ARTICLE Download: 4| View: 32| Comments: 0
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: digital competence; teacher education; privacy; cyber security; Internet; teachers; university; initial training; Competencia digital; formación del profesorado; privacidad; seguridad cibernética; Internet; docentes; universidad; formación inicial
Online: 17 October 2019 (12:22:39 CEST)
The use of technologies and the Internet poses problems and risks related to digital security. This article presents the results of a study on the evaluation of the digital competence of future teachers in the DigCompEdu European framework. 317 undergraduate students from Spain and Portugal answered a questionnaire with 59 items, validated by experts, in order to assess the level and predominant competence profile in initial training (including knowledge, uses and interactions and attitudinal patterns). The results show that 47% of the participants belong to the profile of teachers at medium digital risk, evidencing habitual practices that involve risks such as sharing information and digital content inappropriately, not using strong passwords, and ignoring concepts such as identity, digital “footprint” and digital reputation. The average valuations of each item in the seven categories show that future teachers have an average competence in the area of digital security. They have good attitudes toward security but less knowledge and fewer skills and practices related to the safe and responsible use of the Internet. Future lines of work are proposed, aimed at responding to the demand for a better prepared and more digitally competent citizenry. The demand for education in security, privacy and digital identity is becoming increasingly important, and these elements form an essential part of initial training.
Wed, 16 October 2019
ARTICLE Download: 75| View: 52| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0170.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: finance; governance; water; sanitation; enabling environment; pro-poor; systems thinking
Online: 16 October 2019 (04:06:46 CEST)
Responding to the substantial finance gap for achieving Sustainable Development Goal 6.1 and 6.2, the Water and Sanitation sector has mobilized to launch new blended finance vehicles with increasing frequency. The sustainability and scale-up of financial solutions is intended to support increased access to unserved, marginalized populations. However, without addressing foundational issues in the sector, any finance mechanism, whether public, private or blended, will be a short-term, band-aid solution and the sector will continue the cycle of dependency on external assistance. This paper presents the results of a collaborative effort of Water.org, IRC WASH and the World Bank Water Global Practice. Drawing from the latest research on effective public financial management and based on evidence from the countries where these organizations work, the paper demonstrates that sustainable success in mobilising finance at large scale is dependent on a reasonable level of performance across 10 foundational areas. The paper presents evidence on the 10 foundational areas and discusses why other aspects of finance and governance while necessary are not sufficient. Better coordination amongst all development partners and governments, including a collective commitment to and prioritization of working on these foundational issues, is a necessary first step.
Tue, 15 October 2019
ARTICLE Download: 11| View: 98| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0164.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: funds of identity; funds of knowledge; digital media; contextualization; personalized learning; participatory culture; culturally sustaining pedagogy
Online: 15 October 2019 (07:56:20 CEST)
Within the framework of theoretical developments in so-called participatory culture and the context of funds of identity, incorporated within what is known as the funds of knowledge approach, an innovative teaching methodology is implemented that allows students to actively participate in knowledge construction. The project translates into a proposal for educational contextualization and personalization based on the students’ funds of identity, that is, those resources (people, artifacts, places, activities, institutions) they consider to be most relevant and significant to define themselves. Once these have been identified through identity artifacts, such as collages or self-drawings, students link some of these funds of identity to curricular content of the subject and produce a video that shows the results of this academic work. The final product is shared on a YouTube channel containing the videos of all of the students in the class. The phases of the project are described and illustrated. We argue that the proposed teaching and learning project, which is cross-disciplinary in nature, allows for principles such as educational contextualization, funds of identity, and participatory culture to be incorporated into what we call here the funds of identity 2.0 approach, putting it into educational practice.
ARTICLE Download: 8| View: 78| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0162.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Xinchang Thai; quantile regression; functional classification of government expenditure; Xiao Kang
Online: 15 October 2019 (05:48:07 CEST)
On October 18, 2017, Chinese President Xi Jinping presented the blueprint for building a modernized socialist nation through the realization of the Xiao Kang (Every nation enjoys a peaceful and affluent life, it is meaningless to eliminate the poor) social construction at the 19th Congress of China. Subsequent to the 2008 financial crisis, the world has moved on to the new economic status of the New Normal. China has also entered the era of “Xinchang Thai,” which is moving from the high-growth to the moderate-growth phase. Therefore, the government of China emphasizes privatization, liberalization, and deregulation. China is also influenced by government policies due to the nature of socialism. This study confirms China’s current stage of economic development based on Barro’s theory. Thus, we use a quantile regression model and examine the correlation between economic growth and functional classification of government expenditure during Xi Jinping's term of office. Furthermore, we selected Korea as a comparative country as the two countries have common features.
Mon, 14 October 2019
ARTICLE Download: 27| View: 96| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0157.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: Sustainable Development Goals; sustainability; ecosystem-based approach; blue economy; coral reef; coastal systems; landscape; seascape
Online: 14 October 2019 (10:35:48 CEST)
The Sustainable Development Goals, while complex at first sight, express a simple narrative about the relationships between people and nature. This paper illustrates this in the context of a coral reef land or seascape supporting coastal people. Coral reefs, their health described by measures of coral and fish diversity and abundance, provide key services and benefits to people. These services directly support 10s of millions of jobs in multiple economic sectors in coastal and distant states, protect and harbor communities and cities across tropical coastlines, sustain use of living and non-living resources, provide transport infrastructure and valuable natural products, and in future may provide energy solutions. Through these multiple benefits, coral reefs contribute to reducing hunger and poverty, thus improving health, and potentially strengthening gender and social equality. However, access and use result in pressures that may drive decline in coral reef health. Broader land and seascape factors also affect reef health, including land-use change and altered freshwater flows, as well as climate change. Managing this complex system requires appropriate awareness and knowledge, governance mechanisms and investments by stakeholders. This narrative can be used from local to global levels, motivating actions and policy at and across these scales to sustain ecosystem function and use, for the oceans what is also increasingly called a blue economy.
Sun, 13 October 2019
ARTICLE Download: 8| View: 120| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0151.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: exploratory spatial data analysis; LISA; temporary assistance for needy families (TANF); tanf responsiveness to great recession; spatial clusters; TANF policy choices; TANF maximum aid
Online: 13 October 2019 (16:35:09 CEST)
During the 2008 Great Recession, many families with children relied on cash assistance from Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program. The present study applied Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis (ESDA) tools to analyze geographically varying spatial clusters of states’ unemployment rates, TANF caseload growth rates, TANF policy choices such as benefit levels and TANF responsiveness rates to the recession. We analyzed 45 contiguous states and Washington D.C. A standardized TANF responsiveness index was developed to compare states’ TANF growth rates relative to their labor market conditions. The western states were found to be very responsive to the recession with ratios greater than one. In contrast, Texas and Arizona, with ratios below 1, were unresponsive to the recession. The presence of strong spatial clusters in unemployment rate and TANF maximum aid were found. In the case of maximum aid, there was a strong presence of Low-Low spatial clusters in Southern States and High-High clusters in Northeastern States. The findings suggest that several neighboring states in the northeast and some in the south had similar levels of financial commitment during the 2008 recessionary as the ones found by earlier research conducted during non-recessionary periods. The findings have implications for future federal actions and for state level collaboration.
Wed, 9 October 2019
ARTICLE Download: 42| View: 183| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0106.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Marketing Keywords: sustainability; sustainable development; sustainable marketing
Online: 9 October 2019 (11:20:24 CEST)
The purpose of this article is to draw attention to the challenges faced by business organizations implementing sustainable solutions in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and the wider Gulf Coast Countries (GCC) region. To this end, our study examines an academic theory supporting the implementation of responsible solutions to the market. Ultimately, the authors hope to inspire the reader to consider what he or she can do to ameliorate the existing challenges encountered by sustainable businesses. The analysis presented in this article implies that in recent markets, the implementation of the sustainability theory is essential for further development. The research project contributes to the increase of knowledge about corporate and organizational challenges related to running a responsible business, as well as challenges related to the application of environmental, social and economic aspects of sustainable business practices. The research is currently limited to conceptual analysis, literature review and a survey conducted during the Sustainability Week 2019 in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. Nevertheless, this is the first stage of the research project conducted by the research team in cooperation with enterprises that implement responsible solutions in many global markets, and in UAE market. The scope of the first stage of the study was limited to the analysis of data clarifying the concept of the model specified in the research. To prove the validity of the model it will be implemented and tested in cooperation with organizations participating in the research.
Fri, 4 October 2019
ARTICLE Download: 42| View: 154| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0051.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: urban structure; urban form; urban fabric; Japan; Osaka
Online: 4 October 2019 (11:52:16 CEST)
The Japanese city presents a certain number of peculiarities in the organization of its physical space (weak zoning regulations, fast piecemeal destruction/reconstruction of buildings and blocks, high compacity, incremental reorganization). Compared to countries where urban fabrics are more perennial and easily distinguishable (old centers, modern planned projects, residential areas, etc.), in Japanese metropolitan areas we often observe higher heterogeneity and more complex spatial patterns. Even within such a model, it should be possible to recognize the internal organization of the physical city. The aim of this paper is thus to study the spatial structure of the contemporary Japanese city, generalizing on the case study of Osaka and Kobe. In order to achieve this goal, we will need to identify urban forms at different local scales (building types, urban fabrics) and to analyze them at a wider scale to delineate morphological regions and their structuring of the overall layout of the contemporary Japanese city. Several analytical protocols are used together with field observations and literature. The results, and more particularly the building and urban fabrics types and their location within the Osaka-Kobe metropolitan area, are interpreted in the light of Japanese history and model of urbanization. A synoptic graphical model of an urban morphological structure based upon Osaka is produced and proposed as an interpretative pattern for the Japanese metropolitan city in general.
ARTICLE Download: 33| View: 128| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0049.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Econometrics & Statistics Keywords: Adaptation; Indigenous knowledge; CD production; paddy; hilly Nepal
Online: 4 October 2019 (11:44:11 CEST)
Climate change is a buzzword in the world. Scientist has approved it as global warming with its projection of undesired and unpredicted frequent extreme events and their vulnerabilities not only at present but also at future. There is an assumption of occurrence of adaptive capacity and behavior of farmers in agriculture production activity at some extent to neutralize climate change vulnerabilities of flood and landslides on paddy production. This paper empirically examines the effects of climate change in paddy production and farmer’s adaptive behaviors to neutralize such climatic shocks and events in paddy production by employing CD production function based econometric model. The study employed primary data collected through 642 household surveys. The study finds that climatic shocks and events have huge loss (60%) in paddy production and revenue income in such plot where farmers have not indigenous knowledge and practices. But both small and larger farmers who have adaptive capacity and behavior with their indigenous knowledge have less loss in paddy production and revenue income, although they have heterogeneity in their socio economic characteristics (income, asset holding, literacy, experience, land holding and age). The farmers who have used adaptive behavior have indigenous knowledge and experiences including bamboo wall construction to control flood and landslides and seed change to resist climatic shocks and events. In hilly region, the farmers have not sufficient alternative measures, except both adaptive measures because of their poverty, illiteracy and remote locations. The study finds their higher effective level to minimize vulnerabilities to paddy production and revenue per farm plot, although these adaptive behaviors are cost effective and local entity. Comparatively, bamboo wall construction is more effective measure in the paddy production than others are (seed switch) to minimize the flooding materials from the flood and the landslides. Thus, low cost indigenous adaption behavior of farmers is effective measure to climate change and climate change induced disasters and events vulnerability in paddy production.
ARTICLE Download: 26| View: 120| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0047.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: change management; decision-making model; risk management; resource management; process improvement; good governance
Online: 4 October 2019 (10:42:05 CEST)
Abstract: Purpose – In this article we lay out the change management practices adopted by financial firms in small states within the Eurozone. We determine whether these organisations have the ability to identify triggers for change (Red Flags) and subject them to eight thematic elements to understand whether management practices can continue to exist and support operational environments, even when unexpected circumstances affect their day to day operations and processes. In doing this we examine the extent to which the eight thematic elements from the model designed by Dalli Gonzi, (2019) (The Dali Model) can assist organisations in risk identification and business continuity planning. Design/methodology/approach – A self-administered questionnaire purposely designed for this study was administered to personnel working in internal controls within financial institutions of small Eurozone states. The participants were asked to grade statements using a 5-point Likert scale, ‘1’ being ‘totally disagree’ and ‘5’ being totally agree’ to the statement posed under the thematic elements forming the basis of the Dali Model. Findings – Factor analysis provided support for the eight hypothesised dimensions of the decision-making model: connection, capacity, governance, network, policy, training, process improvement, standards. Originality/value – The study provides a better understanding and support of “best practice” in change management through an understanding and assessment of the eight factors that are the basis of this model. It addresses practical recommendations to ensure application to a wider frame of use.
ARTICLE Download: 24| View: 117| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0046.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: women household decision making; maternal mortality; sustainable development goals; developing countries; Nigeria
Online: 4 October 2019 (10:39:02 CEST)
High maternal mortality in the developing countries, particularly in Nigeria, poses serious challenge to achieving the maternal mortality target of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in the countries. Hence, there is need for multifaceted approach to curtailing the scourge. Women being the victims of maternal mortality, this study finds the effect of their household decision making power in reducing maternal mortality. The study used data from the 2013 Nigeria Health and Demographic Survey (NDHS) and logistic regression model to explore the relationship between women household decision making power and maternal mortality in Nigeria. The finding shows that women who decide and participate in household decision on own health, major purchases and visit to family and relatives were 35% (OR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.52, 0.83), 27% (OR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.57, 0.92), and 37% (OR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.50, 0.80) less likely to experience maternal mortality, respectively, compared to those whose husbands alone decide. Women household decision making power is therefore instrumental to reducing maternal mortality. It is thus important for policy makers, particularly in Nigeria, to pay more attention to social and cultural factors that surround women household decision making ability for speedy reduction in maternal deaths.
Thu, 3 October 2019
ARTICLE Download: 25| View: 143| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0038.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: asset pricing; credit risk modeling; unilateral; bilateral; multilateral credit risk; collateralization; comvariance; comrelation; correlation
Online: 3 October 2019 (04:49:57 CEST)
This article presents a comprehensive framework for valuing financial instruments subject to credit risk. In particular, we focus on the impact of default dependence on asset pricing, as correlated default risk is one of the most pervasive threats in financial markets. We analyze how swap rates are affected by bilateral counterparty credit risk, and how CDS spreads depend on the trilateral credit risk of the buyer, seller, and reference entity in a contract. Moreover, we study the effect of collateralization on valuation, since the majority of OTC derivatives are collateralized. The model shows that a fully collateralized swap is risk-free, whereas a fully collateralized CDS is not equivalent to a risk-free one.
