Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: branched-chain amino acid; ion-pair reversed-phase liquid chromatography; mastitis; dairy cow; staphylococcus aureus
Online: 18 September 2019 (16:51:46 CEST)
The early diagnosis of mastitis represents an essential factor for a prompt detection of the animal for further actions. In fact, if not culled, infected cows must be segregated from the milking herd and milked last, or milked with separate milking units. Besides microbiological analysis, the somatic cell count (SCC) commonly used as predictor of intramammary infection, frequently lead to a misclassification of milk samples. To overcome these limitations, more specific biomarkers are continuously evaluated. Total amino acid content increases significantly in mastitic milk compared to normal one. Bovine mastitis can arise as a result of infection of the mammary gland by Staphylococcus aureus. Multiplication of this bacterium within the mammary gland is required for infection to persist. S. aureus requires branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs: isoleucine, leucine, valine) for protein synthesis, branched-chain fatty acids synthesis and environmental adaptation by responding to their availability via transcriptional regulators. The importance of BCAAs for S. aureus physiology necessitates that it either synthesize them or scavenge them from the environment. Increase of BCAAs in composite milk has been postulated to be linked to mammary infection by S. aureus. In the present work, we demonstrated, by a direct ion-pairing reversed-phase method based on the use of the evaporative light-scattering detector (IP-RP-HPLC-ELSD), applied to 65 composite cow milk samples, a correlation between the concentration of isoleucine and leucine and S. aureus load.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0006.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: branched chain 2-oxo acids; 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase; pyruvate dehydrogenase; phospho-nate and phosphinate analogs of pyruvate; protein succinylation; protein acetylation; protein glutarylation; sirtuin 3; sirtuin 5; anxiety
Online: 3 October 2022 (12:11:50 CEST)
Mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) is essential for the brain glucose and neurotransmitter metabolism, dysregulated in many pathologies. Using specific inhibitors of PDHC in vivo, we determine biochemical and physiological responses to PDHC dysfunction. Dose dependence of the responses to membrane-permeable dimethyl acetylphosphonate (Ac-PMe2) is non-monotonous. Primary decreases in glutathione and its redox potential, methionine and ethanolamine are alleviated with increasing PDHC inhibition, the alleviation accompanied by physiological changes. Comparison of 39 brain biochemical parameters after administration of four phosphinate and phosphonate analogs of pyruvate at a fixed dose of 0.1 mmol/kg reveals no primary, but the secondary changes, such as activation of 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (OGDHC) and decreased levels of glutamate, isoleucine and leucine. The accompanying decreases in RMSSD of ECG and freezing time are most pronounced after administration of me-thyl acetylphosphinate and dimethyl acetylphosphonate. The levels of PDHA1 expression and phosphorylation, sirtuin 3 and total protein acetylation are not significantly changed by the PDHC inhibitors that affect the brain protein succinylation and glutarylation. Thus, decreased production of the tricarboxylic acid cycle substrate acetyl-CoA by inhibited PDHC is compen-sated by increased degradation of amino acids through the cycle with activated OGDHC, increas-ing total protein succinylation and decreasing anxiety indicators.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0503.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: HMB; Branched-chain amino acid; Strength training; Sports nutrition; Inflammation.
Online: 29 August 2018 (14:12:18 CEST)
β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a bioactive metabolite formed from breakdown of the branched-chain amino acid leucine. Given the popularity of HMB supplements among different athletes, specifically, those who engage in regular resistance training, this review was performed to summarize current literature on some aspects of HMB supplementation that have received less attention. Because of the small number of published studies, it has not been possible to conclude the exact effects of HMB on cardiovascular parameters, oxidative stress and inflammatory markers. Thus, the interpretation of outcomes should be taken cautiously. However, the data presented here suggest that acute HMB supplementation may attenuate pro-inflammatory response following an intense resistance exercise in athletes. Also, the available findings collectively indicate that chronic HMB consumption in conjunction with resistance training has no more adaptive advantages associated with decreasing cardiovascular risk factors and oxidative stress markers. Taken together, there is clearly a need for further well-designed, longer duration studies to support these findings and determine whether HMB supplementation affects the adaptations induced by resistance training associated with body’s inflammatory condition, antioxidative defense system, and cardiovascular risk factors in humans.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0403.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: non-canonical branched chain amino acids; scale-down; strain screening; mixed-acid fermentation; pyruvate pulse; norvaline; norleucine; fed-batch cultivation; bioreactor; Enpresso; Enbase
Online: 16 March 2021 (09:11:34 CET)
Insufficient mixing in large-scale bioreactors, provokes gradient zones of substrate, dissolved oxygen, pH and other parameters. E. coli responds to a high glucose, low oxygen feeding zone with the accumulation of mixed acid fermentation products, especially formate, but also with the synthesis of non-canonical amino acids, such as norvaline, norleucine and -methyl-norleucine. These amino acids can be mis-incorporated into recombinant products, which causes a problem for pharmaceutical production whose solution is not trivial. While these effects can also be observed in scale down bioreactor systems, these are challenging to operate. Especially the high-throughput screening of clone libraries is not easy, as fed-batch cultivations would need to be controlled via repeated glucose pulses with simultaneous oxygen limitation, as has been demonstrated in well controlled robotic systems. Here we show that not only glucose pulses in combination with oxygen limitation can provoke the synthesis of these non-canonical branched-chain amino acids, but also that pyruvate pulses produce the same effect. Therefore we combined the enzyme based glucose delivery method Enbase® in a PALL24 mini-bioreactor system and combined repeated pyruvate pulses with simultaneous reduction of the aeration rate. These cultivation conditions, produced an increase in the non-canonical branched chain amino acids norvaline and norleucine in both the intracellular soluble protein and inclusion body fractions with mini-proinsulin as an example product, and this effect was verified in a 15 L stirred tank bioreactor. To our opinion this cultivation strategy is easy to apply for the screening of strain libraries under standard laboratory conditions if no complex robotic and well controlled parallel cultivation devices are available.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0211.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: retinoic acid; retinol; retinaldehyde; short-chain dehydrogenase; vitamin a; retinol dehydrogenase; retinaldehyde reductase; embryogenesis
Online: 16 December 2019 (07:18:46 CET)
The concentration of all-trans-retinoic acid, the bioactive derivative of vitamin A, is critically important for the optimal performance of numerous physiological processes. Either too little or too much of retinoic acid in developing or adult tissues is equally harmful. All-trans-retinoic acid is produced by the irreversible oxidation of all-trans-retinaldehyde. Thus, the concentration of retinaldehyde as the immediate precursor of retinoic acid has to be tightly controlled. However, the enzymes that produce all-trans-retinaldehyde for retinoic acid biosynthesis and the mechanisms responsible for the control of retinaldehyde levels have not yet been fully defined. The goal of this review is to summarize the current state of knowledge regarding the identities of physiologically relevant retinol dehydrogenases, their enzymatic properties and tissue distribution, and to discuss potential mechanisms for the regulation of the flux from retinol to retinaldehyde.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0271.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Biomarkers; dietary total fat; pentadecanoic acid; 15:0; heptadecanoic acid; 17:0; odd chain fatty acids.
