ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0501.v1
Online: 26 July 2018 (04:22:14 CEST)
The predictability of wind information in a given location is essential for the evaluation of a wind power project. Predicting wind speed accurately improves the planning of wind power generation, reducing costs and improving the use of resources. This paper seeks to predict the mean hourly wind speed in anemometric towers (at a height of 50 meters) at two locations: a coastal region and one with complex terrain characteristics. To this end, the Holt-Winters (HW), Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and Hybrid time-series models were used. Observational data evaluated by the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications-Version 2 (MERRA-2) reanalysis at the same height of the towers. The results show that the hybrid model had a better performance in relation to the others, including when compared to the evaluation with MERRA-2. For example, in terms of statistical residuals, RMSE and MAE were 0.91 and 0.62 m/s, respectively. As such, the hybrid models are a good method to forecast wind speed data for wind generation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0204.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Hybrid Automata; Formal Modeling; Discrete State; Continuous State; Formal Methods
Online: 5 March 2021 (21:45:11 CET)
In this paper, Hybrid Automata, which is a formal model for hybrid systems, has been introduced. A summary of its theory is presented and some of its special and important classes are listed and some properties that can be studied and checked for it are mentioned. Finally, the purposes of use, the most widely used areas, and the tools that provide H.A. Support are addressed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0363.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Contextual information; deep hybrid learning model; activity recognition; Sensors; Smart devices
Online: 28 March 2022 (12:33:49 CEST)
Smart devices such as smartphones, smartwatches, etc. are promising platforms that are being used for automatic recognition of human activities. However, it is difficult to accurately monitor complex human activities due to inter-class pattern similarity, which occurs when different human activities exhibit similar signal patterns or characteristics. Current smartphone-based recognition systems depend on the traditional sensors such as accelerometer and gyroscope, which are inbuilt in these devices. Therefore, apart from using information from the traditional sensors, these systems lack contextual information to support automatic activity recognition. In this article, we explore environment contexts such as illumination(light conditions) and noise level to support sensory data obtained from the traditional sensors using a hybrid of Convolutional Neural Networks and Long Short Time Memory(CNN_LSTM) learning models. The models performed sensor fusion by augmenting the low-level sensor signals with rich contextual data to improve recognition and generalisation ability of the proposed solution. Two sets of experiments were performed to validate the proposed solution. The first set of experiments used inertial sensing data whilst the second set of extensive experiments combined inertial signals with contextual information from environment sensing data. Obtained results demonstrate that contextual information such as environment noise level and illumination using hybrid deep learning models achieved better recognition accuracy than the traditional activity recognition models without contextual information.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0096.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: hyperelastic constitutive model; hybrid experimental-computational approach; Bis-GMA polymer; true stress-strain curve
Online: 12 February 2019 (09:35:34 CET)
A study on the selection of hyperelastic constitutive model for polymeric materials is performed using a hybrid experimental-computational approach. Bis-GMA polymer is used as a case study of hyperelastic material to describe the polymer characteristics by determining its Poisson’s ratio and its valid range of the hyperelastic stress-strain curves. These two parameters are then used to determine the hyperelastic constitutive model by using the hybrid approach. Several uniaxial compression tests along with their finite element simulations are implemented in a systematic way, to identify the polymer behavior under the compressive loading conditions. Nano-indentation experiments are conducted to verify the hyperelastic behavior of the polymer. The experimental and computational evidences confirm that the Poisson’s ratio of Bis-GMA is 0.40 and the appropriate hyperelastic constitutive model for this polymer is of a second order polynomial. It is shown that, the results can be used to determine the true stress-strain curve of hyperelastic materials.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0310.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: Functional Data Analysis (FDA); Hybrid Data; Semi-Functional Partial Linear Regression Model (SFPLR); Partial Functional Linear Regression; Literature Review
Online: 17 November 2021 (15:21:19 CET)
Background: In the functional data analysis (FDA), the hybrid or mixed data are scalar and functional datasets. The semi-functional partial linear regression model (SFPLR) is one of the first semiparametric models for the scalar response with hybrid covariates. Various extensions of this model are explored and summarized. Methods: Two first research articles, including “semi-functional partial linear regression model”, and “Partial functional linear regression” have more than 300 citations in Google Scholar. Finally, only 106 articles remained according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria such as 1) including the published articles in the ISI journals and excluding 2) non-English and 3) preprints, slides, and conference papers. We use the PRISMA standard for systematic review. Results: The articles are categorized into the following main topics: estimation procedures, confidence regions, time series, and panel data, Bayesian, spatial, robust, testing, quantile regression, varying Coefficient Models, Variable Selection, Single-index model, Measurement error, Multiple Functions, Missing values, Rank Method and Others. There are different applications and datasets such as the Tecator dataset, air quality, electricity consumption, and Neuroimaging, among others. Conclusions: SFPLR is one of the most famous regression modeling methods for hybrid data that has a lot of extensions among other models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0166.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: electric weapons; rail gun; electromagnetic ammunition; hybrid technologies; plasma detonator.
Online: 6 August 2021 (14:00:09 CEST)
Although the idea of making electric weapons has emerged since the beginning of the 20th Century, the great number of technological problems made that such technology was not developed. During the Cold War, the US strategic programme Space Defensive Initiative paid a special attention to this category of weapons, but the experiments have demonstrated that the prototypes are too big, very heavy, and involve a very high energy consumption and low reliability. Under these circumstances, the authors have noticed the trend to design new types of electric weapons starting from the hybridization of some technologies: the compressed flux weapons, the plasma electromagnetic cannon, the electromagnetic weapons as the coil-gun and rail-gun.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0337.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system; ANFIS-PSO; ANFIS-GA; HVAC; hybrid machine learning
Online: 24 February 2020 (01:55:59 CET)
The hybridization of machine learning methods with soft computing techniques is an essential approach to improve the performance of the prediction models. Hybrid machine learning models, particularly, have gained popularity in the advancement of the high-performance control systems. Higher accuracy and better performance for prediction models of exergy destruction and energy consumption used in the control circuit of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems can be highly economical in the industrial scale to save energy. This research proposes two hybrid models of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system-particle swarm optimization (ANFIS-PSO), and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system-genetic algorithm (ANFIS-GA) for HVAC. The results are further compared with the single ANFIS model. The ANFIS-PSO model with the RMSE of 0.0065, MAE of 0.0028, and R2 equal to 0.9999, with a minimum deviation of 0.0691 (KJ/s), outperforms the ANFIS-GA and single ANFIS models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0351.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: machine learning; aerodynamics; high-speed train; hybrid machine learning; Prediction Turbulence model; deep learning
Online: 26 December 2019 (05:23:14 CET)
In the present paper, an aerodynamic investigation of a high-speed train is performed. In the first section of this article, a generic high-speed train against a turbulent flow is simulated, numerically. The Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations combined with the SST turbulence model are applied to solve incompressible turbulent flow around a high-speed train. Flow structure, velocity and pressure contours and streamlines at some typical wind directions are the most important results of this simulation. The maximum and minimum values are specified and discussed. Also, the pressure coefficient for some critical points on the train surface is evaluated. In the following, the wind direction influence the aerodynamic key parameters as drag, lift, and side forces at the mentioned wind directions are analyzed and compared. Moreover, the effects of velocity changes (50, 60, 70, 80 and 90 m/s) are estimated and compared on the above flow and aerodynamic parameters. In the second section of the paper, various data-driven methods including Gene Expression Programming (GEP), Gaussian Process Regression (GPR), and random forest (RF), are applied for predicting output parameters. So, drag, lift and side forces and also minimum and a maximum of pressure coefficients for mentioned wind directions and velocity are predicted and compared using statistical parameters. Obtained results indicated that RF in all coefficients of wind direction and most coefficients of free stream velocity provided the most accurate predictions. As a conclusion, RF may be recommended for the prediction of aerodynamic coefficients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0069.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: hybrid level-sets, active contours, nodule segmentation, hybrid deformable model
Online: 5 April 2019 (15:36:24 CEST)
Lung nodule segmentation in CT images and its subsequent volume analysis can help determinethe malignancy status of a lung nodule. While several efficient segmentation schemes have beenproposed, only a few studies evaluated the segmentation’s performance for large nodules. In thisresearch, we contribute a semi-automatic system which is capable of performing robust 3-D segmen-tations on both small and large nodules with good accuracy. The target CT volume is de-noisedwith an anisotropic diffusion filter and a region of interest is selected around the target nodule ona reference slice. The proposed model performs nodule segmentation by incorporating a mean in-tensity based threshold in Geodesic Active Contour model in level sets. We also devise an adaptivetechnique using image intensity histogram to estimate the desired mean intensity of the nodule.The proposed system is validated on both lung nodules and phantoms collected from publicly avail-able diverse databases. Quantitative and visual comparative analysis of the proposed work withthe Chan-Vese algorithm and statistic active contour model of 3D Slicer platform is also presented.The resulting mean spatial overlap between segmented nodules and reference nodules is 0.855, themean volume bias is 0.10±0.2 ml and the algorithm repeatability is 0.060 ml. The achieved resultssuggest that the proposed method can be used for volume estimations of small as well as large-sizednodules.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0344.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: hybrid problem-based learning; hybrid-PBL; biomedicine; systematic review; higher education
Online: 15 November 2018 (05:37:35 CET)
The impact of instructional guidance on learning outcomes in higher biomedical education is subject of intense debate. There is the teacher-centered or traditional way of teaching (TT) and, on the other side, the notion that students learn best under minimal guidance (problem-based learning, PBL). Although the benefits of PBL are well-known, there are aspects susceptible to improvement. Hence, a format merging TT and PBL (hybrid-PBL, h-PBL) may advance education in biomedical sciences. Here, we systematically reviewed studies that employed h-PBL in higher biomedical education compared to TT and/or pure PBL. We found that h-PBL resulted in better overall students’ performance and perception than TT or pure PBL. These findings encourage more research on investigating the pedagogical benefits of h-PBL and posit an eclectic system in which the pedagogical tools from TT and PBL are used cooperatively in the best interest of the education and satisfaction of the students.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci1010003.v1
Subject: Keywords: hybrid energy storage; energy efficiency; frequency domain analysis; hybrid electric vehicles
Online: 1 November 2018 (00:00:00 CET)
In Electrified Vehicles, the cost, efficiency, and durability of electrified vehicles are dependent on the energy storage system (ESS) components, configuration and its performance. This paper, pursuing a minimal size tactic, describes a methodology for quantitatively and qualitatively investigating the impacts of a full bandwidth load on the ESS in the HEV. However, the methodology can be extended to other electrified vehicles. The full bandwidth load, up to the operating frequency of the electric motor drive (20 kHz), is empirically measured which includes a frequency range beyond the usually covered frequency range by published standard drive cycles (up to 0.5 Hz). The higher frequency band is shown to be more efficiently covered by a Hybrid Energy Storage System (HESS) which in this paper is defined as combination of a high energy density battery, an Ultra-Capacitor (UC), an electrolytic capacitor, and a film capacitor. In this paper, the harmonic and dc currents and voltages are measured through two precision methods and then the results are used to discuss about overall HEV efficiency and durability. More importantly, the impact of the addition of high-band energy storage devices in reduction of power loss during transient events is disclosed through precision measurement based methodology.
Online: 7 March 2020 (03:05:56 CET)
Heterosis or hybrid vigour is a phenomenon in which hybrid progeny exhibit superior yield and biomass to parental lines and has been used to breed F1 hybrid cultivars in many crops. A similar level of heterosis in all F1 individuals is expected as they are genetically identical. However, we found variation of rosette size in individual F1 plants from a cross between C24 and Columbia-0 accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana. Big sized F1 plants had 26.1% larger leaf area in the 1st and 2nd leaves than medium sized F1 plants at 14 days after sowing in spite of the identical genetic background. We identified differentially expressed genes between big and medium sized F1 plants by microarray; genes involved in the category of stress response were overrepresented. We made transgenic plants overexpressing 21 genes, which were differentially expressed between the two size classes, some lines had increased plant size at 14 or 21 days after sowing but not at all time points. Change of expression levels in stress responsive genes among individual F1 plants, implying epigenetic changes, could generate the variation in plant size of individual F1 plants in A. thaliana.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0147.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: hybrid FRP-steel reinforcement; ductility; hybrid reinforcement ratio; fiber element; neutral axis
Online: 11 January 2022 (14:04:26 CET)
An experimental study was carried out to evaluate the ductility of reinforced concrete beams longitudinally reinforced with hybrid FRP-Steel bars. The specimens were fourteen reinforced concrete beams with and without hybrid reinforcement. The test variables were bars position, the ratio of longitudinal reinforcement, and the type of FRP bars. The beams were loaded up to failure using a four-point bending test. The performance of the tested beams was observed using the load-deflection curve obtained from the test. Numerical analysis using the fiber element model was used to examine the growth of neutral axis depth due to the effect of test variables. The neutral axis curves were then used to further estimate the neutral axis angle and neutral axis displacement index. The test results show that the position of the reinforcement greatly influences the flexural behavior of the beam with hybrid reinforcement. It was observed from the test that the flexural capacity of beams with hybrid reinforcement is 4% to 50% higher than that of the beams with conventional steel bars depending on bars position and the ratio of longitudinal reinforcement. The ductility decreases as the hybrid reinforcement ratio (Af/As) increases. This study also showed that a numerical model developed can predict the flexural behavior of beams with hybrid reinforcement with reasonable accuracy.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Fibonacci hybrid numbers, Lucas hybrid numbers, Binet Formula, generating function, matrix method.