Wed, 2 October 2019
ARTICLE Download: 19| View: 139| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0012.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: rural revitalization; poverty caused by education; economic development
Online: 2 October 2019 (03:37:01 CEST)
The sample data are used from Shaanxi Statistical Yearbook （1999-2018）and poverty population in X County of Southern Shaanxi in 2018. By using Eviews and Excel, this report focuses on analyzing the relationship between education investment and economic growth, education for poverty population, per capita income and poverty caused by education in X county, which can explain reasons for the phenomenon of poverty caused by education. The countermeasures are proposed to solve the phenomenon of poverty caused by education, including establishing scientific education view, correctly understanding education investment and benefit, and improving the aid mechanism for poor students to realize the effective connect among poverty alleviation through education, accurate poverty alleviation and rural revitalization.
Tue, 1 October 2019
ARTICLE Download: 31| View: 109| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0002.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: improved storage structure; aflatoxin; peanut; cragg’s model; ghana
Online: 1 October 2019 (02:48:35 CEST)
Peanut production contributes to food security in northern Ghana due to its ability to tolerate drought and survive on marginal lands. This notwithstanding, poor handling along the value chain favors aflatoxin contamination, a threat to human and animal life. Farmer-led improved storage practice, a potential solution to aflatoxin contamination, have been promoted in northern Ghana. However, there is limited evidence on the factors influencing the use of the improved storage system that may guide dissemination efforts. Using the Cragg’s two stage model, our results show that the probability and intensity of adopting the improved storage structure is principally and significantly influenced by economic active household members, storing of peanut in other places relative to the field, and location of farmer residence. In disseminating the improved peanut storage structure, the identified factors must be incorporated in the selection criteria to ensure maximum uptake and usage. Farmer training programs that incorporate both good agronomic practices and good storage practices must be intensified to reduce postharvest losses due to aflatoxin contamination. These strategies will help mitigate the harmful effect of aflatoxin, ensure economic sustainability, and enhance food security.
Sun, 29 September 2019
ARTICLE Download: 32| View: 119| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0332.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: ecological efficiency; collaborative innovation; global-malmquist; gravity model; system-gmm
Online: 29 September 2019 (10:42:11 CEST)
Taking capital, manpower, and natural resources as inputs, regional GDP as expected output, and industrial pollution as undesired output, this study measures the ecological efficiency of various regions in China through the Global-Malmquist model. The results show a trend of an initial sharp decline in ecological efficiency followed by a gradual increase in the time dimension, but there is no significant correlation in the spatial dimension. Using the gravity model to quantify the attractiveness of the regions’ capital and human resources for collaborative innovation, it estimates the impact of collaborative innovation on eco-efficiency through the system-Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) model. The results show that technological innovation capital in other regions has a negative “U” relationship with local ecological efficiency, while scientific and technological innovation human resources have a positive “U” relationship. In addition, government financial support in science and technology and the ecological efficiency of the previous period serve as promoting factors of the current local ecological efficiency, while the introduction of foreign technological innovation is likely to inhibit improvements in ecological efficiency. Based on these findings, this study puts forward corresponding policy recommendations for local governments to advance their development agendas alongside their environmental priorities in line with their specific circumstances.
ARTICLE Download: 19| View: 109| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0321.v1
Online: 29 September 2019 (04:40:24 CEST)
Sociology and History as consolidated scientific and academic projects have maintained a peculiar and paradoxical relationship. The growing disciplinary and subdisciplinary specialization of these two sciences poses relevant epistemological and methodological challenges to face potential situations of isolation, fragmentation and enable the apology of an interdisciplinary perspective characterized by the historicity of social structures, actions and senses.Several types of reasons shape this diffuse process of approach/distinction between Sociology and History, namely, epistemological and methodological, disciplinary closure, academic, professional, configuring what can be called contained dialogues. This paper, starting from the sociological perspective of the authors, seeks to contribute to the reflection on the relevance of a scientific project aimed at affirming an interdisciplinary perspective that may foster the heuristic potentialities of both Sociology and History in the analysis of the complexity of social reality and human action.
ARTICLE Download: 35| View: 108| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0320.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: water; agriculture; migration; caribbean sids; climate change
Online: 29 September 2019 (02:54:00 CEST)
Caribbean SIDS are among the most vulnerable to climate change which will have a disproportionate impact on local environments and economies. Whilst there is a growing literature on how Caribbean SIDS can adapt to become more resilient a question that has received little attention is with regard to migration as an unplanned response. It is recognised that events such as hurricanes and flooding can lead to internal relocation in the short term but societal responses to droughts through migration have not generally been investigated. This paper seeks to address this by considering the case of the island of Carriacou, part of the state of Grenada. Carriacou with its small population, limited land area and local economy, historically based on agriculture has had a high degree of migration. This is in part a response to limited economic opportunities. Environmental stress manifest through limited water availability, inappropriate land management and social conditions is likely to be exacerbated by climate change and variability. Resultant increases in the frequency and intensity of droughts, in the absence of proactive interventions, are likely to result in non-linear migration, both to Grenada itself and beyond.
Wed, 25 September 2019
ARTICLE Download: 40| View: 163| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0280.v1
Online: 25 September 2019 (09:09:06 CEST)
This paper models and estimates the volatility of nonfinancial, innovative and hi-tech focused stock index, the Nasdaq-100, using univariate symmetric and asymmetric GARCH models. We employ GARCH, EGARCH and GJR-GARCH using daily data over the period January 4, 2000 through March 19, 2019. We find that the volatility shocks on the index returns are quite persistent. Furthermore, our findings show that the index has leverage effect, and the impact of shocks is asymmetric, whereby the impacts of negative shocks on volatility are higher than those of positive shocks of the same magnitude.
Fri, 20 September 2019
ARTICLE Download: 32| View: 173| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0230.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: unilateral/bilateral collateralization; partial/full/over collateralization; asset pricing; plumbing of the financial system; swap premium spread; OTC/cleared/listed financial markets
Online: 20 September 2019 (04:06:14 CEST)
This paper attempts to assess the economic significance and implications of collateralization in different financial markets, which is essentially a matter of theoretical justification and empirical verification. We present a comprehensive theoretical framework that allows for collateralization adhering to bankruptcy laws. As such, the model can back out differences in asset prices due to collateralized counterparty risk. This framework is very useful for pricing outstanding defaultable financial contracts. By using a unique data set, we are able to achieve a clean decomposition of prices into their credit risk factors. We find empirical evidence that counterparty risk is not overly important in credit-related spreads. Only the joint effects of collateralization and credit risk can sufficiently explain unsecured credit costs. This finding suggests that failure to properly account for collateralization may result in significant mispricing of financial contracts. We also analyze the difference between cleared and OTC markets.
Thu, 19 September 2019
ARTICLE Download: 56| View: 227| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0223.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: peer-to-peer energy trading; consumer demand; distributed ledger technology; blockchain; online survey experiment
Online: 19 September 2019 (11:30:53 CEST)
Peer-to-peer (P2P) energy trading could help address grid management challenges in a decentralizing electricity system, as well as providing other social and environmental benefits. Many existing and proposed trading schemes are enabled by blockchain, a distributed ledger technology (DLT) relying on cryptographic proof of ownership rather than human intermediaries to establish energy transactions. This study used an online survey experiment (n=2064) to investigate how consumer demand for blockchain-enabled peer-to-peer energy trading schemes in the United Kingdom varies depending on how the consumer proposition is designed and communicated. The analysis provides some evidence of a preference for schemes offering to meet a higher proportion of participants’ energy needs, and for those operating at the city/region (as compared to national or neighbourhood) level. People were more likely to say they would participate when the scheme was framed as being run by their local council, followed by an energy supplier, community energy organization, and social media company. Anonymity was the most valued DLT characteristic and mentioning blockchain’s association with Bitcoin led to a substantial decrease in intended uptake. We highlight a range of important questions and implications suggested by these findings for the introduction and operation of P2P trading schemes.
Wed, 18 September 2019
REVIEW Download: 51| View: 182| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0211.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: MOOCs; distance education; self-directed learning; self-defined learning pathways; 21st century abilities
Online: 18 September 2019 (17:00:14 CEST)
This study is a synthesis of 159 articles that were selected for their relevance to comprehend key aspects of the Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) phenomenon, from a discourse analysis perspective. Since 2011, MOOCs are expanding worldwide so that the number of subscribers outpointed 101 million at the end of 2018. This paper explores the question whether the MOOCs are the embodiment of the global one-world classroom or whether, instead, they represent a low-cost alternative tailored to a segment that doesn´t have enough time or resources to attend a brick-and-mortar college. In addition, the review tackles the link between motivation and low completion rates. Finally, we discuss the need to devise better methods to assess the pedagogical value of MOOCs.
Mon, 16 September 2019
ARTICLE Download: 43| View: 96| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0173.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: Leadership; schools; education for sustainable development; ESD; management strategies; principals
Online: 16 September 2019 (16:50:24 CEST)
Education is expected to support the development of a more sustainable way of thinking, working, and living. Although there is a broad range of literature on Education for Sustainable development (ESD), the role of principals in the implementation of sustainability and ESD in schools has rarely been taken into consideration. However, based on the results of school effectiveness research, one can assume that school principals exert a significant influence on ESD. Sustainability is a leadership issue. When a school aims at integrating sustainability and ESD, the principal plays a pivotal role. She or he has to support the endeavor wholeheartedly and credibly, organize a participative process of school development, push ahead sustainability and ESD in the daily life of the school, support teaching staff in the application of ESD, involve students and offer them opportunities to launch their own initiatives. This article seeks to support principals in leading their schools towards sustainability. Four stages of the integration of Sustainability and ESD in a school are defined. For each of these stages, a number of actions and management strategies are suggested and explained in detail.
Sun, 15 September 2019
ARTICLE Download: 41| View: 96| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0153.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: vehicle park violations; POI; urban safety; urban healthy living; parking prediction
Online: 15 September 2019 (15:52:05 CEST)
Car parking is a challenging part of urban transportation and the traffic violations around it cause many problems for citizens. In recent years, due to the fast growth and development of urbanization, temporary and unauthorized stopping of cars along the streets, especially in large cities, has led to an increased traffic, urban disorders, dangers for citizens, and violation of rules. Studies have shown that there is a direct relationship between vehicle parking violations and urban places. GIScience capabilities and tools play an important role in analysing the spatial distribution of these violations. In this study, we investigated the spatial distribution of vehicle violations in a region of Tehran, Iran that is suffering from a heavy traffic load and heavily polluted air. Although two dissimilar urban segregations exist in the north and south of the study area, our analysis indicates a similar pattern of car parking violations. In both of the areas, about 70% of all curb parks are legal, while the remaining are illegal. Also, spatial analysis reveals a direct relationship between some POIs and the occurrence of car park violations so that the density of legal curb parks is high near some POIs, and less near some others and vice versa. For example, the number of vehicle park violation around the hospitals is more than the average of the study area. However, the number of park violations around the universities is less than the average. Our findings reveal that co-location of certain POIs, for instance a hotel and a supermarket will lead to an increase in the number of park violations. In other words, there is a strong correlation between the type of POIs and curb-parks violations. Our results also show that POIs have an impact radius that leads to violations occurring in that area. For example, the area of the impact of a hospital on the creation of car park violations was estimated at 125 meters. Our presented approach along with the discussed findings along with conclusions can be useful to a large range of stakeholders including urban planner, traffic police departments, local municipalities, law enforcement agencies, and environmentalists to have a better perspective of infrastructure planning.
Fri, 13 September 2019
ARTICLE Download: 98| View: 197| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0134.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: Algiers Stock Exchange; Box-Jenkins methodology; SARIMA model
Online: 13 September 2019 (12:33:41 CEST)
The Algiers Stock Exchange (ASE) is the only stock exchange in Algeria. It’s one of the newest and smallest emerging stock exchanges in the world. The focus of this paper is to model and forecast monthly returns of the ASE index (DZAIRINDEX) using The Box- Jenkins methodology. The period of this study is from Jun 2010 to July 2019. According to Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC) estimator, the Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average SARIMA(2,0,0)(0,0,1) is chosen as the best model for forecasting the monthly DZAIRINDEX returns. Diagnostic tests confirm that the fitted model is adequate, where the residuals of this model are normally distributed with no autocorrelation and no heteroskedasticity. The forecast of the monthly DZAIRINDEX returns for one year ahead using this model shows a decreasing fluctuations trend. Based on different measures of forecast accuracy such as ME, MAE, RMSE, MASE, we show that the forecast accuracy of SARIMA(2,0,0)(0,0,1) is acceptable and this model performs much better than a naïve model. These results could be used by the financial communities in Algeria to deal with stock exchange risks and to improve their decisions.
Wed, 11 September 2019
REVIEW Download: 39| View: 190| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0119.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Poverty alleviation; poverty analysis; depressed areas; welfare; regional policy
Online: 11 September 2019 (13:01:05 CEST)
Poverty alleviation is a hallmark of post-revolution Chinese policymaking. Since 1978, the Communist Party of China (CPC) has implemented successive waves of poverty alleviation policies whose effects have become the focus of an ever-increasing body of academic literature. This paper reviews this diverse but limited literature that evaluates the impact of the CPC’s poverty reduction programs through four major channels, namely fiscal investment programs, social safety nets, rural governance on the village-, county- and provincial level, and the relocation of rural populations from destitute regions. This paper aims to synthesize results and evaluate whether and how the abovementioned poverty alleviation programs have had distinct positive or negative impacts on regional development outcomes. Furthermore, I highlight contradictions in empirical findings to motivate the discussion about contextual importance when designing and implementing future poverty alleviation programs. Finally, I suggest that an exhaustive and critical appraisal of the empirical strategies used in this literature would further the development and application of more accurate and informative methodologies.