Online: 15 September 2018 (17:49:08 CEST)
Pentadecanoic acid (C15:0) and heptadecanoic acid (C17:0) have been described as dietary biomarkers of dairy-fat consumption with varying degrees of reliability between studies. It remains unclear how the total amount of dietary fat; one of the main confounding factors in these biomarker investigations, affects C15:0 and C17:0 circulating compositions independently to their relative intake. Additionally, it is unknown how changes in the dietary total-fat affects other fatty acids in circulation. Through two dietary studies with different total-fat levels but maintaining individual fatty acid compositions we were able to see how the dietary total-fat affects the fatty acids in circulation. We saw that there was a significant, proportionate, and robust decrease in the endogenous C15:0 levels with an increase in dietary total-fat. However, there was an increase in the circulating C17:0 compositions as the total-fat increased. To conclude, the dietary total-fat content and fat-type have a very complex influence on the relative compositions of circulating fatty acids, which are independent to the actual dietary fatty acid composition. Knowing how to manipulate circulating C15:0 and C17:0 composition is far-reaching in nutritional/pathological research as they highlight a dietary route to attenuate the development of metabolic disease (both by reducing risk and improving prognosis).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0116.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: supply chain strategy; supply chain formulation; supply chain architecture; supply chain design
Online: 10 April 2019 (06:05:59 CEST)
The focus of this paper is on supply chain strategy formulation. A conceptual theory approach is used for investigating and identifying the relationship between multiple elements, dimensions, forces and factors that influence and affect the supply chain strategy formulation in Greenfield context, specific to the slate mining industry. The research study involved secondary data review and series of 20 qualitative interviews, followed by 2 group discussions, one with mining and transportation experts external to the supply chain and one group discussion with supply chain internal experts. Through critical analysis, a number of problems emerge and the process of addressing these problems, results in a new framework for evaluating the relationship between business and supply chain strategy, specific to Greenfield project and integration design context.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0186.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); long chain omega-3 fatty acids; maternal supplementation; pregnancy outcomes; anthropometry; birth weight; birth length; head circumference
Online: 11 January 2021 (11:38:57 CET)
Long-chain omega-3 fatty acid status during pregnancy may influence newborn anthropometry and duration of gestation. Evidence from high-quality trials from LMICs is limited. We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial among 957 pregnant women (singleton gestation, 14-20 weeks’ gestation at enrollment) in India to test the effectiveness of 400 mg/d algal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) compared to placebo provided from enrollment through delivery. Among 3379 women who were screened, 1171 were found eligible; 957 enrolled and were randomized. The intervention was two microencapsulated algal DHA (200 X 2= 400 mg/d) or two microencapsulated soy and corn oil placebo tablets to be consumed daily from enrollment (20 weeks) through delivery. The primary outcome was newborn anthropometry (birth weight, length, head circumference). Secondary outcomes were gestational age and 1 and 5 min Appearance, Pulse, Grimace, Activity, and Respiration (APGAR) score. The groups (DHA; n=478 and placebo; n=479) were well balanced at baseline. There were 902 live births. Compliance with the intervention was similar across groups (DHA: 88.5%; placebo: 87.1%). There were no significant differences between DHA and placebo group for birth weight (2750.6 ± 421.5 vs. 2768.2 ± 436.6 g, p=0.54), length (47.3 ± 2.0 vs. 47.5 ±2.0 cm, p=0.13) or head circumference (33.7 ± 1.4 vs 33.8 ± 1.4 cm, p=0.15). The mean gestational age at delivery was similar between groups (DHA: 38.8 ± 1.7 placebo: 38.8 ± 1.7 wk, p= 0.54) as were APGAR scores at 1 and 5 min. Supplementing mothers through pregnancy with 400mg/d DHA did not impact the offspring birthweight, length or head circumference.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0538.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: governance; agricultural value chain; links; captive chain; hierarchy chain
Online: 31 August 2018 (04:35:41 CEST)
The objective of this study is to determine the type of governance of the four main agricultural value chains in Tamaulipas, northeast of Mexico. For the preparation of this research used a qualitative design, using a questionnaire and semi-structured interviews to a sample of representatives of the four selected chains. The results showed that in all the studied networks, control and coordination capacity is limited by the influence that has a link on the rest of the chain. In all cases, was that the industrial link is who leads the chains and exert control over the rest of the links. The results showed that, when the industrial link is located close geographically to the rest of the links (chains of rice and sugar cane), the chains showed a hierarchical type, where the industrial exercised dominion over the rest of the links and captures most of the income. On the other hand, in chains where control is exercised by links that are outside the territory (chains of soybeans and sorghum), they function as captive chains, putting the rest of the chain to its influence and control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0750.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Sustainability; SMEs; Supply Chain Collaboration; Supply Chain Visibility; Supply Chain Agility
Online: 30 September 2020 (14:26:12 CEST)
Today’s export-based manufacturers face the need to implement green supply chains more efficiently in order to overcome environmental barriers in increasingly competitive export markets and to improve export performance. This study examines the structural relationship between environmental collaboration, green innovation capacity, and performance based on the findings of previous studies in order to identify the factors affecting the green supply chain management (GSCM) performance of Korean export-based manufacturers. The study finds that environmental collaboration in the green supply chain environment is an important driver of green innovation capacity for export-based Korean manufacturers. It also finds that green innovation capacity has a positive effect on export performance through environmental performance. This study establishes a theoretical basis for the systematic study of the structural mechanisms of green supply chains and suggests strategic directions for export-based manufacturing firms’ successful GSCM implementation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0342.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: general relativity; geometry; topology; branched covering space; exotic smooth structure; knot theory
Online: 30 July 2019 (15:09:44 CEST)
In this paper we review a proposal to represent the geometric degrees of freedom of the gravitational field as a branched covering space, and introduce a new application of this in which the branch loci are 1- or 2-knots. This allows one to construct arbitrary smooth, closed 3- and 4-manifolds with enough geometric and topological information to write down a partition function and calculate statistical quantities in the thermodynamic limit. Further, we find clear evidence for a dimensional reduction of the spacetime geometry from four to two. As an example, we choose a family of smooth 4-manifolds presented in this way, and calculate the entropy of the system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0144.v1
Subject: Keywords: supply chain integration
Online: 12 April 2019 (10:33:23 CEST)
This paper applied case study research to design architectures for green-field supply chain integration. The integration design is based on a case study of a supply chain integration of 5 companies, operating in different, but supply chain complimenting industry sectors. The case study research is applied to design and validate the architectures in a real world scenario. The supply chain integration architectures enable the conversion of individual into integrated strategies. The architectures are categorised and the process develops into a conceptual system for identifying the correlations between individual participants’ strategic areas of interest and the integrated supply chain areas of interest. The novelty of this paper is a conceptual system for green-field supply chain integration architectures, which can be applied in real world by supply chain practitioners.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0101.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Strategic alliance; Supply chain resilience; Resilient supply chain; Bibliometric analysis
Online: 4 November 2021 (10:28:29 CET)
Resilience is a particularly important quality for supply chains in this turbulent environment. Resilience in supply chain is the ability to retain, resume, and recover operations after an intense destructive incident. One of the strategic solutions for managing supply chain disruptions is to establish collaboration and strategic alliances in order to achieve competitive advantage. Therefore, given the increasing publication of articles in areas of strategic alliances and supply chain resilience, it is a good opportunity to review these articles, identify gaps in the current literature, demonstrate links between the two areas, and provide suggestions for future research. For these purposes, a bibliometric analysis has been performed on literature available on the Web of Science database. The distribution of articles based on year and country, influential journals, research areas, authors, affiliations, keywords, citations, and reference co-citation analysis are discussed. Results indicate that studies about strategic alliances, meant to increase resilience, are growing in areas such as “Management”, “Operations research”, “Management science”, and “Business”. Furthermore, the sources could be categorized in five clusters; namely “From knowledge concept to value creation”, “Internal and external relationships”, “Logistics and supply chain performance”, “Intellectual capital and strategic management”, and “Critical success factors and alliances”. This article can be useful for both practitioners and academics who explore the topic of strategic alliances and resilience in supply chain and also offers managers the opportunity to overcome supply chain disruptions and negative consequences of risks by becoming familiar with the key concepts of resilience. The persistence of businesses and supply chains is guaranteed through communicating with partners and even competitors in the light of alliance according to the findings of this research. Managers can pay attention to the integration of the supply chain to improve resilience and increase collaboration between suppliers and customers. Given the research results, strategic alliances can be noted in expanding organizational entrepreneurship, and shaping strategic collaboration networks in light of strategic alliances.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0330.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: fatty acyl desaturase; Δ6 - desaturase; long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid; LC-PUFA; ω3; ω6; EPA; DHA; AA; essential fatty acid; health; fish; transgene
Online: 28 January 2020 (04:39:09 CET)
Fatty acid desaturase 2 (Fads2) is the key enzyme of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis. Endogenous production of these biomolecules in vertebrates, if present, is insufficient to meet demand. Hence, LC-PUFA are considered as conditionally-essential. At present however, LC-PUFA are globally-limited nutrients due to anthropogenic factors. Attention of research is given therefore to find ways to maximize endogenous LC-PUFA production especially in production species, whereby deeper knowledge on molecular mechanisms of enzymatic steps involved is being generated. This review first briefly informs about the milestones in the history of LC-PUFA essentiality exploration before it focuses on the main aim – to highlight the fascinating Fads2 potential to play roles fundamental to adaptation to novel environmental conditions. Investigations are summarized, which elucidate the evolutionary history of fish Fads2 providing an explanation for the remarkable plasticity of this enzyme in fish. Further, structural implications of Fads2 substrate specificity are discussed and some relevant studies performed on organisms other than fish are mentioned in cases when such studies have so far not been conducted on fish models. The importance of Fads2 in the context of growing aquaculture demand and dwindling LC-PUFA supply is depicted and a few remedies in the form of genetic engineering to improve endogenous production of these biomolecules are outlined.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0103.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Data Analytics; Analytics; Supply Chain Input; Supply Chain; Data Science; Data
Online: 6 October 2021 (10:38:42 CEST)
One of the most remarkable features in the 20th century was the digitalization of technical progress, which changed the output of companies worldwide and became a defining feature of the century. The growth of information technology systems and the implementation of new technical advances, which enhance the integrity, agility and long-term organizational performance of the supply chain, can distinguish a digital supply chain from other supply chains. For example, the Internet of Things (IoT)-enabled information exchange and Big Data analysis might be used to regulate the mismatch between supply and demand. In order to assess contemporary ideas and concepts in the field of data analysis in the context of supply chain management, this literary investigation has been decided. The research was conducted in the form of a comprehensive literature review. In the SLR investigation, a total of 71 papers from leading journals were used. SLR has found that data analytics integrate into supply chain management can have long-term benefits on supply chain management from the input side, i.e., improved strategic development, management and other areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0005.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: wastes, closed loop of supply chain, mining, sustainable supply chain, CSR
Online: 3 June 2019 (08:41:29 CEST)