Online: 14 December 2020 (15:39:16 CET)
In this paper, we introduce hybrid numbers with Fibonacci and Lucas hybrid number coefficients. We give the Binet formulas, generating functions, exponential generating functions for these numbers. Then we define an associate matrix for these numbers. In addition, using this matrix, we present two different versions of Cassini identitiy of these numbers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0218.v1
Online: 30 March 2017 (16:22:32 CEST)
In the present study, an attempt was made to induce rooting from single-node cuttings of hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L. ×P. tremuloides Michx.) with different concentrations of IAA, IBA and NAA during rooting. Among the three auxins used, NAA showed more effective induction on rooting as compared to IAA and IBA at the whole level. Thereafter, NAA was used further in experiments for anatomical and biochemical investigation. The results showed that it took 12 days from the differentiation of primordium to the appearance of young adventitious roots with NAA application. It was found that endogenous IAA, ZR and GA3 levels increased, but ABA decreased in cuttings with 0.54 mM NAA treatment. In contrast to the endogenous IAA level, NAA had negative effect on IAA-oxidase (IAAO) activity. Similarly, the decreased peroxidase (POD) activity, consistent with down-regulation of expressed levels of POD1 and POD2, was observed in NAA-treated cuttings. Whereas, NAA resulted in a higher activity in polyphenol oxidase (PPO) compared to the control cuttings. Collectively, the study highlighted that 0.54 mM NAA is efficient on rooting in hybrid aspen, and its effect on metabolic changes during rooting is discussed, which provide valuable information for propagating hybrid aspen.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0175.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: demand prediction, energy systems; machine learning; artificial neural network (ANN); support vector machines (SVM); neuro-fuzzy; ANFIS; wavelet neural network (WNN); big data; decision tree (DT); ensemble learning; hybrid models; data science; deep learning; renewable energies; energy informatics; prediction; forecasting; energy demand
Online: 14 May 2019 (14:00:40 CEST)
Electricity demand prediction is vital for energy production management and proper exploitation of the present resources. Recently, several novel machine learning (ML) models have been employed for electricity demand prediction to estimate the future prospects of the energy requirements. The main objective of this study is to review the various ML models applied for electricity demand prediction. Through a novel search and taxonomy, the most relevant original research articles in the field are identified and further classified according to the ML modeling technique, perdition type, and the application area. A comprehensive review of the literature identifies the major ML models, their applications and a discussion on the evaluation of their performance. This paper further makes a discussion on the trend and the performance of the ML models. As the result, this research reports an outstanding rise in the accuracy, robustness, precision and the generalization ability of the prediction models using the hybrid and ensemble ML algorithms.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0349.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: hybrid machines; hybrid manufacturing; additive manufacturing; subtractive manufacturing; Directed Energy Deposition; Powder Bed Fusion
Online: 15 November 2018 (08:21:29 CET)
Hybrid machine tools combining additive and subtractive processes have arisen as a solution to the increasing manufacture requirements, boosting the potentials of both technologies, while compensating and minimizing their limitations. Nevertheless, the idea of hybrid machines is relatively new and there is a notable lack of knowledge in the field. Therefore, in the present paper, an insight into the advancements of hybrid machines is given, identifying their real capabilities, together with the latest developments from an industrial context. In addition, the current situation and future perspectives of hybrid machines from the point of view of process planning, monitoring and inspection are discussed. Finally, the challenges that must be overcome and the opportunities that the hybrid machines will provide in the forthcoming years are presented.
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: Palygorskite; Halloysite; Betanin; Hybrid materials; Stability
Online: 4 September 2020 (04:36:18 CEST)
Eco-friendly betanin/clay minerals hybrid materials with good stability were synthesized combining natural betanin molecules extracted from beetroot with 2:1 type palygorskite (Pal) and 1:1 type halloysite (Hal), respectively. It was found that the adsorption, grinding and heating treatment played a key role to enhance the interaction between betanin and clay minerals during preparation process, which favored improving the thermal stability and solvent resistance of natural betanin. The L* and a* values of the betanin/Pal and betanin/Hal hybrid materials were 64.94 and 14.96, 62.55 and 15.48, respectively, indicating that betanin/Hal exhibited the better color performance. The structural characterizations confirmed that betanin was mainly adsorbed on the outer surface of Pal or Hal through hydrogen-bond interaction, and part of them also were entered into the inner surface of Hal via electrostatic interaction. Therefore, Hal preferred to improve the color properties, heating stability and solvent resistance of natural betanin due to its structural features compared with Pal.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: cancer; epithelial-mesenchymal transition; hybrid; metastasis
Online: 3 February 2020 (06:54:32 CET)
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been well recognized for its essential role in cancer progression as well as normal tissue development. In cancer cells, activation of EMT permits the cells to acquire migratory and invasive abilities and stem-like properties. However, simple categorization of cancer cells into epithelial and mesenchymal phenotypes misleads the understanding of the complicated metastatic process, and contradictory results from different studies also indicate the limitation of application of EMT theory in cancer metastasis. Nowadays, growing evidence suggests the existence of an intermediate status between epithelial and mesenchymal phenotypes, i.e., the “hybrid epithelial-mesenchymal (hybrid E/M)”state, provides a possible explanation for those conflicting results. Appearance of hybrid E/M phenotype offers a more plastic status for cancer cells to adapt the stressful environment for proceeding metastasis. In this article, we review the biological importance of the dynamic changes between the epithelial and the mesenchymal states. The regulatory mechanisms encompassing the translational, post-translational, and epigenetic control for this complex and plastic status are also discussed .
Online: 6 December 2019 (11:29:09 CET)
Directional Modulation (DM) technique, as an emerging promising approach to secure wireless communications, has been attracting increasing attention for its unique characteristic in the past decade. The baseband signal is synthesized at the antenna level for maintaining the standard constellation format along the prescribed direction(s) while simultaneously distorting the signal constellations in other undesired directions. In this paper, we present a novel DM signal synthesis method based on phased array using a hybrid genetic algorithm (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, which takes advantages of both GA and PSO algorithm. Then, the bit error rate of the proposed method is analyzed and simulated. Simulation results are presented to verify that the proposed DM signal have a narrower information beam-width. Therefore, it can offer a better physical layer security (PLS) performance compared with the conventional directional modulation signal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0187.v1
Online: 18 January 2019 (12:15:17 CET)
Considering Games with the broad definition proposed by Juul (Juul, 2010), consequences outside of the magic circle can be negotiated. This definition opens up the possibility to define serious games, games developed with an utilitarian goal in mind, in addition to fun. The entertaining and utilitarian objectives may however be contradictory, leading serious games to be, more often than not, less than optimal in at least one of the two dimensions. Another way to play with the boundaries of games is to consider pervasive games, which include alternate reality games, and crossmedia games (Montola, 2005). We question here the limit between game, play and toy in the context of a mixed reality serious game. ‘Pangu’ is a game designed for bachelor students, with biochemistry as the utilitarian objective, and the origin of life as a game theme. The students are asked to play the game on their smartphone, which in turn ask them to build molecules with a tangible balls-and-sticks model typically used in chemistry classes. Pictures taken from the models allow users to ‘scan’ these models and progress in the game. The use of the game was observed in four opportunities. An unanticipated observation is that, in addition to expected behaviors, some students used briefly the models like a toy rather than in the context of the game. It is therefore tempting to speculate that the pervasive nature of the game is blurring the game/non game boundary and, in the context of this serious game, opens a door for fun.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0184.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: instability; attractors; randomness; quantum-classical hybrid
Online: 20 August 2016 (05:39:37 CEST)
The challenge of this work is to re-define the concept of intelligent agent as a building block of social networks by presenting it as a physical particle with additional non-Newtonian properties. The proposed model of an intelligent agent described by a system of ODE coupled with their Liouville equation has been introduced and discussed. Following the Madelung equation that belongs to this class, non-Newtonian properties such as superposition, entanglement, and probability interference typical for quantum systems have been described. Special attention was paid to the capability to violate the second law of thermodynamics, which makes these systems neither Newtonian, nor quantum. It has been shown that the proposed model can be linked to mathematical models of livings as well as to models of AI. The model is presented in two modifications. The first one is illustrated by the discovery of a stochastic attractor approached by the social network; as an application, it was demonstrated that any statistics can be represented by an attractor of the solution to the corresponding system of ODE coupled with its Liouville equation. It was emphasized that evolution to the attractor reveals possible micro-mechanisms driving random events to the final distribution of the corresponding statistical law. Special attention is concentrated upon the power law and its dynamical interpretation: it is demonstrated that the underlying micro- dynamics supports a “violent reputation” of the power-law statistics. The second modification of the model of social network associated with a decision-making process and applied to solution of NP-complete problems known as being unsolvable neither by classical nor by quantum algorithms. The approach is illustrated by solving a search in unsorted database in polynomial time by resonance between external force representing the address of a required item and the response representing the location of this item.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0156.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: ANN; NN; Speech Recognition; interaction; hybrid method
Online: 5 February 2021 (10:58:40 CET)
Human and Computer interaction has been a part of our day-to-day life. Speech is one of the essential and comfortable ways of interacting through devices as well as a human being. The device, particularly smartphones have multiple sensors in camera and microphone, etc. speech recognition is the process of converting the acoustic signal to a smartphone as a set of words. The efficient performance of the speech recognition system highly enhances the interaction between humans and machines by making the latter more receptive to user needs. The recognized words can be applied for many applications such as Commands & Control, Data entry, and Document preparation. This research paper highlights speech recognition through ANN (Artificial Neural Network). Also, a hybrid model is proposed for audio-visual speech recognition of the Tamil and Malay language through SOM (Self-organizing map0 and MLP (Multilayer Perceptron). The Effectiveness of the different models of NN (Neural Network) utilized in speech recognition will be examined.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0309.v3
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: classification; hybrid; Whale Optimization Algorithm; email spam
Online: 30 November 2020 (11:08:33 CET)
Selecting a feature in data mining is one of the most challenging and important activities in pattern recognition. The issue of feature selection is to find the most important subset of the main features in a specific domain, the main purpose of which is to remove additional or unrelated features and ultimately improve the accuracy of the categorization algorithms. As a result, the issue of feature selection can be considered as an optimization problem and to solve it, meta-innovative algorithms can be used. In this paper, a new hybrid model with a combination of whale optimization algorithms and flower pollination algorithms is presented to address the problem of feature selection based on the concept of opposition-based learning. In the proposed method, we tried to solve the problem of optimization of feature selection by using natural processes of whale optimization and flower pollination algorithms, and on the other hand, we used opposition-based learning method to ensure the convergence speed and accuracy of the proposed algorithm. In fact, in the proposed method, the whale optimization algorithm uses the bait siege process, bubble attack method and bait search, creates solutions in its search space and tries to improve the solutions to the feature selection problem, and along with this algorithm, Flower pollination algorithm with two national and local search processes improves the solution of the problem selection feature in contrasting solutions with the whale optimization algorithm. In fact, we used both search space solutions and contrasting search space solutions, all possible solutions to the feature selection problem. To evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm, experiments are performed in two stages. In the first phase, experiments were performed on 10 sets of data selection features from the UCI data repository. In the second step, we tried to test the performance of the proposed algorithm by detecting spam emails. The results obtained from the first step show that the proposed algorithm, by running on 10 UCI data sets, has been able to be more successful in terms of average selection size and classification accuracy than other basic meta-heuristic algorithms. Also, the results obtained from the second step show that the proposed algorithm has been able to perform spam emails more accurately than other similar algorithms in terms of accuracy by detecting spam emails.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0191.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: hybrid vigor; flowering plants; apomixis; CRISPR/Cas9
Online: 17 January 2020 (10:30:45 CET)
The hybrid seeds of several important crops with supreme qualities, including yield, biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, have been cultivated from decades. Thus far, a major challenge with hybrid seed, it does not hold ability to produce plants with same qualities over subsequent generations. Apomixis exist naturally an asexual mode of reproduction in flowering plants via avoiding meiosis and ultimately leads to seed production. Apomixis possess potential to preserve hybrid vigor for multiple generations for economically important plant genotypes. The evolution and genetics of asexual seed production is unclear and need much more efforts to find its genetic architecture. To fix hybrid vigor synthetic apomixis has been suggested an alternative. The development of MiMe (Mitosis instead of Meiosis) genotypes are utilized further for clonal gametes production. However, the identification and parental origin of genes responsible for synthetic apomixis are less known and need further understanding. Genome modifications utilizing genome editing technologies (GETs) like clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (cas9) a reverse genetics tool has paved way to utilize emerging technologies in plant molecular biology. From the last decade, several genes in important crops have been successfully edited. The vast availability of GETs has made the functional genomics studies easy to conduct in crops important for food security. The disruption of expression of genes specific to egg cell MATRILINEAL (MTL) or BABY BOOM1 (BBM1) through CRISPR/Cas genome editing system can promote haploid plants. The establishment of synthetic apomixis by engineering MiMe genotype by genome editing BBM1 expression or disruption of MTL leads toward clonal seed production. In present review, we discussed the current development in plants by utilizing CRISPR/Cas9 technology and its possibility of promoting apomixis in crops to preserve hybrid vigour. In addition to this, genetics, evolution, epigenetic modifications and strategy for MiMe genotype development has been discussed in detail.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0330.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: incompatibility; male sterility; mitochondria; somatic hybrid; recombination
Online: 29 July 2019 (05:21:51 CEST)
Plant male sterility refers to the failure in the production of fertile pollen. It occurs spontaneously in natural populations and may be caused by genes encoded in the nuclear (genic male sterility; GMS) or mitochondrial (cytoplasmic male sterility; CMS) genomes. This feature has great agronomic value for the production of hybrid seeds and has been widely used in crops, such as corn, rice, wheat, citrus, and several species of the family Solanaceae. Mitochondrial genes determining CMS have been uncovered in a wide range of plant species. The modes of action of CMS have been classified in terms of the effect they produce in the cell, which ultimately leads to a failure in the production of pollen. Male fertility can be restored by nuclear-encoded genes, termed restorer-of-fertility (Rf) factors. CMS from wild plants has been transferred to species of agronomic interest through somatic hybridization. Somatic hybrids have also been produced to generate CMS de novo upon recombination of the mitochondrial genomes of two parental plants or by separating the CMS cytoplasm from the nuclear Rf alleles
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0512.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: nanotechnology; diatom; biosilica; drug delivery; hybrid devices
Online: 22 October 2018 (16:15:47 CEST)
Diatom microalgae are the most outstanding natural source of porous silica. Diatom cell is enclosed in 3-D ordered nanopatterned silica cell wall, called frustule. The unique properties of diatoms frustule, including high specific surface area, thermal stability, biocompatibility, tailorable surface chemistry, make them really promising for biomedical applications. Moreover, diatoms are easy to cultivate in artificial environment and there is a huge availability of diatom frustules as fossil material (diatomite) in several areas of the world. For all these reasons, diatoms are an intriguing alternative to synthetic materials for the development of low-cost drug delivery systems. This review article focuses on the possible use of diatoms derived silica as drug carrier systems. The functionalization strategies of diatom micro-/nanoparticles for improving their biophysical properties, such as cellular internalization and drug loading/release kinetics, are described. In addition, the realization of hybrid diatom-based devices with advanced properties for theranostics and targeted or augmented drug delivery applications, are also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0176.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: hybrid fractional integrodifferential equation; hybrid fixed point theorems of Dhage; approximations solutions; Lipschitz conditions; weaker mixed partial continuity
Online: 14 February 2020 (02:12:02 CET)
In the present work we study the existence of solutions for hybrid nonlinear fractional integrodifferential equations. We developed an algorithm by using the operator theoretical techniques in order to obtain the approximate solutions. The main results depend on the Dhage iteration method that were incorporated with the modern hybrid fixed point theorems. The approximate solutions were obtained by using Lipschitz conditions and weaker form of mixed partial continuity. Further, we provide some examples to explain the hypotheses and the related results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0284.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: deep learning; composite hybrid feature selection; machine learning; stack hybrid classification; CT-image; MPEG7 edge histogram feature extraction; CNN
Online: 18 March 2020 (08:32:46 CET)
The paper demonstrates the analysis of Corona Virus Disease based on a probabilistic model. It involves a technique for classification and prediction by recognizing typical and diagnostically most important CT images features relating to Corona Virus. The main contributions of the research include predicting the probability of recurrences in no recurrence (first time detection) cases at applying our proposed approach for feature extraction. The combination of the conventional statistical and machine learning tools is applied for feature extraction from CT images through four images filters in combination with proposed composite hybrid feature extraction (CHFS). The selected features were classified by the stack hybrid classification system(SHC). Experimental study with real data demonstrates the feasibility and potential of the proposed approach for the said cause.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0539.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: BER; outage probability; cooperative; EH; hybrid and NOMA
Online: 28 December 2022 (11:23:56 CET)
Cooperative non-orthogonal multiple access (CNOMA) has been recently adapted with energy harvesting (EH) to increase energy efficiency and extend the lifetime of energy-constrained wireless networks. In EH, two protocols are usually used for CNOMA, namely, power splitting (PS) and time switching (TS). In order to improve the existing EH protocols, this paper investigates a hybrid EH protocol-assisted CNOMA, which is a combination of the two aforementioned main existing EH protocols. The end-to-end bit error rate (BER) and outage probability (OP) expressions of users in our scheme are derived over Nakagami-m fading channels. For the sake of comparison and to highlight the achievable gains, the performance of the hybrid EH (HEH) protocol is compared with the benchmark schemes (i.e., existing EH protocols and no-EH). Based on extensive simulations, it is shown that the analytical results match perfectly with simulations which demonstrates the correctness of the derivations. Numerical results clearly indicate the superiority of the proposed scheme over all the considered benchmarks. In addition, we discuss the optimum value of EH factors to minimize the error and outage in the proposed scheme and show that an optimum value can be obtained according to channel parameters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0231.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: vegetation indices; precision farming; hybrid; phenotyping; remote sensing
Online: 17 May 2022 (12:47:44 CEST)
Abstract: Early assessment of crop development is a key aspect of precision agriculture. Shortening the time of response before a deficit of irrigation, nutrients and damage by diseases is one of the usual concerns in agriculture. Early prediction of crop yields can increase profitability in the farmer's economy. In this study we aimed to predict the yield of four maize commercial hybrids (Dekalb7508, Advanta9313, MH_INIA619 and Exp_05PMLM) using remotely sensed spectral vegetation indices (VI). A total of 10 VI (NDVI, GNDVI, GCI, RVI, NDRE, CIRE, CVI, MCARI, SAVI, and CCCI) were considered for evaluating crop yield and plant cover at 31, 39, 42, 46 and 51 days after sowing (DAS). A multivariate analysis was applied using principal component analysis (PCA), linear regression, and r-Pearson correlation. In the present study, highly significant correlations were found between plant cover with VIs at 46 (GNDVI, GCI, RVI, NDRE, CIRE and CCCI) and 51 DAS (GNDVI, GCI, NDRE, CIRE, CVI, MCARI and CCCI). The PCA indicated a clear discrimination of the dates evaluated with VIs at 31, 39 and 51 DAS. The inclusion of the CIRE and NDRE in the prediction model contributed to estimate the performance, showing greater precision at 51 DAS. The use of RPAS to monitor crops allows optimizing resources and helps in making timely decisions in agriculture in Peru.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0118.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Keywords: magnetite; dopamine; surface modification; hybrid materials; antibacterial agents.
