conservative structure, with lower variation of its taxonomic composition than the pools not containing A. armata, where the variability between samples was always higher. Despite the importance of the achieved results, further data based on observation of long-term series are needed, in order to further understand more severe effects of the invader A. armata on native macroalgal assemblage.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0055.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: black timber bark beetle; biological invasion; Xyleborini; ambrosia beetle; spread; occurrence; ethanol; forest management
Online: 4 December 2018 (09:57:21 CET)
The black timber bark beetle Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford) is an invasive ambrosia beetle originating from Southeastern Asia that has become successfully established within Europe and North America. Herein, we provide a review of the spread and distribution of this pest of trees and timber across Europe before and after 2000, along with a review of its habitat preferences. Since the spread of X. germanus across Europe has accelerated rapidly post-2000, emphasis is placed on this period. X. germanus was first recorded in Germany in 1951 and since then in 21 European countries along with Russia. Ethanol-baited traps were deployed in oak, beech, and spruce forest ecosystems in the Western Carpathians, Central Europe, Slovakia, to characterize the distribution and habitat preference of this non-native ambrosia beetle. Captures of X. germanus within Slovakia have been rising rapidly since its first record in 2010, and now this species dominates captures of native ambrosia beetles. X. germanus has spread throughout the whole Slovakia from the south-southwest to the north-northeast over the period of 5–10 years and has also spread vertically into higher altitudes within this country. While living but weakened trees in Europe and North America are attacked by X. germanus, the greatest negative impact within Slovakia is attacks on recently felled logs of oak, beech and spruce trees providing high quality timber/lumber. We suggest that the recent rapid spread of X. germanus in Central Europe is being facilitated by environmental changes, specifically global warming, and the increasing frequency of timber trade. Recommendations for management of X. germanus in forest ecosystems are proposed and discussed, including early detection, monitoring, sanitary measures, etc.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1724.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: age-related macular degeneration; cell invasion; choroidal neovascularization; macrophage recruitment; recombinant sulfated CXCR3 peptide trap
Online: 26 October 2023 (13:42:13 CEST)
Background and Objectives: Chemokines have various biological functions and potential roles in the development or progression of neuroinflammatory diseases. However, the specific pathogenic roles of chemokines in age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of blindness in older individuals, remain elusive. Chemokines interact with their receptors expressed in the endothelium and on leukocytes. The sulfation of tyrosine residues in chemokine receptors increases the strength of ligand–receptor interaction and modulates signaling. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to construct a human recombinant sulfated CXCR3 peptide trap (hCXCR3-S2) and mouse recombinant sulfated CXCR3 peptide trap (mCXCR3-S2) to demonstrate in vivo effects in preventing choroidal neovascularization and chemotaxis. Materials and Methods: First, the effect of hCXCR3-S was validated in vitro. Interestingly, hCXCR3-S2 inhibited the migration and invasion of two human cancer cell lines. Subsequently, the in vivo efficacy of mCXCR3-S2 was investigated using a mouse model of neovascular AMD. Results: Intravitreal injection of mCXCR3-S2 attenuated choroidal neovascularization and macrophage recruitment in neovascular lesions. These in vitro and in vivo effects were significantly stronger with CXCR3-S2 than with wild-type CXCR3 peptides. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that the sulfated form of the CXCR3 peptide trap is a valuable tool that could be supplemented with antivascular endothelial growth factors in AMD treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1083.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Pancreatic adenocarcinoma, PDAC, cancer stem cells, EMT, Epithelial-Mesenchymal-Transition, Heterogeneity, Plasticity, Adhesion, Migration, Invasion, Metastasis
Online: 16 November 2023 (11:36:00 CET)
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is mostly diagnosed at advanced or even metastasized stages limiting patient´s prognosis. Metastasis requires high tumor cell plasticity implying phenotypic switching in response to changing environments. Here, Epithelial-Mesenchymal-Transition (EMT), being associated with the gain of cancer stem cell (CSC) properties, and its reversion are important. Since it is poorly understood whether different CSC-phenotypes exist along the EMT-axis and how these impact malignancy-associated properties, we aimed to characterize CSC-populations of epithelial and mesenchymal PDAC cells. Single-cell cloning revealed CSC (Holoclone) and non-CSC (Paraclone) clones from the PDAC cell lines Panc1 and Panc89. Panc1 Holoclone cells showed a mesenchymal phenotype dominated by high expression of the stemness marker Nestin, while Panc89 Holoclone cells exhibited a SOX2-dominated epithelial phenotype. Panc89 Holoclone cells showed enhanced cell growth and self-renewal capacity but slow cluster-like invasion. Contrarily, Panc1 Holoclone cells showed slower cell growth and self-renewal ability but were highly invasive. Moreover, cell variants differentially responded to chemotherapy. In vivo, Panc1 and Panc89 cell variants significantly differed regarding number and size of metastases as well as organ manifestation leading to different survival outcomes. Overall, these data support the existence of different CSC-phenotypes along the EMT-axis in PDAC manifesting in different metastatic propensities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0071.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Calcium-activated potassium channels; SK channels; IK channels; human leukemia cells; cell migration; cancer cell invasion