(1) Background: Presentation of the method of increasing the competitiveness of the mining industry through the demonstration of the possibility and potential in closing the loop of supply chains through waste management; (2) Methods: The source literature analysis and an arithmetic analysis of the data of statistical materials and data obtained from business in static and dynamic perspectives; (3) Results: According to the latest data available, in Poland, mining wastes account for over a half of industrial wastes, while the annual growth of mining wastes is on the level of 4%. The recorded recovery of mining wastes is on the level of ca. 19%. The exemplary company that deals with the recovery of carbon wastes recovers ca. 80% of material, which is handed over for utilization (4) Conclusions: It has been found that the structure of the level of mining wastes and the level of their recovery rates demonstrate a large potential of closing the loop of chains in this industry and, at the same time, a potential to extend the chains through directing the material from recovery to various sectors. This constitutes an example of the direction of activities that are in line with the EU strategies for the economies of other states which possess this type wastes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0317.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: transpositional recombination; site-specific recombination; meiotic recombination; the intertwinement model; branched structure; Holliday junction; copy choice
Online: 18 August 2018 (03:50:48 CEST)
Types of DNA recombination include homologous recombination and nonhomologous recombination. Homologous DNA recombination is a general term that includes exchange of information between chromatids: (reciprocal) crossing-over, gene conversion, and post-meiotic segregation. Gene conversion is now thought to be a type of non-Mendelian segregation of heterozygous markers near the recombination initiation site. Thus, it includes both gene conversion and post-meiotic segregation previously described. DNA non-HR including transpositional recombination and site-specific recombination. Our understanding of the molecular mechanism by which DNA recombination occurs has significantly increased in the past decades. Currently The synthesis-dependent strand annealing model is now thought to give rise to most or all noncrossovers, with the double-strand-break repair model forming mainly crossovers. The Shapiro model proposed by Dr. J. Shapiro explains the molecular mechanism of transpositional recombination. Site-specific recombination results from another distinct model. We previously proposed a novel theory which can provide a more reasonable and simpler explanation accounting for DNA HR including the 3 classes of recombinogenic events described above. In the new supplementedly molecular model, DNA meiotic recombination can be initiated by a copy choice mechanism, that is, copying part of 1 single-stranded DNA template, followed by DNA polymerase switching to another single-stranded DNA template, and then resuming the following DNA synthesis along the new template. The current review suggests that transpositional recombination and site-specific recombination should be initiated by copy choice during DNA synthesis rather than break/join mechanism. The work indicates that review of DNA nonhomologous recombination are very necessary. The novel theory would challenge earlier models accounting for transpositional recombination and site-specific recombination and would be critical to the understanding of the mechanisms. We hope copy choice initiating DNA nonhomologous recombination will be one of the concepts that are explored. Proper and specific experiments are required to reconstruct the detailed mechanism described here.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0369.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: Cold supply chain; Meat Supply Chain; Food Safety; COVID-19; Blockchain; Hyperledger Fabric
Online: 14 April 2021 (12:18:24 CEST)
The world is facing an unprecedented socio-economic crisis caused by the novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19). It is also spreading through the import and export food supply chains. The Chinese authorities have discovered the COVID-19 virus in various imported frozen meat packages. Traceability plays a vital role in food quality and food safety. The Internet of Things (IoT) provides solutions to keep an eye on environmental conditions, product quality, and product traceability. These solutions are traditionally based on the centralized architecture, which does not guarantee tamper-proof data sharing. The blockchain is an emerging technology that provides tamper-proof data sharing in real-time. This article presents Hyperledger Fabric-based blockchain use case and a quick reference guide to develop the blockchain network for tracking and tracing the supply chain to minimize the risk of COVID-19 in the frozen meat supply chain.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0204.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: sustainable; global; supply chain; management
Online: 9 August 2021 (15:17:15 CEST)
This study aims to summarize the literature on sustainable global supply chain management so that researchers and practitioners can see the trends in the area in a single place. Systematic literature review (SLR) or Content analysis is used as a methodology of this literature review, studies that are published within the time frame of 2010 to 2020 are included in this literature. Dimensions to analyze each article includes; year of publications, methodology of research, data collection type, unit of analysis, industry, a country in which data is being collected, respondents’ types, the theory that is used in the study, dimensions of the sustainability and finally the purpose of study either it is to test the already existing theory or building up a new theory. I found that sustainable global supply chain management is an emerging field and there is potential in the area for researchers to explore the area.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0741.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: folding; interactions; single-chain nanoparticles
Online: 30 November 2020 (16:20:43 CET)
The folding of certain proteins (e.g., enzymes) into perfectly defined 3D conformations via multi-orthogonal interactions is critical to their function. Concerning synthetic polymers chains, the “folding” of individual polymer chains at high dilution via intra-chain interactions leads to so-called single-chain nanoparticles (SCNPs). This review article describes the advances carried out in recent years in the folding of single polymer chains into discrete SCNPs via multi-orthogonal interactions using different reactive chemical species where intra-chain bonding only occurs between groups of the same species. First, we summarize results from computer simulations of multi-orthogonally folded SCNPs. Next, we comprehensively review multi-orthogonally folded SCNPs synthesized via either non-covalent bonds or covalent interactions. Finally, we conclude by summarizing recent research about multi-orthogonally folded SCNPs prepared through both reversible (dynamic) and permanent bonds.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0351.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: photochemistry; photofolding; single-chain nanoparticles
Online: 30 October 2019 (09:03:24 CET)
Clean use of photons from light to activate chemical reactions offer many possibilities in different fields, from chemistry and biology to materials science and medicine. This review article describes the advances carried out in last decades toward the phototriggered synthesis of single-chain polymer nanoparticles (SCNPs) as soft nanomaterials with promising applications in enzyme-mimicking catalysis and nanomedicine, among other different uses. First, we summarize different strategies developed to synthesize SCNPs based on photoactivated intrachain homocoupling, phototriggered intrachain heterocoupling and photogenerated collapse induced by external cross-linker. Next, we comprehensively review the emergent topic of photoactivated multifolding applied to SCNP construction. Finally, we conclude by summarizing recent strategies towards phototriggered disassembly of SCNPs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0652.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: supply chain management; logistics; collaboration; cooperation; supply chain design; customer satisfaction; distribution; regression; noodles
Online: 29 October 2018 (04:45:36 CET)
The degree of collaboration among supply chain partners and the structure of the network are important determinants of the level of satisfaction customers derive from the products or services. However, the effects of these dimensions on customer satisfaction at the downstream section of the supply chain remain under-researched in Nigeria. This study precisely examined the effects of collaboration and supply chain design on customers’ satisfaction at the downstream end of the chain using Ekiti State as study area. The study employed descriptive survey design with the use of structured Likert scale questionnaire administered to 381 retailers of noodles in Ekiti State. The research hypotheses were analysed using simple linear regression as statistical technique with the aid of SPSS version 22.0. At the end of the study, it was observed that both collaboration and supply chain design were significant predictors of customers’ satisfaction of instant noodles in Ekiti State. However, collaboration among supply chain partners emerged as stronger determinant of customers’ satisfaction than supply chain design. The study concludes that these two practices of supply chain management are highly important criteria any manufacturing firm especially in the noodles industry must pay close attention to in order to satisfy her consumers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0441.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Life Cycle Assessment; Blockchain; Supply Chain
Online: 28 October 2021 (14:56:20 CEST)
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a widely recognized tool used to evaluate environmental impacts of a product or process, based on the environmental inventory database and bills of material. Data quality is one of the most significant factors affecting the analysis results. However, currently most datasets in inventory databases are generic i.e., they may represent material and energy flow of a process at market average, instead of a specific process used by a manufacturer. As a result, stockholders are unable to track their supply chain to find out the actual environmental impact from each supplier and to compare the environmental performance of alternative options. In this paper, we developed a new framework i.e., blockchain based LCA (BC-LCA), where block-chain technology is adapted to secure and transmit inventory data from upstream suppliers to downstream manufacturers. With BC-LCA, more specific data can be acquired along the supply chain in a real-time manner. Moreover, the availability, accuracy, privacy, and automatic update of inventory data can be improved. A case study is provided based on an industrial supply chain, to demonstrate the utilization of BC-LCA.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0085.v2
Online: 3 June 2021 (13:36:26 CEST)
Kenyan coffee is ranked among the best in the world and 99% is exported mainly to Germany, Sweden and Belgium, the USA and Saudi Arabia. Kenya produces quality Arabica beans which are generally recognized and upgraded with other relatively lower brands. In 1937, the Kenya Planters Cooperative Union (KPCU) was formed to represent small farmers' interests. In 1944, in the Coffee Board of Kenya (CBA) the law required smallholders to join local growing cooperatives run by government to reduce the power of large estates to control the board. Many reforms in the coffee industry have been initiated. This review explores evolution and existing coffee varieties in Kenya, the coffee value chain and the regions that grow coffee in Kenya. Additionally, the variety agronomics and appearance that encompass; quality potential at different altitudes, yield potential and nematodes susceptibility.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0226.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: Supply Chain Management (SCM); Supply Chain Risk Management (SCRM); risk modelling; time-series analysis; machine learning
Online: 20 January 2020 (10:21:00 CET)
Risk modelling along with multi-objective optimization problems have been at theepicenter of attention for supply chain managers. In this paper, we introduce a datasetfor risk modelling in sophisticated supply chain networks based on formal mathematical models. We have discussed the methodology and simulation tools used to synthesize the dataset. Additionally, the underlying mathematical models are discussed in granular details along with providing directions to conducting statistical analyses or neural machine learning models. The simulation is performed using MATLAB ™Simulink and the models are illustrated as well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0265.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: photovoltaics systems in Colombia; supply chain; non-nterconnected areas (ZNI); supply chain orientation (SCO); Petri Nets
Online: 21 May 2018 (10:50:03 CEST)
This article makes a general analysis of the supply chain of photovoltaic systems in Colombia, taking as a starting point a conceptual base and the current situation of the country in this sector. This article especially will contemplate the non-interconnected areas (ZNI) to the electricity grid in the national, due to its complexity in the logistics issues. Likewise, the work performs a graphical representation of the stages and processes of the supply chain using a powerful-modeled tool such as the Petri Nets (PNs). Finally, it identifies some of the flaws in the operation and the joint of all the links of the logistic part and from there it is based the importance of the strategy of orientation to the supply chain (SCO) as a possible alternative to improve and to enhance the logistic processes of this type of systems.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Industry 4.0; Supply Chain Design; Transformational Design Roadmap; IIoT Supply Chain Model; Decision Support for Information Management
Online: 24 December 2020 (13:37:35 CET)
Digital technologies have changed the way supply chain operations are structured. In this article, we conduct systematic syntheses of literature on the impact of new technologies on supply chains and the related cyber risks. A taxonomic/cladistic approach is used for the evaluations of progress in the area of supply chain integration in the Industrial Internet of Things and Industry 4.0, with a specific focus on the mitigation of cyber risks. An analytical framework is presented, based on a critical assessment with respect to issues related to new types of cyber risk and the integration of supply chains with new technologies. This paper identifies a dynamic and self-adapting supply chain system supported with Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning (AI/ML) and real-time intelligence for predictive cyber risk analytics. The system is integrated into a cognition engine that enables predictive cyber risk analytics with real-time intelligence from IoT networks at the edge. This enhances capacities and assist in the creation of a comprehensive understanding of the opportunities and threats that arise when edge computing nodes are deployed, and when AI/ML technologies are migrated to the periphery of IoT networks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0027.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Blockchain; Agriculture; Traceability; Food Supply chain; Crops.
