ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0204.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: sonification evaluation, auditory display evaluation, visualization
Online: 14 June 2022 (11:10:46 CEST)
Comparing sonification with visualization is like comparing apples and oranges. While visualizations are ubiquitous to the public and have established names, principles, application areas, and sophisticated designs, sonifications tend to be unique, self-made and completely new to users. In this study we developed a rudimentary visualization that is related closely to the principle of the sonification designs that we want to evaluate. In addition, we implemented a prototypical sonification that uses the most common mapping principles. Experiment results show that participants perform similarly well using the rudimentary visualization and the prototypical sonification, which is much better than chance but significantly worse than using our new sonification results. We therefore argue that both rudimentary visualization and prototypical sonifications can serve as a suitable benchmark to evaluate new sonifications designs against.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0018.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: NMT Evaluation, Meta-Evaluation, SacreBLEU, Korean
Online: 4 January 2022 (20:24:43 CET)
SacreBLEU, by incorporating a text normalizing step in the pipeline, has been well-received as an automatic evaluation metric in recent years. With agglutinative languages such as Korean, however, the metric cannot provide a conceivable result without the help of customized pre-tokenization. In this regard, this paper endeavors to examine the influence of diversified pre-tokenization schemes –word, morpheme, character, and subword– on the aforementioned metric by performing a meta-evaluation with manually-constructed into-Korean human evaluation data. Our empirical study demonstrates that the correlation of SacreBLEU (to human judgment) fluctuates consistently by the token type. The reliability of the metric even deteriorates due to some tokenization, and MeCab is not an exception. Guiding through the proper usage of tokenizer for each metric, we stress the significance of a character level and the insignificance of a Jamo level in MT evaluation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0600.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Natural language processing; Extrinsic evaluation; Intrinsic evaluation; Word analogy; Word embedding
Online: 23 December 2020 (17:26:11 CET)
Distributional word vector representation orword embedding has become an essential ingredient in many natural language processing (NLP) tasks such as machine translation, document classification, information retrieval andquestion answering. Investigation of embedding model helps to reduce the feature space and improves textual semantic as well as syntactic relations.This paper presents three embedding techniques (such as Word2Vec, GloVe, and FastText) with different hyperparameters implemented on a Bengali corpusconsists of180 million words. The performance of the embedding techniques is evaluated with extrinsic and intrinsic ways. Extrinsic performance evaluated by text classification, which achieved a maximum of 96.48% accuracy. Intrinsic performance evaluatedby word similarity (e.g., semantic, syntactic and relatedness) and analogy tasks. The maximum Pearson (ˆr) correlation accuracy of 60.66% (Ssˆr) achieved for semantic similarities and 71.64% (Syˆr) for syntactic similarities whereas the relatedness obtained 79.80% (Rsˆr). The semantic word analogy tasks achieved 44.00% of accuracy while syntactic word analogy tasks obtained 36.00%
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0021.v1
Online: 1 July 2019 (15:22:25 CEST)
This article is about school evaluation. The objective was to explain critically the mediating relationships between educational evaluation and the production of school knowledge from the perspective of the Dialectical Historical Materialism. With this interest, a documentary analysis was made, obtaining as result four explanatory categories: production, subsumption, distribution and exchange of knowledge, which form a concrete totality with distinctions and antagonistic relationships between them, limited by their opposite. It is concluded that the evaluation as a mediating form lacks antagonistic pair and consequently of control by opposition, emerging from the school daily as autonomous and sovereign entity, oppressive of school subjects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1005.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Other Keywords: metaverse environment; auditory presence; AUX evaluation; evaluation questionnaire design; principal component analysis
Online: 15 September 2023 (05:33:24 CEST)
This study aims to develop an auditory experience evaluation questionnaire to improve the presence of metaverse environments, and to derive evaluation components considering auditory presence and auditory user experience (AUX) through a survey. After conducting a survey with a total of 232 participants, five evaluation components were extracted from auditory presence and AUX evaluation factors through principal component analysis (PCA) and reliability analysis (RA): 'realistic auditory background', 'acoustic aesthetics', 'consideration of acoustic control and accessibility', 'auditory utility and minimalist design', and 'auditory consistency'. In particular, although AUX evaluation factors such as 'ease of access to sound control' have limitations in improving the sense of presence, negative factors of presence such as 'distraction due to sound' can be improved by utilizing AUX evaluation factors, so it is judged that the sense of presence in the metaverse environments can be improved by enhancing the auditory sense of presence and AUX evaluation factors according to the composition of the five evaluation components derived in this study. This study can be used as a basis for developing an auditory experience evaluation questionnaire for the metaverse platform, creating sound design guidelines, and identifying sound development priorities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0295.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: Preexposure prophylaxis; transmission model; PrEP; economic evaluation; HIV; economic evaluation; health economics
Online: 16 November 2021 (14:36:41 CET)
Introduction: Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention has been implemented in several countries. Previous literature has shown that its cost-effectiveness (and, under some specifications, cost-saving character) is dependent on the reduction in price due to generics, the time-horizon and its effectiveness. The intervention has never been studied in Catalonia, a territory with extensive implementation. Methods: Economic evaluation of the implementation of HIV pre-exposition prophylaxis using administrative data from Men who have Sex with Men (MSM) who receive the treatment (at the generic price). A deterministic compartmental model and a social perspective with a micro-costing approach over the time horizon 2022-2062 are used. A baseline 86% effectiveness of PrEP is assumed. Results: Daily oral PrEP is found to be cost-saving: discounted savings in costs are attained after 16 years, and after 40 years they reach 81 million euros. In terms of health indicators, 10,322 additional discounted QALYs are generated by the intervention. Results are sensitive to sexual behavioral patterns among MSM, the price of PrEP (reduced if offered on-demand), its effectiveness and the discount rate. Conclusions: The use and promotion of PrEP in Catalonia is predicted to result in substantial health and monetary benefits because of reductions in HIV infections. Short-term investments in the promotion of PrEP will result in important cost-savings in the long term.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0299.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Optimized improved entropy evaluation; Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation; Practical environmental system assessment; Linear programming.
Online: 5 July 2023 (11:18:36 CEST)
Establishing an effective evaluation model to analyze the actual environmental level of the multi-indicator systems is an urgent challenge. However, due to the complexity of the environmental system, the factors that determine the practical system are usually interrelated. To solve this problem, many methods have been proposed and verified. However, the disadvantage of unreasonable weight determination and only single-indicator assessment limits the practical application of these analysis methods. Here, we established an optimized entropy weight model and integrate it with the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation (FCE) method to quantify the complex environmental system. By introducing the linear programming method into the entropy weight solution, we can obtain high accuracy weight values and strong resistance to extreme data. Theoretical and simulation results demonstrate that our method can enhance the precision of weight calculation and evaluation results for multi-factor systems. Our work develops an effective method to quantify the complex environment system comprehensively and is significant to real applications of evaluation method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1183.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: burns camp; evaluation; burn rehabilitation
Online: 16 June 2023 (07:27:05 CEST)
Residential burns camp programmes provide help and support to children with burn injuries by providing activities designed to build their confidence and self-esteem. Our regional burns service has been running camps for over 20 years and evaluation is an important part of assessing their effectiveness. In this study we report both qualitative and quantitative data from 10 consecutive years of burns camps. Qualitative feedback was gathered using Likert scales and free response questionnaires at the end of camp and six weeks post-camp. Three quantitative outcome measures, the Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory v4, the Children’s Revised Impact of Event Scale (CRIES8) and the Satisfaction with Appearance Scale (SWAP) were completed before and six weeks after camp. Children and their parents/carers both reported attending burns camp was helpful for them/their child; the themes of meeting other children with burn injuries and developing confidence and self-esteem were cited as reasons. Parents/carers also reported significant improvements in their child’s physical and psychological functioning post-camp in some years. These findings confirm the importance of providing burns camp programmes for children with burn injuries as part of their post burn rehabilitation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0199.v2
Online: 7 February 2023 (12:12:55 CET)
With the advent of Neural Machine Translation, the more the achievement of human-machine parity is claimed at WMT, the more we come to ask ourselves if their evaluation environment can be trusted. In this paper, we argue that the low quality of the source test set of the news track at WMT may lead to an overrated human parity claim. First of all, we report nine types of so-called technical contaminants in the data set, originated from an absence of meticulous inspection after web-crawling. Our empirical findings show that when they are corrected, about 5% of the segments that have previously achieved a human parity claim turn out to be statistically invalid. Such a tendency gets evident when the contaminated sentences are solely concerned. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first attempt to question the “source” side of the test set as a potential cause of the overclaim of human parity. We cast evidence for such phenomenon that according to sentence-level TER scores, those trivial errors change a good part of system translations. We conclude that to overlook it would be a mistake, especially when it comes to an NMT evaluation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0160.v1
Online: 10 May 2021 (10:27:12 CEST)
The Coronavirus outbreak that began in December, 2019 became a worldwide pandemic by March, 2020. The education industry had to adapt to this new change in a speedy and most feasible way by shifting to virtual classes over the internet and other available resources. WhatsApp has turned out to be a boon in academic’s section where in all the teachers have their own subject-wise groups on the said application. This not only helps them to share the necessary information resources but also to have discussion regarding the subject matter. On the other side, this application allows easy access for the students to all the resources shared by the teacher, and they can share their assignments without much difficulty with their subject teachers. Therefore, it has become a primary tool for conducting teaching, learning and evaluation online. The researchers have tried to analyze impact of online classes and the efforts required by the students to learn online with the help of survey conducted with the sample size of 514. The survey questionnaire was grouped into 4 categories namely; Opinion on Information and Communications Technology (ICT) based Teaching, Changes in communication behavior due to ICT using WhatsApp, the main hindrance for integration of ICT (Information Communication Technology) in the teaching-learning process and disadvantages of using ICT for teaching and learning.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: obesity; bariatric surgery; preoperative evaluation
Online: 10 November 2020 (09:55:37 CET)
Obesity is associated with increased morbidity and mortality and impaired quality of life. Weight losse is associated with improvement or even cure of cardiovascular risk factors with cardiometabolic benefit. nonsurgical measures for weight loss is rarely successful in the long term. Bariatric surgery has achieved clear success in reversing the abnormal metabolic profile associated with obesity. Pre surgical evaluation is important to rule out any medical or psychological problems that increased the surgical mortality or adversely affect the outcome.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0294.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: metrics; algor-ethics; evaluation; validation
Online: 24 June 2020 (09:48:04 CEST)
Ethics is a research field that is obtaining more and more attention in Computer Science due to the proliferation of artificial intelligence software, machine learning algorithms, robot agents (like chatbot), and so on. Indeed, ethics research has produced till now a set of guidelines, such as ethical codes, to be followed by people involved in Computer Science. However, a little effort has been spent for producing formal requirements to be included in the design process of software able to act ethically with users. In the paper, we investigate those issues that make a software product ethical and propose a set of metrics devoted to quantitatively evaluate if a software product can be considered ethical or not.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0387.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Scholarship evaluation; Tenure and promotion; Teaching and mentoring; Researcher evaluation; Academic career; Open science
Online: 19 January 2021 (16:37:50 CET)
In most world’s countries, scholarship evaluation for tenure and promotion continues to rely on conventional criteria of publications in journals of high impact factor and grant funding. Continuing to hire and promote scholars for their achievements in research and in securing research funds exposes universities at risk because students, directly and indirectly through government funds, are the main source of revenues for academic institutions, whereas talented young researchers are those who actually carry out most of the published research. Purposeful scholarship evaluation needs to include all three areas of scholarly activity: research, teaching and mentoring, and service to society. Young scholars seeking tenure and promotion benefit from the practice of open science because it provides better and more impactful results with respect to each of the three areas of scholarship.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0856.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: quality evaluation of school management; compulsory education stage; big data technology; visualization techniques; evaluation models
Online: 11 May 2023 (13:26:38 CEST)
With the spread of compulsory education emerged school management problems continued, and the quality of school management in compulsory education has attracted a great deal of attention in China. However, the application of information technology in the field is not yet detailed and wide, resulting in problems of heavy workload and high difficulty in the whole evaluation process. Accordingly, we use big data technologies such as Apache Spark, Apache Hive, and SPSS to carry out data cleaning, correlation analysis, dynamic factor analysis, principal component analysis, and visual display on 1760 sample data from 40 primary and secondary schools in Q Province in China, and constructs a model school management of quality evaluation in the compulsory education stage, which reduces the 22 management tasks required for previous evaluation to 5, greatly reducing the workload and difficulty of evaluation. It has improved the efficiency and accuracy of evaluation, and further promoted the simultaneous development of education of five domains and education equity in the compulsory education stage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0708.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Citrus; metabolomics; sensory evaluation; storability; Yellowball
Online: 11 July 2023 (10:18:17 CEST)
Although numerous citrus varieties have recently been developed to enhance their quality, information on their quality characteristics is limited. We assessed the quality characteristics of Yellowball, a novel citrus variety, by evaluating its appearance, storability, sensory properties, functionality, and metabolite profiles and comparing these characteristics with those of its parent varieties: Haruka and Kiyomi. The metabolite profiles between the citrus varieties differed significantly, resulting in distinct physicochemical and functional qualities. The storability of Yellowball was significantly increased compared with that of its parent varieties owing to its strong antifungal activity and unique peel morphology, including the stoma and albedo layers. While we did not investigate the volatile compounds, overall functional activities, and detailed characteristics of each metabolite, our data provide valuable insights into the relationship between citrus metabolites, peel morphology, physicochemical properties, and storability and demonstrate the potential of Yellowball as a promising variety in the citrus industry.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1235.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Root crops; Evaluation; Mechanical harvesting; Optimization
Online: 17 May 2023 (10:41:36 CEST)
Root crops grow in the soil deeply and bond with soil closely, which results in that the process of the separation between soil and root becomes the most difficult during the harvesting processes. In order to harvest root crops efficiently, the mechanical harvesting has become the main developing trend. However, high power and high damage rate are still occurred when mechanical harvester gets in touch with the roots. In this paper, we review the research of the development and evaluation of the mechanical harvesting of root crops and its performance optimization on the past years. The process of soil separation mainly consists in the initial separation between root and the ground and further separation between root and adhered soil. In general, the soil-cutting operation in the initial separation and the sieving mechanism in the further separation require high draught and power. And the dramatic friction, impact, pressure and so on, which happen in the components and soil-roots, are the key reasons to lead to root damage. The optimization of harvesting methods and parameters, including the digging shovel shape, working conditions, vibration, and screening way, is more significant in improving the harvesting performance. But there are still some limitations in the research and application of the mechanical harvester for root crops. Future research is suggested to focus on the development of the soil break-up when the digging shovel cutting soil, the insight into the interaction between soil and roots by different external compression loads, and the long-term studies to verify the high-efficiency and low-damage performances of mechanical harvester in practical application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0572.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Exhibitions; Brand Value; Evaluation; AHP Model
Online: 9 May 2023 (05:13:13 CEST)
With the branding development of the international exhibition industry and the increase in the number of mergers and acquisitions of exhibitions, the assessment of the brand value of exhibitions has gradually come into the view of governments, investment and financing institutions and researchers. Compared with the brand value assessment of consumer goods and industrial sectors, the brand value assessment of exhibitions, especially B2B exhibitions, has special characteristics. A model for brand value assessment of B2B exhibitions is proposed, which can not only provide a reference for decision-making on M&A behaviour of exhibitions, but also provide a decision-making tool for government exhibition brand promotion. The aim of this paper is to explore the feasibility of constructing an AHP-based conceptual model for brand value assessment of exhibitions in Shanghai through a hybrid study. The applicability of the conceptual model for exhibition brand value assessment is empirically demonstrated by analysing six steps, including establishing pairwise comparison matrices, calculating the maximum eigenvalues and normalised eigenvectors of each comparison matrix, conducting consistency checks, group decision matrix synthesis and weight allocation of exhibition brand value assessment indicators. On this basis, the three values of the model in practice and theory are explored separately. The research results can provide better brand value assessment and development support for exhibition stakeholders and improve the sustainability of exhibition brands.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0078.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: furcation anatomy; furcation measurement; furcation evaluation