Online: 3 February 2023 (10:31:24 CET)
Calcium-activated potassium channels (KCa) are the important participants in calcium signaling pathways due to their ability to be activated by increase of the intracellular free calcium concentration. KCa channels are involved in the regulation of various processes in the cells under normal, as well as pathophysiological conditions, including oncotransformation. Previously, with the use of patch-clamp method, we registered the KCa activity in the plasma membrane of human myeloid leukemia K562 cell line. Here, we performed the molecular and functional identification of KCa channels and have uncovered their role in proliferation, migration and invasion of K562 cells. Using a combined approach, we identified the functional activity of SK2, SK3 and IK channels in the plasma membrane of the cells. Selective SK and IK channel inhibitors, apamin and TRAM-34, reduced the proliferative, migratory and invasive capabilities of human myeloid leukemia cells. At the same time, the viability of K562 cells was not affected by KCa channel inhibitors. Our data imply that SK/IK channel inhibitors could be used to slow down the proliferation and spreading of leukemia cells that express functionally active KCa channels in the plasma membrane.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0364.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: breast cancer; Nerve Growght Factor (NGF); TrkA; p75NTR; NGFR; pro-NGF; angiogenesis; invasion; metastasis; diagnosis; prognosis; treatment
Online: 23 September 2022 (09:18:12 CEST)
Breast cancer represents the most frequent cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among women. Thus, the prevention and early diagnosis of breast cancer appears to be of primary urgency as well as the development of new treatments able to improve its prognosis. Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) is a neurotrophic factor that plays a key role in the regulation of neuronal functions thought the binding to the Tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA) and the Nerve Growth Factor receptor or Pan-Neurotrophin Receptor 75 (NGFR/p75NTR). Also, its precursor (pro-NGF) can extert biological activity by forming a trimeric complex with NGFR/p75NTR and sortilin or by binding to TrkA receptors with low affinity. Both in vitro and in vivo studies showed that NGF is synthesized and released by breast cancer cells and has mitogen, antiapoptotic and angiogenic effects on these cells through the activation of different signaling cascades that involve TrkA and NGFR/p75NTR receptors. Conversely, pro-NGF signaling has been related to breast cancer invasion and metastasis. Other studies suggested that NGF and its receptors could represent a good diagnostic and prognostic tool, as well as promising therapeutic targets for breast cancer. Here, we comprehensively summarize and systematically review the current experimental evidence on this topic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0252.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: signal transduction; γ-ionizing radiation; cancer invasion; non-small cell lung cancer; epithelial-mesenchymal transition; tumor microenvironment
Online: 22 January 2020 (03:04:00 CET)
Previously, we demonstrated that IR triggers the invasion/migration of A549 cells via activation of an EGFR–p38/ERK–STAT3/CREB-1–EMT pathway. Here, we have demonstrated the involvement of a novel intracellular signaling mechanism in γ-ionizing radiation (IR)-induced migration/invasion. Expression of receptor-interacting protein (RIP) 1 was initially increased upon exposure of A549, a non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line, to IR. IR-induced RIP1 is located downstream of EGFR and involved in the expression/activity of matrix metalloproteases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) and vimentin, suggesting a role in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Our experiments showed that IR-induced RIP1 sequentially induces Src-STAT3-EMT to promote invasion/migration. Inhibition of RIP1 kinase activity and expression blocked induction of EMT by IR and suppressed the levels and activities of MMP-2, MMP-9, and vimentin. IR-induced RIP1 activation was additionally associated with stimulation of the transcriptional factor NF-κB. Specifically, exposure to IR triggered NF-κB activation and inhibition of NF-κB suppressed IR-induced RIP1 expression followed by a decrease in invasion/migration as well as EMT. Based on the collective results, we propose that IR concomitantly activates EGFR and NF-κB and subsequently triggers the RIP1–Src/STAT3–EMT pathway, ultimately promoting metastasis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0316.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: nanoparticles; FA-DABA-SMA; drug delivery systems; folic acid receptor alpha; intracellular disruptions; invasion and migration; breast cancer
Online: 14 August 2020 (09:49:17 CEST)