Mon, 9 September 2019
ARTICLE Download: 44| View: 270| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0102.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Econometrics & Statistics Keywords: ARIMA Methodology; Out-of-Sample Forecast; Tourist Arrivals; Sierra Leone
Online: 9 September 2019 (12:11:03 CEST)
This study have uniquely mad use of Box-Jenkins ARIMA models to address the core of the threes objectives set out in view of the focus to add meaningful value to knowledge exploration. The outcome of the research have testify the achievements of this through successful nine months out-of-sample forecasts produced from the program codes, with indicating best model choices from the empirical estimation. In addition, the results also provide description of risks produced from the uncertainty Fan Chart, which clearly outlined possible downside and upside risks to tourist visitations in the country. In the conclusion, it was suggested that downside risks to the low level tourist arrival can be managed through collaboration between authorities concerned with the management of tourist arrivals in the country.
REVIEW Download: 61| View: 232| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0096.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: ESD; transformative education; transmissive education; SDGs; HEIs
Online: 9 September 2019 (09:47:00 CEST)
Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) is a global initiative towards transforming education for sustainability. The integration of SD into the education portfolio is considered to be an important approach that ensures strategic alignment of higher education with SDGs. A document review was used to identify and discuss the difference between transmissive and transformative education in relation to SDGs and in the context of Somali education. In this trajectory, it is expected that the concept of ‘‘transformative education is likely to become more common to meet the emerging social, economic and environmental issues, yet practical challenges remain in Somaliland HE sector. The roadmap towards addressing transformative education for sustainability is not included in the Somaliland national portfolios; particularly ESD has not been presented. In this regard, this paper proposed a generic framework that spotlights the integration of HEIs and the national development goals (NDGs) in Somaliland. Meanwhile, developed and developing countries are prioritizing structural transformation in their HEIs that are tailored to national and regional development programs. Consistent with the Rio + 20 outcomes, the authors analyzed the concept of the ‘‘sustainable university’’ and identified the fact that it is practically divided into three interrelated and complementary categories, namely social-, environmental-, and economic-oriented university in pursuit of actualizing SD. The paper recommends major reforms in the education sector including availing investment portfolios for R&D, renovation of education goals and transforming universities for sustainability
ARTICLE Download: 45| View: 160| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0092.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: Internet-assisted; English reading teaching; innovative designs; impact; constructivism theory
Online: 9 September 2019 (07:55:44 CEST)
With the development of Internet technology, teachers are constantly seeking innovative teaching methods to match the potential of enhanced technology. Although many studies have been performed before , they aren’t enough in this field. The purpose of this paper is to explore innovative teaching designs and examine the impact of Internet-assisted English teaching of reading based on constructivism. The case is carried out in NO.9 middle school of Bengbu, a underdeveloped area of China, most of students aren’t interested in learning English .We compared Internet-assisted with traditional textbook literature methods to improve the reading proficiency of students, using a questionnaire survey,pre-test and post-tests comparisons. The result showed Internet-assisted English reading teaching is better than textbook. It can arouse students' interest and motivation,reading proficiency and exam result of students have been improved significantly, created a positive learning situation.
Sun, 8 September 2019
COMMUNICATION Download: 36| View: 146| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0089.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: nighttime light data; human activities; karst rocky desertification; environmental impact; China
Online: 8 September 2019 (16:49:12 CEST)
Due to remarkable socioeconomic development, an increasing number of karst rocky desertification areas have been severely affected by human activities in southern China. Effectively analyzing human activities in karst rocky desertification areas is a critical prerequisite for managing and restoring areas with tremendous negative impacts from desertification. At present, a timely and accurate way of quantifying the spatiotemporal variations of human activities in karst rocky desertification areas is still lacking. In this communication, we attempted to quantify human activities from the corrected NPP-VIIRS nighttime light data from 2012 to 2018 based on statistical analysis. The results show that a significant increase of night lights could be clearly identified during the study period. The total nighttime lights (TL) related to severe karst rocky desertification (S) were particularly concentrated in Guizhou and Yunnan. The nighttime light intensity (LI) related to the S areas in Chongqing were the strongest due to its rapid socioeconomic development. The annual growth rate of nighttime lights (GL) has been slow or even negative in Guangdong because of its various karst rocky desertification restoration programs. This communication could provide an effective approach for quantifying human activities and provide useful information about where prompt attention is required for policy-making on the restoration of the karst rocky desertification areas.
Fri, 6 September 2019
ARTICLE Download: 20| View: 181| Comments: 1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: emissions; energy; environmental Kuznet's curve; panel data; subsector analysis
Online: 6 September 2019 (04:32:59 CEST)
Analyses of the Environmental Kuznet's Curve (EKC) hypothesis have largely focused on economy level data with occasional analyses exploring sector level data. This paper exploits a new data set which contains sector level data on greenhouse gas emissions from the US energy sector as well as subsector data from six disjoint subsectors which together comprise the entire energy sector. The data contained in this data set is annual data at the state level from 1990 through 2011. By using differenced data we specify an econometrically sound EKC model and compare it against a model containing only a linear GDP per capita term. We find that by using a subsector level modelling approach, evidence for the EKC hypothesis is virtually nonexistent. Moreover, we find that aggregated subsector level estimates outperform sector level estimate on in-sample accuracy. These estimated models are then used to forecast emissions for the energy sector. We find evidence that US greenhouse gas emissions from energy production are at or near a peak.
Thu, 5 September 2019
ARTICLE Download: 78| View: 153| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0053.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: French regional airports; technical efficiency; data envelopment and principle component analysis; Malmquist Productivity Index; low-cost carrier terminals; high-speed train
Online: 5 September 2019 (03:42:32 CEST)
In France, the regional airport’s demand for services is facing challenges due to the continuous expansion of the high-speed train, high-speed line, and highway networks. This study focuses on the viability of regional airports in France through technical efficiency using data envelopment, principle component analysis, Malmquist productivity index, and regression analysis using bootstrapping. To face the current competitive environment, the regional airports in France adopted strategies, such as the construction of low-cost carrier (LCC) dedicated terminals (LCCTs) with lower expenses to attract more LCCs, increasing non-aeronautical revenue, and hosting regional hubs of LCCs. This is the first study that analyzes all of the French regional airports. The findings indicate that the existence of LCCTs positively affects technical efficiency on the airport’s performance, and share of LCCs at a regional airport leads to neither the efficiency nor the profit level.
ARTICLE Download: 48| View: 158| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0051.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: education for sustainable leadership; gender equality; competencies; higher education; women managers
Online: 5 September 2019 (02:55:41 CEST)
Education is an imperative key to driving sustainability and gender equity. In addition to addressing well-known female deficiencies in leadership training, it is really important to develop initiatives in sustainable leadership education for women to acquire skills, competencies and tools on leadership and to increase their self-perceptions. The purpose of this study is to assess a Women’s Leadership Program for university students. The sample consisted of 50 students enrolled in the program. A mixed-method approach was applied. Quantitative methods with a survey were conducted to evaluate the training and the achievement of leadership skills. In the data analysis, a descriptive statistics variance analysis, using a Welch statistic and T2 Dunnett test, was applied. Qualitative research methods were conducted through three focus groups to evaluate personal changes in their own-perceptions and self-confidence. Results suggest that the female students in the program reached a level of leadership knowledge with practical tools for their future. The program inspired them and confirmed changes in their personal capacities or self-confidence, including reflection about facing challenges in the work environment. The findings support the effectiveness of the specific education in breaking two barriers shown by the literature for women to getting a managerial position: lack of training and female self-confidence.
Wed, 4 September 2019
ARTICLE Download: 40| View: 179| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0040.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: data mining; security; association rule; ECLAT
Online: 4 September 2019 (03:48:58 CEST)
The purpose of this paper is to develop WebSecuDMiner algorithm to discover unusual web access patterns based on analysing the potential rules hidden in web server log and user navigation history. Design/methodology/approach: WebSecuDMiner uses equivalence class transformation (ECLAT) algorithm to extract user access patterns from the web log data, which will be used to identify the user access behaviours pattern and detect unusual one. Data extracted from the web serve log and user browsing behaviour is exploited to retrieve the web access pattern that is produced by the same user. Findings: WebSecuDMiner is used to detect whether any unauthorized access have been posed and take appropriate decisions regarding the review of the original rights of suspicious user. Research limitations/implications: The present work uses the database which is extracted from web serve log file and user browsing behaviour. Although the page is viewed by the user, the visit is not recorded in the server log file, since it can be access from the browser's cache.
Sun, 1 September 2019
ARTICLE Download: 30| View: 134| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0007.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: retention policy; emotional contribution; job retention and business growth
Online: 1 September 2019 (10:11:07 CEST)
This study investigates aspects of job retention and business growth in small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). It examines how employers think about retention policy in relation to business growth, in contrast to previous studies’ main focus on employee motivation, job retention, and turnover. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted face-to-face with Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) of Engineering and Informational Technology SMEs in South Korea. The results show that an important factor influencing job retention policies of SMEs is the motivation of employees to make voluntary effort, rather than offering them additional financial rewards or using other Human Resource Management (HRM) practices to improve individual performances. Interviewees believed that job retention and business growth are closely related and they discussed various ways of eliciting emotional contributions from employees. Unlike research on larger firms, these suggestions did not involve financial rewards. How employers think about the roles played by employees strongly influences their firm’s productivity and competitiveness. The SME CEOs examined in this study considered this issue central to their firm’s survival and growth. This study suggests SME employers adjust their retention policy correspondingly.
Thu, 29 August 2019
ARTICLE Download: 77| View: 158| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0305.v1
Online: 29 August 2019 (05:24:45 CEST)
This paper aims to suggest an integration of dimensions, especially economic, social, environmental, and politics that are embedded in Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) within a framework called Umran. This Umranic framework hails from the idea of distinguished Muslim philosopher, historian and sociologist Ibn Khaldun, that is based on Islamic doctrines. As the present integration of the dimensions seems to be problematic, an exploration into the integration within Umranic framework is believed to be potentially a contributive endeavor. Based on an overview of literatures and a content analysis, this paper found that integrating dimensions of SDGs within the Umranic framework appears in the triangle of relationship between God, humans, and environment. This triangle exists in the form of an Islamic economic system. In this system, economic activities of natural resource utilization in various types of ownership undertake the sustainability dimension, that is the environmental protection and the promotion of equitable distribution, followed by the implementation of management of ownership and distribution rights according to Islamic rules. The pre-requisite on the part of the players is the high levels of spirituality. The application of this Islamic economic system followed by its political dimension will guarantee the achievement of SDGs even though it needs adjustment to a number of SDGs’ indicators that are not in accordance to Islamic teachings.
Mon, 26 August 2019
ARTICLE Download: 30| View: 96| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0264.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: price-setting newsvendor, one-shot decision theory, innovative product, scenario, behavioral operations research
Online: 26 August 2019 (12:30:03 CEST)
In this paper, we consider a manufacturer who produces and sells a kind of innovative product in the monopoly market environment. Because the life cycle of innovative product is usually shorter than its procurement lead time, one unique demand quantity (scenario) will occur in the selling season, thus there is only one chance for the manufacturer to determine both optimal production quantity and optimal sale price. Considering this one-time feature of such a decision problem, a price-setting newsvendor model for innovative products is proposed. Different to the existing price-setting newsvendor models, the proposed models determine the optimal production quantity and sale price based on some specific state (scenario) which is most applicable for the manufacturer. The theoretical analysis provides managerial insights into the manufacturers’ behaviors in a monopoly market of an innovative product and several phenomena in the luxury goods market are well explained.
ARTICLE Download: 67| View: 129| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0262.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: land use and cover; land surface temperature; built-up land; agricultural land; gradient analysis; Nuwara Eliya; Sri Lanka
Online: 26 August 2019 (05:07:33 CEST)
Although urbanization has contributed to improving living conditions, it has had negative impacts on the natural environment in the urbanized areas. Urbanization has changed the urban landscape and resulted in increasing land surface temperature (LST). Thus, studies related to LST in various urban environments have become a popular research topic. However, few LST studies focusing on the mountain landscapes (i.e. hill stations) have been carried out. The primary objective of this study is to investigate changes in the landscape and their impacts on LST intensity (LSTI) in the tropical mountain city of Nuwara Eliya, Sri Lanka. The study utilized annual median temperatures extracted from Landsat data collected from 1996 to 2017 based on the Google Earth Engine (GEE) interface. The fractions of built-up (BL), forest (FL), and agricultural (AL) land were calculated using land use and cover maps based on the urban-rural zone (URZ) analysis. The urban-rural margin was demarcated based on the fraction of BL (<10%) and LSTI was measured using the mean LST difference in the urban-rural zone. In addition, the mixture of land use types was calculated using the AL/FL and BL/FL fraction ratios, and grid-based density analysis. The result shows that the BL in all URZ rapidly developed, while AL decreased during the period 1996 to 2017. There was minimal change in the forest area of the Nuwara Eliya owing to the government forest preservation policies. The fraction of the BL increased from 32.4% in 1996 to 58.7% in 2017 in the city center zone (URZ1) resulting in increased mean LST by 4.7 °C. Furthermore, the increase of the BL/FL fraction ratio and the decrease of the AL/FL fraction ratio were positively correlated with the mean LST. Grid-based analysis showed an increasing positive relationship between mean LST and density of BL. This indicated that BL density has been a crucial element in increasing LST in the study area. The results of this study will be a useful indicator to introduce improved landscape and urban planning in the future to minimize the negative impact of LST on urban sustainability.
Fri, 23 August 2019
ARTICLE Download: 81| View: 235| Comments: 12 | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0244.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: YouTubers; sentiment analysis; interaction; influencers; commenting; Facebook
Online: 23 August 2019 (10:23:31 CEST)
The aim of this paper is to analyse commenting activity and sentiment (polarity and subjectivity) in interactions in response to videos by Spain’s most-subscribed YouTubers. An exploratory study was conducted on the content of the comments, their relationship with other social media actions, subjectivity and polarity, as well as from the perspective of the participatory culture. The results show that commenting is a potential option for interaction that is underused by the communities of users. Replies to comments are found to be limited to the user-user level, while YouTubers themselves and the moderators that YouTube allows them to designate rarely comment or reply on social networks. However, creators do monitor comments and provide feedback to a limited selection thereof in subsequent videos. There thus appears to be a strategic, exploitative use of comments, marked by a delayed response aimed at attracting audiences to new content.