Online: 6 May 2022 (13:50:48 CEST)
Objectives: Few studies in literature evaluate the "mean measure" of root divergence. Most of them are linear measurements, they hardly describe the dental furcation conformation. It is left to the subjectivity of the operator deciding whether a furcation is convergent or divergent. The goal of this study is to create a visual evaluation method to overcome these problems giving a conformation of the entire interradicular space. Material and methods: A user-friendly software (Paint®, Windows10®) was used to measure endo-oral radiographs of upper and lower molars. Three kinds of measurements were taken. Three operators used the software to measure 20 radiographs, then the technique was repeated on 250 radiographic images to identify an average measurement. The ratio of these three measurements allowed to develop a new visual evaluation method of the interradicular space. Results: Intra and inter-operator reproducibility was statistically assessed on a sample of 20 anonymous endo-oral radiographs measured by 3 blind operators. Then, a sample of 250 anonymous endo-oral radiographs were measured by a blind operator and were statistically evaluated to identify an average value to define a main conformation of the interradicular space. Measurements made by the 3 operators on the 20 radiographic images showed that the technique is reproducible, and a mean value of the interradicular space was obtained. Conclusions: A new anatomical evaluation of the interradicular space in its entirety, which could help the clinicians in the therapy of furcated molars, can be obtained.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0227.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: chess; elo; evaluation; equal play; handicap
Online: 26 April 2022 (04:41:40 CEST)
Chess is an interesting game for artificial intelligence research and an entertaining hobby and sport for a growing number of people. However, humans differ greatly in their ability to play. Typically, the Elo rating is used to determine a player's skill and to predict who will win. When differences in Elo are too great the weaker player is almost guaranteed to lose. While on one hand, the Elo rating allows players to be matched to equally well-playing opponents, it also to some degree restricts the games to be played between equally strong opponents since otherwise the result is known beforehand. Here a handicap system where stronger players remove pieces at the start of the game is evaluated. Specifically, the effect each removed piece or combination of pieces have on a player. Interestingly, pieces do not always reduce the Elo of a player by a predefined amount, but their effect depends strongly on the player's current Elo. The results presented here are from playing the computer engine Stockfish because data about humans playing this scheme is limited. However, the results make direct predictions about the effect of piece removal on Elo.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0129.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Pineapples; Ripening; Proximate composition; Sensory evaluation
Online: 10 January 2022 (16:15:22 CET)
The number of artificially ripened pineapples is outnumbered than the naturally ripened pineapples. However, there is a lack of understanding between artificially ripened and naturally ripened pineapples. Thus the inquiry was anticipated to explore the physicochemical changes and organoleptic acceptability of the naturally ripened and artificially ripened pineapples. Farmers used different chemicals such as calcium carbide, ethylene, besides growth hormones to reduce production loss. Here we evaluated the content of moisture, ash, protein, fat, crude fiber, reducing sugar, total sugar, titratable acidity, sucrose, and vitamin C in both naturally ripened and artificially ripened pineapples. Artificially ripened pineapples showed a significantly lower vitamin C than naturally ripened ones, but arsenic content was nil in both samples. In the case of color and appearance, there was no significant difference between the two samples, but in case of the other organoleptic properties, such as flavor, sweetness, sourness, the natural one was more acceptable. Thus naturally ripened pineapples are more beneficial to consumers than artificially ripened ones.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0275.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: transposable elements; genome annotation; software evaluation
Online: 12 August 2020 (08:07:14 CEST)
Background: Transposable elements (TEs) constitute the vast majority of all eukaryotic DNA, and display extreme diversity, with thousands of families. Given their abundance and diversity, TEs discovery and annotation becomes challengeable. At present, tools and databases have built libraries to mask TEs in genomes based on de novo- and homology-based identification strategies, but no consensus criteria about which tools should be used have been proposed. Results: In the de novo-based strategy, we compared performances of TE libraries developed by four commonly used tools, including RepeatModeler, LTR_FINDER, LTRharvest, and MITE_Hunter, by using a simulated genome as a standard control. The results showed that the performance of RepeatModeler decreased as it was combined with either LTR_FINDER or LTRharvest. Combination of RepeatModeler and MITE_Hunter showed better performance than RepeatModeler and MITE_Hunter alone. In the homology-based strategy, we evaluated different sources from a taxonomic point of view to build an accurate TE library. When we selected a library from databases to identify TEs for Arabidopsis thaliana genome, the library from a genus genetically closer to Arabidopsis achieved better performance than other genera with further genetic distance. Without the Arabidopsis, combination of top three genera closer to Arabidopsis showed better performance than combination of all genera. Conclusion: This study proposes a series of recommendations to perform an accurate TE annotation: 1) For de novo-based strategy, RepeatModeler and MITE_Hunter are suggested to build a TE library; 2) For homology-based strategy, it is recommended to use library of genus genetically close to the species rather than use combined library from all genera.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0189.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: construction industrialization; dimensions; index system; evaluation
Online: 24 March 2017 (11:21:31 CET)
In recent years, there have been concerns raised about construction industrialization in China, which have initiated a wave of policy change in both governmental and industrial organizations in order to change the mode of conventional construction. However, the current development level of regional construction industrialization (RCI) in China has not been well-characterized. This study screened preliminary index systems in five dimensions: technical, economic, sustainable, enterprise development and development environment. Based on the data gathered from the questionnaire surveys and subsequently analyzed, twenty-two critical evaluation indicators were identified. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was then employed to determine the weighting of each indicator. The evaluation method of the development level was formulated on the basis of the evaluation criteria. Jiangsu Province was used as an example in this study, with the development level of this province being comprehensively examined using a combination of the index system and evaluation method. The results show that Jiangsu has a relatively high RCI development level. The data from analysis scores of five dimensions and twenty-two indicators show that the index system is feasible, with evaluation results being consistent with actual practice. These findings provide a good practical reference for making decisions about how best to guide the development of RCI.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0103.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: zebrafish; models; evaluation; drugs; cardiotoxicity; genotoxicity
Online: 20 December 2016 (10:34:56 CET)
Embryonic and larval Danio rerio is increasingly used as a toxicological model to conduct rapid in vivo tests and developmental toxicity assays; the zebrafish features as high genetic homology to mammals; robust phenotypes; and its value in high-throughput genetic and chemical screening have made it a powerful tool to evaluate in vivo toxicity. New methodologies of genome editing as CRISPR/Cas9; ZFN or Talen make it a suitable model to perform studies to pair human genetic diseases as well. This review surveys recent studies; employing zebrafish as experimental model; comparing it with other in vivo and in vitro models; presenting zebrafish as a potent vertebrate tool to evaluate drug toxicity to facilitate more extensive; easy and comprehensive knowledge of new generation drugs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0907.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: capacity building; evaluation framework; Key Performance Indicators
Online: 14 November 2023 (11:58:55 CET)
European cities are motivated to act towards the achievement of climate-neutral mobility solutions. Often, though, they are facing many challenges when bringing (innovative) sustainable mobility solutions forward. Capacity building that fills skills gap and/or enables acquisition of new ones related to the planning and implementation of such solutions can empower local/ regional authorities to identify them, adopt them and eventually deliver them properly. The aim of this paper is to present the Key Performance Indicator (KPI) framework that has been used for the assessment of the effectiveness of the Learning and Exchange Programme applied in an EU-funded project. It presents the methodological steps for the adoption of the KPIs, as well as the tools used for the selection of the KPI data and the KPI monitoring at project level. It also presents the results from the application of the framework for assessing the knowledge performance towards the deployment of sustainable mobility solutions. It finally reflects on recommendations for applying the KPI framework to other cases and thematic contents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0436.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: pharmacological evaluation; docking; anti-inflammatory; analgesic; antimicrobial
Online: 8 October 2023 (08:26:48 CEST)
A series of pyrazolopyrimidines derivatives 4– 11 were synthesized using 1-(6-(3-methoxyphenyl)-4-methylpyridazin-3-yl)-1H-pyrazolo [3,4-d] pyrimidin-4-amine 3 as a starting material. The detailed synthesis, structure assignments of the novel compounds based on chemical and spectroscopic evidence, spectroscopic data, pharmacological properties and molecular docking are reported. The pharmacological evaluation illustrated that many of these compounds have good analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2124.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Ecology Keywords: wetland restoration; biodiversity; post-evaluation; ecological monitoring
Online: 1 August 2023 (03:34:04 CEST)
Post-evaluation of ecological redevelopment is a good method for its achievements. The eco-engineering technologies and achievements of landscape water reconstructed from aquaculture ponds in Shanghai Chenshan Botanical Garden have been introduced in this study. The sediments and water quality were also sampled and tested for basic physicochemical parameters and heavy metal concentration. The ecological redevelopment of landscape water reconstructed from aquaculture ponds was evaluated using the Nemero comprehensive pollution index method. The results shown that nutrients including organic matter, organic nitrogen and their ratio of sediment were found to be in a state of moderate pollution, while their ecological risk of heavy metals was low. Although total nitrogen and total phosphorus of water quality was really higher than that of other indexes, the decline trends of ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen and total phosphorus was obvious presented over time. In general, this is a good example that redevelopment of water ecosystems from aquaculture ponds using eco-engineering technologies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0824.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: databases; viruses; genomees; sequences; metadata; FAIR evaluation
Online: 12 July 2023 (12:21:15 CEST)
Viruses are abundant and diverse entities that have important roles in public health, ecology, and agriculture. Identification and surveillance of viruses rely on understanding their genome organization, sequences, and replication strategy. Despite technological advancements in sequencing methods, our current understanding of virus diversity remains incomplete, highlighting the need to explore undiscovered viruses. Virus databases play a crucial role in providing access to sequences, annotations and other metadata, and analysis tools for studying viruses. However, there has not been a comprehensive review of virus databases in the last five years. This study aimed to fill this gap by identifying 24 active virus databases and included an extensive evaluation of their content, functionality and compliance with the FAIR principles. In this study, we thoroughly assessed the search capabilities of five database catalogs, which serve as comprehensive repositories housing a diverse array of databases and offering essential metadata. Moreover, we conducted a comprehensive review of different types of errors, encompassing taxonomy, names, missing information, sequences, sequence orientation, and chimeric sequences, with the intention of empowering users to effectively tackle these challenges. We expect this review to aid users in selecting suitable virus databases and other resources, and to help databases in error management and improve their adherence to the FAIR principles. The databases listed here represent current knowledge of viruses and will help aid users find databases of interest based on content, functionality, and scope. Use of virus databases is integral to gain new insights into the biology, evolution, and transmission of viruses, and develop new strategies to manage virus outbreaks and preserve global health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0380.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: Biomechanics; Respiration; Experimental Evaluation; Procedure; statistical Elaboration
Online: 6 July 2023 (07:12:34 CEST)
The paper addresses the problem of a statistically significant numerical evaluation of the biomechanics of respiration using the motion of the ribcage through the identification of the kinematics of the sixth rib. We report the results of an experimental campaign conducted using a RESPIRholter device prototype for efficient, comfortable, and numerical monitoring on two groups of volunteers, namely with healthy people and with chest operated patients. The results are reported in terms of statistical processing of the data extracted from the monitoring which are represented in plots of acquired motion characteristics with movement graphs in terms of angles and accelerations. This experimental campaign can be considered a first result for the construction of a database useful for a reference of diagnostics as reported by the discussed example case study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0223.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Voice Cloning; Speech Synthesis; Speech Quality Evaluation
Online: 5 June 2023 (02:27:49 CEST)
Voice cloning, an emerging field in the speech processing area, aims to generate synthetic utterances that closely resemble the voices of specific individuals. In this study, we investigate the impact of various techniques on improving the quality of voice cloning, specifically focusing on a low-quality dataset. To contrast our findings, we also use two high-quality corpora for comparative analysis. We conduct exhaustive evaluations of the quality of the gathered corpora in order to select the most suitable audios for the training of a Voice Cloning system. Following these measurements, we conduct a series of ablations by removing audios with lower SNR and higher variability in utterance speed from the corpora in order to decrease their heterogeneity. Furthermore, we introduce a novel algorithm that calculates the fraction of aligned input characters by exploiting the attention matrix of the Tacotron 2 Text-to-Speech (TTS) system. This algorithm provides a valuable metric for evaluating the alignment quality during the voice cloning process. We present the results of our experiments, demonstrating that the performed ablations significantly increase the quality of synthesised audios for the challenging low-quality corpus. Notably, our findings indicate that models trained on a 3-hour corpus from a pre-trained model exhibit comparable audio quality to models trained from scratch using significantly larger amounts of data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0277.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Probability And Statistics Keywords: link prediction; AUC-ROC; Early retrieval evaluation
Online: 19 September 2022 (10:31:53 CEST)
Link prediction is an unbalanced early retrieval problem, whose goal is to prioritize a small cohort of positive links on top of a list largely populated by unlabelled links. Differently from binary classification, here the evaluation focuses on how the predictor prioritizes the positive class because, in practice, a negative class does not exist. Previous studies explained that AUC-ROC is not apt for unbalanced class problems and is misleading for early retrieval problems, therefore standard AUC-ROC is not appropriate for evaluation of link prediction. However, some scholars argue that an AUC-ROC like evaluation accounting for the relative positioning of the few positive links among the vastness of unlabelled links remains a valid concept to pursue. Here we propose the area under the magnified ROC (AUC-mROC), a new measure that adjusts the standard AUC-ROC to work also for unbalanced early retrieval problems such as link prediction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0239.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: ATO; Performance Evaluation; Scenario-based Testing; Simulation
Online: 17 March 2022 (02:42:05 CET)
There is increasing interest in automating train operations of mainline services, e.g. to increase network capacity. Automatic train operation (ATO) is already achieved by several pilot projects, but not implemented on a large scale. Before the general introduction of new or adapted technologies can have a transformative effect on the operation of such a complex system as train operation on mainlines, they have to pass functional, interoperability and performance tests. A virtual preliminary analysis is one way to ensure a smooth as well as safe introduction and implementation. This paper aims to present an approach that applies to the performance testing of ATO systems. Therefore, methods and test standards for technologies enabling automatic operation in other transport sectors are reviewed. The main findings have been adapted, transformed and combined to be used as a general strategy for virtual performance testing in the railway sector. Specifically, universal performance indicators, namely punctuality, accuracy, energy consumption, safety and comfort, are presented. A layer model for scenario description is adapted from the automotive sector, as well as the definition of different scenario types. Lastly, factors that can influence the performance of an ATO algorithm are identified. To demonstrate the developed approach, a straightforward investigation of a case study is conducted using a microscopic train simulator in combination with an ATO algorithm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0066.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: indoor localization; test and evaluation; methodology; benchmarking
Online: 3 March 2022 (14:00:15 CET)
Despite their enormous potential the use of Indoor Localization Systems (ILS) remains seldom. One reason is the lack of market transparency and stakeholders’ trust in the systems’ performance as a consequence of insufficient use of Test and Evaluation (T&E) methodologies. The heterogeneous nature of ILS, their influences, and their applications pose various challenges for the design of a methodology that provides meaningful results. Methodologies for building-wide testing exist, but their use is mostly limited to associated indoor localization competitions. In this work, the T&E 4iLoc Framework is proposed - a methodology for T&E of indoor localization systems in semi-controlled environments based on a system-level and black-box approach. In contrast to building-wide testing, T&E in semi-controlled environments, such as test halls is characterized by lower costs, higher reproducibility, and better comparability of the results. The limitation of low transferability to real world applications is addressed by an application-driven design approach. The empirical validation of the T&E 4iLoc Framework, based on the examination of a contour-based Light Detection and Ranging ILS, an Ultra Wideband ILS, and a camera-based ILS for the application of Automated Guided Vehicles in warehouse operation, demonstrates the benefits of T&E with the T&E 4iLoc Framework.