Online: 9 May 2022 (13:47:08 CEST)
Organically-coated nanomaterials are intensively studied and find numerous applications in a wide range of areas ranging from optics to biomedicine. One of the recent trends in material science is the application of bio-mimetic polydopamine coatings that can be produced on a variety of substrates in a cost-efficient way under mild conditions. Such coatings not only modify the biocompatibility of the material but also add functional amino groups to the surface that can be further modified by classic conjugation techniques. Here we show an alternative strategy of substrates modification using not dopamine but dopamine conjugates. Compared to the classic scheme the proposed strategy allows for separation of the "organic" and "colloidal" stages and simplifies identification and purification steps. Modification with pre-modified dopamine allowed to achieve high active components loading up to 10.5% wt. A series of organo-inorganic hybrids were synthesized and their bioactivity was analyzed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0250.v1
Online: 15 November 2021 (11:07:48 CET)
Metastasis is the leading cause of cancer death and can be realized through the phenomenon of tumor cell fusion. The fusion of tumor cells with other tumor or normal cells leads to the appearance of tumor hybrid cells (THCs) exhibiting novel properties such as increased proliferation and migration, drug resistance, decreased apoptosis rate and avoiding immune surveillance. Experimental studies showed the association of THCs with a high frequency of cancer metastasis; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Many other questions also remain to be answered: the role of genetic alterations in tumor cell fusion, the molecular landscape of cells after fusion, the lifetime and fate of different THCs, and the specific markers of THCs, and their correlation with various cancers and clinicopathological parameters. In this review, we discuss the factors and potential mechanisms involved in the occurrence of THCs, the types of THCs, and their role in cancer drug resistance and metastasis, as well as potential therapeutic approaches for the prevention and targeting of tumor cell fusion. In conclusion, we emphasize the current knowledge gaps in the biology of THCs that should be addressed to develop highly effective therapeutics and strategies for metastasis suppression.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Knee osteoarthritis; hybrid hyaluronic acid; viscosupplementation; obesity; overweight.
Online: 6 July 2021 (12:46:23 CEST)
(1) Background:A BMI > 25 is the most decisive, albeit modifiable,risk factors for knee osteoarthritis (OA). This study aimed at assessing the efficacy of intra-articular injections of hybrid hyaluronic acid (HA) complexes (Synovial® H-L)for the treatment of kneeOA in overweight patientsin terms ofdisease severity, cardiocirculatory capacity, and quality of life. (2) Materials: In this single-site, open-label, prospective trial, 37 patients with symptomatic knee OA were assessed at baseline and 3 months after ultrasound-guided intra-articular injection of hybrid HA complexes (Synovial® H-L). (3) Results: Primary variables displaying a statistically significant improvement after treatment were pain (NRS), disease severity (WOMAC), and cardiopulmonary capacity a(6-Minute Walk Test). Among secondary variables, quality of life (SF-12) improved significantly, as did analgesic intake for pain control. No statistically significant difference was observed in body fat and muscle mass percentage measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis. (4) Conclusions:Intra-articular hybrid HA injections are significantly effective in improving OA-related disease severity, cardiopulmonary function, and analgesic intake. This supports the role of hybrid HA viscosupplementation as a non-pharmacological treatment to relieve pain, reduce disability and improve quality of life, and limit the risk of polypharmacy in overweight patients with knee OA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0388.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Biomimetic hydrogels; hybrid nanocomposites; anomalous sorption; Tissue engineering
Online: 15 March 2021 (13:44:37 CET)
Innovative tissue engineering biomimetic hydrogels based on hydrophilic polymers have been investigated for their physical and mechanical properties. 5% to 25% by volume loading PHEMA-nanosilica glassy hybrid samples were equilibrated at 37°C in aqueous physiological isotonic and hypotonic saline solutions (0.15 and 0.05 M NaCl) simulating two limiting possible compositions of physiological extracellular fluids. The glassy and hydrated hybrid materials were characterized both for dynamo-mechanical properties and equilibrium absorptions in the two physiological-like aqueous solutions. Mechanical and the morphological modifications occurring in the samples have been described. The 5% volume nanosilica loading hybrid nanocomposite composition showed mechanical characteristics in the dry and hydrated states that were comparable to those of cortical bone and articular cartilage, respectively, and then chosen for further sorption kinetics characterization. Sorption and swelling kinetics were monitored up to equilibrium. Changes in water activities and osmotic pressures in the water-hybrid systems equilibrated at the two limiting solute molarities of the physiological solutions have been related to the observed anomalous sorption modes using the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter approach. The bulk modulus of the dry and glassy PHEMA-5% nanosilica hybrid at 37°C has been observed to be comparable with the values of the osmotic pressures generated from the sorption of isotonic and hypotonic solutions. The anomalous sorption modes and swelling rates are coherent with the difference between osmotic swelling pressures and hybrid glassy nano-composite bulk modulus: the lower the differences the higher the swelling rate and equilibrium solution uptakes. Bone tissue engineering benefits of use of tuneable biomimetic scaffold biomaterials that can be “designed” to act as biocompatible and biomechanically active hybrid interfaces are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0460.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: hybrid modelling; prescriptive analytics; gas engine; machine learning
Online: 20 September 2020 (13:48:48 CEST)
This paper presents a methodology for predictive and prescriptive analytics of complex engineering systems. The methodology is based on a combination of physics-based and data-driven modeling using machine learning techniques. Combining these approaches results in a set of reliable, fast, and continuously updating models for prescriptive analytics. The methodology is demonstrated with a case study of a jet-engine power plant preventive maintenance and diagnostics of its flame tube.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0312.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: network simulation modeling; rail infrastructure; hybrid-simulation optimization
Online: 27 May 2019 (11:18:59 CEST)
The availability of rail infrastructure resources is a major driver of rail operations performance. To evaluate the impact of infrastructure provision, network simulation models can be used to accurately represent train traffic behavior in a wide range of scenarios. However, performing this task can result in a problem of high combinatorial nature as the number of factors and their associated levels increase. This requires more sophisticated techniques such as experimental design formulations or optimization modeling in order to yield satisfactory results. Yet the research in network simulation models for rail systems has hitherto been limited to simple what-if analysis, made up from few factors that cannot represent the whole spectrum of interventions. This is especially critical in closed-loop rail systems where trains are subject to various interferences. Local improvements can be misleading as the queues are merely transferred within the network. Considering this, we propose a hybrid simulation-optimization model to aid the strategic decision of minimizing supplementary capital costs in a heavy-haul Brazilian railroad under construction. As soon as the railroad is completed, investments in both loading and unloading rail terminals will be necessary. First, we developed a representative and flexible model capable of dealing with complex relations between variable infrastructure provision and the resulting operational performance. Then, we simulated this system to prove that the current set of proposed infrastructure resources cannot meet the transportation demands. Afterwards, we demonstrate that local improvements can be delusive as the queues are shifted from loading to unloading operations, reciprocally. Then, we solve an optimization model to define the minimal supplementary investment in order to meet the commercial goals of mining companies. This is done by choosing the best trackage configuration, equipment quantity and capacity and fleet sizing in 3 different production scenarios. The best values of the objective function were found by improving both loading and unloading equipment and increasing the number of trains.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0264.v2
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: hybrid composites, thermal analysis, kenaf, carbon fibre, epoxy
Online: 21 February 2019 (03:30:31 CET)
The effects of carbon fiber hybridisation on the thermal properties of woven kenaf reinforced epoxy composites kenaf fibre were studied. Woven kenaf hybrid composites at the different weave designs of plain and satin, and fabric count of 5 × 5 and 6 × 6 were manually prepared by vacuum infusion technique. Thermal properties of pure carbon fibre and hybrid composites were conducted by using thermogravimetric analyser (TGA) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). It was found that at high kenaf fibre content showed better thermal stability while the highest thermally stable was found in pure carbon fibre composite. The TG and DTG results showed that the amount of residue decreased in plain-designed hybrid composite compared to satin-designed hybrid composite. The DSC data revealed that the presence of woven kenaf increase decomposition temperature.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0213.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: inorganic perovskites; hybrid perovskites; stimulated emission; laser devices
Online: 22 January 2019 (11:14:55 CET)
Inorganic and organic – inorganic (hybrid) perovskite semiconductor materials have attracted the worldwide scientific attention and research effort as the new wonder material in optoelectronics. Their excellent physical and electronic properties have been exploited to boost the solar cells efficiency beyond 23% and captivate their potential as competitors to the dominant silicon solar cells technology. However, the fundamental principles in Physics dictate that an excellent material for photovoltaic applications must be also an excellent light emitter. This has been realized for the case of perovskite based light emitting diodes (LEDs) but much less for the case of the respective laser devices. Here, the strides have been made since 2014 are presented for the first time. The solution processability, low temperature crystallization, formation of nearly defect free, nanostructures, the long range ambipolar transport, the direct energy band gap, the high spectral emission tunability over the entire visible spectrum and the almost 100% external luminescence efficiency show perovskite semiconductors’ potential to transform the nanophotonics sector. The operational principles, the various adopted material and laser configurations along the future challenges are reviewed and presented in this paper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0331.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General & Theoretical Computer Science Keywords: Distributed computing; Task scheduling; Hybrid Tasks; Generic algorithm;
Online: 18 September 2018 (08:17:23 CEST)
The resource allocation for tasks in heterogeneous distributed system is a well known NP-hard problem. For the sake of making the makespan is minimized, it is hard to distribute the tasks to proper processors. The problem is even more complex and challenging when the processors have unavailable time and the tasks type are various. This paper investigates a resource allocation problem for hybrid tasks comprising both divisible and bag-of-tasks(BoT) in heterogeneous distributed system when the processors has unavailable time. First, the mathematical model, which minimizes the makespan of the hybrid tasks when the processors have unavailable time, is established. Second, we propose a scheduling algorithm referred to as bag-of-tasks allocate-pull and divisible task allocation (BoTAPDTA) algorithm for handling hybrid tasks on heterogeneous distributed systems. In addition, to solving the optimization model efficiently, a generic algorithm(GA) is proposed. For the sake of reducing the search space and solving the optimization model effectively, a two step scheduling algorithm(TSGA), which first allocate bag-of-tasks(BoT) using generic algorithm and then assign divisible task to processors like BoTAPDTA, is designed. Finally, numerical simulation experiments are conducted, and experimental results indicate the effectiveness of the proposed model and algorithm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0216.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Electricity Demand; ANN; PSO; GA; Hybrid Optimization; Forecasting
Online: 23 January 2018 (15:30:10 CET)
In the present study, a hybrid optimizing algorithm has been proposed using Genetic Algorithm (GA)and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) for Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to improve the estimation of electricity demand of the state of Tamil Nadu in India. The GA-PSO model optimizes the coefficients of factors of gross state domestic product (GSDP) , electricity consumption per capita, income growth rate and consumer price index (CPI) that affect the electricity demand. Based on historical data of 25 years from 1991 till 2015 , the simulation results of GA-PSO models are having greater accuracy and reliability than single optimization methods based on either PSO or GA. The forecasting results of ANN-GA-PSO are better than models based on single optimization such as ANN-BP, ANN-GA, ANN-PSO models. Further the paper also forecasts the electricity demand of Tamil Nadu based on two scenarios. First scenario is the "as-it-is" scenario , the second scenario is based on milestones set for achieving goals of "Vision 2023" document for the state. The present research also explores the causality between the economic growth and electricity demand in case of Tamil Nadu. The research indicates that a direct causality exists between GSDP and the electricity demand of the state.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0190.v2
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: electricity demand; ANN; PSO; GA; hybrid optimization; forecasting
Online: 16 January 2018 (07:44:04 CET)
In the present study, a hybrid optimizing algorithm has been proposed using Genetic Algorithm (GA)and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) for Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to improve the estimation of electricity demand of the state of Tamil Nadu in India. The GA-PSO model optimizes the coefficients of factors of gross state domestic product (GSDP) , electricity consumption per capita, income growth rate and consumer price index (CPI) that affect the electricity demand. Based on historical data of 25 years from 1991 till 2015, the simulation results of GA-PSO models are having greater accuracy and reliability than single optimization methods based on either PSO or GA. The forecasting results of ANN-GA-PSO are better than models based on single optimization such as ANN-BP, ANN-GA, ANN-PSO models. Further the paper also forecasts the electricity demand of Tamil Nadu based on two scenarios. First scenario is the “as-it-is” scenario, the second scenario is based on milestones set for achieving goals of “Vision 2023” document for the state. The present research also explores the causality between the economic growth and electricity demand in case of Tamil Nadu. The research indicates that a direct causality exists between GSDP and the electricity demand of the state.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0166.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: carbon clathrates; hybrid carbon-silicon clathrates; hybrid carbon-nitrogen clathrates; electrode materials; hydrogen storage materials; energy storage materials; hard materials