ARTICLE Download: 31| View: 153| Comments: 3 | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0236.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: earnings quality; growth opportunities; discretionary accruals; corporate age; corporate size
Online: 23 August 2019 (04:40:37 CEST)
We examined the causality between growth opportunities and earnings quality of the emerging economies. We develop an argument that growth opportunities should lead to high-quality earnings of the developing economies against the prior studies from developed economies which posit that growth opportunities result in a lower quality of earnings. The findings revealed that Growth Opportunities had a positive significant effect on Earnings Quality (EQ). Thus, the study concluded that growth opportunities are useful in determining the earnings quality of firms. The study recommends that managers should take advantage of their firms' growth opportunities to provide quality accounting information which will directly provide expanded opportunities for business growth. Though literature confirms that generally, earnings management might not be necessarily bad in business operational practice, managers are advised to avoid extreme aggressiveness in managing earnings as this may culminate in the negative manipulation of accounting information.
Thu, 22 August 2019
REVIEW Download: 37| View: 228| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0231.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: patient confidentiality; privacy; data protection; Saudi Arabia
Online: 22 August 2019 (10:50:10 CEST)
The concept of patient confidentiality is nearly as old as the practice of health professions and, has evolved and transformed over the years, from one jurisdiction to the other. Patient confidentiality can be a fundamental human right, an ethical duty or, a legal duty. The Saudi laws have evolved around its Shari’ah-based legal culture, its history and the international human right laws (IHRLs). These elements have moulded the Saudi Arabia’s unique perspective on patient confidentiality. Its confidentiality laws are found scattered in several legislations. Is the Saudi patient confidentiality law able to adequately deal with the contemporary challenges? The study reviewed the relevant Saudi laws in the light the International Humana Rights Laws. Findings suggest that there are issues bordering on the lack of quality comprehensive data protection laws, on clarity and foreseeability of the existing laws, and on the accessibility of the courts. Furthermore, the lack of a system of law reporting and stare decisis potentially gave the judges a wider latitude of discretion in interpreting the laws. Therefore, the study recommends for a comprehensive data protection law with a clear definition of “confidential information”, of data controllers and their role, and of specific safeguards against potential abuses. Others include defining legitimate purposes for using the patient’s data, and his role, and the extent to which he can control the use of his own data. Consistency in legal interpretations, and an improved law reporting system could positively enhance the overall outcome.
Wed, 14 August 2019
ARTICLE Download: 67| View: 336| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0158.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: academic entrepreneurship; TTOs; full service KTOs; academic entrepreneurship in Bangladesh; patents in Bangladesh
Online: 14 August 2019 (03:13:18 CEST)
Academic entrepreneurship focuses on commercialization of research. Even though it is practiced worldwide for decades, Bangladesh is a newcomer in this segment. In Bangladesh only 2 Universities have Technology Transfer Offices or TTOs which are established with the sole focus of commercialization of researches of the students and the faculty members of the Universities. This article focuses on worldwide practices of technology transfer and academic entrepreneurial activities and also explores the opportunities and challenges of such entrepreneurs through detail investigation of the existing body of knowledge. Apart from exploring the problems and prospect of academic entrepreneurship in Bangladesh, this article also introduces the concept of Full-Service Knowledge Transfer Office (KTO), which existing literatures do not offer. The authors believe that by establishing such KTOs as a self-sustaining body, it is possible for an academic entrepreneur to stimulate, support and sustain their activities in Bangladesh. The concept of full service KTOs can also become models for other nations, specially the developing ones, to establish and nurture a culture of academic entrepreneurship.
Tue, 13 August 2019
ARTICLE Download: 30| View: 167| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0151.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: innovation; innovative activities; analysis of factors; production enterprises
Online: 13 August 2019 (07:34:13 CEST)
The paper analyzes the actions that improve innovativeness in production enterprises in the Silesian province. Innovation is one of the elements that allows to achieve a competitive advantage. It turns out justified to research various factors that are important in improving innovativeness. The research includes selected production enterprises in the Silesian province, adopting the descriptive statistics measures and statistic tests: random sample test, chi-square independence test and the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test based on a survey questionnaire. As part of the most important factors determining the possibilities of innovation by manufacturing companies were detected contacts with other enterprises, R&D centers and counseling institutions, competitive position of the company and creating appropriate incentive systems.
Mon, 12 August 2019
ARTICLE Download: 68| View: 191| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0144.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: India; Companies Act 2013; business-society nexus; corporate responsibility; Content Configuration Analysis
Online: 12 August 2019 (13:57:39 CEST)
Developing prosperous and inclusive societies requires a reformulation of the business-society nexus toward sustainability. This means that all economically motivated behaviors of firms need to also consider their social and environmental impact, and all social and environmental policies need to also consider their impact on the economy. With the Companies Act 2013, the Indian government adopted a legislative approach to reconfigure the business-society nexus. Mandating what has been considered discretionary elicited an extensive academic debate. We employ Content Configuration Analysis on 70 local and international English-language book chapters, research articles, reports, reviews, and expert commentaries published between 2013 and 2019 to develop a typology of the advantages and disadvantages associated with the Companies Act 2013. We find that, among the large set of arguments for and against the Act, specific arguments extolling its advantages concurrently appear as disadvantages in other texts. This paradox is indicative of the difficulties of satisfying stakeholder expectations, as well as the complexities corporate responsibility programs face in India. By systematizing the opportunities and challenges associated with the Companies Act 2013, we reveal how, similar to China, context and culture influence India’s socioeconomic development trajectory beyond the conventional market economy canon.
Fri, 9 August 2019
ARTICLE Download: 29| View: 175| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0121.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Ideology and utopia, Silicon spirit, secularisation, populism
Online: 9 August 2019 (13:01:05 CEST)
American secularisation is considered a exceptional case in the Western world because of, on the one hand, the softer way it seems to have occurred in relation to other Western countries and, on the other, the fusion it seems to have been done among Judeo-Christian traditions into what is known as American civil religion. The point proposed before is problematic and needs to be called into questions under the light of both the revisions made to the secularization theory by scholars such as Casanova through the interpretation of empirical data collected through the world about the religiosity of people and the multiple works made about the use of “sacred” language in American public life. However, this paper takes those problematic dimensions for granted in order to deepened into what can be considered another secular human endeavour endowed with a religious spirit, namely: the spirit of Silicon Valley. This new secular-sacred narrative is not just American but is being exported as a narrative with “Messianic” traces that seems to aspire to embrace the whole world. Thus, this article explores the origins and evolution of this narrative in the United States, on the one hand, and the expansion of what can be considered a “salvation” ideology abroad that country, on the other.
ARTICLE Download: 39| View: 198| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0114.v1
Online: 9 August 2019 (03:40:43 CEST)
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore and analyse the dynamic relationship between remittances inflows of Egyptians working abroad and asymmetric oil price shocks. Design: This study uses a vector autoregressive (VAR) model to explain the impulse response functions (IRFs) and the forecast error variance decomposition (FEVD). The rationale behind using these tools is its ability to examine the dynamic effects of our variables of interest. Findings: The impulse response functions confirmed that remittance inflows have various responses to asymmetric oil price shocks. For instance, inflowing remittances increase in response to positive oil price shocks, while it decreases in response to negative oil price shocks. Also, the results indicate that the responses are significant in the short and medium-run and insignificant in the long run. The magnitude of these responses reaches its peak or trough in the third year. Further, the variance decomposition reveals that oil price decreases are more influential than oil price increases. Originality: This means that remittances inflows in Egypt are pro-cyclical with oil price shocks. That explained by the fact that more than one-half of those remittances sent from GCC countries where real economic growth is very pro-cyclical with the oil prices. This empirical assessment will help policymakers to determine the behaviour of remittances and highlights the impact of different kinds of oil prices shocks on remittances. Unlike the little existing literature, this study is the first study applied the VAR model using a novel dataset spanning 1960-2016.
Wed, 7 August 2019
ARTICLE Download: 31| View: 198| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0089.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: classroom design; higher education; Malaysia; undergraduate
Online: 7 August 2019 (05:56:20 CEST)
The design, facilities and conditions inside a classroom play a significant role in the teaching and learning experience for both students and lecturers. Prior studies of primary schoolchildren indicate three design principles affecting student learning, namely: naturalness, individualisation and stimulation. The current study extends these investigations to Higher Education through a survey of undergraduate students and university lecturers aimed at determining the most critical factors in undergraduate classroom design. One-to-one interviews were conducted with students and lecturers (n. 31) at the University of Nottingham, Malaysia Campus. Interviewees were encouraged to express their opinions, comments, concerns and suggestions through open-ended questions. The interviews were recorded and then transcribed and coded using NVivo10. Results show a strong desire among lecturers and students for improved classroom equipment, greater flexibility in classroom arrangement, more attractive decoration and for the addition of natural elements to the classroom environment. Of the three design principles, individualisation and naturalness emerged most strongly from the interviews and appear to be more important factors for undergraduates than stimulation. These findings could make a novel and significant contribution to the physical aspects of classroom design in Higher Education settings. Educational institutions are increasingly employing non-traditional classroom designs, which are expected to provide for more flexible, collaborative, and active learning and teaching experiences. Taking into consideration the environmental psychology of teaching and learning, several of the reported design attributes can serve as benchmarks for upgrading current classroom design and facilities in the future, as institutions look to upgrade their physical infrastructures to meet the changing demands of teachers and learners arising from technological innovations and shifts in our understanding of the methods and purposes of Higher Education.
Tue, 6 August 2019
ARTICLE Download: 42| View: 155| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0070.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: city; large urban regions; Russia; globalization; open database
Online: 6 August 2019 (08:33:24 CEST)
This study explores how to delineate Russian cities in order to make them comparable on the world scale. In doing so we introduce the concept of large urban regions (LUR) applicable to the Russian urban context. This research is motivated by a principal research question: how to construct a statistical urban delineation, which would allow first, to demonstrate integration of cities into globalization, and second, to make global urban comparative research. Previous studies on urban delineation in Russia have focused almost exclusively on functional urban areas, which have substantial limitations and are not suitable for global urban comparisons. Addressing this research gap, we propose a new definition of Large Urban Regions (LUR). In doing so, first, we introduce the context of Russian cities (2), then we discuss existing Russian urban concepts (3), and justify a need for a new urban delineation (4). Afterwards, we present a general method to delineate Large Urban Regions in Russian context (5.1), and illustrate it in the two case studies of St. Petersburg (polycentric region) and Samara (monocentric region) (5.2). In the last part (6), we discuss the 10 the largest urban regions in Russia and describe a constructed database including all Russian LURs.
REVIEW Download: 42| View: 158| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0066.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Anthropocene; resilience; social-ecological systems; sustainability; transitions; wilderness
Online: 6 August 2019 (03:36:20 CEST)
Since the late 1980s the idea of sustainable development has been gaining widespread recognition as a guiding framework for policies on development and the environment. However, the concept of sustainable development has received a number of criticisms, including its over-emphasis on meeting human needs through economic growth, as well as its failure to recognize dynamic human-environment interactions. In response to these shortfalls, the concepts of resilience and adaptive governance have emerged as alternative perspectives for pursuing sustainable development. Resilience in social-ecological systems emphasizes the capacity of coupled human-environment systems to deal with change while continuing to develop. Adaptive governance relies on diverse and nested institutional mechanisms for connecting actors across multiple scales to manage conflicts and uncertainties in ecosystem management processes. However, the ethical dimensions of resilience and adaptive governance have not received enough attention. A promising ethical perspective for guiding policies on human-environment interactions is the philosophy of deep ecology which highlights the need for recognition of the intrinsic values of all living things, as well as the nurturing of ecological and cultural diversity. We argue that an integration of the principles of deep ecology and adaptive governance provides a complementary set of ethical principles and institutional attributes that offers better prospects for pursuing sustainable development in the era of the Anthropocene. The implications of this integrative agenda include: adoption of a holistic conception of dynamic human-environment interactions; recognition of diverse knowledge systems through an anti-reductionist approach to knowledge; promotion of long term sustainability through respect for ecological and cultural diversity; and embracing decentralization and local autonomy. We further illustrate this integrative agenda using the management of protected areas as a case study.
Mon, 5 August 2019
ARTICLE Download: 56| View: 162| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0058.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: risk distribution; Mulawarman village; coal mining; environmental justice; Indonesia
Online: 5 August 2019 (08:27:43 CEST)
This study is aimed to explore the environmental risk posed by the unsustainable mining activities in Mulawarman village, East Kalimantan, and articulate the disproportionate impact from the perspective of environmental justice on how mining regulations affect the lives of a vulnerable community. A qualitative comparative analysis based on the legislation and administrative rules on coal mining, and a case study of Mulawarman village were adopted. The information was framed based (participatory) observation, and in-depth interview, and purposively conducted to six selected respondents. The result shows how the laws and regulations disadvantage the community and expose them to unequal treatment. The adverse effects of mining activities change the socio-environmental dynamics in this village. Being the breadbasket in 1997, Mulawarman villagers experience the loss of food self-sufficiency, and turn to the government and mining company for social welfare, and clean water. Also, inconsistent and incomplete regulations pertaining to mining, favor to serve the business interests before the environment and the local community. This results in severe encroachment upon community rights and leads to long-term conflicts between mining companies and local communities, and has weakened the capacity of local authorities to help the affected community to recover their rights.
Fri, 2 August 2019
REVIEW Download: 94| View: 188| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0015.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Marketing Keywords: sustainable apparel consumption; emerging countries; value; subjective norm; perceived behavioural control; knowledge
Online: 2 August 2019 (05:26:10 CEST)
The growth of sustainable apparels provides grounding for the emergence of a new consumer market. Surprisingly, this movement has not only taken place in developed countries but also in emerging countries. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, no systematic reviews have been carried out on sustainable apparels, focused specifically on emerging countries. The goal of this systematic review is to analyse the existing literature on various factors that influence sustainable apparel consumption in emerging countries, as well as presenting future research directions. This detailed literature review is guided by the PRISMA Statement (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses) review method, and its searches encompass sources such as Web of Science, Scopus and Google Scholar databases which, in result, identified 19 related studies. Furthermore, the reviewers segregated the factors into four major domains which include value, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control and knowledge. The results of this review demonstrate that most customers in the emerging countries have already experienced a growing interest in sustainable apparel with a strong development of knowledge, great concern, values and social circle. In sum, this systematic literature review provides an insightful information about sustainable apparel purchase behaviour and helps academicians, manufacturers and retailers to position and market their sustainable clothing brands.