Online: 1 November 2021 (16:04:00 CET)
In recent years, Blockchain has been favorably adopted in the Supply Chain industry as it provides guaranteed transparency and traceability. The flexibility of Blockchain allows different applications to enable to exchange information; a significant middleweight layer is responsible for information transfer in the Agricultural Sector. The products that are manufactured at a global level in the agriculture industry are improved in safety, validation of some criteria, and quality. In the agriculture industry, the increasing number of complications associated with food safety and impurity risks needs high-level effective traceability solutions that act as necessary quality management tools to make sure satisfactory safety of crops. The agricultural supply chain today has complex ecosystems, consisting of several stockholders to authenticate criteria which are important like crop development stages, monitoring and validation, and compliance with the quality standard. In this proposed research, a systematic literature review will be done that includes smart contracts, Blockchain, and business transactions exclusively for crop production traceability across the agricultural and food supply chain. By using Blockchain in the agriculture sector, productivity, consistency, safety, reliability, and advanced security are increased. All transactions are kept and recorded on the immutable record of Blockchain associates with a decentralized system. Thus, it provides more traceability and clarity in the agriculture system in asafe, trustworthy, and effective way. A systematic literature review is thus enforced to classify the papers which are selected by the following classification: crop traceability, contribution type, research type, and their approach. For this systematic review, the papers which extracted are classified according to defined criteria. The purpose of this study is to fill the gap by collecting and analyzing studies available within the literature aiming to firstly, gain complete insight on the integration of Blockchain in the agriculture sector. Secondly, provide a summary of the present state of research on this area and identify gaps in existing studies. To achieve this aim an SLR was conducted. The findings of this SLR are discussed and researchers were provided with suggestions on possible directions for future research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0223.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Blockchain; Rice; Supply chain traceability; Quality control
Online: 8 June 2021 (12:34:45 CEST)
Rice is the grain feeds more than half of the world population. It is an important staple food provides twenty percent of the calories consumed worldwide. Food safety affects the health of consumers. Establishing an effective traceability system is one of the primary measures to protect rice quality and food safety. Blockchain-based traceability system has the characteristics of data tamper-proofing, decentralization, and co-governance. This paper proposed a rice traceability scheme based on blockchain technology that selects the critical nodes in the rice industry chain to construct a blockchain network to achieve transparent data sharing. It is meaningful for both enterprises and consumers. It can let enterprises get the real quality information of rice and related raw materials. Consumers can get the true information of rice and rice products to buy safe and healthy food. The scheme is proved feasible by simulating the traceability of the rice supply chain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0613.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: folding; single-chain nanoparticles; catalysis; click chemistry
Online: 29 January 2021 (11:51:41 CET)
“Clickase” single-chain nanoparticles (Ck-SCNPs) are folded, enzyme-mimetic unimolecular polymeric nano-objects containing copper (Cu) ions able to catalyze the azide-alkyne Huisgen cycloaddition reaction in water and/or selected organic solvents, often in the presence of a reductant. Herein, we investigate the effect of morphology on catalytic activity of Ck-SCNPs synthesized by means of two different routes. An amphiphilic random copolymer composed of oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methyl methacrylate (OEGMA) and 2-acetoacetoxy ethyl methacrylate (AEMA) units was used as precursor of these Ck-SCNPs. Folding was promoted through metal complexation between Cu(II) ions and beta-ketoester-containing AEMA moieties. The first route resulted in Ck-SCNPs1 containing Cu ions homogeneously distributed within each nanoparticle, whereas the second one promoted intra-chain clustering of Cu ions inside Ck-SCNPs2. A model fluorogenic “click” reaction between 9-(azidomethyl)anthracene and phenylacetylene, which was catalyzed either by Ck-SCNPs1 or Ck-SCNPs2, was used to unravel the effect of morphology on catalytic activity. This work paves the way to improve the catalytic activity of metallo-folded SCNPs through control of the intra-chain distribution of catalytic sites.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0342.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: supply chain management; transport; sustainability; quality; innovation
Online: 14 December 2020 (14:03:54 CET)
The present article proposes a complete framework for Supply Chain Strategy (SCS) analysis that is adapted to the specific characteristics of the agrifood chain, thereby facilitating management of the former. As a specific case of analysis, the horticultural supply chain, originating in Spain and ending with the European consumer, is analyzed, taking as a reference the marketing companies at origin (mainly social economy companies, i.e.; cooperatives). In addition, a survey of marketing companies is conducted to possibly determine which explicit cooperative growth strategies may include horizontal and vertical collaboration relationships with other members of the chain. The aim is to analyze with whom the cooperative collaborates within the supply chain and the key points of such collaboration. A model analyzing the influence of collaboration on company performance is also considered. The results reveal that, in recent years, aspects related to quality and health have been surpassed and replaced by the concept of sustainability within a framework of collaboration with customers. In any case, it becomes evident that there is a need to expand collaboration within the chain by incorporating the supplier of the supplier, with the aim of making the chain more profitable.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0356.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Sanger Sequencing; DNA Sequencing; Chain Termination Sequencing
Online: 12 November 2020 (17:20:07 CET)
The world has now entered into a replacement era of genomics due to the continued advancements within the next generation high throughput sequencing technologies, which incorporates sequencing by synthesis-fluorescent in place sequencing (FISSEQ), pyrosequencing, sequencing by ligation using polony amplification, supported oligonucleotide detection (SOLiD), sequencing by hybridization alongside sequencing by ligation, and nanopore technology. Great impacts of those methods are often seen for solving the genome related problems of plant and Animalia which will open the door of a replacement era of genomics. This might ultimately overcome the Sanger sequencing that ruled for 30 years. NGS is predicted to advance and make the drug discovery process more rapid.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0163.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Sanger Sequencing; DNA Sequencing; Chain Termination Sequencing
Online: 3 November 2020 (14:41:11 CET)
DNA sequencing methods were first developed more than 20 years ago with the publication of two approaches to sequencing methodology that became known as Sanger sequencing (1), based on enzymatic synthesis from a single-stranded DNA template with chain termination using dideoxynucleotides (ddNTPs) and Maxim-Gilbert sequencing (2),which involved chemical degradation ofend-radio-labeled DNA fragments. Both methods relied on four-lane,high resolution polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to separate the labeled fragment and allow the base sequence to be read in a staggered ladder-like fashion. Sanger sequencing was technically easier and faster, and thus became the main DNA sequencing method for the vast majority of applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0295.v1
Online: 26 April 2019 (10:15:30 CEST)
There is limited information on Tamarind production, trade and value added products in Kenya. Of late, there is growing interest in the domestic and export markets due to its multiple uses. The objective of this paper is to review existing literature to identify the missing value chain links which may help catalyse the scaling up of production and commercialization of Tamarind. Selected literature and interviews with traders and extension staff in the Coastal Counties were used to collect information for this study. Tamarind fruits are mainly collected in the wild in semi-arid areas of the country and marketed through informal channels. Mombasa is the terminal market for tamarind from Kenya and Uganda, from where domestic consumers and exporters obtain their supplies. Globally, virtually every part of tamarind tree (pulp, seed, leaves, flowers, bark and roots) has either nutritional, industrial or medicinal value. Tamarind fruit contains substantial levels of carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, minerals and essential amino acids making it potentially useful in addressing wide spread malnutrition. Its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-fungal and anti-diabetic properties gives tamarind wider application in conventional and traditional medicine. The findings suggest that scaling up the production and commercialization of tamarind in the country requires both public and private sector investment. The structure of this partnership should consist of the following value chain links: An efficient Seed / seedling system as a source of planting materials; production hubs by farmer associations, government institutions and private farms; aggregation centres for assurance of volumes and quality; processing, value addition and product diversification; an efficient distribution systems of wholesalers and retailers, particularly supermarkets; exporters and consumers. The agenda for further research should include breeding and availing early maturing cultivars demanded by the export market, quality management andvalue addition technologies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0009.v1
Subject: Keywords: Cache Coding, Source Coding, Absorbing Markov Chain
Online: 1 February 2018 (16:45:19 CET)
Network coding approaches typically consider an unrestricted recoding of coded packets in the relay nodes for increased performance. However, this can expose the system to pollution attacks that cannot be detected during transmission, until the receivers attempt to recover the data. To prevent these attacks while allowing for the benefits of coding in mesh networks, the Cache Coding was proposed. This protocol only allows recoding at the relays when the relay has received enough packets to decode an entire generation of packets. At that point, the relay node recodes and signs the recoded packets with its own private key allowing for the system to detect and minimize the effect of pollution attacks and make relays accountable for changes on the data. This paper analyzes the delay performance of Cache Coding to understand the security-performance trade-off of this scheme. We introduce an analytical model for the case of two relays in an erasure channel relying on an Absorbing Markov Chain and a approximate model to estimate the performance in terms of the number of transmissions before successfully decoding at the receiver. We confirm our analysis using simulation results. We show that Cache Coding can overcome security issues of unrestricted recoding with only a moderate decrease in system performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0221.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Zika virus; nucleic acid detection; micro-droplet digital polymerase chain reaction; real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction
Online: 24 January 2018 (04:21:18 CET)
Establishment of diagnostic methods with low detection limits plays a critical role in the maintenance of early diagnosis, prevention of serious neurological complications, and control of the spread of ZIKA. In this study, we established the micro-droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) and real-time fluorescent quantification PCR (qPCR) protocols for the detection of Zika virus based on the NS5 gene. For the Zika standard plasmid, the standard curve of R2 was 0.999, and the amplification efficiency was 92.203%, as determined by qPCR. Both ddPCR and qPCR were positive for cell culture of Zika nucleic acid.The minimum detection limit of ddPCR is 1–2 times lower than qPCR. Moreover, all tests of Dengue virus (1–4 serotypes) were negative in cell culture. Overall, these results suggested than ddPCR may have a lower limit of detection than qPCR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0056.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: resource efficiency; productive chain trade-offs; decision making
Online: 7 April 2022 (04:25:38 CEST)
Petrochemicals, which convert oil and gas into products such as plastics, are fundamental to modern societies. Chemists recognize their role in the design of materials and the adverse effects that these may have on the environment, preventing sustainable development. Several methodological frameworks and sustainability assessment approaches have been developed to evaluate the resources used in the petrochemical sector in terms of environmental costs. A combination of Life Cycle Assessment and Emergy Accounting - to assess the environmental support for resource use - is applied in this study of the PET production chain in Europe. The Unit Emergy Values of several intermediates are calculated or updated to facilitate discernment of the quality of energy used and the processes' efficiency. Several routes for synthesizing renewable para-xylene and ethylene glycol from biomass are discussed and confronted with the efforts focused on recycling and recovering the final product providing concurrently a procedure and a valuable data set for future CP actions. The results show that understanding the efficiencies changing across the production chain may help stakeholders make wise choices as to where and when interventions to promote a circular economy are most effective along a petrochemical production chain.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: COVID-19; Food Supply Chain; Epidemic; Pandemic, Disruptions
Online: 9 July 2021 (09:37:29 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has severely affected the food supply chain, including producers, retailers, wholesalers, and customers. To minimize the impacts caused by pandemics and epidemics on food supply chains, it is fundamental to implement effective policies that ensure continuity in the provision, affordability, and distribution of basic food items. This research aims to identify the main impacts of pandemics and epidemics on food supply chains and policies that can minimize these impacts. Based on a systematic literature review (SLR), 174 documents are analysed to propose a taxonomy of impacts on four supply chain links: demand-side, supply-side, logistics and infrastructure, and management and operation. The taxonomy presents the main impacts, as well as the respective mitigation policies simultaneously. In addition, the literature review leads to the development of a comprehensive causal loop diagram (CLD) with the identification of main variables and their relationship with food supply chains. Finally, a specific research agenda is proposed by identifying main research gaps. These findings provide a structured method for evaluating policies that ensure the functioning of food supply chains, particularly in disruptions such epidemics and pandemics.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0776.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Sustainability; Climate; Trade; Models; Emissions; Value Chain; Justice
Online: 25 February 2021 (10:24:29 CET)
With the Paris Agreement, countries are obliged to report greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduc-tions, which will ensure that the global temperature increase is maintained well below 2C. The Parties will report their Nationally Determined Contributions in terms of plans and progress to-wards these targets during the postponed COP26 in Glasgow in November 2021. These commit-ments however do not take significant portions of the consumption related emissions related to countries imports in to account. Similarly, the majority of companies that report their emissions to CDP also do not account for their embodied value-chain related emissions. Municipalities, on the path towards carbon neutrality in accordance with the methods outlined by C40, also do not in-clude imported and embodied CO2e in their total emission tallies. So, who is responsible for these emissions - the producer or the consumer? How can we ensure that the NDC's, municipalities and companies reduction targets share the responsibility of the emissions in the value-chain thus en-suring that targets and plans become, sustainable, climate fair, and just in global value chains? Today the responsibility lays with the producer, which is not sustainable. We have the outline for the tools needed to quantify and transparently share the responsibility between producers and consumers at corporate, municipal and national level based on an improved understanding of the attendant sources, causes, flows and risks og GHG emissions globally. Hybrid LCA/EEIO models can for example be further developed. This will, in the end, enable everyday consumption to support a more sustainable, green and low carbon transition of our economy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0088.v1
Subject: Keywords: avgricultural value chain; agricultural marketing; economic development; productivity
Online: 5 January 2021 (12:08:16 CET)
Over time, the agricultural sector's contribution to the nation's Gross Domestic Product and revenue is declining exponentially; the decline may be attributed to varying problems affecting the agricultural value chain resulting in low productivity. The agricultural value chain comprises a series of activities and value addition processes required to transform raw materials into useable products to maximize the final consumers' utility.1 The agricultural value chain's marketing activities have been skewed with challenges, thus affecting agricultural productivity and agricultural sector contribution to the economy. The paper critically examines and discuss the impact of agricultural marketing to economic development, a historical review of agricultural marketing in Nigeria, challenges undermining the impact of agricultural marketing, measures to reposition agricultural marketing potential to build back better, policy recommendations to reposition the future of Nigeria's agricultural productivity. The paper aims to promote concerted efforts through knowledge dissemination to build back better through market research and facilitation and boost economic prosperity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0522.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: malaria model; transition matrix; Markov chain; malaria statistics
Online: 26 October 2020 (12:22:20 CET)
The purpose of this study is to estimate the mean transitioning probabilities from a Healthy state to malaria positive uncomplicated state or to malaria positive severe state. It also classifies the various transitioning probabilities of moving through the various states based on some baseline characteristics. Malaria test results for 2019 over a 12-month period were collected from the University of Ghana school clinic. An H-U model for the study was developed and the transition rates from the cross-sectional data are indicated. With two states Healthy (H) and Uncomplicated (U) forming a state space, there were four possible transitions. The results show that the probability of transitioning from a Healthy state to a malaria positive state is 0.03% while the probability that an individual will remain at Healthy state (H) after the test is 99.73%. It was found that if an individual is already positive and has taken medication the probability that its second test came out negative is 6.45% while the chances that it will remain positive but uncomplicated is 93.55%. The study also showed that in the long run, about 95.98% of persons who visited the student clinic with malaria symptoms recorded negative tests for malaria parasite while about 4% recorded positive for malaria. In terms of disaggregation by gender, it was realized that the number of reported negative test results were higher for females (97.08%) than for males (96.13%). However, the infection rate is higher for males (3.87%) than females (2.92%). It is recommended that in as much as the University of Ghana has two health centers (a clinic and hospital), there should be a centralized system to track students’ health so research done would not be biased.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0238.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: raw materials; supply chain; logistics planning; logistics strategies
Online: 12 October 2020 (12:21:56 CEST)
Raw material logistics reflects an important aspect of global trade. Raw materials form an essential basis for society, for daily life, and range from apples to zinc. This paper addresses the analysis and optimization of supply chains of raw materials in terms of their economic viability and their sustainability. Type representatives are chosen according to annual transported quantities. Hard coal represents bulk goods, aluminum primary raw materials with medium quantities, and rare earths primary raw materials with small quantities. Their respective supply chains are analyzed and subsequently possible strategies and methods and their application are discussed. The paper shows for the first time that the selection and application of optimization priorities (e.g. profitability or sustainability) depends on the primary raw material and its integration into global production chains.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0350.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: anterior cruciate ligament; open kinetic chain; laxity; isokinetic
Online: 16 September 2020 (05:55:45 CEST)