Online: 18 January 2018 (05:08:03 CET)
Hybrid carbon-silicon, carbon-nitrogen, and carbon-boron clathrates are new classes of Type I carbon-based clathrates that have been identified by first-principles computational methods by substituting atoms on the carbon clathrate framework with Si, N, and/or B atoms. The hybrid framework is further stabilized by embedding appropriate guest atoms within the cavities of the cage structure. Series of hybrid carbon-silicon, carbon-boron, carbon-nitrogen, and carbon-silicon-nitrogen clathrates have been shown to exhibit small positive values of the energy of formation, indicating that they may be metastable compounds and amenable to fabrication. In this overview article, the energy of formation, elastic properties, and electronic properties of selected hybrid carbon-based clathrates are summarized. Theoretical calculations that explore the potential applications of hybrid carbon-based clathrates as energy storage materials, electronic materials, or hard materials are presented. The computational results identify compositions of hybrid carbon-silicon and carbon-nitrogen clathrates that may be considered candidate materials for use as either electrode materials for Li-ion batteries or as hydrogen storage materials. Prior processing routes for fabricating selected hybrid carbon-based clathrates are highlighted and difficulties encountered are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0297.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Data Mining; Alzheimer’s Dementia; Composite Hybrid Feature Selection; Machine learning; Stack Hybrid Classification; AI Techniques; Classification; AD Diagnose; Clinical AD Dataset
Online: 19 March 2020 (10:52:31 CET)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a significant regular type of dementia that causes damage in brain cells. Early detection of AD acting as an essential role in global health care due to misdiagnosis and sharing many clinical sets with other types of dementia, and costly monitoring the progression of the disease over time by magnetic reasoning imaging (MRI) with consideration of human error in manual reading. Our proposed model, in the first stage, apply the medical dataset to a composite hybrid feature selection (CHFS) to extract new features for select the best features to improve the performance of the classification process due to eliminating obscures features. In the second stage, we applied a dataset to a stacked hybrid classification system to combine Jrip and random forest classifiers with six model evaluations as meta-classifier individually to improve the prediction of clinical diagnosis. All experiments conducted on a laptop with an Intel Core i7- 8750H CPU at 2.2 GHz and 16 G of ram running on windows 10 (64 bits). The dataset evaluated using an explorer set of weka data mining software for the analysis purpose. The experimental show that the proposed model of (CHFS) feature extraction performs better than principal component analysis (PCA), and lead to effectively reduced the false-negative rate with a relatively high overall accuracy with support vector machine (SVM) as meta-classifier of 96.50% compared to 68.83% which is considerably better than the previous state-of-the-art result. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was equal to 95.5%. Also, the experiment on MRI images Kaggle dataset of CNN classification process with 80.21% accuracy result. The results of the proposed model show an accurate classify Alzheimer's clinical samples against MRI neuroimaging for diagnoses AD at a low cost.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0526.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: rice; variety; hybrid; lines; anther; induction; callus; regeneration; digaploids
Online: 28 January 2023 (10:30:44 CET)
The evaluation of the possibility of obtaining dihaploids by the method of anther culture in vitro to accelerate selection for resistance to prolonged flooding of seeded rice with water was carried out. The object of research is rice hybrids F2 of the Rice Breeding and Seed Production Laboratory of the “Donskoy” ASC, obtained as a result of interbreeding the best economically valuable varieties with samples bearing genes of resistance to prolonged flooding with water. Basic nutrient medium with an optimal composition of nutrition elements and growth hormones stimulating callo- and morphogenesis were used. For the induction of callus formation, 12604 anthers were planted, according to 26 hybrid combinations represented by 68 plants, as a result, 716 neoplasms were obtained, including 586 non–morphogenic callus, 130 regenerating plants. Cultivation of anthers revealed large genotypic differences in the samples. According to the responsiveness to neoplasms, 60% of the panicles showed a positive result, the rest did not give callus. The most responsive to the formation of callus were hybrid combinations: 5009/2 – 84 pcs., 5010/2 – 94 pcs., 4565/3 – 85 pcs., 4641/2 – 69 pcs. They also showed the ability to morphogenesis. Androgenic plants were obtained by 14 hybrid combinations, their share was 1.03% of the total number of inoculated anthers. 30 green regenerative lines from four rice hybrids were obtained, differing in visual morphological assessment: 5009/2 - 5 pcs., 5010/2 – 5 pcs., 4565/3 – 2 pcs., 4641/2 – 18 pcs. The isolated lines are characterized by good responsiveness in the culture of anthers in vitro, carry genes for resistance to prolonged flooding, and can be used in rice breeding programs using DG technologies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0122.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: anchored hybrid enrichment; biodiversity, biorepository; nested PCR; Sanger sequencing
Online: 8 June 2022 (09:57:51 CEST)
Despite several decades’ effort to detect and identify phytoplasmas (Tenericutes: Mollicutes) using PCR and Sanger sequencing focusing on diseased plants, knowledge of phytoplasma biodiversity and vector associations remains highly incomplete. To improve protocols for documenting phyto-plasma diversity and ecology, we used DNA extracted from phloem-feeding insects and com-pared traditional Sanger sequencing with a next-generation sequencing method, Anchored Hy-brid Enrichment (AHE) for detecting and characterizing phytoplasmas. Among 22 of 180 leaf-hopper samples that initially tested positive for phytoplasmas using qPCR, AHE yielded phyto-plasma 16Sr sequences for 20 (19 complete and 1 partial sequence) while Sanger sequencing yield-ed sequences for 16 (11 complete and 5 partial). AHE yielded phytoplasma sequences for an addi-tional 7 samples (3 complete and 4 partial) that did not meet the qPCR threshold for phytoplasma positivity or yielded non-phytoplasma sequences using Sanger sequencing. This suggests that AHE is more efficient for obtaining phytoplasma sequences. Twenty-three samples with sufficient data were classified into eight 16Sr subgroups (16SrI-B, I-F, I-AO, III-U, V-C, IX-J, XI-C, XXXVII-A), three new subgroups (designated as 16SrVI-L, XV-D, XI-G) and three possible new groups. Our results suggest that screening phloem-feeding insects using qPCR and AHE sequencing may be the most efficient method for discovering new phytoplasmas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0360.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Renewable Energy; Resilience; Hybrid Energy Systems; Life Cycle Analysis
Online: 26 May 2022 (10:24:39 CEST)
Energy poverty, defined as a lack of access to reliable electricity and reliance on traditional biomass resources for cooking, affects over a billion people daily. The World Health Organization estimates that household air pollution from inefficient stoves causes more premature deaths than malaria, tuberculosis, and HIV/AIDS). Increasing demand for energy has led to dramatic increases in carbon emissions. The need for reliable electricity and limiting carbon emissions drives research on Resil-ient Hybrid Energy Systems (RHES) that provide low-carbon energy through combined wind, so-lar, and biomass energy with traditional fossil energy, increasing production efficiency and relia-bility, and reducing generating costs and carbon emissions. Microgrids have been shown as an ef-ficient means of implementing RHES, with some focused mainly on reducing the environmental impact of electric power generation. The technical challenges of designing, implementing and ap-plying microgrids involve conducting a cradle-to-grave life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate these systems' environmental and economic performance under diverse operating conditions to evaluate resiliency. A sample RHES has been developed and used to demonstrate implementation in rural applications. This system can provide reliable electricity for heating, cooling, lighting, and pumping clean water. This paper's primary focus is the challenges of using resilient energy sys-tems in the Middle East.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0147.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: SARIMA; Artificial Neural Networks (ANN); LSTM; hybrid methodologies; prediction
Online: 11 May 2022 (05:50:41 CEST)
The choice of holiday destinations is highly depended on climate considerations. Nowadays, since the effects of climate crisis are being increasingly felt, the need of accurate weather and climate services for hotels is crucial. Such a service could be beneficial for both the future planning of tourists’ activities and destinations and for hotel managers as it could help in decision making about the planning and expansion of the touristic season, due to a prediction of higher temperatures for a longer time span, thus causing increased revenue for companies in the local touristic sector. The aim of this work is to calculate predictions on climatic variables using statistical techniques as well as Artificial Intelligence (AI) for a specific area of interest utilising data from in situ meteorological station, and produce valuable and reliable localised predictions with the most cost-effective method possible. This investigation will answer the question of the most suitable prediction method for time series data from a single meteorological station that is deployed in a specific location. As a result, an accurate representation of the microclimate in a specific are is achieved. To achieve this high accuracy in situ measurements and prediction techniques are used. As prediction techniques, Seasonal Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA), AI techniques like the Long-Short-Term-Memory (LSTM) Neural Network and hybrid combinations of the two are used. Variables of interest are divided in the easier to predict temperature and humidity that are more periodic and less chaotic, and the wind speed as an example of a more stochastic variable with no known seasonality and patterns. Our results show that the examined Hybrid methodology performs the best at temperature and wind speed forecasts, closely followed by the SARIMA whereas LSTM perform better overall at the humidity forecast, even after the correction of the Hybrid to the SARIMA model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0038.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: polyimide bonding; plasma activation; hydrophilic; hybrid bonding; 3D integration
Online: 2 March 2022 (07:47:17 CET)
Polymer adhesives have emerged as a promising dielectric passivation layer in hybrid bonding for 3D integration while they raise misalignment problems during curing. In this work, the synergistic effect of oxygen plasma surface activation and wetting is utilized to achieve bonding between completed cured polyimides. The optimized process achieves a void-less bonding with a maximum shear strength of 35.3 MPa at a low temperature of 250 °C in merely 2 min, significantly shortening the bonding period and decreasing thermal stress. It is found that the plasma activation generated hydrophilic groups on the polyimide surface, and the wetting process further introduced more -OH groups and water molecular on the activated polyimide surface. The synergistic process of plasma activation and wetting facilitate bridging polyimide interfaces to achieve bonding, providing an alternative path for adhesive bonding in 3D integration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0159.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: hybrid degradation; generative adversarial network; attention mechanism; disentangled representation
Online: 11 February 2022 (08:42:43 CET)
In this paper, we propose an unsupervised blind restoration model for images in hybrid degradation scenes. The proposed model encodes the content information and degradation information of images and then uses the attention module to disentangle the two kinds of information. It can improve the ability of disentangled presentation learning for a generative adversarial network (GAN) to restore the images in hybrid degradation scenes, enhance the detailed features of restored image and remove the artifact combining the adversarial loss, cycle-consistency loss, and perception loss. The experimental results on the DIV2K dataset and medical images show that the proposed method outperforms existing unsupervised image restoration algorithms in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), structural similarity (SSIM), and subjective visual evaluation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0355.v1
Subject: Biology, Forestry Keywords: dark treatment; hybrid poplar; plant hormone; rooting; shoot culture
Online: 22 December 2021 (11:46:18 CET)
Phenotypic plasticity in response to adverse conditions determines plant productivity and survival. The aim of this study was to test if two highly productive Populus genotypes, characterized by different in vitro etiolation patterns, differ also in their responses to hormones gibberellin (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA), and to a GA biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol (PBZ). The experiments on shoot cultures of ‘Hybrida 275’ (abbr. H275; Populus maximowiczii × P. trichocarpa) and IBL 91/78 (Populus tremula × P. alba) were conducted either by modulating the physical in vitro environment or by adding specific chemicals to the nutrient medium. Our results show that there are significant differences between the studied genotypes in environmental and hormonal regulation of growth responses. The genotype H275, which responded to darkness with PBZ-inhibitable shoot elongation, was unable to recover its growth after treatment with ABA. In contrast, the genotype IBL 91/78, whose shoot elongation was not affected either by darkness or PBZ treatment, recovered so well after the ABA treatment that, when rooted subsequently, it developed longer shoots and roots than without ABA treatment. Our results indicate that GA catabolism and repressive signaling provide an important pathway to control growth and physiological adaptation in response to immediate or impending adverse conditions. These observations can help breeders define robust criteria for identifying genotypes with high resistance and productivity and highlight where genotypes exhibit susceptibility to stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0209.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Rpi-genes; parental lines; hybrid progeny; dRenSeq; SCAR markers.