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: frustration; racial bias; political ideology; implicit evaluation
Online: 13 September 2021 (10:34:53 CEST)
North American Whites tend to evaluate members of their own race more positively than members of other races. One exception may be White Liberals, who appear politically motivated to evaluate members of (disadvantaged) racial outgroups more positively than members of their own racial group. We confirmed this claim presently, where 75 White Liberals, 95 White Conservatives, 49 Black Liberals and 71 Black Conservatives evaluated biracial faces using explicit and implicit evaluation tests. We instrumentally ‘frustrated’ half our participants to note whether incidental anger influenced ideologically-motivated racial attitudes. Evaluations towards racial outgroups were largely unaffected by negative mood induction -White Liberals were pro-Black relative to White Conservatives, and Black Conservatives were pro-White relative to Black Liberals, independent of mood. Negative mood induction selectively influenced own-race evaluations. Black Liberals and White Conservatives became respectively more pro-Black and pro-White when frustrated.Conversely, Black Conservatives and White Liberals became respectively less pro-Black and pro-White. Frustration significantly amplified negative own-race attitudes across explicit and implicit evaluation measures for White Liberals. We speculate on some social consequences that may follow from frustration-amplified ‘anti-White’ bias across White Liberals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0656.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Evaluation, Distinction, Fuzzy DEMATEL, Higher education, Cluster
Online: 28 June 2021 (13:52:01 CEST)
The aim of this paper is the evaluation of the success of graduating with distinction in higher education (SGDHE) using the fuzzy DEMATEL method. The observation has been done using cause and effect criteria. 11 cause and 14 effect clusters have been used in this study. The study result of this work shows that all the effects are connected to the given causes and a cause-effect graph has been generated for each connection. This proposed approach is demonstrated with the empirical case of Dire Dawa University students in Dire Dawa Ethiopia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0251.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: remote sensing; collaborative application; observation capability; evaluation
Online: 10 February 2021 (10:27:14 CET)
This paper proposed a new evaluation model based on analytic hierarchy process to quantitatively evaluate the capability of multi-satellite cooperative remote sensing observation. The analytic hierarchical process model is a combination of qualitative and quantitative analysis of systematic decision analysis method. According to the objective of the remote sensing cooperative observation mission, we decompose the complex problem into several levels and a number of factors, compare and calculate various factors in pairs, and obtain the combination weights of different schemes. The model can be used to evaluate the observation capability of resource satellites. Taking the optical remote sensing satellites such as China’s resource satellite series and GF-4 as examples, this paper verifies and evaluates the model for three typical tasks: point target observation, regional target observation and moving target continuous observation. The results show that the model can provide quantitative reference and model support for comprehensive evaluation of the collaborative observation capability of remote sensing satellites.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0112.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: CMIP6; extreme precipitation; model evaluation; east Africa
Online: 6 January 2021 (11:37:37 CET)
This paper presents an analysis of precipitation extremes over the East African region. The study employs six extreme precipitation indices defined by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI) to evaluate possible climate change. Observed datasets and CMIP6 simulations and projections are employed to assess the changes during the two main rainfall seasons of March to May (MAM) and October to December (OND). The study evaluated the capability of CMIP6 simulations in reproducing the observed extreme events during the period 1995 – 2014. Our results show that the multi-model ensemble (herein referred to as MME) of CMIP6 models can depict the observed spatial distribution of precipitation extremes for both seasons, albeit with some noticeable exceptions in some indices. Overall, MME's assessment yields considerable confidence in CMIP6 to be employed for the projection of extreme events over the study area. Analysis of extreme estimations shows an increase (decrease) in CDD (CWD) during 2081 – 2100 relative to the baseline period in both seasons. Moreover, SDII, R95p, R20mm, and PRCPTOT demonstrate significant OND estimates compared to the MAM season. The spatial variation for extreme incidences shows likely intensification over Uganda and most parts of Kenya, while reduction is observed over the Tanzania region. The increase in projected extremes during two main rainfall seasons poses a significant threat to the sustainability of societal infrastructure and ecosystem wellbeing. The results from these analyses present an opportunity to understand the emergence of extreme events and the capability of model outputs from CMIP6 in estimating the projected changes. More studies are encouraged to examine the underlying physical features modulating the occurrence of extremes incidences projected for relevant policies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0085.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: COVID-19; online learning; higher education; evaluation
Online: 5 January 2021 (11:39:04 CET)
As a consequence of the global sanitary crisis in early 2020, universities had to tackle with a sudden shift in their teaching-learning strategies so that the preset competences could be fulfilled. This study presents the learning outcomes of the tasks implemented, student experiences and feedback, as well as some reflections from the instructors with a holistic perspective of the courses due to the measures and adaptations adopted. Six courses taught at Civil Engineering degrees of three universities, two from Spain and one from Peru, are analyzed. The teaching and evaluation strategies are described and some reflections are made by comparing the student’s performance with the previous course. Although the shift to online learning had to be made from day to day, with no time for preparation, the experience has proved that online learning can be beneficial in some aspects and have probably come to stay, although some others are difficult to replace with respect to face-to-face learning, especially students’ engagement and motivation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0278.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: COVID-19; serological diagnostic test; performance evaluation
Online: 21 June 2020 (14:58:20 CEST)
In only a few months after initial discovery in Wuhan, China, SARS-CoV-2 and the associated COVID-19 disease has become a global pandemic causing significant mortality and morbidity. In the absence of vaccines and effective therapeutics, reliable serological testing can be a key element of public health policy to control further spread of the disease and gradually ease quarantine measures. However, prior to launch of large-scale seroprevalence studies to assess herd immunity, it is critical to understand the limits and potential of current SARS-CoV-2 serological tests on the market. In this study, we provide an overview of serological testing and conduct a systematic review of independent evaluations of SARS-CoV-2 serological tests performance. Our findings show significant variability in the accuracy of marketed tests and highlight several lab-based and point-of-care rapid diagnostic tests with high performance level in detecting SRAS-CoV-2 specific antibodies. The findings of this review highlight the need for ongoing independent evaluations of commercialized COVID-19 diagnostic tests.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0340.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: thermal drilling; material; visual evaluation; macrostructure; microstructure
Online: 28 January 2020 (10:52:21 CET)
The contribution deals with the joining of various types of materials by technology of thermal drilling. In various branches of industries, also in the automotive industry must be joining operations, service, repairing, substitution or protection workpieces, components with various types of materials. Equally, the important role as joint, is also used material, and a product preparation by assembly and disassembly operations. By utilization of new friction hybrid joining technologies we can shortage the production time, provide automation in operations, increase the quality of joints, spare of economical expenses and also we can protect the environment. In this paper authors have investigated the effect of friction drilling on the tested material, aluminium alloy AlMgSi, which was used for material testing. The created joints were evaluated visually and by microscopy methods. The errors of tested joining were documented and described, too. This contribution was made with cooperation of Technical University of Kosice and with U. S. Steel Kosice, s.r.o.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0002.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: performance evaluation; poultry meat; ergonomics; injuries; industry
Online: 2 January 2018 (06:36:04 CET)
Injuries of repetitive efforts constitute one of the prime causes of absenteeism in the workplace, have bear a considerable cost for the public health system and can cast doubt on the sustainability of a company. The objective of this paper is to build, in the researchers, the needed knowledge to choose a set of relevant scientific articles about repetitive strain injuries in the poultry meat industry, aiming identify characteristics in those scientific publications that have the potential to contribute on the topic of this paper. The research is characterized as exploratory-descriptive, draws on primary and secondary data sources. The study involves the application of a method for selection and analysis of the selected articles. To this end, the method utilized was the Knowledge Development Process – Constructivist (Proknow-C) as theoretical intervention instrument. Within the process development, it was obtained a portfolio of 16 articles aligned to the research and scientifically recognized with the main periodicals, papers, authors and keywords. The ProKnow-C process allowed identify opportunities in the literature about injuries in the poultry meat industry and showed opportunities for research future. This paper, under the constructivist perspective, presents a structured process to build, in the researcher, the necessary knowledge to identification, selection and analysis of relevant scientific articles relating to research context and, for these articles, find prominences and opportunities for a research theme without similar publications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0058.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: speech synthesis; evaluation; hesitation; virtual agents; interaction
Online: 11 December 2017 (07:03:14 CET)
Conversational spoken dialogue systems that interact with the user rather than merely reading text can be equipped with hesitations to manage the dialogue flow and the users' attention. Based on a series of empirical studies, we built an elaborated hesitation synthesis strategy for dialogue systems that inserts hesitations of scalable extent wherever needed in the ongoing utterance. So far, evaluations of hesitating systems have shown that synthesis quality is affected negatively by hesitations, but that there is improvement in interaction quality. We argue that due to its conversational nature, hesitation synthesis needs interactive evaluation rather than traditional MOS-based questionnaires. To prove this point, we dually evaluate our system’s speech synthesis component: on the one hand, linked to the dialogue system evaluation, on the other hand, in the traditional MOS way. This way we are able to analyze and discuss differences that arise due to the evaluation methodology. Our results suggest that MOS scales are not sufficient to assess speech synthesis quality, which has implications for future research that are discussed in this paper. Furthermore, our results indicate that hesitations work well to increase task performance and that an elaborated strategy is necessary to avoid likability issues.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0261.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: transnational oil investment, risk assessment, Fuzzy-Grey comprehensive evaluation, Delphi expert scoring system, risk factors, evaluation indicators system
Online: 20 April 2018 (09:11:15 CEST)
Oil has become the object of global exploits and fierce competition among the major world powers as it is a key strategic non-renewable resource. Transnational petroleum investment is therefore an important mechanism available to countries and international corporations to control oil resources even though there are numerous inherent uncertainties and risks. A new risk assessment index system is proposed in this paper based on use of the Delphi expert scoring system and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation that aims to minimize the potential risks inherent to multinational petroleum investment. This approach encapsulates political, legal, socioeconomic, and infrastructural factors to develop a technical method that can be used for transnational petroleum investment risk assessment. An evaluation of oil investment risk within a case study area is also presented; results provide reference data that can be applied by national and international oil companies to mitigate risks of transnational oil investment.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0641.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: foot-and-mouth disease; immunogenicity; vaccine; field evaluation
Online: 9 November 2023 (13:35:29 CET)
The recent introduction of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O (O/EA-2 topotype) in Southern Africa region has changed virus dynamics and the FMD vaccine requirements. This study describes an assessment of the heterologous antibody responses induced by O Manisa vaccine (three PD50/dose) against a representative O/EA-2 virus collected from an FMD outbreak in Zambia. Commercial and subsistence cattle herds were monitored following vaccination, where the benefits of employing a double vaccination schedule were compared to single-dose vaccination. Testing using virus neutralisation showed cattle that received two vaccine doses had a mean reciprocal log virus neutralisation titre of 2.02 (standard error [SE] = 0.16, n = 9) for commercial herds and 1.65 (SE = 0.17, n = 5) for subsistence herds , 56 days after first vaccination (dpv). Significantly lower mean titres were observed for single-dosed commercial herds (0.90, SE = 0.08, n = 9) and subsistence herds (1.15, SE = 0.18, n = 3), 56 dpv. Comparison of these results and those generated by solid-phase competitive ELISA by cohen’s kappa coefficient observed a statistically significant (ρ = 0.598 for 1:10 dilution, and ρ = 0.562 for 1:30 dilution of SPCE % inhibition results, p < 0.001 for both dilutions) positive correlation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1738.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: adrenocortical carcinoma; computed tomography; detection; evaluation metrics; MSHA
Online: 27 October 2023 (07:20:56 CEST)
This study aims to explore the utilization of deep learning models, specifically the innovative Multi-Modal Contextual Fusion Convolutional Neural Network (MSHA), for the detection and diagnosis of Adrenocortical Carcinoma (ACC) using computed tomography (CT) images. The objective is to develop an accurate and reliable model that can assist in the effective detection and classification of ACC. The study utilizes a dataset comprising contrast-enhanced CT images from 53 confirmed ACC patients. The MSHA model is employed, which incorporates a combination of mixed-scale dense convolution, self-attention mechanism, hierarchical feature fusion, and attention-based contextual information techniques. Evaluation metrics are used to assess the performance of the MSHA model, and a comparison is made with other established models, including ResNet50, VGG16, VGG19, and InceptionV3. The evaluation of the MSHA model demonstrates high performance, with an accuracy of 96.65% and precision, sensitivity, specificity, and F1 score of 96.0%. These results highlight the MSHA model's capability in accurately detecting and classifying ACC. Furthermore, compared to other models, the MSHA model outperforms ResNet50, VGG16, VGG19, and InceptionV3, indicating its superior performance in ACC detection and diagnosis. The findings of this study suggest that the MSHA model holds significant potential in assisting healthcare professionals with the detection and diagnosis of ACC. With its advanced features and contextual fusion techniques, the MSHA model achieves high accuracy and performance. The results highlight the clinical significance of this novel model and its potential to improve patient management and outcomes in the detection and diagnosis of ACC using CT images.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1380.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: organizative models; prevention intervention; efficacy evaluation; (worker) participation
Online: 23 October 2023 (03:35:38 CEST)