Rehabilitation following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with hamstring graft allows the patient to regain his functional capacities and to support him in the resumption of sports activities. Rehabilitation also aims to minimize the risk of recurrence, which is why it ensures that the patient's muscular capacities develop properly until they return to sport. Isokinetics helps strengthen and assess the strength of muscle groups in the thigh, but controversy exists as to its use by resistance to the open kinetic chain knee extension that would cause the transplant to distend. The objective of this study is to determine the influence of isokinetic muscle strengthening on the possible laxity of the anterior cruciate ligament and to be able to determine risk factors. The study relates to a population having benefited from anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with hamstring graft from 3 to 6 months after surgery. Two groups are differentiated, one group exposed to isokinetism during rehabilitation, the other group, named unexposed, undergoes rehabilitation without the use of isokinetism. An anterior knee laxity test is performed 6 months postoperatively using the GNRB® machine for all subjects according to the same protocol. The test results were statistically analyzed to determine a relative risk of transplant distension for each group in the study. Comparison of the results of each group by univariate analysis did not reveal any significant result. Multivariate analysis showed interactions in the two strata of the study. It was argued that the use of isokinetics seems to have no effect on the risk of developing distension for the majority of subjects in the exposed group. A tendency towards transplant protection was perceived for each variable except the age under 25 years (RRa = 1.07). The use of isokinetics does not appear to be a cause of transplant distension in patients undergoing an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction when this method is introduced 3 months postoperatively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0068.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: prebiotics; polyols; short chain fatty acids, Headspace Analysis
Online: 9 January 2020 (04:44:49 CET)
This pilot study of Streptococcus mutans ATCC 35668 grown in media with and without polyols (erythritol) measured the resultant metabolites, including the short chain fatty acids by using head space analysis. Brain Heart Infusion Broth (BHI2 or BHI10) supplemented with 2% or 10% sucrose containing no polyols or either erythritol or xylitol and Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 35668) was grown aerobically. After 48 hours of growth the supernatant were harvested and centrifuged to pellet bacteria. Supernatants were removed from bacterial pellets then submitted for Short Chain Fatty Acid (SCFA) analysis with an Agilent Technologies (Santa Clara, CA 95051) system configured from three components, a 5973 mass selective detector, a 6890N gas chromatographer, and a 7697A headspace sampler. Streptococcus mutans growing in Brain Heart Infusion Broth (BHI2 or BHI10) supplemented with 2% or 10% sucrose but containing no polyols produced the following short chain fatty acids: methyl isovalerate, acetic acid, propionic acid, butanoic acid, pentanoic acid, ethyl butaric acid, 4-methylvaleric acid, hexanoic acid. When the Brain Heart Infusion Broth (BHI2 or BHI10) supplemented with 2% or 10% sucrose containing erythritol was used as media for this Streptococcus mutans strain, the following were produced: ethanol, acetoin, and acetic acid. Our results would suggest that constituents of the media may affect the bacterial metabolite production.
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: construction engineering; lean supply chain; target cost management
Online: 13 November 2019 (08:57:42 CET)
The lean supply chain of construction engineering projects is to achieve the maximum satisfaction of the owners' needs in order to effectively achieve the goal of supply chain management. This paper explores an effective method of lean supply chain cost management for construction engineering projects with target cost management, so that each participating unit on the supply chain node can fully utilizes its core competencies to minimize internal consumption and waste, and achieve the optimal overall efficiency of the supply chain. According to the requirements of the goal planning theory of the construction project company, establish a lean supply chain cost planning system for the construction project, realize the basic model of the lean supply chain cost management of the construction project, and set the target cost from the lean project of the construction project. The technical decomposition is established by the process of cost decomposition and cost pressure transmission and sub-target cost planning.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: conformation of protein; albumin protein; non-gaussian chain
Online: 7 August 2019 (09:59:10 CEST)
We study a conformation of an albumin protein in the temperature range of 300K-315K, i.e. in the physiological range of temperature. Using simulations we calculate values of two backbone angles, that carry most of information about positioning of the protein chain in a conformational space. Given these, we calculate energy components of such protein. Further, using the Flory theory we determine the temperature in which investigated albumin chain model is closest to the free joined chain model. Near the Flory temperature, we study energy components and the conformational entropy, both derived from two angles that reflect most of the chain dynamics in a conformational space. We show that the conformational entropy is an oscillating function of time in considered range of temperature. Our finding is that, the only regular oscillation pattern appears near the Flory temperature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0122.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: supply chain architecture; green-field strategic engi-neering
Online: 10 April 2019 (08:49:58 CEST)
This paper developed a new theory for supply chain architecture, and engineering design that enables integration of the business and supply chain strategies. The architecture starts with individual supply chain participants and derives insights into the complex and abstract concept of green-field integration design. The paper presented a conceptual system for depicting the interactions between business and supply chain strategy engineering. The system examines the decisions made when engineering the business strategy, with regards to the supply chain design. The system derived with a new understanding of how strategies are integrated, and what are the implications for engineering successful strategies. The study revealed that supply chain design is not considered in great detail before architecting the business strategies. Thus, companies consequentially experience supply chain problems that are likely to be detrimental to the growth potentials. The paper also derived with the findings that proactive and pre-emptive involvement of supply chain participants in the strategy engineering process, would lead to a more robust strategic design.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General & Theoretical Computer Science Keywords: runtime verification; probabilistic monitor; markov chain; ω-automata
Online: 10 April 2019 (06:30:12 CEST)
Runtime verification (RV) is a lightweight approach to detecting temporal errors of system at runtime. It confines the verification on observed trajectory which avoids state explosion problem.To predict the future violation, some work proposed the predictive RV which uses the information from models or static analysis. But for software whose models and codes cannot be obtained, or systems running under uncertain environment, these predictive methods cannot take effect. Meanwhile, RV in general takes multi-valued logic as the specification languages, for example the " true, false and inconclusive" in three-valued semantics. They cannot give accurate quantitative description of correctness when "inconclusive" is encountered. We in this paper present a RV method which learns probabilistic model of system and environment from history traces and then generates probabilistic runtime monitor to quantitatively predict the satisfaction of temporal property at each runtime state. In this approach, Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is firstly learned and then transformed to Discrete Time Markov Chain (DTMC). To construct incremental monitor, the monitored LTL property is translated into Deterministic Rabin Automaton (DRA). The final probabilistic monitor is obtained by generating the product of DTMC and DRA, and computing the probabilities for each state. With such method, one can give early warning once the probability of correctness is lower than pre-defined threshold, and have the chance to do adjustment in advance. The method has been implemented and experimented on real UAS (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) simulation platform.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0654.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: graph coloring; Kempe chain; Kempe-locking; Birkhoff diamond
Online: 29 October 2018 (05:08:46 CET)
Existing proofs of the 4-color theorem succeeded by establishing an unavoidable set of reducible configurations. By this device, their authors showed that a minimum counterexample cannot exist. G.D. Birkhoff proved that a minimum counterexample must satisfy a connectivity property that is referred to in modern parlance as internal 6-connectivity. We show that a minimum counterexample must also satisfy a coloring property, one that we call Kempe-locking. We define the terms Kempe-locking configuration and fundamental Kempe-locking configuration. We provide a heuristic argument that a fundamental Kempe-locking configuration must be of low order and then perform a systematic search through isomorphism classes for such configurations. We describe a methodology for analyzing whether an arbitrary planar triangulation is Kempe-locked; it involves deconstructing the triangulation into a stack of configurations with common endpoints and then creating a bipartite graph of coloring possibilities for each configuration in the stack to assess whether certain 2-color paths can be transmitted from the configuration's top boundary to its bottom boundary. All Kempe-locked triangulations we discovered have two features in common: (1) they are Kempe-locked with respect to only a single edge, say $xy$, and (2) they have a Birkhoff diamond with endpoints $x$ and $y$ as a proper subgraph. On the strength of our various investigations, we are led to a plausible conjecture that the Birkhoff diamond is the only fundamental Kempe-locking configuration. If true, this would establish that the connectivity and coloring properties of a minimum counterexample to the 4-color theorem are incompatible. It would also point to the singular importance of a particularly elegant 4-connected triangulation of order 9 that consists of a triangle enclosing a pentagon enclosing a single vertex.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0091.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: battery; commercialization; markov chain; new technology; techno-economic
Online: 4 May 2018 (10:16:46 CEST)
LiFePO4 (LFP) or Lithium-ion battery with its advantages compared to common current motorcycle battery is an appropriate alternative in substituting wet and dry cell battery. Huge amount of demand of motorcycle along with the battery in Indonesia also make it an interesting product for business. In order to assess the commercial potential for such a new technology, market share needs to be estimated as well as the techno-economic feasibility. Hence, market share prediction using the residents of Surakarta Region and techno-economic analysis using NPV, IRR and PBP indicators have been conducted in this study. Calculation using markov chain method shows that LFP battery tends to dominate the market after certain period. Techno-economic analysis also figures out that the commercialization is feasible in three conditions - first mover, even with market leader and equilibrium point. Therefore, there is a great commercial potential for LFP battery especially in Indonesia.