The development of a highly specific drug delivery system (DDS) for anti-cancer therapeutics is an area of intense research focus. Chemical engineering of a “smart” DDS to specifically target tumor cells has gained interest, designed for safer, more efficient, and effective use of chemotherapeutics for the treatment of cancer. However, the selective targeting and choosing the critical cancer surface biomarker are essential for targeted treatments to work. The folic acid receptor alpha (FRalpha) has gained popularity as a potential target in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). We have previously reported on a functionalized folic acid (FA)-conjugated amphiphilic alternating copolymer poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) (FA-DABA-SMA) via a biodegradable linker 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (DABA) that has the essential features for efficient “smart” DDS. This biocompatible DDS self-assembles in a pH-dependent manner, providing stimuli-responsive, active targeting, extended-release of hydrophobic chemotherapeutic agents, and can effectively penetrate the inner core of 3-dimensional cancer spheroid models. The empty FA-DABA-SMA decreased spheroid volume, revealing a previously unknown mechanism of action. Upon further investigation, a size- and shape-dependent interaction FA-DABA-SMA with FR reduced the expression of p53, the product of the highly mutated TP53 gene, and additional oncogenic c-Myc and STAT3 proteins. Here, we investigated how this copolymer influences FR behavior and disrupting the receptor’s functions. Results indicate that FA-DABA-SMA increases FR expression levels in breast MDA MB-231 cancer cells and disrupting FR signaling by the reduction in HES1 and NOTCH1 protein expression levels. Also, FA-DABA-SMA induces apoptosis and further causes a change in the morphology of the MDA MB-231 cells, as well as significantly reduces their ability to migrate in a Scratch wound assay. Collectively, these findings provide a novel insight into the functionalized FA-DABA-SMA copolymer. The 350 kDa and 20 kDa copolymers actively target FRα to initialize internationalization. However, only the large size and sheet-shaped 350 kDa copolymers disrupt FRα signaling. The significance of these novel findings reveals the intracellular activity of the copolymer that is critically dependent on the size and structural shape. This report offers novel therapeutic insight into a dual mechanism of FA-DABA-SMA copolymer for its therapeutic potential for the treatment of cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0110.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: invasion ecology; biotic resistance; exotic plants; heterospecific pollen; reproductive interference; alien plants; indirect plant-plant interactions; Darwin's naturalization hypothesis
Online: 9 February 2020 (16:32:53 CET)
1. Heterospecific pollen interference has recently been proposed as a mechanism contributing to the success of alien invaders, as heterospecific pollen of alien plants interferes with the reproduction of natives by reducing fruit and seed set. However, no study has looked at the opposite interaction. Moreover, few studies have considered the roles of phylogenetic and trait distances between pollen donors and recipients. 2. We did a large multi-species experiment in which we used alien and native species both as pollen recipients and as pollen donors, and included phylogenetic as well as trait distance as explanatory variables. 3. We found that both alien and native recipients suffered from heterospecific pollen from donors of the opposite status in terms of seed and fruit set. Phylogenetic distance and trait distance both affected heterospecific pollen interference, but the effect depended on recipient and donor statuses. 4. We conclude that heterospecific pollen interference affects both native and alien recipients, thus indirectly altering community composition and increasing biotic resistance against invaders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0224.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: pseudopterosin; triple negative breast cancer; glucocorticoid receptor alpha; dexamethasone; cell proliferation; 3D invasion; tumor spheroid; co-culture; interleukin 6; interleukin 8
Online: 2 August 2018 (06:08:31 CEST)
Pseudopterosin, produced by the sea whip of the genus Antillogorgia, possesses a variety of promising biological activities including potent anti-inflammatory effects. However, few studies examined pseudopterosin in the treatment of cancer cells and, to our knowledge, the ability to inhibit triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) proliferation or invasion has not been explored. Thus, we evaluated the as yet unknown mechanism of action of pseudopterosin: Pseudopterosin was able to inhibit proliferation of TNBC. Interestingly, analyzing breast cancer cell proliferation after knocking down glucocorticoid receptor α (GRα) revealed that anti-proliferative effects of pseudopterosin were significantly inhibited when GRα expression was reduced. Furthermore, pseudopterosin inhibited invasion of MDA-MB-231 3D tumor spheroids embedded in an extracellular-like matrix. Remarkably, the knockdown of GRα in 3D tumor spheroids revealed increased ability of cells to invade the surrounding matrix. In a co-culture, encompassing peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and MDA-MB-231 cells, production of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interleukin 8 (IL-8) significantly increased compared to monoculture. Notably, pseudopterosin proved to block cytokine elevation, representing key players in tumor progression, in the co-culture. Thus, our results reveal pseudopterosin treatment as a potential novel approach in TNBC therapy.