This work deals with a systematic review of literature data concerning the theme of the integrated approach to occupational health and safety management, with particular reference to the programming of assistance plans, which guide the company's organizational choices also by aiming at the principles of the Total Worker Health. In the current regulatory framework on this issue, the UNI ISO 45001: 2018 standard assumes particular relevance, which defines the dynamic approach to occupational health and safety management systems, paying particular attention to external contextual factors that may influence corporate organizational decisions. The adoption of these systems is not mandatory, but allows companies to fulfill their duties in terms of health and safety at work, through an organizational approach aimed at awareness, involvement and participation of all subjects of the company prevention system, overcoming the phase of the mere technological and prescriptive approach, towards a holistic vision of prevention, which places the person at the center of preventive actions. In this context, the role of institutional networks and socio-economic partnerships assumes particular importance, in the activation of territorial assistance interventions to support companies for the improvement of risk management levels. To this end, the importance of verifying the effectiveness of assistance interventions emerges from the scientific debate, through the use of indicators such as quantitative ones for measuring the performance of all phases of the intervention with particular attention to the effects in terms of improved solutions developed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0902.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: health index; distribution; overhead line; power facilities; evaluation
Online: 14 September 2023 (03:29:21 CEST)
To supply stable and high-quality power according to the advancement of industrial growth, electric power companies have performed maintenance of power facilities using various meth-ods. In the case of domestic power distribution facilities, there are limitations in performing di-agnostic management on all facilities owing to the large number of facilities; therefore, old fa-cilities are managed by the health index assessment method. The health index assessment com-prises only facility operation data and external environmental data and is managed only for four types of distribution facilities, including overhead/underground transformers and switchgear. In the case of extra high–voltage overhead wires, there is no standard for old replacement, despite the large number of wires, such as transformers and switchgear, and the large ripple effect of power failure in the event of a power outage. Therefore, in this paper, a health index assessment methodology for extra-high voltage overhead cables was developed. In this paper, we devel-oped an economic health index assessment methodology that additionally considers risk cost, which is different from the existing health index assessment method that uses only operational data and external environmental data to determine facility performance evaluation and aging replacement criteria. Using the health index assessment methodology developed in this paper, it is possible to expect a reduction in facility operating costs and investment costs from the per-spective of electric power companies through the replacement of old extra-high voltage over-head cables. In addition, from the perspective of consumers, it is expected to increase power re-liability and reduce the ripple effect of failure by preferentially replacing equipment with a high probability of failure.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1964.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: economic evaluation; cost-effectiveness; glucosamine; osteoarthritis; systematic review
Online: 28 July 2023 (11:25:01 CEST)
The osteoarthritis (OA), the main cause of disability, is a chronic condition that most frequently affects older adults. As the population ages, the cost of treatment is placing pressure on the healthcare budget. As a result, it is imperative to evaluate the medicines' cost-effectiveness and the influence they have on health resource allocation. Hence, our study aims to summarize the cost and outcome of utilizing glucosamine in OA treatment. Authentic databases like Medline, Cochrane, and Scopus were adopted for the identification process up until July 2023. Our primary inclusion criteria centered on the economic evaluation of Glucosamine in OA treatments with provided the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) at least. The Quality of Health Economic Studies (QHES) instrument was applied to grade the quality of the studies. A total of 7 qualified studies were selected and discussed the cost-effectiveness of glucosamine with or without other formulations. All of them demonstrated that glucosamine was cost-effective. There was an in-creasement of QALY when incorporating Glucosamine into conventional care. Moreover, Crystalline Glucosamine Sulfate (pCGS) was more cost-effective than the Other Formulations of Glucosamine (OFG). In overall, utilizing pCGS was more beneficial than OFG in terms both of cost and quality of life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0013.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: competition; trust; team; evaluation; vocational training; leadership education
Online: 1 March 2023 (07:59:24 CET)
The research question in this article concerns how a competitive environment affects the learner (officer cadet's) personal leadership development and their relationship to their team and with future civilian foundations. More specifically, what are the possible learning effects of the “hidden” curriculum? This article investigates how a more than 250 years of leadership education provides new army officers with new skills and how such an environment may affect the cadets' leadership training. The paper builds on ethnographic data gathered during the three-year education program in most of the relevant practical locations and contexts. Findings regarding trust in their learning environment, cadets have reported scores of (Mean 2.83) on a 1 (low trust) to 5 (high trust) Likert scale, underpinning interviewdata regarding the lack trust in the academy and in their fellow cadets. Cadets also point out that competition has hindered their learning (Mean 2.50). These findings are interpreted in relation to possible negative effects stemming from internal competition and the evaluation system as a whole. The overall output of this system is a zero–sum game, and thus effects evaluative practices and learning processes. This study is of relevance to higher education officers responsible for designing learning environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0483.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Pulsed thermography; Deep learning; Defect detection; Nondestructive evaluation
Online: 26 January 2023 (17:11:04 CET)
Pulsed thermography is a vital technique in the nondestructive evaluation field. However, its data analysis can be complex and requires skilled experts. Advances in deep learning have yielded exceptional results, including image segmentation. Therefore, many efforts have been made to apply deep learning methods to data processing for nondestructive evaluation. Despite this, there is currently no public Pulsed thermographic dataset available for evaluating various spatial-temporal deep methods of segmenting pulsed thermographic data. This article aims to provide such a dataset and assess the performance of commonly used deep learning-based instance segmentation models on it. Additionally, the impact of the number of frames and data transformations on model performance is examined. The findings suggest that suitable preprocessing methods can effectively reduce the data size without compromising the deep models’ performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0562.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: autonomous driving; LiDAR; perception systems; evaluation and testing
Online: 30 November 2021 (11:44:38 CET)
The world is facing a great technological transformation towards full autonomous vehicles, where optimists predict that by 2030, autonomous vehicles will be sufﬁciently reliable, affordable and common to displace most human driving. To cope with these trends, reliable perception systems must enable vehicles to hear and see all the surroundings, being light detection and ranging (LiDAR) sensors a key instrument for recreating a 3D visualization of the world in real time. However, perception systems must rely in accurate measurements of the environment. Thus, sensors must be calibrated and benchmarked before being placed on the market or assembled in a car. This article presents an Evaluation and Testing Platform for Automotive LiDAR sensors with the main goal of testing not only commercially available sensors, but also sensor prototypes currently under development in Bosch Automotive Electronics division. The testing system can benchmark any LiDAR sensor under different conditions, recreating the expected driving environment to which such devices are normally subjected. To characterize and validate the sensor under test, the platform evaluates several parameters such as the ﬁeld of view (FoV), angular resolution, sensor’s range, etc. This project results from a partnership between the University of Minho and Bosch Car Multimedia Portugal, S.A.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0263.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Antibody titer; Broiler chicken; IBD vaccines; Immunogenicity evaluation
Online: 19 October 2021 (08:51:54 CEST)
Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is one of the most endemic diseases of commercial poultry in Ethiopia. Vaccination has been practiced as the major means of IBD prevention and control. A study was conducted to determine and compare the immunogenicity of two commercially available IBD vaccines in broiler chicken with maternally derived antibody (MDA). Day-old chickens of 270 were randomly assigned to three groups, group 1 vaccinated with brand 1 vaccine at 7th and 19th days and group 2 with brand 2 vaccine at 15th and 22nd days while group 3 were kept as control. Six chickens were also randomly selected and bled on day 1 for differential leukocyte count (DLC) and determination of MDA. Representative chickens from each group were bled at 24th and 42nd days of age for antibody titration using the indirect ELISA test. DLC scores were determined in the 1st and 24th days. The result revealed highly significant differences (P = 0.001) between group 1 and group 2 in DLC at 24th days of age. Antibody titers against IBD were differed significantly (P = 0.02) at 24th and 42nd days of age in broilers vaccinated with brand 1 and brand 2 vaccines. It is concluded that although both brands of vaccine induce an adequate immunological response at the end of the experiment, brand 1 vaccine has shown significantly high antibody titers against the IBDV and DLC than brand 2.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0387.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: lane line; comprehensive evaluation; BP; parameter search; maintenance
Online: 22 September 2021 (15:20:30 CEST)
Efficient quality evaluation provides support for the timely and good maintenance of the lane line marking. This paper searches and optimizes the back propagation(BP) network model which referred to the analytic hierarchy process(AHP) model structure, as well as the number of nodes in the middle layer network. Based on this, a comprehensive evaluation method of multi-dimensional lane line quality such as shape, color and contrast is established. The experimental results show that the parameters of the model are more simplified, and the scoring and classification results of lane lines are more accurate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0611.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: validity; reliability; assessment; body image; self-evaluation; students
Online: 22 April 2021 (14:05:42 CEST)
Body-Esteem Scale is an assessment tool for adolescents and adults that evaluate three dimensions of self-evaluations of one’s body. Body-Esteem Scale has been translated and validated in some countries since America down to Europe. Lack of translation and reliability evidence in Portugal was detected. This study aimed to translate and test the validity and reliability of the Body Esteem Scale for Adolescents and Adults (BESAA) in students in the context of Portuguese higher educa-tion. A total of 173 students (60.7% are female) with a mean age of 19.7 (standard deviation = 2.2) years participated. Categorical Principal Component Analysis was used to assess the underlying dimensions of BESAA. Construct validity was evaluated through correlation with the Appearance Schemas Inventory – Revised and a three-factor model (“Appearance”, ‘‘Weight’’ and “Attribu-tion’’) was established. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to verify the construct validity of the instrument. Items that had factor weights (λ)<.40 were removed, as well as those that were considered redundant by the modification indices estimated by the Lagrange Multipliers (LM) method (LM>11, p<.001). We observed high correlations between theoretically similar factors, and low correlations between different factors. The Portuguese BESAA showed adequate validity and reliability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0608.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Cape Verde; cereals; metals; dietary intake; risk evaluation
Online: 26 February 2021 (11:05:17 CET)
Cereals and their derivatives are the basis of human nutrition. However, cereals also contribute to the dietary exposure to toxic metals that may pose a risk. Strengthening food security and nutrition information is a high priority challenge for the Cape Verde Government. The toxic metals content (Cr, Ni, Sr, Al, Cd, Pb) has been determined in 126 samples of cereals and derivatives (rice, corn gofio, corn flour, wheat flour, corn, wheat) consumed in Cape Verde. Wheat flour samples stand out for registering the highest Sr (1.60 mg/kg), Ni (0.25 mg/kg) and Cr (0.13 mg/kg). The results show relevant Al levels (1.17 – 13.4 mg/kg) with its highest levels in corn gofio. The mean Pb average content in the cereals is 0.03 – 0.08 mg/kg with the highest level observed in corn gofio. The Al and Pb levels are lower in cereals without husks. A consumption of 100 g/day of corn gofio provide an intake of 1.34 mg Al/day (13.7% of the tolerable weekly intake established at 1 mg/kg bw/week) and 8 µg Pb/day (20% of the BMDL set at 0.63 µg/kg bw/day for nephrotoxic effects). The minimization of the dietary exposure of the Cape Verdean population to toxic metals is through the importation of higher quality cereals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0111.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: CMIP5/6; Precipitation; Climate extremes; evaluation; East Africa
Online: 3 February 2021 (10:22:24 CET)
This study examines the improvement in coupled intercomparison project phase six (CMIP6) models against the predecessor CMIP5 in simulating mean and extreme precipitation over the East Africa region. The study compares the climatology of the precipitation indices simulated by the CMIP models with the CHIRPS dataset using robust statistical techniques for 1981 – 2005. The results display the varying performance of the general circulation models (GCMs) in the simulation of annual and seasonal precipitation climatology over the study domain. CMIP6-MME shows improved performance in the local annual mean cycle simulation with a better representation of two peaks, especially the MAM rainfall relative to its predecessor. Moreover, simulation of extreme indices is well captured in CMIP6 models relative to its predecessor. The CMIP6-MME performed better than the CMIP5-MME with lesser biases in simulating SDII, CDD, and R20mm over East Africa. Remarkably, most CMIP6 models are unable to simulate extremely wet days (R95p). A few CMIP6 models (e.g., NorESM2-MM and CNRM-CM6-1) depicts robust performance in reproducing the observed indices across all analyses. Conversely, OND season shows the overestimation of some indices (i.e., R95p, PRCPTOT), except for SDII, CDD, and R20mm. Consistent with other studies, the mean ensemble performance for both CMIP5/6 shows better performance due to the cancellation of some systematic errors in the individual models. Generally, the CMIP6 depicts improved performance in the simulation of MAM season akin CMIP5 models. However, the new model generation is still marred with uncertainty, thereby depicting substandard performance over the East Africa domain. This calls for further investigation of attribution studies into the sources of persistent systematic biases and a prerequisite for identifying individual models with robust features that can accurately simulate observed patterns for future usage.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: badminton; amateurs; lunge evaluation; contact time; microseismic; feasibility
Online: 29 January 2021 (11:38:14 CET)
The fast and flexible characteristics of badminton determine the necessity of its lunge, and fast lunge will have an important impact on the results of the game in actual combat. In lunge evaluation, the contact time to the ground is a key indicator. This article selects two middle-aged male badminton amateurs with similar body shape and age， but different skill levels as the research objects to carry out comparative experiments. The microseismic equipment is used to record the floor vibration which is caused by the running of badminton amateurs in sports. The microseismic signals of lunge are processed and analyzed by MATLAB software. And we evaluate the pro and cons of various time to touch the ground from amateurs with different skill levels. The research found that 1. Microseismic technology can detect the contact time to the ground. 2. High-level badminton amateurs have obvious advantages in the footwork contact time. Microseismic technology has a certain feasibility as a tool for evaluating the footwork contact time of badminton.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0611.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Mean surface temperature; CMIP6; evaluation; projections; East Africa
Online: 29 January 2021 (11:35:29 CET)