COMMENT | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0166.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Regional inequality; Multilevel regression; Markov chain; Guizhou Province
Online: 17 August 2016 (12:58:58 CEST)
This study analyses regional development in one of the poorest provinces in China, Guizhou Province, between 2000 and 2012 using a multiscale and multi-mechanism framework. In general, regional inequality has been declining since 2000. In addition, economic development in Guizhou Province presented spatial agglomeration and club convergence, which shows how the development pattern of one core area, two-wing areas and a contiguous area at the edge of the province have been developed between 2006 and 2012. Multilevel regression analysis revealed that industrialization and investment level were the primary driving forces of regional economic disparity in Guizhou Province. The influences of marketization and decentralization on regional economic disparity were relatively weak. Investment level reinforced regional economic disparity and the development of core-periphery structure in the province. However, investment level actually weakened the regional economic disparity in Guizhou Province when the variable of time was considered. In addition, both the topography and urban–rural differentiation were the two main reasons for forming a core-periphery structure in Guizhou Province.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0172.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: blockchain; healthcare supply chain management; logistics cooperation; big data
Online: 19 January 2022 (12:09:00 CET)
This study emphasizes the necessity of introducing a blockchain-based joint logistics system to strengthen the competency of medical supply chain management (SCM) and tries to develop a healthcare supply chain management (HSCM) competency measurement item through an analytic hierarchy process. The variables needed for using blockchain-based joint logistics are the performance expectations, effort expectations, promotion conditions, and social impact of the UTAUT model, and the HSCM competency results in increased reliability and transparency, enhanced SCM, and enhanced scalability. Word cloud results, analyzing the most important considerations to realize work efficiency among medical industry-related agencies, mentioned numerous words, including sudden situations, delivery, technology trust, information sharing, effectiveness, urgency, etc. This might imply the need to establish a system that can respond immediately to emergency situations during holidays. It could also suggest the importance of real-time information sharing to increase the efficiency of inventory management. Therefore, there is a need of a business model that can increase the visibility of real-time medical SCM through big data analysis. By analyzing the importance of securing reliability based on the blockchain technology in the establishment of a supply chain network for HSCM competency, we reveal that joint logistics can be achieved and synergistic effects can be created by implementing the integrated database to secure HSCM competency. Strengthening partnerships, such as joint logistics, will eventually lead to HSCM competency. In particular, HSCM should seek ways to upgrade its competitive capabilities through big data analysis based on the establishment of a joint logistics system.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0500.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Clinching; binding mechanism; process chain; torsion test; electrical test
Online: 21 July 2021 (15:33:17 CEST)
The multi-material design and the adaptability of a modern process chain require joining connections with specifically adjustable mechanical, thermal, chemical or electrical properties, whereby previous considerations have focused primarily on the mechanical properties. With clinching, the multitude of possible combinations of requirements, materials and component or joint geometry makes it impossible to determine these joint properties empirically. As a result of the established and empirically based procedure, no model exists to date that considers all questions of joinability, i.e. the materials (suitability for joining), the design (joining safety) and the production (joining possibility) and allows a calculation of the achievable properties. It is therefore necessary to describe the physical properties of the joint as a function of the three bonding mechanisms force closure, form closure and material closure in relation to the application. This approach enables the illustration of the relationships along the causal chain "joint requirement - binding mechanism - joining parameters". In this way the adaptability of the mechanical joining technology can be improved. A geometric comparison is made using metallographic cross sections, of clinched joints of the combination of aluminum and steel. The torsional testing of the rotationally symmetric clinching points for detection of the mechanical stress state are qualified as examination method and technological test. By measuring the electrical resistance in the base material, in the clinch joint and during the production cycle (after clinching, before precipitation hardening and after precipitation hardening), this change in the stress state can also be detected.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0397.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Sustainable Infrastructure; Governance; Design; Protocols; Implementation; Value Chain; Digitalization
Online: 19 July 2021 (09:11:56 CEST)
Twenty-first century infrastructure needs to respond to changing demographics, becoming climate neutral, resilient, and economically affordable, while remaining a driver for development and shared prosperity. However, the infrastructure sector remains one of the least innovative and digitalized, plagued by delays, cost overruns, and benefit shortfalls [1-4]. The root cause is the prevailing fragmentation of the infrastructure value chain . To support overcoming the shortcomings, an integration of the value chain is needed. This could be achieved through a use-cased-based creation of federated digital platforms applied to infrastructure projects. Such digital platforms enable full-lifecycle participation and responsible governance guided by a shared infrastructure vision.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: clams; physiological status; stress; cold chain; free amino acid
Online: 30 June 2021 (11:58:19 CEST)
With the extension of the post-catch circulation time, a series of changes had taken place in the soft tissue of the live clams, resulting in the decline of its quality. This study investigated the quality changes of clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) in cold chain and was mainly focused on the rehydration process, which included gradient heating rehydration (GR) and sudden heating rehydration (SR). It was found that the GR had a better effect on the quality of clams than the SR. The GR stage clams showed a higher survival rate, glycogen content and adenylate energy charge (A.E.C) value than the SR stage clams. Conversely, the GR stage clams showed lower lactic acid content and K-value than the SR stage clams. The results indicated that the gradient heating rehydration was beneficial to the quality of clams. The transportation and rehydration strategies benefited both producers and shellfish merchants to save total cost.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0756.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Intelligent Procurement; Supply Chain; Procurement Ecosystem; Energy Business Procurement
Online: 28 April 2021 (15:36:26 CEST)
With the development of big data analysis, blockchain and other technologies, the supply chain of enterprises is transforming to lean and intelligent. As an important link in the enterprise supply chain, the intelligent transformation of procurement plays an important role in the improvement of the supply chain efficiency, therefore, the construction of a common method supporting the intelligent upgrade of the enterprise procurement business has become a key concern for enterprise managers. Based on the balanced scorecard theory and the supply chain maturity model, this study combines the actual situation of procurement management in Chinese energy enterprises and constructs a procurement benchmarking system that balances the development direction of the industry and the actual needs of enterprises. Meanwhile, based on the grounded theory, three major themes of the intelligent procurement system (digital business module, procurement synergy mechanism and procurement ecosystem) are extracted to provide a methodological reference for the construction of intelligent procurement systems of energy enterprises. The study concludes with a case study of China National Energy Group Materials Company to demonstrate the application of the intelligent procurement system built in this paper, with a view to providing methodological reference for the intelligent procurement management in energy enterprises.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0299.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: supply chain; partial equilibrium; biofuel; soft-linking; dynamic prices
Online: 14 July 2020 (11:20:30 CEST)
Biofuels and biochemicals play significant roles in the transition towards a fossil-free society. However, large-scale biorefineries are not yet cost-competitive with their fossil-fuel counterparts, and it is important to identify biorefinery concepts with high economic performance. For evaluating early-stage biorefinery concepts, one needs to consider not only the technical performance and process costs but also the economic performance of the full supply chain and the impacts on feedstock and product markets. This article presents and demonstrates a conceptual interdisciplinary framework that can constitute the basis for evaluations of the full supply-chain performance of biorefinery concepts. This framework considers the competition for biomass across sectors, assumes exogenous end-use product demand, and incorporates various geographical and technical constraints. The framework is demonstrated empirically through a case study of a sawmill-integrated biorefinery producing liquefied biomethane from forestry and forest industry residues. The case study results illustrate that acknowledging biomass market effects in the supply chain evaluation implies changes in both biomass prices and the allocation of biomass across sectors. The proposed framework should facilitate the identification of biorefinery concepts with a high economic performance which are robust to feedstock price changes caused by the increase in biomass demand.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0040.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Digitalization; sensor technology; block chain technology; data models; livestock
Online: 3 July 2020 (12:29:39 CEST)
As the global human population increases, animal agriculture must adapt to provide more animal products while also addressing concerns about animal welfare, environmental sustainability, and public health. The purpose of this review is to discuss the digitalization of animal farming with Precision Livestock Farming (PLF) technologies, specifically biosensors, big data, and block chain technology. Biosensors are noninvasive or invasive sensors that monitor an animal’s health and behavior in real time, allowing farmers to monitor individual animals and integrate this data for population-level analyses. The data from the sensors is processed using big data-processing techniques such as data modelling. These technologies use algorithms to sort through large, complex data sets to provide farmers with biologically relevant and usable data. Blockchain technology allows for traceability of animal products from farm to table, a key advantage in monitoring disease outbreaks and preventing related economic losses and food-related health pandemics. With these PLF technologies, animal agriculture can become more transparent and regain consumer trust. While the digitalization of animal farming has the potential to address a number of pressing concerns, these technologies are relatively new. The implementation of PLF technologies on farms will require increased collaboration between farmers, animal scientists, and engineers to ensure that technologies can be used in realistic, on-farm conditions. These technologies will call for data models that can sort through large amounts of data while accounting for specific variables and ensuring automation, accessibility, and accuracy of data. Issues with data privacy, security, and integration will need to be addressed before there can be multi-farm databases. Lastly, the usage of blockchain technology in animal agriculture is still in its infancy; blockchain technology has the potential to improve the traceability and transparency of animal products, but more research is needed to realize its full potential. The digitalization of animal farming can supply the necessary tools to provide sustainable animal products on a global scale.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0148.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Covid-19; Indian economy; supply chain; manufacturing industries; barriers
Online: 9 May 2020 (10:01:56 CEST)
At present time world is facing from the coronavirus disease known as Covid-19. The first case of the coronavirus was reported in the December, 2019 in the Wuhan city of China which is known as the major transportation hub of China. After the spread of Covid-19 many countries have shut down their sea ports and airports. They have banned the import and export activities. Also, China is the major distributor of the raw materials which affect the manufacturing activities across the globe due to lockdowns. India is the developing country due to the Covid-19 spread the cases reported in the India government has lockdown the country for 41 days which affected the manufacturing activities and majorly it affects the supply chains and economy of the country. In the present paper we have discussed the effect of Covid-19 on Indian economy and on supply chains in India. There are total of 18 critical barriers are found out which affected the supply chains in the India. It is expected that this study will helpful the researchers to develop the conceptual models to overcome from this issue.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0234.v1
Online: 18 December 2019 (03:41:18 CET)
Abstract: Many countries around the world suffer from the lack of a sea port directly linked to the rest of the world. Such countries are called "landlocked countries". This leads to Weak competitiveness of their products in the global market, as well as to the high cost of the imports. Africa has the largest share of these countries, with 16 of the 43 landlocked countries around the world. The aim of this paper is to propose a general framework for criteria that can be used to choose between ports in transit countries that can be used for import or export. These criteria are related to the assessment of the sea ports in terms of infrastructure and tariffs. It is also related to transport infrastructure from the transit country to the landlocked country and the level of safety. The study identified nine criteria that could be used to compare between ports in transit countries. Using Full Consistency Method (FUCOM) to evaluate those criteria showed that the number of navigation lines is the most important criteria followed by the port service level.