Fri, 19 July 2019
ARTICLE Download: 57| View: 81| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0221.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: financial crisis; management information system; financial system; confidence level
Online: 19 July 2019 (07:59:58 CEST)
There has been rampant fold-ups, merger and acquisitions occurring in the Ghanaian banking industry. Then, the questions arise: Is the Ghanaian Financial System in Crisis? This study was conducted to find answers to these problems unsolved with prior literature. A sample of seventy customers of the Royal Bank, 8 employees of the Royal Bank and 2 managers of the Royal Bank were selected for a case-survey. The study also monitored the Trend of the Ghanaian Financial System through the reading and monitoring of daily news on the Financial System and reports of banks. The data from the field and the secondary data from news and reports were analysed symmetrically. The study drew on Minsky’s Financial Crisis Theory to explain the phenomenon in the Ghanaian economy and to draw predictions of what would happen in other developing economies. The study found out that: (1) The Ghanaian financial system is fragile and it holds true for most developing economies; (2) The financial system suffers greatly when the confidence level of customers falls significantly; (3) Management information systems raises the confidence level of customers (borrowers and lenders) such that there is a greater fall and impact in times of instability in the economy; (4) The higher the level of MIS adoption in an unstable economy, the more fragile the Financial System becomes and (5) A higher adoption of Management Information Systems in a Fragile Financial System indirectly contributes to Financial Crisis of the Financial System.
Wed, 17 July 2019
ARTICLE Download: 32| View: 125| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0198.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: creativity; demography; ecology; north and south; education
Online: 17 July 2019 (06:22:34 CEST)
The creative potential of homo sapiens is the biological basis of his spirituality. To take into account factor of spirituality in analysis of global problems of demography and ecology used analogies of chemical kinetics. Stable in the historical time, population of people was modeled by open thermodynamic system, equilibrium state of which depends on climate and geophysics. The demography of creative potential was divided into two geographical zones - north and south. Process of society sapientation was formalized by introducing into logistic equation of Verhulst, in addition to a couple of parents, at least one more teacher from among educated people. Stationary solution of the modified kinetic equations determines optimal demography for sustainable development of population in accordance with its education index. The solution of the demographic, energy and environmental problems of mankind is determined by the level of world creative potential, the growth of which is currently limited by the consumption paradigm.
Fri, 12 July 2019
ARTICLE Download: 38| View: 176| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0162.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: upstream social marketing; mobile government; marketing mix; public services; public administration; behavior
Online: 12 July 2019 (05:07:56 CEST)
The article analyses the main aspects of upstream social marketing for implementing of mobile government (MGov). The methodology of current research is based on the systematic literature review in the fields of MGov and social marketing. According to our findings, most researchers investigated MGov from the side of citizens (consumers) and emphasised the benefits to them while changing their attitudes and behaviours in employing mobile applications. However, as there is a lack of the researches from the side of governmental bodies, in this paper, we were contrary looking for new meanings, attitudes and values from their perspective. Limitations of employment of MGov occur due knowledge gap among decision makers and public policy formers (upstream audience). Therefore, we argue that upstream social marketing for the upstream audience would bring the success in faster MGov implementation. Specific social marketing would be mostly valuable on the municipal level that is the closest substance to the society. Thus, in our paper we emphasise the benefit of the MGov for the local upstream audience and propose possible external marketers as well as the motivating theses based on these 7P of marketing mix for the successful MGov on municipal level.
Tue, 9 July 2019
ARTICLE Download: 64| View: 153| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0131.v1
Online: 9 July 2019 (14:15:17 CEST)
Saudi Arabia is an oil-reliant nation as a large percentage of its GDP comes from oil resources. Oil dependency leaves a county at the mercy of the international crude market, and a decrease in the price of crude can seriously destabilize the economy of such nations. An example is the case of Venezuela whose dependence on oil caused a national disaster (McCarthy, 2017). As such, the nation’s exports, GDP, and government revenue are primarily dependent on oil revenue, and the recent decrease in the oil prices has decreased Venezuela’s national revenue resulting in economic collapse as well as inflation. A shift from a resource based economy to a knowledge based economy will help Saudi Arabia become less reliant on its oil revenues for its economic stability and growth (Nurunnabi, 2017).
Mon, 8 July 2019
ARTICLE Download: 50| View: 100| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0122.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: food allergy, food allergen, fruits, seafood, nut and milk
Online: 8 July 2019 (14:32:18 CEST)
Food allergy has been recognised by the World Health Organisation as a chronic disease that could lead to fatality. The symptoms can mediate from mild to severe consequences. Some cases have reported that food allergy sufferers are bullied and are discriminated at workplace, thus increasing their stress level, apart from facing difficulty in consuming certain food due to allergy. This has an adverse effect on the quality of life amongst food allergy sufferers. Medical bills are increased when food allergy sufferers become unknowingly exposed to food allergen. Hence, this study investigated food allergens among food allergy sufferers in order to make their lives better. A total of 250 respondents participated in an online survey. Surprisingly, apart from chicken, soybean and other food allergens that have been listed under the Big Eight Allergens, the respondents mentioned some fruits that could trigger allergic reactions, such as rambutans and watermelons. Food allergy sufferers can be allergic to seafood and seafood products as well, such as shrimp paste or locally known as belacan, which refers to fermented shrimp paste cured under the sun. It is a common food ingredient used among Malaysians. The study findings offer practical insights, such as avoidance of food allergens amidst food allergy sufferers and help the government to carefully manage for menu planning. The knowledge contribution of this study reveals several specific food and fruits, as aforementioned, which appear to be common and nutritious food, yet harmful to food allergy sufferers.
Fri, 5 July 2019
ARTICLE Download: 36| View: 124| Comments: 0
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: active methodology; higher education; professor; student; perception; opinion; learning process
Online: 5 July 2019 (04:46:25 CEST)
The goal of this study is both to determine the opinion that professors and students at the University of (details removed for peer review) have of active methodologies and to describe the perception and opinion of the modes of organization, methodological focuses, and evaluation systems that define the teaching-learning process. On surveying the professors and the students in their classes, we found significant differences in 32 of the 92 variables in common. The content of these results shows that professors and students are believe they are making progress toward a learning-centered model, that implementation of active methodologies implies new functions in their teaching practice.
Thu, 4 July 2019
ARTICLE Download: 78| View: 176| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0072.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: performance analysis; football; gender differences; LaLiga; technical-tactical behaviour; observational methodology
Online: 4 July 2019 (09:38:22 CEST)
The aim of this study was to identify gender differences in technical-tactical behaviour in football. To this end 68 matches of the first division of the Spanish men’s and women´s league, corresponding to 2016/17 season were analyzed. A comparison of medians was carried out using the Mann-Whitney U-test were conducted as post hoc test and a grouping of the variables through the clustering bootstrapping technique in both groups. We have detected statistically significant differences regarding all accurate passes, in favour of men, as well as a greater number of yellow cards. In female football, a greater number of picking up free balls, interceptions, lost balls, recoveries, challenges and attacks, both positional and counterattacks, are produced. The clustering analysis also allowed that in male football, the circumstance of receiving a red card is closely related to the number of goals conceded and most of the shots on goal are achieved by positional attacks. In women's football, ball possession on own half is closely related to the number of losses. These results could be useful for gender-specific training information for optimal preparation. However, more research is warranted to establish the main gender differences and characterize women's football.
Wed, 3 July 2019
ARTICLE Download: 44| View: 157| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0071.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: collective intelligence; social contribution motivation; personal contribution motivation; incremental innovation capability
Online: 3 July 2019 (16:24:54 CEST)
The study is to identify motivational factors that lead to collective intelligence and to understand how these factors relate to each other and to innovation capabilities in enterprises. The relationships between each of the sub-factors of the collective intelligence construct with the sub-factor of incremental innovation were examined. The study used the convenience sampling of corporate employees who use collective intelligence from corporate panel members (n=1500). Collective intelligence was found to affect work process, operations, and service innovation. This suggests that as work processes are made more innovative, the more actively collective intelligence is pursued, the greater the improvement in the performance of work processes, work procedures, work efficiency, customer satisfaction, and services. This study provides significant implications for corporations operating collective intelligence services such as online communities. First, such corporations vitalize their services by raising the quality of information and knowledge shared in their communities. Additionally, contribution motivations that take the characteristics of knowledge and information contributors into consideration require further development.The sample for this study was identified through convenience sampling of corporate employees who use collective intelligence from corporate panel members (n=1500). Collective intelligence was found to affect work process, operations, and service innovation. This suggests that as work processes are made more innovative, the more actively collective intelligence is pursued, the greater the improvement in the performance of work processes, work procedures, work efficiency, customer satisfaction, and services. This study provides significant implications for corporations operating collective intelligence services such as online communities. First, such corporations vitalize their services by raising the quality of information and knowledge shared in their communities. Additionally, contribution motivations that take the characteristics of knowledge and information contributors into consideration require further development.
ARTICLE Download: 62| View: 192| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0053.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: sustainability, innovation, local agri-food system, rural development
Online: 3 July 2019 (09:09:02 CEST)
Sustainability, as well as a concept related to a development model, is becoming a real guide to drive the governance choices of value chains. A sustainable policy has the objective of perpetuating production models over time while maintaining the environmental, economic and social dimensions that characterize a given production process. It is therefore important to measure the sustainability of a production system in its environmental, social and economic components and to understand the ongoing trends under the pressure of agricultural policies, market dynamics and innovation pattern introduced along the time in a production system. The purpose of the article is to assess the evolution of the level of sustainability of Parmigiano Reggiano production system under the effect of 20 years of innovation mechanism which impact on product quality, value chain performance and rural development. To this aim the paper discuss a holistic framework that allows the representation of stakeholder’s role considering the value chain and the territorial dimension. The paper discus also the use of dimensional indicators and propose a use of synthetic indexes to provide an overall picture of the evolution of sustainability of specific production system.
Tue, 2 July 2019
ARTICLE Download: 52| View: 192| Comments: 1 | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0042.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: English proficiency, Earnings, Immigrants, MCMC, Medical Care Spending
Online: 2 July 2019 (11:37:52 CEST)
This paper investigates the role of English language proficiency (ELP) as a measure of cultural integration on U.S. immigrant families’ economic integration, as measured by annual earnings, and health care market integration, as captured by annual medical care spending. Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) estimation of a mixed bivariate ordered probit (MBOP) model of annual earnings and medical care spending is conducted using a nationally representative pooled cross-sectional sample data from the U.S. National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS). The results reveal that limited English proficiency is associated with lower marginal earnings propensities (-$44.83, -$50.66, and -$56.97), and higher marginal medical care spending propensities ($8.09, $6.09, and $4.32) for each of the three decreasing levels of ELP. Furthermore, we find a small yet statistically significant positive 7.2% correlation between immigrant families’ annual earnings and medical care spending propensities. Therefore investing to raise immigrants’ families ELP in the U.S. would not only contribute to more effective socio-economic integration, but also strengthen the U.S. workforce and economy for decades to come.
REVIEW Download: 76| View: 141| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0034.v1
Online: 2 July 2019 (08:27:16 CEST)
In recent years, several brands have received much negative press coverage when trying to market their food and drink products specifically at women. This is, in part, because the taste preferences/sensitivities of men and women are actually quite similar. In fact, perhaps the one and only area where consumers are willing to accept (or should that be swallow) ingested products explicitly targeted at women or men is in the case of nutritional foods/supplements. Such products are not really sold on the basis of their taste/flavour anyway. Many consumers are also sensitive to the so-called pink tax, when near-identical products cost more when sold to women rather than to men (e.g., as in the case of female razors). As the four recent examples discussed in this review make clear, it can be difficult to roll-out a new food or beverage product, or else extend a pre-existing product line, that is especially for women without coming across as sexist/condescending. As such, marketers need to tread carefully, otherwise they may end-up generating unwanted negative publicity. Ultimately, therefore, adopting an implicit approach to gender-based marketing, should that be the direction that a brand wants to take, will likely have more chance of avoiding negative publicity than the explicit targeting of food/beverage-related products in what is undoubtedly a highly-politicized area.
Mon, 1 July 2019
ARTICLE Download: 43| View: 132| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0021.v1
Online: 1 July 2019 (15:22:25 CEST)
This article is about school evaluation. The objective was to explain critically the mediating relationships between educational evaluation and the production of school knowledge from the perspective of the Dialectical Historical Materialism. With this interest, a documentary analysis was made, obtaining as result four explanatory categories: production, subsumption, distribution and exchange of knowledge, which form a concrete totality with distinctions and antagonistic relationships between them, limited by their opposite. It is concluded that the evaluation as a mediating form lacks antagonistic pair and consequently of control by opposition, emerging from the school daily as autonomous and sovereign entity, oppressive of school subjects.
ARTICLE Download: 46| View: 83| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0020.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: BIM; SOLO; threshold concepts; green buildings; certificate systems; higher education
Online: 1 July 2019 (15:16:28 CEST)
Sustainable development (SD) is essential to reduce and mitigate climate change impacts, environmental deterioration and to increase social sustainability. SD is therefore highly relevant for the engineering profession and is today found integrated with the higher education of specific engineering programs. This paper investigated the knowledge of SD for students entering the master’s program in Sustainable Building Information Management (BIM) by comparing levels of knowledge at the start and end of the first course Sustainability, Analyses and Simulations. The level of knowledge of SD was analyzed by classifying students’ conceptions of sustainability using SOLO taxonomy and the spectrum of liminality and the threshold concept. Students written responses to the question “What do you know about sustainability?” and written group project reports were used for analyzing levels of knowledge of SD. Levels of knowledge of SD was classified as pre (pre-liminal or pre-structural); uni-structural, multi-structural, relational and post-stages (extended abstract or post-liminal). In total, 68% of the students entering the master’s program in 2017 and 88% in 2018 showed a pre-structural, uni-structural and multi-structural SD knowledge. In general, few students entering the program showed relational and post-stages of SD knowledge, 32% and 12% of the students in 2017 and 2018, respectively. The students at the post-stage were able to express themselves more individually and creatively compared to previous levels in that they could connect the dimensions of SD to the context of SD of buildings, but also argue why SD of buildings was important and they could also suggest actions or tools for improved SD that engineers should use. Only one group of five (in 2017) showed a post-stage level of knowledge in the group project report. It is likely that the student’s general approach to the work with the reports was to mainly cope with the course requirements which is a sign of surface approach to learning. It, therefore, seems reasonable that future developments of the course should ensure that the students use the scientific literature in their group project reports to make it easier for them to understand the relationship between software use and the connection to green buildings certificate systems and SD of buildings. By making it mandatory to include scientific literature in the reports the students will be encouraged to read and think critically, and deeper, and to put the practical implementation of the software analysis results into a scientific context of SD and BIM.