This study evaluates the historical mean surface temperature (hereafter T2m) and examines how T2m changes over East Africa (EA) in the 21st century using CMIP6 models. An evaluation was conducted based on mean state, trends, and statistical metrics (Bias, Correlation Coefficient, Root Mean Square Difference, and Taylor skill score). For future projections over EA, five best performing CMIP6 models (based on their performance ranking in historical mean temperature simulations) under the shared socioeconomic pathways SSP2-4.5 and SSP5-8.5 scenarios were employed. The historical simulations reveal an overestimation of the mean annual T2m cycle over the study region with fewer models depicting underestimations. Further, CMIP6 models reproduce the spatial and temporal trends within the observed range proximity. Overall, the best performing models are as follows: FGOALS-g3, HadGEM-GC31-LL, MPI-ESM2-LR, CNRM-CM6-1, and IPSL-CM6A-LR. During the three-time slice under consideration, the Multi Model Ensemble (MME) project many changes during the late period (2080 – 2100) with expected mean changes at 2.4 °C for SSP2-4.5 and 4.4 °C for the SSP5-8.5 scenario. The magnitude of change based on Sen’s slope estimator and Mann-Kendall test reveal significant increasing tendencies with projections of 0.24°C decade-1 (0.65°C decade-1) under SSP2-4.5 (SSP5-8.5) scenarios. The findings from this study illustrate higher warming in the latest model outputs of CMIP6 relative to its predecessor, despite identical instantaneous radiative forcing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0548.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Gated Communities; Opening Scenarios; Accessibility Benefits; Evaluation; Shanghai
Online: 27 October 2020 (11:36:59 CET)
Opening gated-communities (GCs) has been widely discussed for urban inclusion and revitalization. With the policies of opening GCs being promoted in China, quantitative and comprehensive evaluation of the potential benefits is heavily needed. Taking Shanghai as an example, this study quantifies and analyzes the accessibility benefits and risks of opening GCs with factors including GC types, opening levels, travel modes, and travel destinations considered. We found that (1) opening GCs can bring 50m+ accessibility gains to 17% and 52% of the residents in Moderately Opening (MO) and Completely Opening (CO) scenarios, respectively. (2) Cycling benefits more than walking in all cases and scenarios. (3) For different GCs, conventional GCs have fewer benefits in MO but more in CO than the newly-established one. For different facilities, trips to bus stations demonstrate the largest accessibility gains. (4) The accessibility benefit of a residential building is highly determined by its closeness to the gates and relative location in the block. (5) Only 1% and 5-7% of external trips may penetrate the opened communities in MO and CO scenarios, respectively, which are far less than both expectation and the benefits. These findings precipitate at least two policy implications in China.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0213.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Food Analysis; Texture Profile Analysis; FTIR, Sensory Evaluation
Online: 12 October 2020 (07:57:48 CEST)
The popularity of functional gummies has increased, which is evident from the growing line of functional gummies from almost every nutraceutical companies. Sensory evaluation serves the purpose of determining which brand of functional gummy would capture the largest market share. Texture profile analysis was used to determine the mechanical properties of functional gummies. The brands of functional gummies that came under the scope of this study were denoted as Brand A, B, C, D, E, F and G. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy was utilised to detect organic material and functional groups in the functional gummies. Texture profile analysis gave valuable insights into the gummies’ mechanical properties which are cohesiveness, springiness, hardness, gumminess, and chewiness. Amongst the gummies that were studied, Brand F gummy has the highest value of cohesiveness of 0.92. Brand A gummy has a high springiness value of 1.0. Brand B gummy possesses the highest value of hardness, gumminess and chewiness of 12 532.2 g, 7617.6 N, and 6256.8 J, respectively. Qualitative sensory evaluation reveals that Brand G gummy has the best aesthetic qualities in terms of colour and appearance. Brand B gummy tastes the best while brand A gummy claims the top spot for gumminess and chewiness. Overall, the respondents in this study preferred brand A gummy over other brands.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0094.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Robotics Keywords: robot; robotic teaching assistant; teaching; user engagement; evaluation
Online: 11 February 2019 (16:30:51 CET)
We report on an exploratory study conducted at a graduate school in Sweden with a humanoid robot, Baxter. First, we describe a list of potentially useful capabilities for a robot teaching assistant derived from brainstorming and interviews with faculty members, teachers, and students. These selected capabilities consist of reading, greeting, alerting, remote operation, clarification, and motion. Second, we present feedback on how the robot's capabilities, demonstrated in part with the Wizard of Oz approach, were perceived, and iteratively adapted over the course of several lectures, using the \EP tool. Third, we discuss observations and findings regarding the capabilities and the development process. Our findings suggest that using a social robot as a teaching assistant is promising using the chosen capabilities. We find that personalizing the capabilities and the role of embodiment are important topics to be considered in future work.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0447.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: intelligent radio networks; spectrum sharing; coexistence; experimental evaluation
Online: 27 August 2018 (10:17:38 CEST)
The explosive emergence of wireless technologies and standards, covering licensed and unlicensed spectrum bands has triggered the appearance of a huge amount of wireless technologies, with many of them coexisting in the same band. Unfortunately, the wireless spectrum is a scarce resource, and the available frequency bands will not scale with the foreseen demand for new capacity. Certain parts of the spectrum, in particular the license-free ISM bands, are overcrowded, while other parts, mostly licensed bands, may be significantly underutilized. As such, there is a need to introduce more advanced techniques to access and share the wireless medium, either to improve the coordination within a given band, or to explore the possibilities of intelligently using unused spectrum in underutilized (licensed) bands. Therefore, in this paper, we present a SDR based framework that can be employed to devise disruptive techniques to optimize the sub-optimal use of radio spectrum that exists today. Additionally, we describe two use cases for the proposed framework.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0435.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: Kinect; validation; assessment; functional evaluation; shoulder; markerless system
Online: 30 May 2018 (05:59:51 CEST)
Optoelectronic devices are gold standard for 3D evaluation in clinics but due to the complexity of such kind of hardware and the lack of access for patients affordable, transportable and easy to use systems must be developed to be largely used in daily clinics. The KinectTM sensor presents various advantages compared to optoelectronic devices: price, transportability but also some limitations: (in)accuracy of the skeleton detection and tracking as well as the limited amount of available points that make 3D evaluation impossible. To overcome these limitations a novel method has been developed to perform 3D evaluation of the upper limbs. This system is coupled to rehabilitation exercises allowing functional evaluation while performing physical rehabilitation. To validate this new approach a double step method was used. The first step is a laboratory validation where the results obtained with the KinectTM have been compared with results obtained with an optoelectronic device, 40 healthy young adults participated in this first part. The second step was to determine the clinical relevance of such kind of measurement. Results of the healthy subjects were compared with a group of 22 elderly adults and a group of 10 chronic stroke patients to determine if different patterns can be observed. The new methodology and the different steps of the validations are presented in this paper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0269.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: wind energy; wind turbines; SCADA; retrofitting; performance evaluation
Online: 20 April 2018 (14:11:15 CEST)
Full-scale wind turbine technology has been widely developing in the recent years and condition monitoring techniques assist at the scope of making 100\% technical availability a realistic perspective. In this context, several retrofitting techniques are being used for further improving the efficiency of wind kinetic energy conversion. This kind of interventions is costly and, furthermore, the estimation of the energy enhancement is commonly provided under the hypothesis of ideal conditions, as for example absence of wakes between nearby turbines. A precise quantification of the energy gained by retrofitting is therefore precious in real conditions, that can be very different from ideal ones. In this work, three kinds of retrofitting are studied through the operational data of test case wind farms: improved start-up through pitch angle adjustment near the cut-in, aerodynamic blade retrofitting by means of vortex generators and passive flow control devices, extension of the power curve by raising cut-out and high wind speed cut-in. SCADA data are employed and reliable methods are formulated for estimating the energy improvement from each of the above retrofitting. Further, an insight is provided about wind turbine functioning under very stressing regimes, as for example high wind speeds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1830.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Gas storage; energy method; brittleness index; fracability evaluation; fracturing
Online: 28 November 2023 (16:42:12 CET)
Underground storage of natural gas has the characteristics of clean and low-carbon, and has the ability to provide sustainable and stable supply. It is a very high-quality green energy that can increase the storage efficiency of gas storage through fracturing, achieving the sustainable development goal of "Carbon Peaking and Carbon Neutrality". The accurate evaluation of the fracability of a reservoir is an important prerequisite for reservoir fracturing design and post fracturing productivity evaluation. At present, research on fracability is mainly based on qualitative characterization or quantitative evaluation based on rock mechanics and fracturing construction parameters, which cannot fully reflect the rock composition and structure of each stage. Firstly, based on logging data, this paper analyzes the evolution laws of strain energy such as elastic properties, pre-peak dissipation energy, and post-peak fracture energy during the transition of rock materials from plastic deformation to brittle fracture in an energy perspective, and determines the key energy that affects the brittle characteristics of rocks. Secondly, a brittleness index evaluation approach has been established that can comprehensively reflect the mechanical properties of rocks during pre-peak deformation and post-peak damage stages. In addition, this article focuses on the impact of reservoir stratigraphic environment by combining the influence of geo-stresses with the rock brittleness index, and proposes a new method for evaluating reservoir fracability. Finally, this paper conducts a study on the fracability evaluation of three wells in a gas storage facility in eastern China. The results indicate that low modulus and fracability coefficient are beneficial for fracturing, thereby improving the gas production and peak shaving ability of gas storage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0878.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: efficiency, hyperlipidemia; fermented lemon juice; fermentation evaluation; lipid-lowering
Online: 14 November 2023 (08:38:41 CET)
Aging and obesity make humans more prone to cardiovascular and metabolic syndrome diseases, leading to several serious health conditions, including dyslipidemia, high blood pressure, and sleep disturbance. Hyperlipidemia means elevated blood lipid levels, including cholesterol and triglycerides. This study aimed to explore the hypolipidemic effect of fermented citrus lemon juice using a hyperlipidemic hamster model. Sugar-free lemon juice’s fermentation was optimized, and the characteristics of fresh and fermented lemon juice (FLJ) were evaluated and compared. In addition, tests were conducted to determine the appropriate hamster feed for the functional animal tests. Then, experiments were conducted to evaluate the hypolipidemic effect of the FLJ, which contained polyphenols and superoxide dismutase-like activity, on a hyperlipidemic hamster model. This study’s pre-fermentation efficiency evaluation found that 21–30 days of bacterial DMS32004 and DMS32005 fermentation of fresh lemon juice provided the best fermentation benefits. In addition, the fermentation evaluation showed that a sugar-free fermentation method provided FLJ with the best benefits. Results showed that the absorption and utilization efficiency of FLJ was higher compared with the unfermented lemon juice. After six weeks of feeding, the total cholesterol and triglyceride values in the blood and liver of the FLJ treatment groups were de-creased compared with the high-fat diet (HFD) group. In addition, the blood low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were significantly reduced in the FLJ treatment groups compared with the HFD group. In contrast, the blood high-density lipoprotein to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio increased considerably in the FLJ treatment groups, and the total to high-density lipoprotein ratio was significantly lower than in the HFD group. Compared with the HFD group, the total cholesterol content in the FLJ treatment groups’ feces increased significantly. This study demonstrated that the sugar-free fermentation method and fermentation cycle management provided FLJ with the potential to regulate blood lipids. Further research and verification will be carried out to isolate specific substances from the FLJ and identify their mechanisms of action.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1083.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: beef cattle farming; supportive policies; evaluation; propensity score matching
Online: 18 September 2023 (05:52:49 CEST)
Based on survey data from 297 beef cattle farmers in five provinces, Hunan, Ningxia, Inner Mongolia, Shandong and Gansu, the impact of the package of support policies on farmers' beef cattle production was assessed by means of propensity score matching (PSM). The results showed that the package of support policies, the education level of the household head, participation in beef cattle professional cooperatives and taking out loans for beef cattle farming had significant positive impacts on farmers’ inventories of beef cattle and breeding cows. The current package of beef cattle support policies implemented by the national and local governments has significantly promoted the production of beef cattle by farmers, and the effects of the policy implementation have been positive. The implementation of the relevant support policies led to increases in farmers’ inventories of approximately 17 head of beef cattle and approximately 9 head of breeding cows. The contribution rates of the policy implementation to the beef cattle and breeding cow inventories reached 52.96% and 67.30%, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0679.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: diabetes and pregnancy, ultrasound evaluation, fetal subcutaneous fat mass
Online: 11 September 2023 (13:47:25 CEST)
Pregnant women with diabetes often present impaired fetal growth, which is less common if maternal diabetes is well-controlled. However, developing strategies to estimate fetal body composition beyond fetal growth that could better predict metabolic complications later in life is essential. This study aimed to evaluate subcutaneous fat tissue (femur and humerus) in fetuses with normal growth among pregnant women with well-controlled diabetes using a reproducible 3D-ultrasound tool and offline TUI (Tomographic Ultrasound Imaging) analysis. Additionally, three artificial intelligence classifier models were trained and validated to assess the clinical utility of the fetal subcutaneous fat measurement. A significantly larger subcutaneous fat area was found in three-femur and two-humerus selected segments of fetuses from women with diabetes compared to the healthy pregnant control group. The full classifier model that includes subcutaneous fat measure, gestational age, fetal weight, fetal abdominal circumference, maternal body mass index, and fetal weight percentile as variables, showed the best performance, with a detection rate of 70%, considering a false positive rate of 10%, and a positive predictive value of 82%. These findings provide valuable insights into the impact of maternal diabetes on fetal subcutaneous fat tissue as a variable independent of fetal growth.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0165.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: public open space; satisfaction survey; accessibility; quantitative evaluation; shenzhen
Online: 4 September 2023 (10:58:54 CEST)
