Preprint Review Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Distribution, Habitat Preference, and Management of the Invasive Ambrosia Beetle Xylosandrus germanus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) in European Forests with Emphasis on the West Carpathians

Version 1 : Received: 3 December 2018 / Approved: 4 December 2018 / Online: 4 December 2018 (09:57:21 CET)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Galko, J.; Dzurenko, M.; Ranger, C.M.; Kulfan, J.; Kula, E.; Nikolov, C.; Zúbrik, M.; Zach, P. Distribution, Habitat Preference, and Management of the Invasive Ambrosia Beetle Xylosandrus germanus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) in European Forests with an Emphasis on the West Carpathians. Forests 2019, 10, 10. Galko, J.; Dzurenko, M.; Ranger, C.M.; Kulfan, J.; Kula, E.; Nikolov, C.; Zúbrik, M.; Zach, P. Distribution, Habitat Preference, and Management of the Invasive Ambrosia Beetle Xylosandrus germanus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) in European Forests with an Emphasis on the West Carpathians. Forests 2019, 10, 10.

Journal reference: Forests 2018, 10, 10
DOI: 10.3390/f10010010

Abstract

The black timber bark beetle Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford) is an invasive ambrosia beetle originating from Southeastern Asia that has become successfully established within Europe and North America. Herein, we provide a review of the spread and distribution of this pest of trees and timber across Europe before and after 2000, along with a review of its habitat preferences. Since the spread of X. germanus across Europe has accelerated rapidly post-2000, emphasis is placed on this period. X. germanus was first recorded in Germany in 1951 and since then in 21 European countries along with Russia. Ethanol-baited traps were deployed in oak, beech, and spruce forest ecosystems in the Western Carpathians, Central Europe, Slovakia, to characterize the distribution and habitat preference of this non-native ambrosia beetle. Captures of X. germanus within Slovakia have been rising rapidly since its first record in 2010, and now this species dominates captures of native ambrosia beetles. X. germanus has spread throughout the whole Slovakia from the south-southwest to the north-northeast over the period of 5–10 years and has also spread vertically into higher altitudes within this country. While living but weakened trees in Europe and North America are attacked by X. germanus, the greatest negative impact within Slovakia is attacks on recently felled logs of oak, beech and spruce trees providing high quality timber/lumber. We suggest that the recent rapid spread of X. germanus in Central Europe is being facilitated by environmental changes, specifically global warming, and the increasing frequency of timber trade. Recommendations for management of X. germanus in forest ecosystems are proposed and discussed, including early detection, monitoring, sanitary measures, etc.

Subject Areas

black timber bark beetle; biological invasion; Xyleborini; ambrosia beetle; spread; occurrence; ethanol; forest management

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