ARTICLE Download: 82| View: 121| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0014.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: decision-making; tourism; sustainable development goals; Iceland; synergies; trade-offs
Online: 1 July 2019 (12:10:11 CEST)
The development of major economic sectors can provide the bedrock on which long-lasting national economic prosperity is formed. Iceland’s tourism sector is an example of a rapidly expanded industry in recent years, to the extent that it has become the largest sectoral contributor to the nation’s economy. The growth of the sector has led to a number of sustainability impacts, thus presenting opportunities and challenges in terms of meeting the seventeen Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the United Nations. Using the case study of Iceland, this paper aims to advance conceptual understanding of the synergies and trade-offs between a nation’s tourism sector and performance across the 169 targets of the SDGs. Empirical results were derived from four theme-based focus groups, comprised of expert participants, who were tasked with completing scoresheets concerning their perception of the extent of synergies and trade-offs for each target. The majority (126 in number) of the mean scoresheet outcomes for the SDG targets revealed neither synergies nor trade-offs. However, 32 synergies and 11 trade-offs were identified. Many of the target synergies related to new economic opportunities, such as jobs, employment and training for young people. Target trade-offs tended to be environmental and social. In particular, concern was voiced about the greenhouse gas emissions of the Icelandic tourism sector, which derives from international aviation, cruise ships and rental car usage. The outcomes of this study are of particular relevance to tourism companies, policy-makers and governance institutes, all of whom are increasingly endeavouring to link their activities with the fulfilment of the SDGs, maximising synergies, mitigating the extent of any potential trade-offs, and potentially transforming trade-offs into synergies. Furthermore, the results are likely of interest to academics focused on researching the broad sustainability impacts of economic sectors and their contribution to meeting the visionary goals of the SDGs.
Fri, 28 June 2019
ARTICLE Download: 42| View: 145| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0302.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: volunteer; peer groups; pain management; nursing homes
Online: 28 June 2019 (15:43:27 CEST)
Abstract Background: Chronic pain is common among older adults and is associated with adverse physical and psychological outcomes. Given the expected burden and limited healthcare resources, an innovative and cost-effective method to manage chronic pain should be developed. Peer volunteers (PVs) have been used as an affordable alternative to professional services to help patients manage their chronic conditions including pain with success and acceptance. The aim of this paper is to explore the experiences and perceptions of PVs in a peer-led pain management program among nursing home residents. Methods: This longitudinal study formed part of a wider research study, a clustered randomised controlled trial, which investigates the effectiveness of a 12-week peer-led pain management program (PAP) in relieving chronic pain and enhancing pain self-efficacy among nursing home residents. Quantitative data were collected from questionnaires (demographics, pain situation and pain knowledge) for all PVs. Qualitative data (PVs’ experiences in leading the PAP, their perceived benefits, limitations and barriers encountered, its usefulness to the participants and recommendations for improving the PAP) were collected from focus group for a selected sample at baseline (before attending the training) and at week 12 (upon completion of the PAP). Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences and NVivo 8. Results: A total of 46 PVs were recruited (34 female, 74%), with mean±SD age of 61.0±5.1 years. Thirty-one PVs reported to have chronic pain. Before the training, self-rated pain knowledge was 39.1±20.4 (maximum 100 points). When actual pain knowledge was assessed, a mean pain knowledge score of 86.1±10.6 points was found. There was a significant difference between the self-rated pain knowledge and the pain knowledge score (p<0.001). PVs reported to have improvement in their knowledge and skills. No PVs reported negative comments regarding their role in the PAP, although experienced barriers such as communication, space and privacy were reported. Conclusions: This study provides further evidence that peer-led pain management program is feasible. Barriers identified may benefit the design and planning of future PAP. Trial registration: ClincalTrials.gov (NCT03823495), 30 January 2019. (Retrospectively registered).
Thu, 27 June 2019
ARTICLE Download: 49| View: 185| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0273.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: climate change and international relations; religion and the environment; Anthropocene; planetary justice; sustainability
Online: 27 June 2019 (04:53:15 CEST)
This paper analyzes the theoretical and pragmatic implications, for international relations and world politics, of the new holistic approach to climate change articulated by Pope Francis in the Encyclical Laudato si’, particularly through the notion “integral ecology”. Far for being just a new chapter in the unfolding process of the “greening” of religions, the document raises in radical terms the issue of the sustainability of the present world system. I contend that the perspective of the Encyclical calls for a radical transformation of international relations, since it puts emphasis on the deep implications of environmental issues on the entire spectrum of security, development, economic and ethical challenges of contemporary world politics. Against this backdrop, I connect the main tenets of the Encyclical to the environmental turn in International Relations Theory and to the new epistemological challenges related to paradigm shift induced by the new planetary condition of the Anthropocene and the questions arising for a justice encompassing the humanity-earth system. Practicing sustainable international relations means exiting the logic of power or hegemony, operationalizing the concept of care.
Sun, 23 June 2019
ARTICLE Download: 57| View: 158| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0230.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: urban fabrics; seismic vulnerability; critic analysis; cost modelling; Urban preservation programming; building works programming
Online: 23 June 2019 (14:08:14 CEST)
Vulnerability is the big issue of the small inland urban centers exposed to the risk of depopulation. In the climate and in the context of an increasing seismic risk in the center-northern part of Italy, seismic vulnerability can become the determinant cause of the final abandonment of a small town. In some Italian regions, as well as Emilia Romagna, municipalities are implementing seismic vulnerability reduction policies based on the Emergency Limit Condition that has become a basic reference for ordinary land planning. This study proposes a valuation planning approach to the seismic vulnerability reduction carried out within the general planning framework concerning the Faentina Union, a group of five small towns located in the south-western part of the Province of Ravenna, Italy. The approach consists of three main stages: knowledge – the typological, constructive and technological description of the buildings specifically concerning their vulnerability degree; interpretation – the analyses aimed to outline a range of hypotheses about the damages in case of seism; planning – identifying the works intended to definitely reduce the vulnerability of the buildings. This stage includes a cost modelling tools aimed at outlining the trade-off between the extension and the intensity of the vulnerability reduction works, given the budget.
Sat, 22 June 2019
ARTICLE Download: 71| View: 192| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0222.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: water consumption; water metabolism; tourism destination; resilience; non-conventional water resources; sustainable tourism; overtourism; shortage; Spain
Online: 22 June 2019 (11:52:42 CEST)
Tourism, and particularly residential tourism, has led to a change in the urban and demographic model of towns along the European Mediterranean coastline. Water as a limited and limiting resource for the growth of tourism is a popular topic in the scientific literature. However, the incorporation of non-conventional resources (desalination) has meant, in theory, that this limitation has been overcome. The aims of this paper are: a) to identify the different tourism models implanted in this territory and describe them from the point of view of their consumption of water in the demand cycle from 2002 to 2017; b) analyse the hydrosocial cycle, highlighting the measures aimed at satisfying water demand; and c) identify the limitations associated with these hydrosocial systems. To this end, different types of information will be processed, and various complex indicators produced. The results show the importance that demand management and the use of desalinated water in increasing the resilience of this territory to aridity. However, this has generated other problems associated with a tsunami of construction and the continuity of a non-sustainable territorial model.
Fri, 21 June 2019
ARTICLE Download: 60| View: 264| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0215.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: addiction; triathletes; bogy image; behavior regulation
Online: 21 June 2019 (11:36:23 CEST)
The aim of the research was getting to know the risk of dependency on physical exercising in individual sportspeople and the relationship with body dissatisfaction and motivation. 225 triathletes, swimmers, cyclists and athletes- with ages going from 18 to 63 years old took part in the research, of which 145 were men (M = 35.57 ±10.46 years) and 80 women (M = 32.83 ±10.31 years). The EDS-R was used to study the dependency on exercising, BSQ to study body dissatisfaction, BREQ-3 to know the motivation of participants and BIAQ to analyse conducts of avoidance to body image. The obtained results show that 8.5% of the subjects had risk of dependency on exercising and that 18.2% tend to have corporal dissatisfaction, without meaningful differences in the kind of sport they practiced. However, there were important differences concerning the dependency on physical exercise (15% vs 4.8%) and body dissatisfaction (31.1% vs 11%) in relation to sex, being the higher percentage referring to women. The introjected regulation and the conduct of food restriction were the predictor variables of the dependency on exercising and corporal dissatisfaction.
ARTICLE Download: 57| View: 209| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0214.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: Career choice predictors, Affective and Cognitive Domains, Science teacher training, International teaching.
Online: 21 June 2019 (11:28:25 CEST)
Attitudes and behaviours towards the natural environment have been extensively studied in certain cultural settings during the last 40 years. In education, the teacher's ability to grasp the fundamentals of an academic subject may define his or her own attitudes towards that discipline; certainly the reverse is also valid. The correlations between affective and cognitive domains appear to play a significant role in teaching-learning dynamics. In this study we seek to assess whether the affective posture towards school sciences of a cohort of teachers in rural communities shows an association with their cognitive competence in the disciplines. The results of this study provide evidence that there is a statistically significant correlation between the cognitive and affective domains for in-service teachers. The affective domain, therefore, could serve as a predictor for cognitive competency and self-efficacy expectancies with respect to both content and career fulfilment.
Mon, 17 June 2019
ARTICLE Download: 90| View: 332| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0154.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library & Information Science Keywords: Open Access; institutional repositories; institutional mandates; self-archiving; Estudo Geral
Online: 17 June 2019 (07:08:09 CEST)
Changes brought about by the Internet to Scholarly Communication and the spread of Open Access movement, have made it possible to increase the number of potential readers of published research dramatically. This two-phase study aims, at first, to assert the satisfaction of the potential for increased open access to articles published by authors at the University of Coimbra, in a context when there was no stimulus for the openness of published science other than an institutional mandate set by the University policy on Open Access (“Acesso Livre”). The satisfaction of the access openness was measured by observing the actual archiving behavior of researchers (either directly or through their agents). We started by selecting the top journal titles used to publish the STEM research of the University of Coimbra (2004-2013) by using Thomson Reuters’ Science Citation Index (SCI). These titles were available at the University libraries or through online subscriptions, some of them in open access (21%). By checking the journals' policy at the time regarding self-archiving at the SHERPA/RoMEO service, we found that the percentage of articles in Open Access (OA) could rise to 80% if deposited at Estudo Geral, the Institutional Repository of the University of Coimbra, as prescribed by the Open Access Policy of the University. As we concluded by verifying the deposit status of every single paper of researchers of the University that published in those journals, this potential was far from being fulfilled, despite the existence of the institutional mandate and favorable editorial conditions. We concluded, therefore, that an institutional mandate was not sufficient by itself to fully implement an open access policy and to close the gap between publication and access. The second phase of the study, to follow, will rescan the status of published papers in a context where the Portuguese public funding agency, the Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, introduced in 2014 a new significant stimulus for open access in science. The FCT Open Access Policy stipulates that publicly funded published research must be available as soon as possible in a repository of the Portuguese network of scientific repositories, RCAAP, which integrates the Estudo Geral.
Sat, 15 June 2019
ARTICLE Download: 119| View: 231| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0138.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: corporate sustainability; economy for the common good; stakeholders theory; shared value; corporate social responsibility.
Online: 15 June 2019 (03:12:57 CEST)
In relation to organizational performance measurement, there is a growing concern about the creation of value for people, society and the environment. The traditional corporate reporting does not adequately satisfy the information needs of stakeholders for assessing an organization’s past and future potential performance. Practitioners and scholars have developed new non-financial reporting frameworks from a social and environmental perspective, giving birth to the field of Integrated Reporting (IR). The Economy for the Common Good (ECG) model and its tools to facilitate sustainability management and reporting can provide a framework to do it. The present study is the first one that empirically validates such metrics on a sample of 206 European firms. Consequently, it allows knowledge to advance as it checks their statistical validity and reliability.
Thu, 13 June 2019
ARTICLE Download: 51| View: 179| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0113.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: entrepreneurship; organizational entrepreneurship; organization performance; risk-taking; innovation; environmental factors
Online: 13 June 2019 (08:01:52 CEST)
Nowadays, environmental circumstances and business rules of organizations are complicate, active and uncertain, so, they cannot assurance their long- term survival through some actions such as, structural changes and methods or relying on creativity of some people in organization. Companies and organizations should prepare conditions to institutionalize entrepreneurial culture in their organization. Corporate entrepreneurship can improve the value of the organization. The entrepreneurial oriented organizations are more responsive for environment and market changes. Opportunity recognition is the base of being successful. The research is applied and in terms of method is descriptive. Data were analyzed, using Linear Regression and Multiple Moderated Regression (MMR) and SPSS software. In this research the effects of organizational entrepreneurship (innovation, proactiveness and risk-taking) on performance of the centers influenced by environmental factors (government’s strategies, competitiveness and technology) as moderating variables, were studied. Furthermore, the study presents that there is a significant positive relationship between organizational entrepreneurship and performance. Although the study does not show any significant moderating effect of environmental factors (Government’s strategies, competitiveness and technology) on the relationship between organizational entrepreneurship and performance, however, the result of the study manifests direct relationship between environmental factors and performance of such centers.
ARTICLE Download: 48| View: 186| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0111.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: education; University of the District of Columbia; engineering education; summer program
Online: 13 June 2019 (07:28:00 CEST)
Preparing high school students for engineering disciplines is crucial for sustainable scientific and technological developments in the USA. This paper discusses a pre-college program, which not only exposes students to various engineering disciplines but also enables them to consider engineering as the profession. The four-week long “Engineering Innovation (EI)” course is offered every year to high school students by the center of outreach, Johns Hopkins University. EI program is designed to develop problem-solving skills through extensive hands-on engineering experiments. A team consisting of an instructor, generally a PhD in Engineering, and a teaching fellow, generally a high school science teacher, closely work with students to pedagogically inculcate basics of core engineering disciplines such as civil, mechanical, electrical, materials, and chemical engineering. EI values independent problem-solving skills and simultaneously promote the team spirit among students. A number of crucial engineering aspects such as professional ethics, communications, technical writing, and understanding of common engineering principles are inculcated among high school students via well-designed individual and group activities. This paper discusses the model of EI program and its impact on students learning and their preparation for the engineering career.