As an important carrier of urban residents' public life, urban public open space plays an indispensable role in improving the quality of life of urban residents. Accessibility is an important indicator to characterize the publicity and service level of a public open space. This study optimized the GIS-based, Gaussian two-part mobile search method to quantitatively calculate and evaluate the accessibility of public open space within a 5-minute walking distance for residents in Nanshan District, Shenzhen. On this basis, social survey methods, including the questionnaire survey method via a field survey and the interview method, were used to conduct field research on residents' accessibility satisfaction. Comparing the results of the survey on residents' accessibility satisfaction to the GIS quantitative evaluation results of accessibility, the results of the field research show that current residents of Nanshan are more satisfied with the accessibility of public open space. In view of the similarities and differences between the two sets of results, the influencing factors of public open space accessibility were analyzed, corresponding countermeasures were proposed for the construction of public open spaces in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0031.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Reproductive Medicine Keywords: Embryo quality evaluation; Morphokinetic assessment; Embryo metabolomics; Pyruvate; Glutamine
Online: 1 August 2023 (14:34:26 CEST)
Embryo quality evaluation during in vitro development is vital for the success of assisted reproductive technologies (ART). However, the subjective morphological assessment by embryologists may result in inconsistencies that affect the selection of the best embryo for transfer. To provide a more comprehensive evaluation of embryo quality, we performed the integration of embryo metabolomics with standardized morphokinetic classification. The culture medium of 55 embryos (from 21 couples undergoing ICSI) was collected at two timepoints (day 3 and 5). Samples were split into Good (n=29), Lagging (n=19) and Bad (n=10) according to embryo morphokinetic evaluation. Embryo metabolic performance was assessed by 1H-NMR, monitoring the variation of specific metabolites (pyruvate, lactate, alanine, glutamine, acetate, formate). Adjusted metabolite differentials were observed during the first three days of culture and found to be discriminative of embryo quality at the end of day 5. Pyruvate, alanine, glutamine, and acetate were major contributors to this discrimination. Good and Lagging embryos were found to export and accumulate pyruvate and glutamine in the 3 first days of culture, while Bad embryos consumed them. This suggests that Bad embryos have a less active metabolism than Good and Lagging embryos and these two metabolites as putative biomarkers for embryo quality. This study provides a more comprehensive evaluation of embryo quality and can lead to improvements in ART by enabling the selection of the best embryos. By combining morphological assessment and metabolomics, the selection of high-quality embryos with the potential to result in successful pregnancies may become more accurate and consistent.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1678.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: Economic evaluation; Cost-utility analysis; Glucosamine; Knee Osteoarthritis; Vietnam
Online: 25 July 2023 (09:18:22 CEST)
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the degeneration of cartilage in joints that results in bones rubbing against each other, it causes uncomfortable symptoms such as pain, swelling, stiffness, and can lead to disability. It usually occurs in the elderly and causes a large medical burden. The aim of this study is to evaluate cost-effectiveness between the standard treatment for osteoarthritis and the standard treatment with added crystalline glucosamine sulfate at various stages. The Markov analysis modelling was applied to evaluate the effect of both adding glucosamine compared to standard treatment from a societal perspective during whole patients’ lifetimes. Data input was collected by review in previous studies. The outcome was measured in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) from a societal perspective was ap-plied with 3%-discounted for all cost and outcome. One-way analysis via Tornado diagram was performed to investigate the change of factors in model. In general, the adding glucosamine into the standard treatment proved to be more cost-effectiveness compared to the standard treatment. Particularly, early stage adding glucosamine in the treatment was cost-effectiveness then post-stage adding glucosamine. The addition of supplementing crystalline glucosamine sulfate to whole regimen at any stage was cost-effectiveness at willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0511.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: tree processing; ergonomic evaluation; workload; heart rate; wearable technology
Online: 7 July 2023 (13:09:19 CEST)
The aim of the work was to carry out an ergonomic assessment of the workload when working with a chainsaw during motor-manual tree processing. Wearable technology was used, namely Garmin, Biostrap and Whoop devices, which are generally available. The dependence of the heart rate (HR) on physical workload was examined to calculate Heart Rate Index. The case study was done with one worker, three variations of chainsaw devices cutting the poplar wood. It was proved that the use of a heavier work tool, MS 500i /90 cm 9,3 kg, significantly contributes both to the creation of a non-physiological working position and to an increase in the energy required to perform work, which was represented by an increase in heart rate. With a lighter work tool and a shorter cutting blade, both a decrease in heart rate and a reduction in the working time were performed in a non-physiological position. The results can be used in common practice for workers´ self-assessment to increase safety and health protection at work or work productivity not only in motor-manual processing in forestry related professions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0176.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: Early Intervention; Return to Work; Physiotherapists; Workers’ Compensation; Evaluation
Online: 4 July 2023 (09:43:06 CEST)
Purpose: This study evaluates the performance of the Early Intervention Physiotherapist Framework (EIPF) for injured workers. This study provides a proper follow-up period (3 years) to examine the impacts of the EIPF program on injury outcomes such as return to work (RTW) and time to RTW. This study also identifies the factors influencing the outcomes. Methods: The study was conducted on data collected from compensation claims of people who were injured at work in Victoria, Australia. Injured workers who commenced their compensation claims after the first of January 2010 and had their initial physiotherapy consultation after the first of August 2014 are included. To conduct the comparison, we divided the injured workers into two groups: physiotherapy services provided by EIPF-trained physiotherapists (EP) and regular physiotherapists (RP) over the three-year intervention period. We used three different statistical analysis methods to evaluate the performance of the EIPF program. We used descriptive statistics to compare two groups based on physiotherapy services and injury outcomes. We also completed survival analysis using Kaplan-Meier curves in terms of time to RTW. We developed univariate and multivariate regression models to investigate whether the difference in outcomes achieved after adjusting for significantly associated variables. Results: The results showed that physiotherapists in the EP group on average dealt with more claims (over twice as many) than those in the RP group. Time to RTW for the injured workers treated by the EP group was significantly lower than for those who were treated by the RP group, indicated by descriptive, survival and regression analyses. Earlier intervention by physiotherapists led to earlier RTW. Conclusion: This evaluation showed that the EIPF program achieved successful injury outcomes three years after implementation. Motivating physiotherapists to intervene earlier in the recovery process of injured workers by initial consultation helps to improve injury outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1553.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: Information Visualization; Visual Variables; Evaluation; Occlusion; Overlap; Visual Perception
Online: 21 June 2023 (12:47:10 CEST)
The overlap of visual items in data visualization techniques is a known problem aggravated by data volume and available visual space issues. Several methods have been applied to mitigate occlusion in data visualizations, such as Random Jitter, Transparency, Layout Reconfiguration, Focus+Context Techniques, etc. This paper aims to present a comparative study to read visual variables values with partial overlap. The study focuses on categorical data representations varying the percentage limits of partial overlap and the number of distinct values for each visual variable: Hue, Lightness, Saturation, Shape, Text, Orientation, and Texture. A computational application generates random scenarios for a unique visual pattern target to perform location tasks. Each scenario presented the visual items in a grid layout with 160 elements (10 x16), each visual variable had from 3 to 5 distinct values encoded, and the partial overlap percentage applied, represented by a gray square in the center o each grid element, were 0% (control), 50%, 60%, and 70%. Similar to the preliminary tests, the tests conducted in this study involved 48 participants organized into four groups, with 126 tasks per participant, and the application captured the response and time for each task performed. The result analysis indicates that the Hue, Lightness, and Shape visual variables are robust to high percentages of occlusion and gradual increase in encoded visual values. The Text visual variable show promising results for accuracy, and resolution time was a bit higher than the last visual variables mentioned. In contrast, the Texture visual variable presented lower accuracy to high levels of occlusion and more different visual encoding values. At last, the Orientation and Saturation visual variables got the highest error and worst perfomance rates during the tests.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1111.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: rainfall verification; rainstorm; skill scores; spatial characteristics; model evaluation
Online: 16 May 2023 (05:58:40 CEST)
By using various skill scores and spatial characteristics of spatial verification methods and tradi-tional techniques of the model evaluation tool (MET, V10.0.0), the gridded precipitation obser-vation CMPAV (V2.0) and three datasets that derived from local (LOC), Shanghai (SHA), and Grapes (GRA) model respectively are conducted to assess the 3 lead day rainfall forecast with 0.5-day intervals during summer of 2020 over central east China. Results have shown that LOC generally outperforms the other two for most skill scores but usually with relatively larger un-certainties than SHA, and it has the least displacement errors for moderate rainfall among the three datasets. However, the rainfall of GRA has been heavily underestimated and accompanied with large displacement error. Both LOC and SHA have shown almost equitable abilities in forecasting convection and rainstorms of the large area but with a slightly over-forecast of local convection, while LOC likely over-forecasts the local rainstorms. In addition, SHA slightly favors over-forecast on a broad scale range and a broad threshold range, and LOC slightly misses the rainfall exceeding 100 mm. Generally, for a broadly comparative evaluation on rainfall, the popular dichotomous methods should be recommended under considering reasonable classifi-cation of thresholds if the accuracy is highly demanded. And most spatial methods should be suggested to conduct with proper pre-handling of non-rainfall event cases. Especially, the veri-fications including spatial characteristic difference information could be recommended in a computationally sufficient environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1065.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Multimodal Machine Learning; Automated Piano Skill Evaluation; Residual Network
Online: 16 May 2023 (02:06:02 CEST)
With the rise of piano teaching in recent years, many people have joined the team of piano learners. However, the expensive cost of manual instruction and the unique one-on-one teaching model have made piano learning an extravagant event. Most existing approaches based on the audio modality aim to evaluate piano players' skills. Unfortunately, these methods ignored the information contained in the video, which led to a one-sided and simplistic evaluation of the piano player's skills. More recently, multimodal-based methods are proposed to assess the skill level of piano players using both video and audio information. However, existing multimodal approaches use shallow networks to extract video and audio features, which are deficient in extracting complex spatio-temporal and time-frequency features from piano performance. Furthermore, the fingering and the pitch-rhythm information of the piano performance is contained in the spatio-temporal and time-frequency features, respectively. In the paper, we propose a ResNet-based audio-visual fusion model that combines video and audio features to assess the skill level of piano players. Firstly, ResNet18-3D is used as the backbone network for our visual branches, which can extract feature information from the video data. Then, we consider ResNet18-2D as the backbone network of the aural branch and extract the feature information from the audio data. The extracted video features are fused with the audio features to generate multimodal features for the final piano skill evaluation. The experimental results on the PISA dataset show that our proposed audio-visual fusion model, with a validation accuracy of 70.80%, outperforms the state-of-the-art methods in both performance and efficiency. Then, we also explore the impact of different layers of ResNet on model performance, and the experimental results show that the audio-visual fusion model dealing with the piano skill assessment problem can make full use of both feature information when the number of video features is close to the number of audio features.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1060.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: EFL; language functions; speech acts; teacher’s perception; textbook evaluation
Online: 15 May 2023 (15:54:12 CEST)
This study mostly analyzes the pragmatic viewpoints of speech acts and language functions through Halliday’s (1975) language functions and Searle’s (1976) speech acts were adapted to analyze the functional aspects of the conversations and it was also intended to explore the teachers’ perception toward teaching and learning English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners’ textbooks and the teacher’s components of communicative knowledge regarding the functions of language in daily activity. The participants of this paper consisted of thirteen Sunrise 10, 11, 12 grades of Kurdish teachers at high school English in Iraqi Kurdistan. Through semi-structured interview, it was found that the conversations in the mentioned textbooks are insufficient from the pragmatic point of view. Some recommendation for the textbook designers, teachers, material developer were raised to make up the shortcomings of the textbooks. The findings reveal that the conversation texts in Sunrise textbooks are not meeting the systematic standard of pragmatic competence the English language learners and the book designer must be recommended to be aware of those shortcomings of the textbook series if they are required to develop their speaking skills in both student and activity series. The implications of this paper can be helpful in comparing the results of this study with other similar studies to check if there is a universal pattern in performing the speech acts and language functions and the interest to Kimberley Education for Life learners in increasing their knowledge of pragmatics in general and the role of language functions and speech acts investigated in this study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0121.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: smart local energy systems; theory of change; evidence; evaluation
Online: 7 April 2023 (09:40:16 CEST)
Smart local energy systems (SLES) have been promoted in policy as a solution to decarbonisation challenges which also bring wider benefits, such as community prosperity and energy affordability. But the combination of conditions required to enable their successful emergence and operation are still to be elaborated. This paper reports on the development of a Theory of Change (ToC) for the “societal project” of emergence of SLES with benefits. ToC is a process of making explicit the causal links by which activities lead to outcomes, surfacing assumptions, and recognising possible unintended consequences. We describe the ToC development process, involving consultation and collaboration across a research consortium. It consists of layers (e.g. users, skills, data and digital), and shows conditions considered necessary to deliver SLES, and for these to deliver wider benefits. It also provides interactive links to evidence emerging from the consortium, as well as policy/governance conditions and metrics. We reflect on potential uses of the ToC – internally to the consortium and externally – along with challenges we encountered in pursuing this approach. Policy implications relate to the importance of enabling conditions across multiple sectors, the absence of any of which could inhibit delivery of either SLES or their ensuing benefits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0170.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Manufacturing equipment; Fractional order calculus; Effective evaluation; Operational status
Online: 9 February 2023 (15:02:18 CET)