Online: 14 October 2021 (08:38:05 CEST)
(1) Background: Although resistance to pathogens and pests has been researched in many potato cultivars and breeding lines with DNA markers, there is scarce evidence as to the efficiency of the marker-assisted selection (MAS) for these traits when applied at the early stages of breeding. A goal of this study was to estimate the potential of affordable DNA markers to track Rpi disease resistance genes, that are effective against the pathogen Phytophthora infestans, as a practical breeding tool on a progeny of 68 clones derived from a cross between the cultivar Sudarynya and 13/11-09. (2) Methods: this population was studied for four years to elucidate the distribution of LB resistance and other agronomical desirable or simple to phenotype traits such as tuber and flower pigmentation, capacity and structure of yield. LB resistance was phenotypically determined through natural and artificial infection and the presence/absence of nine Rpi genes was assessed via 11 sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers. To aid this analysis, the profile of Rpi genes in the 13/11-09 parent was established using diagnostic resistance gene enrichment sequencing (dRenSeq) as a gold standard. (3) Results: at the early stages of a breeding program, MAS can halve the workload when screening the segregation of F1 offspring and selected SCAR markers for Rpi-genes provide useful tools.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0496.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Other Keywords: Nanomedicine; molecularly imprinted polymer; drug delivery; targeting; hybrid material
Online: 29 September 2021 (14:16:32 CEST)
Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) have been widely used in nanomedicine during the last few years. However, their potential is limited by their intrinsic properties resulting, for instance, in lack of control in drug release processes or complex detection for in vivo imaging. Recent attempts in creating hybrid nanomaterials combining MIPs with inorganic nanomaterials succeeded in providing a wide range of new interesting properties suitable for nanomedicine. Through this review, we aim to illustrate how hybrids molecularly imprinted polymers may improve patient care with enhanced imaging, treatments and combination of both.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0486.v1
Online: 20 May 2021 (11:27:52 CEST)
This research project focuses on the optimization of the hybrid energy system together with the assistance of thin-film coatings aiming to achieve self-sustainable food and crop storage facilities which will run effectively with its own generated energy. An infrastructure will be designed and constructed that will comprise a hybrid power generation system accompanied by thin-film coated semitransparent and non-transparent construction materials for energy saving. Thin-film low emissivity (Low-E) type coatings will assist the transparent or semitransparent construction materials to reflect most of the infrared (IR-mostly heat) and UV spectra of sunlight without interrupting the visible spectrum and will lead to saving energy consumption by reducing the heat and lighting during day time
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0594.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Hybrid scaffold; Bioactive Glass; Gelatin; GPTMS; Bone tissue engineering
Online: 28 January 2021 (16:13:18 CET)
Hybrid scaffolds based on bioactive glass (BAG) particles (<38µm), covalently linked to the gelatin (G*), using 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS), have been studied for bone bioengineering. In this study, two glass compositions (13-93 and 13-93B20 [where 20% of the SiO2 was replaced with B2O3]) were introduced in the gelatin matrix. The Cfactor (Gelatin/GPTMS molar ratio) was kept constant at 500. The hybrids obtained were found to be stable at 37°C, in solution; condition at which pure gelatin is liquid. All hybrids were characterized by in vitro dissolution in TRIS solution (for up to 4 weeks) and Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) (for up to 2 weeks). Samples processed with 13-93B20 exhibit a faster initial dissolution and significantly faster precipitation of a hydroxyapatite (HA) layer. The faster ion release and HA precipitation recorded from the G*/13-93B20 samples, is attributable to the higher reactivity of borosilicate compared to the silicate glass. MC3T3-E1 cells behavior, in direct contact with the hybrids, was investigated, showing that the cells were able to proliferate and spread on the developed biomaterials. Tailoring the glass composition allows to better control the material’s dissolution, biodegradability, and bioactivity. Bioactive (especially with 13-93B20 BAG), and biocompatible, the hybrids are promising for bone application.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0390.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Hybrid Vigor; Heterosis; Bulked Segregant Analysis; Marker Assisted Selection
Online: 13 November 2020 (15:47:40 CET)
Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a perennial, outcrossing legume crop predominantly grown for hay, silage, or pasture. Intensive selection has resulted in dramatic improvement in fitness traits, including winter survival and disease resistance. However, there has been minimal improvement in other economically important traits, such as hay yield, which is still comparable to 30 years ago. Intensive phenotyping costs on this type of trait hinder high selection pressure to identify superior outcross individuals. Severe inbreeding depression inhibits the development of inbred lines with accumulated favorable alleles that exhibit heterosis. This review highlights the outcomes of inbreeding depression as well as the causes, including unmasking deleterious alleles and triggering self-incompatibility. We tracked the research efforts that unveil the genetic bases underlying deleterious alleles and self-incompatibility. The magnitudes of inbreeding depression were compared with the rate of heterozygous halved time in diploid and tetraploid organisms. To fill in the gaps between the controversy and existing hypotheses, we theorized a dosage dominant model of inheritance. The dosage dominant model is similar to the Mendelian dominance model, in which a genotype exhibits a dominant phenotype if there is a dominant allele (alphabet dominant). The difference is that in the dosage dominant model, a genotype will result in a dominant phenotype if the number of dominant alleles is equal to or greater than the number of recessive alleles. This review also includes a discussion on the development of pseudo inbreds and a hypothesis to identify deleterious alleles using bulked segregant analysis and consequently to purge deleterious alleles using marker-assisted selection, to progress toward the successful development of pure inbred lines in alfalfa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0700.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: hybrid educational recommender system; learning objects; matrix factorization; personalization
Online: 31 August 2020 (04:58:50 CEST)
One of the main challenges for autonomous learning in virtual environments is finding the right material that fits students’ needs and supports their learning process. Personalized recommender systems partially solve this problem by suggesting online educational resources to students based on their preferences. However, in educational environments (which need a proper characterization of both users and educational resources), most existing recommendation algorithms either fail to include all the available information or use hybrid processes that do not exploit possible relationships between users and item features. This article presents a personalized recommender system for educational resources aimed at combining user and item information into a single mathematical model based on matrix factorization. As a result, estimated latent factors can provide insight into possible interactions between users and item features, improving the quality of the information retrieval process. We validated the proposed model on a real dataset that contains the ratings assigned by students from Universidad Nacional de Colombia and Universidade Feevale to educational resources in the Colombian Federation of Learning Object Repositories (FROAC in Spanish). User characterization included learning style and educational level, whereas item characterization (obtained from the objects’ metadata), included interactivity level, aggregation level and type, and resource format. These results, compared to those obtained when not all the available information is included, show that our method can improve the recommendation process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0409.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Agronomic traits; Hybrid performance; Nitrogen response; Plant density; Variability
Online: 27 February 2020 (15:59:14 CET)
Maize (Zea mays L.) production in West and Central Africa is constrained by drought, low soil-N and Striga infestation. Breeders in the region have developed and commercialized extra-early and early-maturing hybrids (E-EH and EH), which combine high yield potentials with tolerance/resistance to the three stresses. Hybrids of both maturity groups are new to the farmers; thus, the urgent need to recommend appropriate agronomic practices for these hybrids. We investigated the responses of four hybrids belonging to extra-early and early-maturity groups to plant density (PD) and nitrogen (N) application in five agroecologies. The EHs consistently out-yielded the E-EHs in all the five agroecologies. The hybrids showed no response to N-fertilizer application above 90 kg ha-1. All interactions involving N had no significant effect on all traits except in few cases. The E-EHs and EHs had similar response to PD; their grain yield decreased as PD increased. Contrarily, flowering was delayed and expression of some other agronomic traits such as plant and ear aspects became poorer with increased PD. Optimal yield was obtained at approximately 90 kg N ha-1 and 66,666 plants ha-1. Most of the measured traits indicated high repeatability estimates (i.e. ≥ 60) across the N levels, PDs and environments. Evidently, the hybrids were intolerant of high PD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0307.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: hybrid nanocomposites; polyaniline; titanium(IV) oxide; photocatalytic gypsum plaster
Online: 26 January 2020 (04:32:12 CET)
Hybrid materials of conjugated polymer and titanium(IV) oxide have attracted considerable attention concerning potential benefits, including (i) efficient exploitation of visible light, (ii) high adsorption capacity for organic contaminants, (iii) effective charge carriers separation. The new class of the photocatalysts is promising for the removal of environmental pollutants in both aqueous and gaseous phases. For the first time, in this study, the PANI/TiO2 hybrid composite was used for the degradation of phenol in water and toluene in the gas phase. Polyaniline-TiO2 was prepared by in-situ polymerization of aniline on the TiO2 surface. The obtained hybrid material was characterized by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DR/UV-Vis), X-ray diffraction (XRD), fast-Fourier transformation spectroscopy (FTIR), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, microscopy analysis (SEM/TEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). An insight into the mechanism was shown based on the photodegradation analysis of charge carriers scavengers. Polyaniline is an efficient TiO2 photosensitizer for photodegradation in visible light (λ> 420 nm). The trapping experiments revealed that mainly h+ and ˙OH were reactive oxygen species responsible for phenol degradation. Furthermore, the PANI-TiO2 hybrid nanocomposite was used in gypsum plaster to study the self-cleaning properties of the obtained building material. The effect of PANI-TiO2 content on hydrophilic/hydrophobic properties and crystallographic structure of gypsum was studied. The obtained PANI-TiO2 modified gypsum plaster had improved photocatalytic activity in the reaction of toluene degradation under Vis light.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0287.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: wheelchair; hybrid manual-electric drives; drives supporting the movement
Online: 24 January 2020 (15:00:13 CET)
Overcoming terrain obstacles presents a major problem for people with disabilities or with limited mobility who are dependent on wheelchairs. An engineering solution designed to facilitate the use of wheelchairs are assisted propulsion systems. The objective of the research described in this article is to analyse the impact of the hybrid manual-electric wheelchair propulsion system on the kinematics of the anthropotechnical system when climbing hills. The tests were carried out on a wheelchair ramp with an incline degree of 4°, using a prototype wheelchair with a hybrid manual-electric propulsion system in accordance with the patent application P.427855. The test subjects were three people whose task was to propel the wheelchair in two assistance modes supporting manual propulsion. The first mode is hill climbing assistance, while the second one is assistance with propulsion torque in the propulsive phase. During the tests, a number of kinematic parameters of the wheelchair were monitored. An in-depth analysis was performed for the amplitude of speed during a hill climb and the number of propulsive cycles performed on a hill. The tests performed showed that when propelling the wheelchair only using the hand rims, the subject needed an average of 13 pushes on the uphill slope, and their speed amplitude was 1.8 km/h with an average speed of 1.73 km/h. The climbing assistance mode reduced the speed amplitude to 0.76 km/h, while the torque assisted mode in the propulsive phase reduced the number of cycles required to climb the hill from 13 to 6. The tests were carried out at various values of assistance and assistance amplification coefficient, and the most optimally selected parameters of this coefficient were presented in the results. The tests proved that electric propulsion assistance has a beneficial and significant impact on the kinematics of manual wheelchair propulsion when compared to a classic manual propulsion system when overcoming hills. In addition, assistance and assistance amplification coefficient were proved to be correlated to operating conditions and the user's individual characteristics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0501.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: hybrid; MAC protocol; UAV; wireless sensor networks; system architecture.
Online: 20 November 2018 (12:05:29 CET)
This paper proposes a hybrid medium access control (MAC) protocol for wireless sensor network (WSN) data gathering, employing unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). The UAV sends a beacon frame periodically to inform sensor nodes regarding its presence. Afterward, each sensor node which receives beacon frame contends to send registration frame to the UAV. The UAV will transmit the second beacon frame to the registered nodes to notify their transmission schedule. The time-slot scheme is used for the transmission schedule. The transmission schedule of each sensor is determined based on their priority. Specifically, the priority of each sensor is determined during the registration process. Furthermore, the architecture of UAV-WSN data gathering system is introduced in this paper. Simulations are performed, showing that the proposed MAC protocol achieves fairness while enhancing network performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0276.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: hybrid optical networks; Ethernet; fronthaul; backhaul; C-RAN; convergence
Online: 12 October 2018 (16:48:50 CEST)
Centralized/Cloud Radio Access Networks (C-RAN) are deployed in converged fixed-mobile networks to exploit the flexibility coming from joint application of Network Function Virtualization (NFV) and Software Defined Networking (SDN). In this context, optical links connecting C-RAN nodes, possibly based on the Ethernet standards, may carry traffic with different requirements in terms of latency and throughput. This paper considers the problem of traffic aggregation on C-RAN optical Ethernet links with latency control for fronthaul traffic and throughput capability for backhaul traffic. Integrated hybrid nework technique is applied to show how time transparency can be enforced for Ethernet encapsulated Common Public Radio Interface (CPRI) traffic while allowing statistical multiplexing of backhaul traffic. Simulation results show the effectiveness of segmentation of backhaul traffic to allow exploitation of the available bandwidth even with high capacity CPRI options.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0196.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: WRF; Medicane; extra-tropical cyclone; hybrid cyclone; sensitivity analysis
Online: 10 October 2018 (03:43:36 CEST)
Towards the investigation and further understanding of the development and propagation of Medicanes, this study explores the forecasting capability of WRF model in case of cyclone “Cleopatra” which affected with extreme rainfall and strong winds Sardinia and Calabria, Italy, in November 2013. This cyclone was unusual in that it developed a warm core but did not fulfill its transformation into a tropical-like cyclone because its core did not expand high enough in the tropospnere. The ERA5 reanalysis dataset was dynamically downscaled from 31 km spatial horizontal resolution to 9 km using WRF model. The methodology consists of; firstly, an extensive physical parameterization schemes sensitivity test and consequently, a short-range ensemble forecasting implementation based on the highest statistical scored physics configuration. All simulation results were validated against surface observations and remote sensing products. Subsequently, the modeled cyclone trajectories are compared to satellite imagery derived from EUMETSAT-SEVIRI gridded data. The findings of the conducted analysis illustrate that ensemble average displays significant difference in performance compared to any of the deterministic runs individually, suggesting that ensemble forecasts will be beneficial in studies assessing cyclonic events in the Mediterranean region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0299.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Data Mining; Alzheimer’s Dementia; Composite Hybrid Feature Selection; Machine learning; stack Hybrid Classification; AI; MRI; Neuroimaging; MPEG7 edge histogram feature extraction; CNN
Online: 19 March 2020 (11:25:01 CET)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) detection acting as an essential role in global health care due to misdiagnosis and sharing many clinical sets with other types of dementia, and costly monitoring the progression of the disease over time by magnetic reasoning imaging (MRI) with consideration of human error in manual reading. This paper goal a comparative study on the performance of data mining techniques on two datasets of Clinical and Neuroimaging Tests with AD. Our proposed model in the first stage, Apply clinical medical dataset to a composite hybrid feature selection (CHFS), for extract new features to select the best features due to eliminating obscures features, In parallel with Apply a novel hybrid feature extraction of three batch edge detection algorithm and texture from MRI images dataset and optimized with fuzzy 64-bin histogram. In the second stage, we applied a clinical dataset to a stacked hybrid classification(SHC) model to combine Jrip and random forest classifiers with six model evaluations as meta-classifier individually to improve the prediction of clinical diagnosis. At the same stage of improving the classification accuracy of neuroimaging (MRI) dataset images by applying a convolution neural network (CNN) in comparison with traditional classifiers, running on extracted features from images. The authors have collected the clinical dataset of 426 subjects with (1229 potential patient sample) from oasis.org and (MRI) dataset from a benchmark kaggle.com with a total of around ~5000 images each segregated into the severity of Alzheimer's. The datasets evaluated using an explorer set of weka data mining software for the analysis purpose. The experimental show that the proposed model of (CHFS) feature extraction lead to effectively reduced the false-negative rate with a relatively high overall accuracy with a stack hybrid classification of support vector machine (SVM) as meta-classifier of 96.50% compared to 68.83% of the previous result on a clinical dataset, Besides a compared model of CNN classification on MRI images dataset of 80.21%. The results showed the superiority of our CHFS model in predicting Alzheimer's disease more accurately with the clinical medical dataset in early-stage compared with the neuroimaging (MRI) dataset. The results of the proposed model were able to predict with accurately classify Alzheimer's clinical samples at a low cost in comparison with the MRI-CNN images model at the early stage and get a good indicator for high classification rate for MRI images when applying our proposed model of SHC.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0145.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Leishmania; co-infections; mixed infections; co-culture; hybrid; intercellular communication
Online: 8 August 2022 (10:20:49 CEST)
Leishmania parasites present astonishing adaptative abilities that represent a matter of life or death within disparate environments during the heteroxenous parasite life cycle. From an evolutionary perspective, organisms develop methods of overcoming such challenges. Strategies that extend beyond the genetic diversity have been discussed and include variability between parasite cells during the infections of their hosts. The occurrence of Leishmania subpopulation fluctuations with variable structural genomic contents demonstrates that a single strain might shelter the variability required to overcome inconsistent environments. Such intrastrain variability provides parasites with an extraordinary ability to adapt and thus survive and propagate. However, different perspectives on this evolution have been proposed. Strains or species living in the same environment can cooperate but also compete. These interactions might increase the replication rate of some parasites but cause the loss of more aggressive competitors for others. Adaptive responses to intra- and interspecific competition can evolve as a fixed strategy (replication is adapted to the average genetic complexity of infections) or an optional strategy (replication varies according to the genetic complexity of the current infection). This review highlights the complexity of interspecies and intrastrain interactions among Leishmania parasites as well as the different factors that influence this interplay.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0379.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Inorganic & Nuclear Chemistry Keywords: porous TiO2; hybrid TiO2/CDs; photocatalysts; photodegradation; large surface areas
Online: 28 June 2022 (06:02:11 CEST)
Electron-hole recombination and narrow range utilization of sunlight limit the photocatalytic efficiency of TiO2. We synthesized a carbon dots (CDs) modified TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) with flower-like mesoporous structure, i.e., porous TiO2/CDs nanoflowers. Among such hybrid parti-cles, CDs worked as photosensitizers for the mesoporous TiO2 and enabled the resultant TiO2/CDs nanoflowers with a wide-range light absorption. Rhodamine B (Rh-B) was employed as a model organic pollutant to investigate the photocatalytic activity of the TiO2/CDs nanoflowers. The results demonstrated that the decoration of CDs on both TiO2 nanoflowers and P25 NPs enabled a significant improvement of the photocatalytic degradation efficiency compared with the pristine TiO2. TiO2/CDs nanoflowers with porous structure and larger surface areas than P25 showed a higher efficiency owing to prevent local aggregation of carbon materials. All the results revealed that the introduced CDs and the unique mesoporous structure, large surface areas and loads of pore channels of the prepared TiO2 NPs played important roles in the enhancement of the photocatalytic efficiency of the TiO2/CDs hybrid nanoflowers. Such TiO2/CDs composite NPs also opens a door for photodegradation, photocatalytic water splitting and enhanced solar sun-light as light source.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0060.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Railway crossing; obstacle detection; renewable energy; hybrid system; sustainable development.