Tue, 11 June 2019
ARTICLE Download: 47| View: 180| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0090.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: migrant health; length of stay; Médecins du Monde; self-perceived health; migration; Human Development Index
Online: 11 June 2019 (09:04:20 CEST)
Health of migrant is a widely studied topic. It has been argued that migrant health may deteriorate over time. Though migrants are ‘a hard to reach’ population in survey data, this paper builds on a unique dataset provided by Médecins du Monde from five countries. We study self perceived health (SPH) in connection with socio-economic and demographic factors and length of stay. Results show different results for men and women. Asylum seekers compared to other documented migrants have a worse health. Migrants with better living conditions tend to be in better health. Employment and stable accommodation has a positive effect on SPH. Women from poorer countries have a better physical SPH after 3 months of residing in the host country. This paper contributes widely to knowledge of health of migrants. Contrarily to other evidence, health of migrants tends to improve for some migrants.
Mon, 10 June 2019
ARTICLE Download: 45| View: 141| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0072.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Microeconomics And Decision Sciences Keywords: telematics; motor insurance; speed control; accident prevention
Online: 10 June 2019 (09:08:04 CEST)
We analyze real telematics information for a sample of drivers with usage-based insurance policies. We examine the statistical distribution of distance driven above the posted speed limit – which presents a strong positive asymmetry – using quantile regression models. We find that, at different percentile levels, the distance driven at speeds above the posted limit depends on total distance driven and, more generally, on such factors as the percentages of urban and nighttime driving and on the driver’s gender. However, the impact of these covariates differs according to the percentile level. We stress the importance of understanding telematics information, which should not be limited to simply characterizing average drivers, but can be useful for signaling dangerous driving by predicting quantiles associated with specific driver characteristics. We conclude that the risk of driving long distances above the speed limit is heterogeneous and, moreover, we show that prevention campaigns should target primarily male, non-urban drivers, especially if they present a high percentage of nighttime driving.
Fri, 7 June 2019
ARTICLE Download: 51| View: 195| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0059.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Self-employment; household determinants; financial Crisis
Online: 7 June 2019 (12:48:50 CEST)
While some researchers have suggested that the self-employment (SE) sector is a haven during a financial Crisis, others believe that SE is not necessarily the desired outcome, but an indicator that the labor market is tightening for some groups. Few researchers have compared the SE sector before and after the occurrence of a significant financial Crisis, especially in developed countries. This paper analyzes the determinants of entry into self-employment during the 2008 Spanish Crisis. Using data from the Encuesta de Presupuesto Familiar (EPF), results show that although the rate of SE did not experience a significant change during this time the Crisis affected people differently based on gender, with being females more affected than males. Results also suggest differences between Comunidades Autonomas in how the self-employment sector behaved during the Crisis.
ARTICLE Download: 62| View: 195| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0058.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: enjoyment; outdoor activities: education; physical activity
Online: 7 June 2019 (12:45:47 CEST)
The aim of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale in the context of outdoor physical activities. In order to do this, we carried out a research in some Primary and Secondary school l located in western Andalucía (Spain), with kids aged 9-12 years old [M= 11.22; SD= 1.07), therefore a sample of 455 students (228 boys= 50.1% 227 girls = 49.9% = 50.1) was used]. Descriptive, exploratory and confirmatory analyses were conducted. We also analyzed several factors such as internal consistency, composite reliability, average variance extracted and convergent validity. Afterwards, differences by gender and school year were also studied. Data showed the need to eliminate many of the items from the original scale, giving as a result a model of 5 items with satisfactory fit in the confirmatory analysis. The ANOVA statistical test carried out in terms of sex and school year didn’t show any tangible difference between the target groups.
Thu, 6 June 2019
ARTICLE Download: 64| View: 225| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0049.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: mobile phone data; residents commuting behavior; agent-based model; urban planning; traffic congestion
Online: 6 June 2019 (11:31:48 CEST)
Abstract：Commuting of residents in big city often brings tidal traffic pressure or congestions. Understanding the causes behind this phenomenon is of great significance for urban space optimization. Various spatial big data make possible the fine description of urban residents travel behaviors, and bring new approaches to related studies. The present study focuses on two aspects: one is to obtain relatively accurate features of commuting behaviors by using mobile phone data, and the other is to simulate commuting behaviors of residents through the agent-based model and inducing backward the causes of congestion. Taking the Baishazhou area of Wuhan, a local area of a mega city in China, as a case study, travel behaviors of commuters are simulated: the spatial context of the model is set up using the existing urban road network and by dividing the area into travel units; then using the mobile phone call detail records (CDR) of a month, statistics of residents' travel during the four time slots in working day mornings are acquired and then used to generated the OD matrix of travels at different time slots; and then the data are imported into the model for simulation. By the preset rules of congestion, the agent-based model can effectively simulate the traffic conditions of each traffic intersection, and can also induce backward the causes of traffic congestion using the simulation results and the OD matrix. Finally, the model is used for the evaluation of road network optimization, which shows evident effects of the optimizing measures adopted in relieving congestion, and thus also proves the value of this method in urban studies.
Mon, 3 June 2019
ARTICLE Download: 91| View: 257| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0018.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Microeconomics And Decision Sciences Keywords: banana; cassava; potato; sweet potato; gender division-of-labour; decision-making
Online: 3 June 2019 (10:14:15 CEST)
This paper evaluates the determinants of decision making in relation to the production of four crops (banana, cassava, potato and sweet potato). Understanding the division of labour and decision-making in crop management may lead to designing better interventions targeted at improving efficiency in smallholder agriculture. A household quantitative survey with heads of households involving 261 women and 144 men in Burundi and 184 women and 222 men in Rwanda was conducted in 2014. Most of the decisions and labour provision during production of both cash crops (potato and banana) and food crops (sweet potato and cassava) were done jointly by men and women in male-headed households. Higher values for ‘credit access’, ‘land size’ and ‘farming as the main occupation of the household head’ increased the frequency of joint decision-making in male-headed households. A decline in the amount of farm income reduced the participation of men as decision makers. A reduction in total household income and proximity to the market was correlated with joint decision making. Gender norms also contributed to the lower participation of women in both decision-making and labour provision in banana and potato cultivation. Although a large proportion of decisions were made jointly, women perceived that men participate more in decision-making processes within the household during the production of cash crops. Increased participation by women in decision-making will require an active and practical strategy which can encourage adjustments to existing traditional gender norms that recognise men as the main decision-makers at both the household and community levels.
ARTICLE Download: 33| View: 182| Comments: 0
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: vendor selection; product life cycle; multi-objective linear programming; Multi-choice goal programming.
Online: 3 June 2019 (09:52:41 CEST)
The framework of product life cycle (PLC) cost analysis is one of the most important evaluation tools for a contemporary high-tech company in an increasingly competitive market environment. The PLC-purchasing strategy provides the framework for a procurement plan and examines the sourcing strategy of a firm. The marketing literature emphasizes that ongoing technological change and shortened life cycles are important elements in commercial organizations. From a strategic viewpoint, the vendor has an important position between supplier, buyer and manufacturer. The buyer seeks to procure the products from a set of vendors to take advantage of economies of scale and to exploit opportunities for strategic relationships. However, previous studies have seldom considered vendor selection (VS) based on PLC cost (VSPLCC) analysis. The purpose of this paper is to solve the VSPLCC problems considering the situation of a single-buyer-multiple-supplier. For this issue, a new VSPLCC procurement model and solution procedure are derived by this paper to minimize net cost, rejection rate, late delivery and PLC cost subject to vendor capacities and budget constraints. Moreover, a real case in Taiwan is provided to show how to solve the VSPLCC procurement problem.
ARTICLE Download: 59| View: 176| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0009.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: entrepreneurial culture, persistence, innovation capability, patent, high-tech industry
Online: 3 June 2019 (08:51:32 CEST)
Currently the rapid growth of global economy has the competition among high-tech industries develop from regional to global, and the competition becomes fierce. In face of such fierce competition in global high-tech industry, it is realized that tangible assets could no longer be the differentiation basis, but intangible assets are regarded as the differentiation capital. An enterprise with sustainable innovation would dominate the world market and enhance the international competitiveness of domestic economy. When internal entrepreneurial culture is prevalent, an enterprise would naturally promote the innovation capability. Such a point of view also explains more popular of the innovative products or services of some enterprises than those with larger scales. Aiming at employees in high-tech industry in Guanxi Province, total 500 copies of questionnaire are randomly distributed, and 337 valid copies are retrieved, with the retrieval rate 67%. The research results reveal significantly positive correlations between 1.entrepreneurial culture and sustainable innovation capability, 2.sustainable innovation capability and patent, and 3.entrepreneurial culture and patent. According to the results, suggestions are proposed, expecting to explain how a high-tech business outperforms in the changeable digital era and acquires the sustainable innovation capability and patent to grasp the opportunity.
Fri, 31 May 2019
ARTICLE Download: 70| View: 284| Comments: 0
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: healthy city, sustainable development, environmental sustainability, key success factor
Online: 31 May 2019 (13:07:49 CEST)
The coexistence of human beings and environmental sustainability becomes individually and even globally concerned issue. In addition to environment issues, people also encounter negative issues of infectious diseases, gap between rich and poor, violence in society, uneven resource distribution, people’s health decline, and population structure aging, which would affect the sustainable development of cities. When taking sustainable development from the world to cities, it appears sustainable cities. The goal of a healthy city is to pursue the sustainability of a city. Aiming at residents in Shanghai, total 360 copies of questionnaire are distributed, and 277 valid copies are retrieved, with the retrieval rate 77％. The research results conclude that 1.“safety” is the most emphasized dimension, followed by “convenience & prosperity”, “sustainable ecology”, “vitality & health”, and “culture friendly” and 2.security, Internet city, pollution control, space use, and inheritance education are top five indicators, among 15 evaluation indicators. According to the results, suggestions are proposed to provide the government with correct, objective, and simply understandable healthy city indicators and sustainable development indicators for the appropriate planning and review of the administration objectives to enhance the public awareness of healthy city and the participation. It would stop the worsening of environment and promote residents’ health and the sustainable development of cities to have the city and the public moving towards healthy development.
Wed, 29 May 2019
ARTICLE Download: 95| View: 267| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0348.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: social entrepreneurship; responsible innovation; sustainable management; Mexican SMEs.
Online: 29 May 2019 (10:44:35 CEST)
Responsible innovation combines philanthropic and economic aspects and it is common to refer to entrepreneurs who lead it as "social entrepreneurs". The present study of 100 Mexican SMEs, provides knowledge of exploratory nature about what the models of organization are conducive to SMEs in the generation and development of responsible innovations. Through the statistical technique of cluster analysis, this study identified and characterized four models of organization according to the level of social entrepreneurship reached: (1) “The techno-scientific organization”, (2) “The techno-social organization”, (3) “The capitalist-social organization” and (4) “The capitalist organization”. While in Europe the dominant discourse about responsible innovation focuses on the control of the risk of social rejection of the advance of science and technology; in contexts such as the Mexican, the phenomenon is configured as the mechanism through which entrepreneurs articulate its technological and scientific capabilities to solve priority and specific problems of the society, however, the social impact does not crucially affect their business initiatives. The techno-scientific organization (50% of studied SMEs) is proposed as the model of organization with greater viability for Mexican entrepreneurs.
ARTICLE Download: 53| View: 210| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0344.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: religious pluralism; decolonization of mind; semi-structured interview; psychological features; Hinduism; Indian culture; religious rights of human
Online: 29 May 2019 (05:03:27 CEST)
This article presents the study of religious pluralism and decolonization of Indian mind in Russia. The paper analyzes the investigation results concerning psychological features of modern Indian students from universities in Russia and India. For measuring of connection between religious pluralism and decolonization of Indian mind we made socio-psychological investigation of Indian students. We made 254 semi-structured interview with Indian students who are studying in Russia and India. According to the result of investigation that decolonization of Indian mind is connected with the level of religious pluralism. Among the values principles of religious pluralism get more significance and importance in decolonizing mind of Indian students.
Mon, 27 May 2019
REVIEW Download: 358| View: 1104| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0302.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: open science; open access; open data; economic impacts
Online: 27 May 2019 (11:19:59 CEST)
A common motivation for increasing open access to research findings and data is the potential to create economic benefits – but evidence is patchy and diverse. This study systematically reviewed the evidence on what kinds of economic impacts (positive and negative) open science can have, how these comes about, and how benefits could be maximized. Use of open science outputs often leaves no obvious trace, so most evidence of impacts is based on interviews, surveys, inference based on existing costs, and modelling approaches. There is indicative evidence that open access to findings/data can lead to savings in access costs, labour costs and transaction costs. There are examples of open science enabling new products, services, companies, research and collaborations. Modelling studies suggest higher returns to R&D if open access permits greater accessibility and efficiency of use of findings. Barriers include lack of skills capacity in search, interpretation and text mining, and lack of clarity around where benefits accrue. There are also contextual considerations around who benefits most from open science (e.g. sectors, small vs larger companies, types of dataset). Recommendations captured in the review include more research, monitoring and evaluation (including developing metrics), promoting benefits, capacity building and making outputs more audience-friendly.
ARTICLE Download: 66| View: 140| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0311.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Econometrics & Statistics Keywords: Mallows criterion; Model averaging; Model selection; Shrinkage; Tuning parameter choice.
Online: 27 May 2019 (10:28:22 CEST)
Model selection and model averaging have been the popular approaches in handling modelling uncertainties. Fan and Li(2006) laid out a uniﬁed frame work for variable selection via penalized likelihood. The tuning parameter selection is vital in the optimization problem for the penalized estimators in achieving consistent selection and optimal estimation. Since the OLSpost-LASSO estimator by Belloni and Chernozhukov (2013), few studies have focused on the ﬁnite sample performances of the class of OLS post-penalty estimators with the tuning parameter choice determined by diﬀerent tuning parameter selection approaches. We aim to supplement the existing model selection literature by studying such a class of OLS post-selection estimators. Inspired by the Shrinkage Averaging Estimator (SAE) by Schomaker(2012) and the Mallows Model Averaging (MMA) criterion by Hansen (2007), we further propose a Shrinkage Mallows Model Averaging (SMMA) estimator for averaging high dimensional sparse models. Based on the Monte Carlo design by Wang et al. (2009) which features an expanding sparse parameter space as the sample size increases, our Monte Carlo design further considers the eﬀect of the eﬀective sample size and the degree of model sparsity on the ﬁnite sample performances of model selection and model averaging estimators. From our data examples, we ﬁnd that the OLS post-SCAD(BIC) estimator in ﬁnite sample outperforms most of the current penalized least squares estimators as long as the number of parameters does not exceed the sample size. In addition, the SMMA performs better given sparser models. This supports the use of the SMMA estimator when averaging high dimensional sparse models.