The operation status of manufacturing equipment is directly related to the reliability of the operation of manufacturing equipment and the continuity of operation of the production system. Based on the analysis of the operation status of manufacturing equipment and its characteristics, it is proposed that the concept of assessing the operation status of manufacturing equipment can be realized by applying real-time acquisition of accurate inspection data of important parts of weak motion units and comparing them with their motion status evaluation criteria. Through the study of the application characteristics of fractional-order calculus theory, a differential data fusion model based on the fractional-order differential operator is established. The advantages of Internet of Things (IoT）technology and fractional order differential fusion algorithm are integrated to obtain real-time high-precision data of the operating parameters of manufacturing equipment, and the research objective of operating condition assessment of manufacturing equipment is realized. The feasibility and effectiveness of the method are verified by the application of the method in machining center operation status assessment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0300.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Fusarium head blight; deoxynivalenol; triticale; genetic resistance; disease evaluation
Online: 12 April 2021 (12:49:38 CEST)
Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) is a destructive disease affecting the grain yield and quality of wheat, barley, rye and triticale. Developing varieties with genetic resistance is integral to successfully managing FHB. However, significant knowledge gap exists in the genetic diversity present in triticale for FHB resistance. This information is critical for breeding new varieties of triticale as its production continues to increase. In the present study, a set of 298 winter triticale accessions from a worldwide collection were screened for their type-2 FHB resistance in an artificially inoculated misted nursery with high levels of inoculum density. Most of the triticale accessions were susceptible to FHB, and only 8% of accessions showed resistance in the field nursery screening. The resistant accessions identified in the nursery screening were selected and further screened for three years in greenhouse conditions. Seven accessions were found to show robust FHB resistance over the three years of greenhouse testing. Thirteen accessions showed significantly lower levels of Deoxynivalenol accumulation when compared to the susceptible triticale control. The accessions identified in the study will be useful in triticale and wheat breeding programs for enhancing FHB resistance and reducing DON accumulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0035.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: systems thinking; privacy; questionnaire reliability; skills evaluation; systems engineers
Online: 1 March 2021 (17:19:52 CET)
Systems thinking is a valuable skill that may be required for an individual to be promoted in the business arena to managerial or leading positions. Thus, assessing systems thinking skills is an essential transaction for decision-makers in the organization as a preceding step to the promotion decision. One of the well-known and validated tools for this task is a questionnaire. However, because some of the questions invade the employee / candidate’s privacy, the answer may be biased. In this paper, we consider this potential bias, a phenomenon that is becoming more and more significant as privacy concerns and awareness continuously increase in the modern digital world. We propose a formal methodology to optimize the questionnaire based on the privacy sensitivity of each question, thereby providing a more reliable assessment. We conducted an empirical study (n=142), and showed that a systems skills questionnaire can be enhanced. This research has a significant contribution to improving the systems skills assessment process in particular, and also lays the foundations for improving the evaluation of other skills / traits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0721.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Remote sensing; Global discrete grid; Accuracy evaluation; Hexagon grid
Online: 29 December 2020 (09:19:49 CET)
With the rapid development of earth observation, satellite navigation, mobile communication and other technologies, the order of magnitude of the spatial data we acquire and accumulate is increasing, and higher requirements are put forward for the application and storage of spatial data. Under this circumstance, a new form of spatial data organization emerged-the global discrete grid. This form of data management can be used for the efficient storage and application of large-scale global spatial data, which is a digital multi-resolution the geo-reference model that helps to establish a new model of data association and fusion. It is expected to make up for the shortcomings in the organization, processing and application of current spatial data. There are different types of grid system according to the grid division form, including global discrete grids with equal latitude and longitude, global discrete grids with variable latitude and longitude, and global discrete grids based on regular polyhedrons. However, there is no accuracy evaluation index system for remote sensing images expressed on the global discrete grid to solve this problem. This paper is dedicated to finding a suitable way to express remote sensing data on discrete grids, and establishing a suitable accuracy evaluation system for modeling remote sensing data based on hexagonal grids to evaluate modeling accuracy. The results show that this accuracy evaluation method can evaluate and analyze remote sensing data based on hexagonal grids from multiple levels, and the comprehensive similarity coefficient of the images before and after conversion is greater than 98%, which further proves that the availability hexagonal grid-based remote sensing data of remote sensing images. And among the three sampling methods, the image obtained by the nearest interpolation sampling method has the highest correlation with the original image.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0612.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: inherent safety analysis; sustainability evaluation; SWROIM; shrimp exoskeleton; chitosan
Online: 24 November 2020 (10:54:49 CET)
The recovery and valorization of waste are some of the key aspects of sustainable production. The crustacean exoskeletons can be potentially used to obtain value-added products such as chitosan. A comprehensive analysis including both safety and sustainability aspects of chitosan production from shrimp shells is presented in this study. The inherent safety analysis and sustainability evaluation was performed using the Inherent Safety Index (ISI) methodology and the Sustainable Weighted Return on Investment Metric (SWROIM), respectively. The process was designed for a processing capacity of 57,000 t/y according to shrimp production in Colombia. The economic (%ROI), environmental (PEI output), energy (exergy efficiency), and safety (ITI) technical parameters were included in the sustainability evaluation. The three first were obtained from the previous analysis performed by the authors. The total inherent safety index was estimated at 25 indicating that the process is inherently unsafe. The main process risks were given by the dangerous substance, reactivity, and inventory subindices. The overall sustainability evaluation showed a SWROIM of 36.23% indicating that the case study showed higher weighted performance compared to the return on investment (ROI) metric of 18.08%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0264.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae; biosorption; milk; ICP-MS; isotherm; sensory evaluation
Online: 12 July 2020 (15:29:26 CEST)
This study aimed to evaluate the capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Cadmium absorption in Milk. Nowadays one of the most serious problems is heavy metals pollution. Applying microorgaisms as a novel biotechnology is so useful especially in foodstuffs. Among the biosorbents for heavy metals’ removal, Saccharomyces cerevisiae has got an increasing attention due to its popularity in food industry. In this regard, the effects of some important factors such as the initial metal concentration, biomass concentration and contact time on the biosorption capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were studied. The biosorption was analyzed by the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). The maximum Cd bioremoval (70%) was at 80 μg/L of this metal concentration in milk samples containing 30×108 CFU Saccharomyces cerevisiae at the end of storage time (the 4th day). There were no significant differences in sensory and physicochemical properties of milk samples during storage (p < 0.05). The isotherm studies followed by two popular models; Langmuir and Freundlich and the results showed a better fit to the Langmuir isotherm. All together, the results of this project demonstrated that the approach of using this valuable yeast, could be applied for food and drinks’ detoxification and producing healthier foods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0095.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: co2 emission reduction; wind power industry; ebm; efficiency evaluation
Online: 8 November 2019 (10:42:29 CET)
In 2015, the new installed capacity of global renewable energy power generation exceeded the newly installed capacity of conventional energy power generation, marking a structural change in the construction of the global power system. With the continuous improvement of wind energy utilization technology, the global wind power industry has developed rapidly in recent years. The world's available wind energy is 20 billion kilowatts and has become one of the most economical green power. In China, wind power has become the third largest source of electricity, with the installed capacity increasing from 3.1% in 2010 to 9.2% in 2017. In 2017, China's new installed capacity was 19,660 MW, accounting for 37.45% of the world's new installed capacity. This paper evaluates and compares the efficiency of wind power industry in the four regions of eastern, central, western and northeastern China through EBM models based on radial and non-radial factors. This paper discusses the contribution of China's wind power industry to CO2 emission reduction from the relationship between installed capacity efficiency and CO2 emission reduction efficiency. The conclusions show that the overall efficiency score and ranking of wind power in 2013-2017 is the best in the eastern region, followed by the northeast region and the western and central regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0264.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Superhighway; Travel cost; Economic evaluation; Use cost; Price analysis
Online: 21 December 2018 (15:28:11 CET)
In order to evaluate the economy of superhighway, on the basis of the analysis of the cost of the ordinary expressway and high speed railway, the cost of superhighway is estimated. On this basis, the standard of the toll of superhighway at all levels is determined by reference to the standard of the construction cost and the toll collection standard of the ordinary expressway. According to the toll collection standard of superhighway and the fuel consumption cost of superhighway at all levels, the cost of single car and the single person cost of superhighway are calculated. Based on the analysis of highway passenger transport, railway passenger transport and civil aviation ticket price, the single person cost per kilometer of the above travel modes is calculated and compared with the single person travel cost per kilometer of superhighway. The results show that the single person cost of superhighway is between 0.29 and 0.47 yuan /km, which is 0.28 yuan /km higher than the highway bus, 0.18 yuan /km higher than the ordinary expressway self driving and 0.23 yuan /km higher than the express train, but 0.78 yuan/km lower than that of the first class seat of high-speed train, and is 0.92 yuan/km far lower than that of civil aviation flight economy class and 2.42 yuan/km lower than the business class. Therefore, the superhighway trip has certain advantages in economy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0755.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: digital interventions; shop floor; evaluation framework; heuristics; smart factory
Online: 1 November 2018 (17:51:49 CET)
The introduction of innovative digital tools for supporting manufacturing processes has far-reaching effects on an organizational and an individual level due to the development of Industry 4.0. The FACTS4WORKERS project funded by H2020, i.e. Worker-Centric Workplaces in Smart Factories, aims to develop user-centered assistance systems in order to demonstrate their impact and applicability at the shop floor. To do so it is important to understand how to develop such tools and how to assess if advantages can be derived from the created ICT system. This study introduces the technology of a workplace solution that is linked to a specific industrial challenge. Subsequently, a 2-stepped approach to evaluate the presented system is discussed. Heuristics, which are an output of project “Heuristics for Industry 4.0”, are used to test if the developed solution covers critical aspects of socio-technical system design. Insights into the design, development and holistic evaluation of digital tools at the shop floor should be shown.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0512.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: benchmarking; evaluation of performance; performance indicator; principal component analysis
Online: 30 August 2018 (05:16:30 CEST)
The Inefficient water use, varying and low productivity in Kenya public irrigation schemes is a major concern. It is therefore necessary to periodically monitor and evaluate the performance of public irrigation schemes. The performance of public irrigation in western Kenya was assessed by combining benchmarking methodology and principal component analysis. The aim was to quantify and rank the performance of pumped public irrigation schemes in Kenya. Eleven benchmarking indicators were computed for the period from 2012 to 2016 and compared to global benchmark values. The indicators used fall under agricultural productivity, water supply and financial performance categories. The computed agricultural productivity was 36%–51% in Ahero, 23%–42% in West Kano and 26%–50% Bunyala irrigation scheme. Water supply performance in Ahero, West Kano and Bunyala irrigation schemes varied from 24% to 58%, 3% to 49% and 19% to 43% respectively. Financial performance varied from 46% to 54% in Ahero, 25% to 32% in West Kano and 54%–56% in Bunyala irrigation scheme. An average overall performance efficiency of 46%, 39% and 31% was obtained in Ahero, Bunyala and West Kano irrigation schemes respectively. The performance of the irrigation schemes is very poor and measures on improving performance are needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0209.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Data Structures, Algorithms And Complexity Keywords: plant phenotyping; noise filtering; binarization; accuracy evaluation; connected components
Online: 24 April 2018 (17:02:18 CEST)
Plants are such important keys of biological part of our environment, supply the human life and creatures. Understanding how the plant’s functions react with our surroundings, helps us better to make plant growth and development of food products. It means the plant phenotyping gives us bio information which needs some tools to reach the plant knowledge. Imaging tools is one of the phenotyping solutions which consists of imaging hardware such as the camera and image analysis software analyses the plant images changings such as plant growth rates. In this paper, we proposed a preprocessing algorithm to eliminate the noise and separate foreground from the background which results the plant image to help the plant image segmentation. The preprocessing is one of important levels has effect on better image segmentation and finally better plant’s image labeling and analysis. Our proposed algorithm is focused on removing noise such as converting the color space, applying the filters and local adaptive binarization step such as Niblack. Finally, we evaluate our algorithm with other algorithms by testing a variety of binarization methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1002.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Wind-offshore; Renewable Energy; Dynamic Model; Economic Evaluation; optimization methodologies
Online: 17 October 2023 (04:54:19 CEST)
Portugal, in line with the European Union, is aiming for carbon neutrality by 2050 (Net 1 Zero), which implies a transition to sustainable energy sources. Climate change is all too evident, extreme weather periods are occurring in a cyclical manner, with greater brevity to such an extent that the grid operator must deal with production scenarios where it can no longer rely on hydroelectric production given the recurring drought situation. This situation increases dependence on thermal production using natural gas and imports. This has significant economic implications. Portugal has exploited its onshore wind potential, reaching an installed capacity of 5.671 MW by 2022. However, the expansion of onshore wind energy is limited to reinforcing existing infrastructure. To overcome these challenges, it is necessary to expand the exploitation of offshore wind potential that is already underway. This article proposes the location of offshore wind production platforms along the Portuguese coast. This allows for an analysis of offshore production and its optimization according to the minimum cost per MWh in the face of extreme scenarios, i.e., in periods of extreme drought where hydroelectric production capacity is practically non-existent. The model is fed by using market price indications and the amount of energy needed for the following day. Using forecast data, the model adapts offshore wind production for the following day according to the minimization of the average market price. The results of the simulations allow us to conclude that despite the high cost of offshore technology (in deep waters), in extreme climate scenarios, it enables cost reduction and a clear decrease in imports.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0477.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: subgrade engineering; risk assessment; game theory; approximate comprehensive evaluation method