Online: 3 February 2022 (15:36:46 CET)
Bangladesh's railway system mostly uses typical manual railway crossing technique or boom gates through its 2,955.53 km rail route all over the country. The accidents are frequently happening in the railway crossings due to not having obstacle detectable and quickly operating gate systems, and also for fewer safety measures in the railway crossing. Currently, there are very few automatic railway crossing systems (without obstacle detectors) available, however, all of them are dependent on the national power grid without a backup plan for any emergency cases. Bangladesh is still running a bit behind in the power generation of its consumption, hence it is not possible to have a continuous power supply at all times all over the countryside. We aim to design and develop a smart railway crossing system with an obstacle detector to prevent common types of accidents in the railway crossing points. We design to use two infrared (IR) sensors to operate the railway crossing systems which will be controlled by the Arduino Uno. This newly designed level crossing system will be run with the help of sustainable renewable energy which is cost-effective, eco-friendly, and apply under the national green energy policy towards achieving sustainable development in Bangladesh as a part of the global sustainable goal to face climate change challenges. We have summarized the simulated results of several renewable energy sources including a hybrid system and optimized the Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE), and the payback periods.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0084.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: hybrid; lager; yeast; introgression; interspecific; domestication; phylogeny; brewing; molecular; genomics
Online: 6 January 2022 (11:55:13 CET)
: Microbiology has long been a keystone in fermentation and the utilization of yeast biology rein-forces molecular biotechnology as the pioneering frontier in brewing science. Consequently, modern understanding of the brewer’s yeast has faced significant refinement over the last few decades. This publication presents a condensed summation of Saccharomyces species dynamics with an emphasis on the relationship between traditional ale yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the interspecific hybrids used in lager beer production, S. pastorianus. Introgression from other Sac-charomyces species is also touched on. The unique history of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharo-myces hybrids are exemplified by recent genomic sequencing studies aimed at categorizing brewing strains through phylogeny and redefining Saccharomyces species boundaries. Phylogenetic investigations highlight the genomic diversity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ale strains long known to brewers by their fermentation characteristics and phenotypes. Discoveries of genomic contribu-tions from interspecific Saccharomyces species into the genome of S. cerevisiae strains is ever more apparent with increased investigations on the hybrid nature of modern industrial and historical fermentation yeast.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0517.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: Rhodotorula babjevae; de-novo hybrid assembly; Nanopore sequencing; genome divergence
Online: 29 November 2021 (07:57:39 CET)
The genus Rhodotorula includes basidiomycetous oleaginous yeast species. R. babjevae can produce compounds of biotechnological interest such as lipids, carotenoids and biosurfactants from low value substrates such as lignocellulose hydrolysate. High-quality genome assemblies are needed to develop genetic tools and to understand fungal evolution and genetics. Here, we combined short- and long-read sequencing to resolve the genomes of two R. babjevae strains, CBS 7808 (type strain) and DBVPG 8058 at chromosomal level. Both genomes have a size of 21 Mbp and a GC content of 68.2%. Allele frequency analysis indicated tetraploidy in both strains. They harbor 21 putative chromosomes with sizes ranging from 0.4 to 2.4 Mb. In both assemblies, the mitochondrial genome was recovered in a single contig, which shared 97% pairwise identity. The pairwise identity between the majority of chromosomes ranges from 82% to 87%. We found indications for strain-specific extrachromosomal endogenous DNA. 7,591 protein-coding genes and 7,607 associated transcripts were annotated in CBS 7808 and 7,481 protein-coding genes and 7,516 associated transcripts in DBVPG 8058. CBS 7808 has accumulated a higher number of tandem duplications than DBVPG 8058. We identified large translocation events between putative chromosomes and a high genetic divergence between the two strains.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0786.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Hybrid fibre-reinforced concrete; thermal conductivity; spalling; residual mechanical strength.
Online: 30 April 2021 (11:13:43 CEST)
Over the years, leaked fluids from the aircraft caused severe deterioration of the airfield pavement. The combined effect of hot exhaust from the auxiliary power unit of military aircraft and spilt aviation oils caused rapid pavement spalling. If the disintegrated concreted pieces caused by spalling is sucked into the jet engine, it may cause catastrophic damage to the aircraft engine or physical injury to maintenance crews. This study investigates the effectiveness of incorporating hybrid fibres into ordinary concrete to improve the residual mechanical and thermal properties to prevent spalling damage of pavement. Three fibre reinforced concrete samples made with micro steel fibre and polyvinyl alcohol fibre with a fibre content of zero, 0.3%, 0.5% and 0.7% by volume fraction. These samples were exposed to recurring high temperature and aviation oils. Tests were conducted to measure the effects of repeated exposure on the concrete's mechanical, thermal and chemical characteristics. The results showed that polyvinyl alcohol fibre reinforced concrete suffered a significant loss of thermal properties and residual mechanical strength than the micro steel fibre reinforced concrete. However, hybrid fibre reinforced concrete performed better in retaining higher residual properties, and no spalling of concrete was observed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0323.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: COVID-19; lockdown; CNN; DLNN; GRU; mental anxiety; hybrid approach
Online: 15 September 2020 (02:56:33 CEST)
COVID-19 and new concept, lockdown, change social life of all classes of humans. Children partially feel the changes of daily life and this situation has been children’s free mind. Children are under a new type of restriction imposed on them by their parents. Normally they prefer play with their their friends than study and always waiting for holidays. They heard a new jargon i.e. lockdown where everything stands still. Very often they see peoples in the roads and few vehicles are moving in the roads. However, a peculiar thing happens now that they sit in front of computer to hear the virtual classes that are taken by the teachers. This also happens when there is no lockdown since COVID-19 still affects people. The environment is totally changed and they do not find any proper answers from the parents about the scenario.This study has been made an attempt to carry out the mental affairs of children in West Bengal, India. Several families are surveyed for collecting responses mostly from rural areas as well as urban areas for the time-period from April, 2020 to July, 2020. An effort has been given in this paper to predict the stress, depression and anxiety faced by children during the COVID-19. A Deep Learning Neural Network (DLNN) based method is applied to understand the stress level, depression level and anxiety level amongst the children. A hybrid DLNN has been presented in this research that combines both Convolutional Layer and Gated-Recurrent Unit (GRU) for obtaining the prediction of the mental health of children. The model obtains an accuracy of 89.57% for defeminizing mental anxiety of children.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: computational molecular biology, biochemistry, quantum computing, hybrid quantum-classical algorithms
Online: 24 August 2020 (09:37:44 CEST)
Chemistry has been viewed as one of the most fruitful near-term applications to science of quantum computing. Recent work in transitioning classical algorithms to a quantum computer has led to great strides in improving quantum algorithms and illustrating their quantum advantage. Much less effort has been placed on how one finishes these calculations by using the results from the quantum computer (on the active region of the molecule) and embeds them back into the remainder of the molecule in order to determine the properties of the entire molecule. Such strategies are critical if one wants to expand the focus to biochemical molecules that contain active regions that cannot be properly explained with classical algorithms on classical computers. While we do not solve this problem here, we provide an overview of where the field is going to enable such problems to be tackled in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0123.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: Sol-gel; Hybrid coating; Superhydrophobic; textile fabric; polydimethylsiloxane; contact angle
Online: 7 May 2020 (12:46:02 CEST)
This work attempted to fabricate superhydrophobic fabric via simple immersion technique. Textile fabrics were coated with silica nanoparticles prepared from tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) to obtain sufficient roughness with hydrophobic surface chemistry. Then the coated fabrics were treated with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) to reduce the surface energy. The effects of PDMS concentration on the surface morphology and superhydrophobicity of as-prepared fabric were investigated. The morphology and the composition of superhydrophobic fabric was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results revealed the formation of spherical silica nanoparticles with average particle size of 250 nm throughout the fabric surface. The possible interactions between silica nanoparticles and APTES, as well as the fabrics were elucidated. Investigating the hydrophobicity of fabrics via water contact angle (WCA) measurement showed that the treated fabric exhibits excellent water repellency with a water contact angle as high as 151° and a very low water sliding angle. It also found that the treated fabric maintained most of its hydrophobicity against repeated washing. The comfort properties of the obtained superhydrophobic fabrics in term of air permeability and bending length did not reveal any significant changes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0233.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: wind power; machine learning; hybrid model; prediction; whale optimization algorithm
Online: 17 February 2020 (02:22:05 CET)
Wind power as a renewable source of energy, has numerous economic, environmental and social benefits. In order to enhance and control the renewable wind power, it is vital to utilize models that predict wind speed with high accuracy. Due to neglecting of requirement and significance of data preprocessing and disregarding the inadequacy of using a single predicting model, many traditional models have poor performance in wind speed prediction. In the current study, for predicting wind speed at target stations in the north of Iran, the combination of a multi-layer perceptron model (MLP) with the Whale Optimization Algorithm (WOA) used to build new method (MLP-WOA) with a limited set of data (2004-2014). Then, the MLP-WOA model was utilized at each of the ten target stations, with the nine stations for training and tenth station for testing (namely: Astara, Bandar-E-Anzali, Rasht, Manjil, Jirandeh, Talesh, Kiyashahr, Lahijan, Masuleh and Deylaman) to increase the accuracy of the subsequent hybrid model. Capability of the hybrid model in wind speed forecasting at each target station was compared with the MLP model without the WOA optimizer. To determine definite results, numerous statistical performances were utilized. For all ten target stations, the MLP-WOA model had precise outcomes than the standalone MLP model. The hybrid model had acceptable performances with lower amounts of the RMSE, SI and RE parameters and higher values of NSE, WI and KGE parameters. It was concluded that WOA optimization algorithm can improve prediction accuracy of MLP model and may be recommended for accurate wind speed prediction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0059.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: EEG; Transition; 2D to 3D; Anaglyph; Feature extraction; Classification; Hybrid
Online: 5 February 2020 (10:48:51 CET)
Despite the long and extensive history of 3D technology, it has recently attracted the attention of researchers. This technology has become the center of interest of young people because of the real feelings and sensations it creates. People see their environment as 3D because of their eye structure. In this study, it is hypothesized that people lose their perception of depth during sleepy moments and that there is a sudden transition from 3D vision to 2D vision. Regarding these transitions, the EEG signal analysis method was used for deep and comprehensive analysis of 2D and 3D brain signals. In this study, a single-stream anaglyph video of random 2D and 3D segments was prepared. After watching this single video, the obtained EEG recordings were considered for two different analyses: the part involving the critical transition (transition-state) and the state analysis of only the 2D versus 3D or 3D versus 2D parts (steady-state). The main objective of this study is to see the behavioral changes of brain signals in 2D and 3D transitions. To clarify the impacts of the human brain’s power spectral density (PSD) in 2D-to-3D (2D_3D) and 3D-to-2D (3D_2D) transitions of anaglyph video, 9 visual healthy individuals were prepared for testing in this pioneering study. Spectrogram graphs based on Short Time Fourier transform (STFT) were considered to evaluate the power spectrum analysis in each EEG channel of transition or steady-state. Thus, in 2D and 3D transition scenarios, important channels representing EEG frequency bands and brain lobes will be identified. To classify the 2D and 3D transitions, the dominant bands and time intervals representing the maximum difference of PSD were selected. Afterward, effective features were selected by applying statistical methods such as standard deviation (SD), maximum (max), and Hjorth parameters to epochs indicating transition intervals. Ultimately, k-Nearest Neighbors (k-NN), Support Vector Machine (SVM), and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) algorithms were applied to classify 2D_3D and 3D_2D transitions. The frontal, temporal, and partially parietal lobes show 2D_3D and 3D_2D transitions with a good classification success rate. Overall, it was found that Hjorth parameters and LDA algorithms have 71.11% and 77.78% classification success rates for transition and steady-state, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0068.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: NiCo2O4 nanocores; hybrid nancomposite; carbon-based materials; electrochemical capacitance; supercapacitor
Online: 7 May 2019 (04:56:28 CEST)
New hybrid nanostructured electrodes for supercapacitors made by combination of electrical double layer and faradaic supercapacitors based-nanomaterials within a single hybrid composite has a great potential on expanding the range of use of these devices and increase their electrochemical performance. In this work, we developed several hybrid nanostructured composites with combinations of such types of materials with potential applicability as electrodes in supercapacitors. In particular, these composites were obtained by easy, cost-effective and scalable procedures, and were composed by NiCo2O4 nanocores as the main faradaic-based nanomaterial and either the conductive polymer polyaniline (PANI), multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), or reduced graphene oxide (r-GO) as the electrical double layer-based carbonaceous-based nanomaterials in order to enable the combination of both type of energy storage processes within a single nanostructured device. These constructions allowed us to obtain specific capacitance as large as 1760 F/g, 900 F/g and 734 F/g at a current density of 1 A/g for NiCo2O4/PANI, NiCo2O4/MWCNT, and NiCo2O4/r-GO hybrid nanocomposite electrodes, respectively. Besides, the stability of NiCo2O4/MWCNTs and NiCo2O4/r-GO-based electrodes was outstanding, with capacity losses below 10% after long periods of operation (> 500 cycles).