ARTICLE Download: 77| View: 118| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0306.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: return reversals; exchange-traded funds (ETFs); attention hypothesis; disagreement hypothesis; short selling
Online: 27 May 2019 (09:53:03 CEST)
We find that the overnight returns of Korean exchange-traded index funds (ETFs) are significantly positive, whereas the subsequent intraday returns are negative. These intraday return reversals are caused by relatively higher opening prices than the closing prices. In the Korean ETF market, where institutional investors are dominant participants, the return reversals are not explained by the attention hypothesis as in Berkman et al. . Hence, we investigate whether the disagreement hypothesis can explain return reversals. Under the disagreement situations between positive and negative traders at the open, positive traders can have a positive influence on the ETF prices by increasing their investments. However, negative traders, who give up investments due to limited short selling opportunities in the ETF market, have no effects on the prices. Comparing ETF markets with KOSPI 200 Futures where there are no restrictions on short selling, we find that short selling constraints are significant factors for the return reversals. This implies that disagreement among the investors can cause return reversals even in the markets without noise traders. Using unique Korean market data, we conclude that return reversals cannot be completely explained by the attention hypothesis, and that disagreement among investors is also a significant factor for the return reversals. This study contributes to the existing literature by showing that the attention hypothesis does not explain return reversals in the ETF market completely, and suggesting the disagreement hypothesis as an alternative.
Fri, 24 May 2019
ARTICLE Download: 48| View: 178| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0291.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Pakistan; bajra; barley; jowar; crops production; agricultural gross domestic product
Online: 24 May 2019 (09:02:30 CEST)
This paper investigates and explores the minor crops production in Pakistan and its association with the agricultural gross domestic product. The agriculture sector of Pakistan has a rich contribution to the economic growth and development. Like major crops; minor crops also have a vital role to boost up the agriculture sector. Time span data was used in this study and it was collected from the Economy Survey of Pakistan annual reports. Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) unit root test and Ordinary Least Square (OLS) method was used to analyze the data and results were interpreted by employing the Johansen co-integration test. Study results reveal that bajra, barely and jowar has a significant impact on the agricultural gross domestic product, while the total cropped area has a negative impact on AGDP. On the basis of the study results, we recommend the policy implications.
Wed, 22 May 2019
ARTICLE Download: 61| View: 221| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0268.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area; innovation sustainable development; innovation output; spatial pattern; empirical study
Online: 22 May 2019 (08:45:37 CEST)
The advantageous location, port clusters, strong economic strength, developed financial system, rational and orderly urban division of labor and modern industrial system of Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao greater bay area provide sustainable driving force for innovation activities in this region. This paper selected the Gini-coefficient, first degree index and concentration index to measure the spatial pattern characteristics of innovation output in Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao greater bay area. The results show that the innovation output presented a spatial pattern of center-periphery in the study region with Shenzhen and Guangzhou as the dual centers and engines of innovation and Dongguan and Foshan as the main innovative areas. Further empirical analysis of the impact of various factors on innovation output in the study region found that R&D expenditure, the number of R&D personnel, the level of economic development and industrial structure all have significant promoting effects on innovation output. Accordingly, this paper put forward countermeasures and suggestions to promote the innovative development of Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao greater bay area and build a world-class scientific and technological innovation bay area.
Mon, 20 May 2019
ARTICLE Download: 49| View: 164| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0240.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: sustainable assets; sustainable strategies; income of forestry household; forestry income; non-forestry income
Online: 20 May 2019 (10:25:08 CEST)
This study aims to identify the factors determining the income of forestry household in South Korea. We examine an empirical analysis using 3-year panel data conducted by the Korea Forest Service charged with maintaining South Korea's forest lands. The hypothesized factors determining the income of forestry household are classified into four types of assets and three types of livelihood strategies. We divided the income of forestry household (IFH) into three elements: forestry income (FI), non-forestry income (NFI), and transfer income (TI). We assessed the influences of household assets and livelihood strategies on each income. A random effect model was used as a statistical analysis with valid 979 of forestry household for three years. We found that household head's age, labor hours, savings, business category, cultivated land size, and region are significantly associated with IFH. Also, FI is influenced by labor capacity, cultivated size, business category, forestry business portfolio, and region while NFI is determined by household head's age, household head's gender, forestry business portfolio, and savings. TI is affected by household head's age, household head's education level, forestry business portfolios, savings, and region. The effect sizes and directions vary across different types of income (IFH, FI, NFI, and TI). The findings show that forestry in South Korea is highly dependent on sustainable assets and strategies. It is therefore expected that the effectiveness of forest policies to increase the income of forestry household would be differed by the source of each income. The results of this study draw attention to the need for an income support policy that should consider the characteristics of household assets and livelihood strategies in order to enhance IFH in South Korea.
ARTICLE Download: 119| View: 144| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0230.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library & Information Science Keywords: Gini coefficient; online health community; medical service delivery; Lorenz curve; inequality of health service; differential Effect
Online: 20 May 2019 (03:13:23 CEST)
Inequality of health service for different specialty categories not only occurs in different areas inequality of health service for different specialty categories in the world, but also happens in the online service platform. In the online health community (OHC), health service was often of inequality for different specialty categories, including both online views and medical consultation for offline registered service. Moreover, how the factor city-level impacts the inequality of health service in OHC is still unknown. We designed a causal inference study with data on distributions of serviced patients and online views in over 100 distinct specialty categories on one largest OHC in China. To derive the causal effect of the city-levels (two levels inducing 1 and 0) on the Gini coefficient, we matched the focus cases in cities of rich healthcare resources with the potential control cities. For the Gini coefficient of serviced patients in over 100 specialty categories, the average treatment effect of level-1 cities is 0.470, which is 0.029 higher than that of the matched group. Similarly, for the Gini coefficient of online views, the average treatment effect of Level-1 cities is 0.573, which is 0.016 higher than that of the matched group. For each of the specialty categories, we also estimated the average treatment effect the specialty category’s Gini coefficient ( ) with the balanced covariates. The results support the argument that the total Gini coefficient of all the doctors in OHC shows that the inequality of health service is still very serious. This study contributes to the development of the theoretically grounded understanding of the causal effect of city-level on the inequality of health service in an online to offline healthcare service setting.
Thu, 16 May 2019
COMMUNICATION Download: 50| View: 196| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0205.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: fruit and vegetable intake; fruit and vegetable receiving; locally-grown products; local food system; nonmarket food; social cohesion
Online: 16 May 2019 (10:32:55 CEST)
In this communication, we clarified the factors affecting the nonmarket fruit and vegetable (FV) receiving frequency. For Survey 1, we conducted a cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire for men aged 50—74 in city (A) in Gunma, Japan. Participants were asked questions regarding FV receiving frequency, FV gardening, social cohesion (4 to 20 points), and basic characteristics. For Survey 2, a similar survey was conducted for residents aged 20—74 in three areas in city (B) in Gunma, but we added more variables. For analysis, ordinal logistic regression models were used. In the survey 1, 243 participants were used for analysis. As a result, FV receiving frequency was positively associated with non-gardeners, and social cohesion. In Survey 2, 791 participants were used for analyses. For Survey 2, vegetable receiving frequency was positively associated with rural and suburban area, family structure, employment status, and non-farmers. The relationship between receiving frequency and social cohesion was similar to that found in Survey 1. In conclusion, in areas where FV cultivation flourished, it appears easy to obtain FV through the social networks of receiving, even for those who are not cultivating themselves.
Wed, 15 May 2019
ARTICLE Download: 75| View: 216| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0176.v2
Online: 15 May 2019 (15:33:00 CEST)
This research is part of the Doctoral thesis "Perceptions of university professors on Health Promotion and Sustainability: a research proposal based on Health Promoting Universities (HPU) / World Health Organization (WHO) ", University Fernando Pessoa (UFP) / Porto - Portugal, authored by Ivaní Nadir Carlotto: (1) Background: Universities are essential institutions for health promotion (HP). Bioethics, as a transversal discipline, seeks to analyse and systematise these values in an ethical way, strengthening the synergy between health and HP. Ecological models are a possibility to develop health actions in a holistic, sustainable and salutogenic way, stimulating positive aspects related to ethics, well-being and quality of life; (2) Methods: Exploratory-descriptive methodology and quantitative-qualitative approach. Sample: Teachers from 9 higher education institutions (HEI), random sample, probabilistic for convenience, CI = 95%, n = 1400 persons; (3) Results: Production of 6 main components through Factorial Analysis categorized and interpreted by Qualitative Content Analysis and MAXQDA® software; (4) Conclusions: Universities function as research and learning venues to strengthen HP's activities. Bioethics and HP aim to build qualified actions in health, to defend and promoting well-being, quality of life, equity, inclusion, sustainability and social justice, with the proper conceptual clarity that distinguishes it.
REVIEW Download: 101| View: 202| Comments: 0
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: Leader-Member Exchange; Characteristics of Task; Employee Performance
Online: 15 May 2019 (12:16:12 CEST)
This study aims to examines three elements shape leadership in Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) theory as a relationship and process. LMX quality is important for the company, because it relates to employee behavior and attitudes, including improving employee performance. The research method applied literature review using description logic and systematics. In this article the theory will be observed specially the effect of LMX on employee performance and antecedents of LMX. The results of the study found that the effect of LMX quality on performance is determined by the characteristics of the task as antecedent LMX in the company.
ARTICLE Download: 62| View: 210| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0191.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: learning trail; science centres; visitor engagement; generic learning outcomes
Online: 15 May 2019 (10:51:21 CEST)
The Norwegian Museum of Science and Technology have developed a learning concept for school classes in science centres named ‘learning trails’. In this concept, groups of students perform a series of thematically related experiments with installations in the science centre. The learning trails are designed to support the generic learning outcomes for science centre visits. We argue for using the previously developed Engagement Profile in an indicator to determine both media forms and generic learning outcomes for such learning concepts. Further, we implemented the learning trails in two modes: one mode used paper-based content to guide the students, while the other mode supported the use of tablet PCs where engaging content is triggered when the students approach the location of an experiment in the learning trail. We studied the engagement factors of the learning trails and observed how school classes use these. In a study with 113 students from lower secondary school, they answered short questionnaires that were integrated into the implementation of the learning trails. While the concept of the learning trails was evaluated positively, we could not find significant differences in how engaging the two implemented modes were.
ARTICLE Download: 50| View: 191| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0190.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Econometrics & Statistics Keywords: power envelope; Neyman-Pearson tests; Skewness & Kurtosis
Online: 15 May 2019 (10:50:52 CEST)
In social & health sciences, many statistical procedures and estimation techniques rely on the underlying distributional assumption of normality of the data. Non-normality may lead to incorrect statistical inferences. This study evaluates the performance of selected normality tests on the stringency framework for the skewed alternative space. Stringency concept allows us to rank the tests uniquely. Bonett & Seier test (Tw) turns out to be the best statistics for slightly skewed alternatives and the Anderson-Darling (AD), Chen-Shapiro (CS), Shapiro-Wilk (W) and Bispo, Marques, & Pestana, (BCMR) statistics are the best choices for moderately skewed alternative distributions. Maximum loss of Jarque-Bera (JB) and its robust form (RJB), in terms of deviations from the power envelope, is greater than 50% even for large sample sizes which makes them less attractive in testing the hypothesis of normality against the moderately skewed alternatives. On balance, all selected normality tests except Tw and COIN performed exceptionally well against the highly skewed alternative space.
Tue, 14 May 2019
ARTICLE Download: 46| View: 69| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0176.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: Bioethics; Health Promotion; Higher Education; Teachers
Online: 14 May 2019 (14:42:02 CEST)
Universities are essential institutions for health promotion (HP). Bioethics, as a transversal discipline, seeks to analyse and systematise these values in an ethical way, strengthening the synergy between health and health promotion. Ecological models are a possibility to develop health actions in a holistic, sustainable and salutogenic way, stimulating positive aspects related to ethics, well-being, quality of life and happiness. Research with exploratory-descriptive methodology and quantitative-qualitative approach. Sample: University professors from the Rio Grande do Sul, random sample, probabilistic for convenience, CI = 95%, n = 1400 people. The research approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Hospital das Clínicas of Porto Alegre (HCPA), Brazil, Ethics Committee of the University Fernando Pessoa (UFP), Porto, Portugal. Universities function as research and learning venues to strengthen HP's activities. Bioethics and HP aim to build qualified actions in health, to defend and promoting well-being, quality of life, equity, inclusion, sustainability and social justice, with the proper conceptual clarity that distinguishes it.
CASE REPORT Download: 103| View: 240| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0166.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library & Information Science Keywords: Open Annotation; Monographs; Open Access; Higher Education; Open Peer Review
Online: 14 May 2019 (10:03:41 CEST)
The digital format opens up new possibilities for interaction with monographic publications. In particular, annotation tools make it possible to broaden the discussion on the content of a book, to suggest new ideas, to report errors or inaccuracies, and to conduct open peer reviews. However, this requires the support of the users who might not yet be familiar with the annotation of digital documents. This paper will give concrete examples and recommendations for exploiting the potential of annotation in academic research and teaching. After presenting the annotation tool of Hypothesis, the article focuses on its use in the context of HIRMEOS (High Integration of Research Monographs in the European Open Science Infrastructure), a project aimed to improve the Open Access digital monograph. The general line and the aims of a post-peer review experiment with the annotation tool, as well as its usage in didactic activities concerning monographic publications are presented and proposed as potential best practices for similar annotation activities.
Mon, 13 May 2019
ARTICLE Download: 51| View: 112| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0151.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: climate change; adaptation; loss & damage; damage function; return period; tropical cyclone
Online: 13 May 2019 (10:07:41 CEST)
This paper constructs a model of climate-related damage for small island developing states (SIDS). We focus on the loss of private productive capital stocks through extreme climate events. In contrast to most economic analyses of climate impacts, which assume temperature-dependent damage functions, we draw on the engineering literature to allow for a greater or lesser degree of anticipation of climate change when designing capital stocks and balancing current adaptation expenditure against future loss & damage. We apply the model to tropical storm damage in the small island developing state of Barbados and show how anticipatory behavior changes the damage to infrastructure for the same degree of climate change. Thus, in the model, damage depends on behavior as well as climate variables.