Online: 7 September 2023 (07:03:11 CEST)
The construction safety risks (such as landslides or slumps) of the high-fill subgrade are characterized by uncertainty and variability. In order to ensure the construction safety of the high-fill subgrade of the expressway, a comprehensive risk assessment model of high-fill subgrade construction according to the combination weighting method based on game theory was established. Firstly, settlement rate, lateral differential settlement, horizontal displacement at the foot of the slope, deep horizontal displacement, and excess pore pressure were selected as evaluation indicators, and an evaluation index system of high-fill subgrade was constructed. Secondly, the subjective and objective weights were obtained via the analytic hierarchy process and entropy method. Furthermore, the optimized weights were obtained by introducing game theory, and the construction risk of the high-fill subgrade was evaluated and analyzed using the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method. Finally, based on the high-fill section of the Zhijiang-Tongren Expressway in Hunan Province (China), the evaluation model was validated through field measurement data. The results show that the safety scores obtained using the three methods of analytic hierarchy process, entropy method, and combination weighting method based on game theory are similar. The combination weighting evaluation model can correct the evaluation result error caused by a single weight and avoid information delay caused by the manual processing and analysis of monitoring data. The high-fill subgrade safety evaluation grade based on the combination weighting method and game theory is consistent with the engineering situation, and its fault tolerance range is within 20%. The evaluation model proposed in this study can scientifically and effectively evaluate the safety risks of high-fill subgrade construction, significantly improving the safety and reliability during the construction process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0955.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Data Structures, Algorithms And Complexity Keywords: Meta-heuristic; Dominating tree; Dual neighborhoods; Fast neighborhood evaluation; Optimization
Online: 14 August 2023 (09:13:05 CEST)
The minimum dominating tree (MDT) problem consists of finding a minimum weight sub-graph from an undirected graph, such that each vertex not in this sub-graph is adjacent to at least one of the vertices in it, and the sub-graph is connected without any ring structures. This paper presents a Dual Neighborhoods Search (DNS) algorithm for solving the MDT problem, which integrates several distinguishing features, such as two neighborhoods collaboratively working for optimizing the objective function, a fast neighborhood evaluation method to boost the searching effectiveness, and several diversification techniques to help the searching process jump out of the local optimum trap thus obtaining better solutions. DNS improves the previous best-known results for 4 public benchmark instances while providing competitive results for the remaining ones. Several ingredients of DNS are investigated to demonstrate the importance of the proposed ideas and techniques.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1853.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Data Structures, Algorithms And Complexity Keywords: blockchain; consensual algorithm; PBFT algorithm; Node evaluation mechanism; Fibonacci grouping
Online: 27 July 2023 (10:22:16 CEST)
In view of the Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance (PBFT) consensus algorithm all nodes participate in the consensus, the three-stage process has problems such as large communication overhead, random selection of master nodes and lack of reward and punishment mechanism. A Speculative Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance (SP-PBFT) is proposed. Firstly, the consensus protocol was optimized, and a timeout mechanism was proposed to divide the consensus process into optimistic mode and pessimistic mode, which reduced the communication overhead under the premise of resisting Byzantine node attacks .Secondly, a node evaluation mechanism was proposed to calculate the node reputation value according to the node's historical behavior and give the corresponding reward or punishment, which reduced the possibility of malicious nodes participating in the consensus process. Finally, the Fibonacci grouping mechanism was used to reduce the number of nodes participating in the consensus process, fundamentally improving the consensus efficiency, avoiding the problem of centralization of the consensus process caused by the cumulative reputation value of nodes, and improving the enthusiasm of consensus nodes. Simulation experiments using Docker containers to simulate multiple nodes show that the SP-PBFT consensus algorithm proposed in this paper has better performance than PBFT consensus algorithm and other improved algorithms in terms of consensus delay, throughput, fault tolerance and communication complexity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1143.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Handwashing; Programme Design; Behaviour Change; Hygiene, Humanitarian Crises; Process Evaluation
Online: 18 July 2023 (05:47:56 CEST)
Wash’Em is a process that supports humanitarians in assessing and designing rapid but context-specific hygiene programmes in crises or outbreaks. The process consists of training implementers, using tools to learn from populations, and entering findings into a software which generates contextualised activities. A process evaluation of Wash’Em use was conducted in a drought-affected area in Midland province, Zimbabwe. Data was collected during the programme design and following implementation, using a mix of qualitative methods. Findings were classified against the intended stages of Wash’Em, and the evaluation domains were defined by the UKRI Medical Research Council. The Wash’Em process was not fully implemented as intended. An abridged training was utilised, some of the tools for learning from populations were omitted, many of the recommended activities were not implemented, the delivery modalities were different from intended, the budget available was minimal, and the number of people exposed to activities were fewer than hoped. Despite these ‘on the ground’ challenges and adaptations, the Wash’Em process was considered feasible by implementers and was seen to be less top-down than most programme design approaches. The populations exposed to the intervention found the activities engaging, understood the content, and reportedly took action to improve handwashing behaviour.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2156.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: ultrasonic testing; corrosion; longitudinal wave; non-destructive evaluation; elevated temperature
Online: 29 June 2023 (13:40:49 CEST)
On-stream inspections are the most appropriate method for routine inspections during plant operation without going through production downtime. Ultrasonic inspection, one of the on-stream inspection methods, faces challenges when performed at high temperatures exceeding the recommended 52°C. This study aims to determine the ultrasonic velocity and attenuation with the known material grade, thickness, and temperatures by comparing theory calculation versus experiment with temperatures ranging between 30°C to 250°C on low carbon steel covering most petrochemical equipment material and working conditions. The theoretical analysis was to obtain Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, and longitudinal velocity at different temperatures. The experiments validated the predicted results of ultrasonic change due to temperature increase and showed a maximum error of 3%. The experimental data of velocity and decibel change from the temperature range provide a reference for the future when dealing with unknown materials information on site that require a quick corrosion status determination.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0239.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Wind energy; Data sharing; Best practice; Machine learning; Model evaluation
Online: 14 March 2023 (02:34:33 CET)
The digital era offers many opportunities to the wind energy industry and research community. Digitalisation is one of the key drivers for reducing costs and risks over the whole wind energy project life cycle. One of the largest challenges in successfully implementing digitalisation is the lack of data sharing and collaboration between organisations in the sector. In order to overcome this challenge, a new collaboration method called WeDoWind was developed in recent work. The main innovation of this method is the way it creates tangible incentives to motivate and empower different types of people from all over the world to actually share data and knowledge in practice. In this present paper, the challenges related to comparing and evaluating different SCADA data based wind turbine fault detection models are investigated by carrying out a new case study, the "WinJi Gearbox Fault Detection Challenge", based on the WeDoWind Method. Six new solutions were submitted to the challenge, and a comparison and evaluation of the results show that, in general, some of the approaches (Particle Swarm Optimisation algorithm for constructing health indicators, performance monitoring using Deep Neural Networks, Combined Ward Hierarchical Clustering and Novelty Detection with Local Outlier Factor and Time-to-failure prediction using Random Forest Regression) appear to have a high potential to reach the goals of the Challenge. However, there are a number of concrete things that would have to have been done by the Challenge providers and the Challenge moderators in order to ensure success. This includes enabling access to more details of the different failure types, access to multiple data sets from more wind turbines experiencing gearbox failure, provision of a model or rule relating fault detection times or a remaining useful lifetime to the estimated costs for repairs, replacements and inspections, provision of a clear strategy for training and test periods in advance, as well as provision of a pre-defined template or requirements for the results. These learning outcomes are used directly to define a set of best practice data sharing guidelines for wind turbine fault detection model evaluation. They can be used by the sector in order to improve model evaluation and data sharing in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0173.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Tarim river; ecological service function value; river ecosystem; evaluation indicators
Online: 13 June 2022 (09:33:56 CEST)
The estimation of ecological service system value of water resources in Tarim river basin is of great significance for resource allocation management and ecological protection. However, there is still no unified and complete evaluation method for ecological service system value of inland river in China. Based on the perspective of the whole value chain, the study classifies its ecological service functions, and divides 11 sub-categories into 4 categories (supply, regulation, culture and support) as evaluation indicators to carry out quantitative evaluation. The results showed that the total value of ecological service system in Tarim river basin in 2018 was 4156.5247×108 Yuan, and the value of regulating function, cultural function, supporting function and supply function were successively from high to low, which were as follows: 2565.6825×108 Yuan, 1009.5471×108 Yuan, 884.0770×108 Yuan, 20.3350×108 Yuan, among which the value of regulation function is dominant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0181.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: Scoring; Rubrics; Health; Personnel; Program Evaluation; Distance Education; Residency Education; Speciality
Online: 31 May 2022 (14:06:26 CEST)
Introduction: In the medical area, teaching is essential since it must offer the appropriate instruments to demonstrate that graduates have acquired the necessary skills. Objective: Evaluate the quality of research in residents of medical specialties after a standardized digital training program with rubrics. Methods: An observational, prospective research study in resident physicians of seven medical specialties first-year of an introductory program to methodology. It is integrated with the result variable through the quality of the final product and the quality variable will be measured with an ad hoc questionnaire validated by the Delphi method with a consistency level of 3-3. The data will be integrated into a base of the SPSS system and determined with the Chi-square test considering a minimum significance of 0.05. Results: 85 first-year medical residents (n=85) enrolled in the Research Seminar. The mean age was 31.34 years (± 3.96). About gender Male 38±31.13 Female 31.51±3.83. The global final grade was 80.61 (± 9.59) and the global sat-isfaction of the course was referred to as good by 62.2%. We observed a positive relationship between the scope of evaluation and the level of satisfaction. Conclusion: The research seminar implementation in a b-learning mode in response to the educational needs in medical residents for the field of health education showed a relationship between higher qualification, higher satisfaction, as well as determining that the comprehensive evaluation through the use of rubrics standardized allowed to delimit the deficiencies and strengths for timely feedback influencing the process of acquiring skills and the quality of the final product.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0379.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: SDGs; Green Deal; simulation modeling; soil survey interpretation; land evaluation
Online: 29 March 2022 (09:57:22 CEST)
Reaching the land-related UN-Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and similar goals articulated by the EU-Green Deal (GD) by 2030 presents a major challenge and requires a pragmatic approach to be focused on joint learning by land users (mostly farmers), researchers and other stakeholders in “Living Labs” and system experiments at experimental farms of research organizations. Defining specific indicators and thresholds for ecosystem services in line with land-related SDGs, are crucial to establish: “Lighthouses” that can act as inspiring examples if they meet the various thresholds. This exploratory paper discusses indicators and thresholds for an arable farm operating on marine, calcareous light clay soils in the Netherlands. Studies of a system experiment are used to discuss and test operational methodology to be widely applied when characterizing many “Living Labs” in future as planned by the European Union. The important role of soils, contributing to ecosystem services, is discussed in terms of soil health. Recommendations are made for innovative methodology to be associated with all land-related SDGs. Satisfying thresholds of ecosystem services, that will vary by soil type, region and farm-type, can be the basis for farm subsidies such as the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). Research on Living Labs and in system experiments has to be judged by different criteria than those associated with traditional linear research. Important contributions by soils to achieve ecosystem services are framed in terms of soil health and are the most effective way to promote soil science in a by now widely desired inter- and transdisciplinary context.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0159.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: Maritime Silk Road; investment environment; dynamic evaluation; projection pursuit cluster
Online: 14 October 2021 (10:47:02 CEST)
Understanding and evaluating urban investment environment is essential for effectively improving the efficiency of resource allocation between cities and promoting overall development of the regional economy. This paper takes 15 node cities on maritime Silk Road covered by the “Belt and Road” as the research object, establishes a dynamic evaluation index system for investment environment, and uses projection pursuit cluster to analyze and evaluate the investment environment of the cities. It is found that the investment environment potential of a city is directly related to the level of social development, economic development, and the degree of opening to the outside world. It is recommended that node cities should seize the important opportunity of the construction of the Maritime Silk Road, introduce world-wide human, financial and material resources to promote regional resources allocation and flow, and continuously improve and upgrade the investment environment quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0096.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: Qinling mountains; Wild Chinese prickly ashes; HPLC fingerprint; Resource evaluation.
Online: 3 August 2021 (15:55:32 CEST)
Wild Chinese prickly ash with elevated antioxidants is a valuable genetic resource for Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim improvement. There are rich wild germplasm resources in the Qinling Mountains. In a study with wild germplasm resources from different altitudes and six cultivated varieties, the phenolic and flavonoid compounds were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The chromatograms of them were basically the same, although their chemical composition content was greatly different. The thirty samples were divided into three categories through the hierarchical clustering analysis. And catechin, hyperoside and quercitrin were considered to be key compound for the quality evaluation, by contrast, the wild samples with an altitude of 2300±50 m (Ⅳ group) had the highest content of key compounds, and showed stronger antioxidant activity and antibacterial ability, indicating that these wild samples could be used as an excellent breeding resource. This is the first time to evaluate the quality of wild Chinese prickly ash in different altitude areas of Qinling Mountains. These excellent wild germplasm resources provided substantial potential accessions for use directly in Chinese prickly ash breeding programs.