Subject: Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Keywords: polyethylene; nanocomposites; silver nanoparticles; Fe3O4-Ag hybrid nanoparticles; antibacterial activity
Online: 19 March 2019 (07:54:54 CET)
We report here the synthesis of uniform nanospheres-like silver nanoparticles (AgNPs, 5-10 nm) and the dumbbell-like Fe3O4-Ag hybrid nanoparticles (FeAgNPs, 8-16 nm) by the use of seeding growth method in the presence of oleic acid (OA)/oleylamine (OLA) as surfactants. The antibacterial activity of pure nanoparticles and nanocomposites by monitoring the bacterial lag–log growth has been investigated. The electron transfer from AgNPs to Fe3O4NPs which enhances the biological of silver nanoparticles has been proven by nanoscale Raman spectroscopy. The lamellae structure in the spherulite of FeAgNPs/PE nanocomposites seems play the key role to the antibacterial activity of nanocomposites, which has been proven by nanoscale AFM-IR. An atomic force microscopy coupled with nanoscale infrared microscopy (AFM-IR) is use to highlight the distribution of nanoparticles on the surface of nanocomposite at the nanoscale. The presence of FeAgNPs in PE nanocomposites has a better antibacterial activity than that reinforced by AgNPs due to the faster Ag+ release rate from the Fe3O4-Ag hybrid nanoparticles and the ionization of AgNPs in hybrid nanostructure.
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: polyurethane, sol-gel method, hyperbranched hybrid, thermal stability, flame retardant
Online: 18 March 2019 (09:12:48 CET)
The NCO functional group of 3-isocyanatoproply triethoxysilane (IPTS) and the OH functional group of DOPO-BQ were used to conduct an addition reaction. Following completion of the reaction, triglycidyl isocyanurate (TGIC) was introduced to conduct a ring-opening reaction. Subsequently, a sol-gel method was used to take place a hydrolysis- condensation reaction on TGIC-IPTS-DOPO-BQ to form a hyperbranched nitrogen–phosphorous–silicon (HBNPSi) flame retardant. This flame retardant was incorporated into a polyurethane (PU) matrix to prepare a hybrid material. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), limiting oxygen index (LOI), UV-VIS spectrophotometry, and Raman analysis were conducted to structure characterization and analyzed transparency, thermal stability, flame retardancy, and residual char to understand the flame retardant mechanism of prepared hybrid materials. After the flame retardant was added, the maximum degradation rate decreased from −36 wt%/min to −17 wt%/min, the integral procedure decomposition temperature (IPDT) increased from 348 ℃ to 488 ℃, and the char yield increased from 0.7 to 8.1 wt%. The aforementioned results verified that thermal stability of PU can be improved after adding HBNPSi. The LOI analysis indicated that the pristine PU was flammable because the LOI of pristine PU was only 19. When the content of added HBNPSi was 40%, the LOI value was 26; thus the PU hybrid became nonflammable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0034.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: aluminum matrix composites; hybrid; A390; SiC; Gr; MoS2; tribological properties
Online: 2 November 2018 (07:50:35 CET)
Several challenges stand in the way of production of Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) such as higher processing temperatures, particulate mixing, particulate-matrix interface bonding issues and ability to process into desired geometrical shapes. Although there are many literatures showing composites with single particulate reinforcements, the studies on composites with multiple reinforcing agents (hybrid composites) are found to be limited. Development of a hybrid particulate composite with optimized mechanical and tribological properties is very significant to suit modern engineering applications. In this study, Al-Si hypereutectic alloy (A390) is used as the matrix and Silicon Carbide (SiC) and Graphite (Gr) and Molybdenum di-Sulphide (MoS2) are used as particulates. Particulate volume (wt%) is varied and sample test castings are made using squeeze casting process through stir casting processing route. The evaluation of mechanical properties indicates that presence of both the hard phase (SiC) and the soft phase has distinct effect on the properties of Hybrid Composite. Composite samples were characterized to understand the performance and to meet the tribological applications. Fractography study indicated an intra-granular brittle fracture for hybrid composites. Wear study shows that Hybrid MMCs has better tribological performance compared to that of A390 alloy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0023.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Hybrid renewable energy; Electrolyze; Hydrogen; Methane; Power to Gas Concept
Online: 3 September 2018 (11:01:12 CEST)
This paper deals with the techno-economic study of the hybrid renewable energy system based on energy storage aspect under the form of hydrogen and methane. Indeed, with the intermittency of the renewable energy sources such as photovoltaic and wind energy, several problems of produced energy injection to the power system network can be encountered due to the shortage or the excess of these sources. This situation appeals the use of systems that ensure the stability of network based on the storage of energy surplus into gas using electrolyzer systems, which will be used afterward to cover the eventual shortage. In the present paper, the study of performance of each pathway of methane and hydrogen storage has been performed by the treatment of multiple scenarios via different architecture case studies in an Algerian location. Whereas, the energy produced by the photovoltaic system, the wind energy and the gas micro turbine sources are considered similar in each case. The modeling and simulation of the studied system operation under optimization criteria has been performed in this work, where the main aim is to define the appropriate configuration taking into account the different with low costs of investment, maintenance operation and immediate reactivity with a big storage capacity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0376.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: DNA fingerprinting; SSR-markers; gel electrophoresis; hybrid testing and pigeonpea
Online: 25 June 2018 (09:57:54 CEST)
Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) of Fabaceae family belongs to genus Cajanus usually grown in semi-arid tropics of Asia and Oceania, Africa and America. This crop has been a best source for improving food and soil quality amongst farmers. However, its seed have been always questioned for purity. This problem is managed by using polymorphic SSR markers. In present study, a DNA fingerprints generated by seven SSR markers and hybrid testing is performed on Pigeonpea test samples along with parental lines. The seed samples of pigeonpea were germinated in laboratory and three week old leaves samples were used for DNA isolation by CTAB method. A total of 9 alleles were observed in three test samples using three primers out of seven primers. The screening of the allelic data associated with the three cultivated varieties, revealed markers (CcM0246) displayed unique allelic profiles for one variety. Yet, the genetic fingerprinting data is not well resolved to potentially distinguished two bands of hybrid that are merely of 4–8 bp to confirm hybrid testing of seed. Hybrid testing of may be confirmed including more SSR primers prepared from genomic DNA of pigeonpea.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0005.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Organic Chemistry Keywords: peptoids; peptoid-peptide hybrid; nisin; antibacterial; alkyne-azide click reactions
Online: 1 June 2018 (06:18:06 CEST)
Antimicrobial peptides and structurally related peptoids offer potential for the development of new antibiotics. However, progress has been hindered by challenges presented by poor in vivo stability (peptides) or lack of selectivity (peptoids). Herein, we have developed a process to prepare novel hybrid antibacterial agents that combine both linear peptoids (increased in vivo stability compared to peptides) and a nisin fragment (lipid II targeting domain). The hybrid nisin-peptoids prepared were shown to have low µM activity (comparable to natural nisin) against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0351.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: Infiltration; GSA-HYBRID Algorithm; GSA Algorithm; Genetic Algorithms; Calibration; Characteristic Curve
Online: 27 June 2022 (11:18:05 CEST)
Among the various complex systems that we experience each day, there is the physical phenomenon of infiltration. Infiltration is considered as the dynamics of water flow in the subsurface soil that in this work is framed for the context of civil construction. This issue is approached with the use of mathematical models and stochastic techniques, however, there are hardships in collecting the samples in the field, the adoption of a scale type, the influence in soil layers interfaces, the effects of soil anisotropic characteristics and so on. In this study, methodology is proposed to deal with the soil sampling input such as the retro model, constitutive model and optimization algorithms. Additionally, an automatic calibration is set forth to fix parameters from the mathematical model submitted. Especially among the existing Optimization Algorithms there are Genetic Algorithms and the Generalized Simulated Annealing Algorithm (GSA). This work presents an overview of these optimization methods and a proposal for a more efficient and faster algorithm called GSA-HYBRID based on convergence gradient technique. The applied strategy depends on the type of case study considering its physical properties and constraints. In this sense, it is found that while Genetic Algorithms are able to replicate the optimization surface, Generalized Simulated Annealing is much more adequate in characterizing the system at an extremely low computational cost. Nevertheless, the hybrid technique GSA-HYBRID performed the fastest. Further research is necessary to implement the novel GSA-HYBRID algorithm due to its flexibility and higher speed, also, studying its application at different case studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0059.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: hybrid logic circuits; magnetic tunnel junction; differential sensing amplifier; sensing margin
Online: 7 April 2022 (11:31:05 CEST)
Recently, hybrid logic circuits based on magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) have been widely investigated to realize zero standby power. However, such hybrid CMOS/MTJ logic circuits suffer from a severe sensing reliability due to the limited tunnel magnetoresistance ratio (TMR≤150%) of the MTJ and the large process variation in the deep sub-micrometer technology node. In this paper, a novel differential sensing amplifier (DSA) is proposed, in which two PMOS transistors are added to connect the discharging branches and evaluation branches. Owing to the positive feedback realized by these two added PMOS transistors, it can achieve a large sensing margin. By using an industrial CMOS 40 nm design kit and a physics-based MTJ compact model, hybrid CMOS/MTJ simulations have been performed to demonstrate its functionality and evaluate its performance. Simulation results show that it can achieve a smaller sensing error rate of 9% in comparison with the previously proposed DSAs with the TMR ratio of 100% and process variation of 10%, while maintaining almost the same sensing delay of 74.5 ps and sensing energy of 1.92 fJ/bit.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0156.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Theory Of Art Keywords: COVID-19; Art & Design; hybrid education; online education; technology-enhanced learning
Online: 8 November 2021 (15:12:22 CET)
Digital skills are essential in today’s digital age, which means that students must gain technology-enhanced skills from higher education for their future careers. Studies in Art & Design (A&D) programs in this university surveyed three faculties’ perspectives and nineteen students’ experiences. During the COVID-19 pandemic, this university changed its teaching and learning strategies by offering courses online during autumn 2020 and spring 2021 during mandatory quarantine. However, the A&D program was not entirely based online. As a result, it is important to take a closer look at the A&D programs offered in order to assess the faculties’ perspectives and students’ experiences during the two online semesters. The study included online surveys from instructors’ perspectives and with regard to students’ experiences about the quality of studio learning, traditional studio learning opportunities, and online studio learning opportunities via either live (on-campus) or online studios. Using relationship-based research design, posttest data surveys were collected to ascertain the differences in the mean scores, standard deviations, and percentages of some forms of agreement between the faculties’ perspectives and students’ experiences of the quality of studio learning, traditional studio learning opportunities, and online studio learning opportunities in these Art & Design (A&D) programs. This quantitative research aimed to develop formative assessments and suggestions while establishing whether it would be possible to hold all A&D courses online in a higher education setting.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Business incubators; Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM); Prospective Scenarios; Hybrid Method.
