Working Paper Article Version 2 This version is not peer-reviewed

White Liberals Become ‘Anti-White’ when Situationally Frustrated

Version 1 : Received: 9 October 2020 / Approved: 12 October 2020 / Online: 12 October 2020 (09:56:03 CEST)
Version 2 : Received: 5 September 2021 / Approved: 13 September 2021 / Online: 13 September 2021 (10:34:53 CEST)

How to cite: Amd, M. White Liberals Become ‘Anti-White’ when Situationally Frustrated. Preprints 2020, 2020100218 Amd, M. White Liberals Become ‘Anti-White’ when Situationally Frustrated. Preprints 2020, 2020100218


North American Whites tend to evaluate members of their own race more positively than members of other races. One exception may be White Liberals, who appear politically motivated to evaluate members of (disadvantaged) racial outgroups more positively than members of their own racial group. We confirmed this claim presently, where 75 White Liberals, 95 White Conservatives, 49 Black Liberals and 71 Black Conservatives evaluated biracial faces using explicit and implicit evaluation tests. We instrumentally ‘frustrated’ half our participants to note whether incidental anger influenced ideologically-motivated racial attitudes. Evaluations towards racial outgroups were largely unaffected by negative mood induction -White Liberals were pro-Black relative to White Conservatives, and Black Conservatives were pro-White relative to Black Liberals, independent of mood. Negative mood induction selectively influenced own-race evaluations. Black Liberals and White Conservatives became respectively more pro-Black and pro-White when frustrated.Conversely, Black Conservatives and White Liberals became respectively less pro-Black and pro-White. Frustration significantly amplified negative own-race attitudes across explicit and implicit evaluation measures for White Liberals. We speculate on some social consequences that may follow from frustration-amplified ‘anti-White’ bias across White Liberals.


frustration; racial bias; political ideology; implicit evaluation


Social Sciences, Psychology

Comments (1)

Comment 1
Received: 13 September 2021
Commenter: Micah Amd
Commenter's Conflict of Interests: Author
Comment: - Collected new data (>100 participants)
- Updated data analysis
- Manuscript substantially revised
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