Online: 22 February 2021 (15:22:29 CET)
This paper proposes a model to evaluate business projects to get into an incubator, allowing to rank them in order of selection priority. The model combines the Momentum method to build prospective scenarios and the Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) method TOPSIS-2N to rank the alternatives. Six business projects were evaluated to be incubated. The Momentum method made it possible for us to create an initial core of criteria for the evaluation of incubation projects. The TOPSIS-2N method supported the decision to choose the company to be incubated by ranking the alternatives in order of relevance. Our evaluation model has improved the existing models used by incubators. This model can be used and / or adapted by any incubator to evaluate the business projects to be incubated. The set of criteria for the evaluation of incubation projects is original and the use of prospective scenarios with a MCDM method to evaluate companies to be incubated does not exist in the literature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0239.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Dam; bottom outlet; air aeration; prediction; hybrid machine learning; artificial intelligence
Online: 9 February 2021 (12:22:04 CET)
In large infrastructures such as dams, which have a relatively high economic value, ensuring the proper operation of the associated hydraulic facilities in different operating conditions is of utmost importance. To ensure the correct and successful operation of the dam's hydraulic equipment and prevent possible damages, including gates and downstream tunnel, to build laboratory models and perform some tests are essential (the advancement of the smart sensors based on artificial intelligence is essential). One of the causes of damage to dam bottom outlets is cavitation in downstream and between the gates, which can impact on dam facilities, and air aeration can be a solution to improve it. In the present study, six dams in different provinces in Iran has been chosen to evaluate the air entrainment in the downstream tunnel experimentally. Three artificial neural networks (ANN) based machine learning (ML) algorithms are used to model and predict the air aeration in the bottom outlet. The proposed models are trained with genetic algorithms (GA), particle swarm optimization (PSO), i.e., ANN-GA, ANN-PSO, and ANFIS-PSO. Two hydrodynamic variables, namely volume rate and opening percentage of the gate, are used as inputs into all bottom outlet models. The results showed that the most optimal model is ANFIS-PSO to predict the dependent value compared with ANN-GA and ANN-PSO. The importance of the volume rate and opening percentage of the dams' gate parameters is more effective for suitable air aeration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0475.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: sol–gel method; polyurethane; flame retardant; organic-inorganic hybrid; synergistic effect
Online: 18 December 2020 (15:01:40 CET)
This study used the sol–gel method to synthesize a non-halogenated hyperbranched flame retardant containing nitrogen, phosphorus and silicon, HBNPSi, which was then added to a polyurethane (PU) matrix to form an organic–inorganic hybrid material. Using 29Si nuclear magnetic resonance, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy of P- and Si-mapping, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, this study determined the organic and inorganic dispersity, morphology, and flame retardance mechanism of the hybrid material. The condensation density of the hybrid material PU/HBNPSi was found to be 74.4%. High condensation density indicates a dense network structure of the material. The P- and Si-mapping showed that adding inorganic additives in quantities of either 20% or 40% results in homogeneous dispersion of the inorganic fillers in the polymer matrix without agglomeration, indicating that the organic and inorganic phases had excellent compatibility. In the burning test, adding HBNPSi to PU resulted in the material passing the UL-94 standard at the V2 level, unlike the pristine PU, which did not meet the standard. The results demonstrated that after non-halogenated flame retardant was added to PU, the material’s flammability and dripping were lower, thereby proving that flame retardants containing elements such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and silicon exert an excellent flame retardant synergistic effect.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0263.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: data science; deep learning; ensemble machine learning models; economics; hybrid models
Online: 13 October 2020 (09:24:17 CEST)
This paper provides the state of the art of data science in economics. Through a novel taxonomy of applications and methods advances in data science are investigated. The data science advances are investigated in three individual classes of deep learning models, ensemble models, and hybrid models. Application domains include stock market, marketing, E-commerce, corporate banking, and cryptocurrency. Prisma method, a systematic literature review methodology is used to ensure the quality of the survey. The findings revealed that the trends are on advancement of hybrid models as more than 51% of the reviewed articles applied hybrid model. On the other hand, it is found that based on the RMSE accuracy metric, hybrid models had higher prediction accuracy than other algorithms. While it is expected the trends go toward the advancements of deep learning models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0091.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Empirical Mode Decomposition; Hybrid techniques; LSSVM; Wavelet transform; Wind speed prediction
Online: 5 October 2020 (14:06:29 CEST)
This paper presents a methodology to calculate day-ahead wind speed predictions based on historical measurements done by weather stations. The methodology was tested for three locations: Colombia, Ecuador, and Spain. The data is input into the process in two ways: 1) as a single time series containing all measurements, and 2) as twenty-four separate parallel sequences, corresponding to the values of wind speed at each of the 24 hours in the day over several months. The methodology relies on the use of three non-parametric techniques: Least-Squares Support Vector Machines, Empirical Mode Decomposition, and the Wavelet Transform. Also, the traditional and simple Auto-Regressive model is applied. The combination of the aforementioned techniques results in nine methods for performing wind prediction. Experiments using a MATLAB implementation showed that the Least-squares Support Vector Machine using data as a single time series outperformed the other combinations, obtaining the least mean square error.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0448.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Escherichia coli; ESBL; hybrid pathotype; ExPEC; EPEC; MDR; ST10; O153; Enterobase
Online: 31 March 2020 (09:51:05 CEST)
Different surveillance studies (2005-2015) on the presence of ESBL-producing E. coli in the northwest Spain revealed that eae-positive isolates of serotype O153:H10 were periodically detected in meat (of beef, chicken and pork), and also implicated in human diarrhea. This study aimed: i) to characterize the degree of relatedness between human and animal isolates; ii) to know if this was a geographically restricted or disseminated genetic lineage. Thirty-two isolates were conventionally typified as O153:H10-A-ST10 fimH54, fimAvMT78, traT and eae-beta1, being 21 of those CTX-M-32 or SHV-12 producers. PFGE comparison of their macrorestriction profiles showed high similarity (>85%). The plasmidome analysis revealed a stable combination of IncF (F2:A-:B-), IncI1 (STunknown) and IncX1 plasmid types, together with non-conjugative Col-like. Besides, the core genome investigation based on the cgMLST scheme from Enterobase, proved close relatedness between isolates of human and animal origin. Our results demonstrate that a hybrid MDR aEPEC/ExPEC of clonal group O153:H10-A-ST10 (CH11-54) would be playing a successful role in spreading ESBLs (CTX-M-32) in our region within different hosts, including wildlife. It would be potentially implicated in human diarrhea via food (meat) transmission. Importantly, we proved genomic evidence of a related hybrid aEPEC/ExPEC in other countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0103.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Space Science Keywords: lightning whistlers; hiss; e-POP; raytracing; radio receiver; lower hybrid resonance
Online: 11 January 2020 (10:53:52 CET)
Whistler mode waves play a major role in regulating the lifetime of trapped electrons in the Earth's radiation belts. Specifically, whistler mode hiss waves are one of the mechanisms that maintains the slot region between the inner and outer radiation belts. The generation mechanism of hiss is a topic still under debate with at least three prominent theories present in the literature. Lightning generated whistlers in their ducted or non-ducted modes, are considered to be one of the possible sources of hiss. We present a study of new observations from the Radio Receiver Instrument (RRI) on the Enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (ePOP: currently known as SWARM-E). RRI consists of two orthogonal dipole antennas, which enables polarization measurements, when the satellite boresight is parallel to the geomagnetic field. Here we present 75 passes of ePOP - RRI from 2014 - 2018, in which lightning whistlers and hiss waves were observed. In more than 50% of those passes hiss is found to co-exist with the lightning whistlers. Moreover, the whistler observations are correlated with observations of wave power at the lower-hybrid resonance. The observations and a whistler mode ray-tracing study suggest that multiple-hop lightning induced whistlers can be a source of hiss and plasma instabilities in the magnetosphere.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0104.v1
Subject: Keywords: chemical synthesis; IC50; ED50; CC50; antimalarial resistance; sarcosine-aniline hybrid drug
Online: 10 November 2019 (10:10:15 CET)
Background: Reducing the impact of malaria is a key to achieving the sustainable development goals which are geared towards eradicating the disease. The main objective of this study was to synthesize, determine the efficacy and safety of antiplasmodial hybrid drug comprising of sarcosine and aniline derivative for management of plasmodial infections. Results: The hybrid drug was synthesized by adding thionyl chloride to sarcosine in order to form acyl chloride which was then added to aniline to form sarcosine-aniline hybrid molecule. The IC50 of sarcosine-aniline hybrid was 44.80 ± 4.70 ng/ml compared to that of aniline derivative which was 22.86 ± 1.26 ng/ml. The IC50 of control drugs were 2.63 ± 0.38 ng/ml, 5.69 ± 0.39 ng/ml for artesunate and chloroquine respectively. There was a significant difference between IC50 of sarcosine-aniline hybrid and aniline derivative (P<0.05). There was also a significant difference between sarcosine-aniline hybrid and standard drugs used to treat malaria including artesunate and chloroquine (P<0.05). The ED50 of sarcosine-aniline hybrid drug was 6.49mg/kg compared to that of aniline derivative which was 3.61mg/kg. The ED50 of control drugs were 3.56 mg/kg, 2.94mg/kg and 1.78 mg/kg for artesunate-aniline hybrid, artesunate and chloroquine respectively. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) between ED50 of sarcosine-aniline hybrid and both controls such as aniline derivative, artesunate, artesunate-aniline hybrid and chloroquine. Cytotoxicity results revealed that sarcosine-aniline hybrid was safe to vero cells with a CC50 of 50.18±3.53µg/ml. Sarcosine-aniline hybrid was significantly less toxic compared to artesunate, chloroquine and doxorubicin. Sarcosine-aniline hybrid was also safe to mice. Conclusion: Therefore, covalent bitherapy should be used in drug development for drug resistance mitigation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0335.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: polymer hybrid latex; styrene butadiene; emulsion polymerization; printing properties; paper coating
Online: 30 September 2019 (03:17:14 CEST)
Synthesis of styrene butadiene hybrid latex was performed via emulsion polymerization technique using various amount of laponite clay as filler. Laponite clay was modified with cationic surfactant methyl triphenylphosphonium bromide (MTPB) with ion exchange technique prior to polymerization process. The main objective of the modification is to render the surface of the clay layers to more organophilic. Emulsion polymerization was performed under semi batch process using 2 L laboratory stainless steel reactor with temperature 85°C to 90°C for 8 hours. Polymer hybrid styrene butadiene latex was characterized for its physical and chemical properties with standard ASTM Methods. Characterization of its binding and printing properties were carried out with standard testing method (TAPPI Methods) using single coating formulation on 80 gsm woodfree paper. Polymer hybrid latex based on styrene and butadiene monomers with laponite clay enhanced binding and printing properties of coated paper, addition of laponite clay to 6.0 wt % increased the binding resistance of the coated paper two times higher than pure latex. Reducing binder level become possible for cost saving.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0060.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Android botnet; Botnet detection; Hybrid analysis; Machine learning classifiers; Mobile malware
Online: 7 June 2019 (13:45:28 CEST)
Smartphone devices, particularly android devices used by billions of people everywhere in the world. Similarly, this increasing rate attracts mobile botnet attackers that is a network of interconnected nodes operated by command and control (C&C) method to expand malicious activities. At present, mobile botnet attacks carried Distributed denial of services (DDoS) that causes to steal sensitive data, remote access, spam generation, etc. Consequently, various approaches are defined in the literature to detect mobile botnet using static or dynamic analysis. In this paper, we have proposed a novel hybrid model, which is a combination of static and dynamic method that relies on machine learning to identify android botnet applications having C&C capability. The results evaluated through machine learning classifiers in which Random forest classifier outperform other ML techniques, i.e. Naïve Bayes, Support Vector Machine, and Simple logistics. Our proposed framework can achieve 97.48% accuracy in detecting such harmful applications. Furthermore, we highlight some research directions and possible solutions regarding botnet attacks for the entire community.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0074.v4
Subject: Keywords: Hybrid phosphite; X-Ray crystal structure; FTIR; Thermal behavior; Biological activities; Antimi-crobial; micro-organisms
Online: 22 November 2021 (08:43:49 CET)
A novel hybrid cobalt phosphite, (H2DAB)[Co(H2PO3)4]·2H2O, has been synthesized by using slow evaporation method, in the presence of cobalt nitrate, phosphorous acid and 1,4- dia-minobutane (DAB= 1,4- diaminobutane) as a structure-directing agent. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the compound crystallizes in the P-1(n.2) triclinic space group, with the following unit cell parameters (Å, °) a = 5.4814 (3), b = 7.5515 (4), c = 10.8548 (6), α = 88.001 (4), β = 88.707 (5), γ = 85.126 (5), and V= 447.33 (4) Å3. The crystal structure was built up from cor-ner-sharing [CoO6] octahedra, forming chains parallel to , which are interconnected by H2PO3 pseudo-tetrahedral units. The deprotonated cations, residing between the parallel chains, interacted with the inorganic moiety via hydrogen bonds leading thus to the formation of the 3D crystal structure. The Fourier transform infrared spectrum showed characteristic bands corresponding to the phosphite group and the organic amine. The thermal behavior of the compound consisted mainly of the loss of its organic moiety and the water molecules. The biological tests exhibited significant activity against Candida albicans and Escherichia coli strains in all used concentrations, while less inhibitory activity was pronounced against Staphylococcus epidermidis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and in the case of multi-cellular organisms, no activity against the nematode model Steinernema feltiae was detected.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0090.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: cross-laminated timber; structural composite lumber; hybrid; bending properties; shear properties
Online: 5 September 2018 (06:33:41 CEST)
Cross-laminated timber (CLT) possesses both good shape stability and the possible two-way force transfer ability due to its crosswise lamination. However, the transverse layers in CLT are prone to rolling shear failure under an out-of-plane load. An innovative multi-layer composite laminated panel (CLP) was developed by combining structural composite lumber (SCL) and dimension lumber to overcome the rolling shear failure while maintaining high mechanical performance and aesthetic appearance of natural wood. The mechanical properties of 5-layer CLP consisted of laminated strand lumber (LSL) and dimension lumber with different layups were evaluated by both static and modal tests. The results showed that the shear resistance, bending stiffness and moment resistance of CLP were up to 143%, 43% and 87% higher than their counterparts of regular CLT, respectively. The failure modes observed in both shear and bending tests indicated that the use of LSL in transverse layers could eliminate the potential rolling shear failure in CLT. With the lamination properties from components tests as inputs, the validity of shear analogy method was assessed by test results. The mechanical properties can be well predicted by shear analogy method except for the bending moment resistance of CLP and CLT with either rolling failure in the cross layer or tension failure in the bottom layer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0039.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Hybrid Mini-grid, Rural Electrification, Renewable Energy, Rural Development, Energy Access
Online: 6 October 2017 (15:45:54 CEST)
Rural electrification in remote areas of developing countries has several challenges which hinders energy access to the population. For instance the extension of the national grid to provide electricity in these areas is largely not viable. The Kenyan government has put a target to achieve universal energy access by the year 2020. In order to realize this objective, focus is being shifted to establishing off-grid power stations in rural areas.Among rural areas to be electrified, Habaswein is a settlement in Kenya's North Eastern region without connection to the National Power Grid where Kenya Power installed a stand alone hybrid mini-grid.Based on field observations, power generation data analysis, evaluation of the potential energy resource and simulations, this research intends to evaluate the performance of the Habaswein mini-grid and optimize the existing hybrid generation system to enhance its reliability and reduce the operation costs.The result will be a suggestion of how Kenyan rural areas could be sustainably electrified by using renewable energy based off-grid power stations. It will contribute to bridge the research gap currently existing on that area, and it will be a vital tool to researchers, implementers and the policy makers in energy sector.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0127.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: hybrid adaptive; unscented kalman filtering; maximum a posteriori; maximum likelihood criterion
Online: 17 March 2017 (01:49:42 CET)
In order to overcome the limitation of the traditional adaptive Unscented Kalman Filtering (UKF) algorithm in noise covariance estimation for statement and measurement, we propose a hybrid adaptive UKF algorithm based on combining Maximum a posteriori (MAP) criterion and Maximum likelihood (ML) criterion, in this paper. First, to prevent the actual noise covariance deviating from the true value which can lead to the state estimation error and arouse the filtering divergence, a real-time covariance matrices estimation algorithm based on hybrid MAP and ML is proposed for obtaining the statement and measurement noises covariance, respectively; and then, a balance equation the two kinds of covariance matrix is structured in this proposed to minimize the statement estimation error. Compared with the UFK based MAP and based ML, the proposed algorithm provides better convergence and stability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0299.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: battery thermal management; biodiesel fuel; hybrid vehicle; Li-ion battery; cooling technology
Online: 20 July 2022 (09:01:45 CEST)
This paper focuses on the comparative analysis of lithium-ion batteries (LIB) thermal management with aim to maintain working temperature in the range 15 ℃ – 35 ℃. This is to prevent thermal runaway and high temperature gradients. The proposed approach is to employ the biodiesel, situated inside the diesel/LIB powered hybrid electric vehicle, to supply as fuel and coolant. A 3S2P LIB module is simulated using Ansys-Fluent CFD software tool. The system without a coolant shows that LIB has exceeded the optimum maximum temperature, which leads to shortened life-cycle and poor performance. Four fatty acid methyl ester biodiesels are used as coolants, namely palm, karanja, jatropha, and mahua oils. When compared with conventional methods of cooling, using air and 3M Novec liquid, the palm biodiesel coolant proves to be the best option to maintain LIB temperature within the optimum working range. With the use of palm biodiesel, the system is estimated to lightweight the BTMS by 43%, compared to the case when 3M Novec is used to maintain the same temperature range.