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: risk assessment; BIM; supply chain management; prefabricated construction products
Online: 19 March 2019 (13:07:57 CET)
Improving the efficiency of the supply process in prefabricated components is challenging and requires accounting for a variety of risks involved in the management of the suppliers. The purpose of this study is to present a method to account for the systematic trade-offs between several supplier alternatives. A novel framework is presented for the whole assessment of supplier alternatives by taking advantage of the information extracted from customized building information modeling (BIM) and a database required for assessment of impacts. A data library related to assessment criteria for supply alternatives is built to facilitate the storage and sharing of information. Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is used to select the optimal supplier that is able to provide the most satisfaction for the determined criteria. The proposed framework was also illustrated by the implementation in a mega project. The study implication is that BIM-enabled supplier selection can indeed lead to more benefits and higher values for all stakeholders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0210.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: fructose; intestinal microbiota; short-chain fatty acids; metabolic profiling
Online: 23 January 2018 (05:31:27 CET)
Increased sugar intake is implicated in Type-2 diabetes and fatty liver disease. Mechanisms by which glucose and fructose components promote these conditions are unclear. We hypothesize that alterations in intestinal metabolite and microbiota profiles specific to each monosaccharide are involved. Two groups of six adult C57BL/6 mice were fed for 10-weeks with a diet where either glucose or fructose was the sole carbohydrate component (G and F, respectively). A third group was fed with normal chow (N). Fecal metabolites were profiled every 2-weeks by 1H NMR and microbial composition was analysed by real-time PCR (qPCR). Glucose tolerance was also periodically assessed. N, G and F mice had similar weight gains and glucose tolerance. Multivariate analysis of NMR profiles indicated that F mice were separated from both N and G, with decreased butyrate and glutamate and increased fructose, succinate, taurine, tyrosine and xylose. Compared to N and G, F mice showed a shift in microbe populations from gram-positive Lactobacillus spp. to gram-negative Enterobacteria species. Substitution of normal chow carbohydrate mixture by either pure glucose or fructose for 10 weeks did not alter adiposity or glucose tolerance. However, F G and N mice generated distinctive fecal metabolite signatures with incomplete fructose absorption as a dominant feature of F mice.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0180.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: antibiotic resistance; food chain; antimicrobial peptides; food safety; food pathogens
Online: 10 January 2023 (07:56:04 CET)
Antibiotic resistance (ABR) is concerning issue due to its direct and indirect repercusions on public health, since decreased therapeutic effect of certain antibiotic to treatment complications that can cause death. There are several mechanism as to how ABR can be transferred from one microoorganisms to another, and many of them are dependant many environmental factors. The food supply chain is a environment in which ABR gene transfer can occur is multiple pathways, which generate concerns regarding food safety. Here, we summarize relevant mechanisms which are implied in ABR in food supply chain but also we are addressing routes of transmission and prevalence of ABR, implications on public health, and the application of new alternatives to antibiotics such as antimicrobial peptides, mainly bacteriocins, in order to countermeasure ABR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0106.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: Blockchain; Supply chain; Access control; ABAC; Data Security and Privacy
Online: 8 February 2022 (12:00:25 CET)
In recent years supply chains have evolved into huge ecosystems, demanding trust, provenance, and data privacy. Since blockchain technology (BCT) allows for the development of a distributed environment, it is ideal for supply chain management (SCM) applications. However, concerns regarding data privacy have impeded the development of blockchains. Despite the fact that some blockchains can restrict participants to read and write data, the blockchain’s transparency makes protecting sensitive data challenging. To solve the data privacy challenge, this paper proposes a framework, AccessChain, that is an SCM access control framework based on an attribute-based access control (ABAC) model that restricts access to competing parties while allowing for network scalability. This proposed AccessChain model has two types of ledgers in the system: local and global. Local ledgers are used to store business contracts between stakeholders and the ABAC model management, whereas the global ledger is used to record transaction data. AccessChain can enable decentralized, fine-grained and dynamic access control management in SCM when combined with the ABAC model and BCT. This paper’s experimental results illustrate that high throughput can be achieved in a large-scale request environment while maintaining data privacy and sustaining a scalable network.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0411.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: Fresh Agricultural Produce Supply Chain; Coordination; Discount Contract; Quantity Loss
Online: 24 December 2021 (15:56:11 CET)
This paper explores the coordination of the agricultural cooperative to supermarket or E-commerce sup-ply chain, under the condition of quantity loss with a mixed decay function of exponential and logistical distribution. The nature of this process is analyzed, and the corresponding demand and supply functions with single- and multi-stage discount strategies are constructed respectively to create a working model. The optimal discount ratios for supermarkets and agricultural cooperatives in decentralized and central-ized decision-making modes coupled with single- and multi-stage discounts are calculated respectively. Finally, a universal optimal strategy is designed, which can be applied to various quantity decay scenarios and makes the discount strategy more generalized. The results show that discounts can coordinate supply chains more effectively; not only is fresh agricultural produce sold before it starts to rot, but the benefit conflicts arising from both supermarkets vs. cooperatives and traditional vs. E-commerce channels are equilibrated. Further, multi-stage discounts are more effective than single-stage ones, but optimal discount ratios rely on the initial quantity of fresh agricultural produce in the supply chain; its market share in the traditional distribution channel; the potential market size; retail price; the price sensitivity coefficient of the channel; the cross-elasticity coefficient of prices between different channels; and the properties of the quantity loss.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0181.v2
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Service Quality; E-Supply Chain Management; Customer Satisfaction; online shopping
Online: 20 December 2021 (11:33:13 CET)
The purposes of this study are to introduce the concept of Service Quality (SQ) in E-Supply Chain Management (E-SCM) and its impact on increasing Customer Satisfaction (CS) and provide insightful enhancements to the literature. In addition, the paper also examines the influence of SQ of E-SCM on CS in online shopping. After a comprehensive literature review, four key factors for measuring the E-Supply Chain (Process Control, Interaction with Supplier, Management Support, and Focus on Customers), four key factors for measuring CS (Informing Customers, Attention to Customers’ Needs, Staff Performance Accuracy, and Easy Access to Services), and four factors for measuring the quality of identification services (Assurance, Accountability, Tangibility and Reliability) were selected. The proposed conceptual model was then presented. This model was validated by data collected through a survey of 150 respondents in order to identify customer satisfaction, including that of customers of online websites in Iran. The sample data was analyzed using SPSS21, after which the interrelationships between the model and factors were examined based on the Partial Least Square-Structural (PLS). Model fit indices were then calculated for the dataset. The proposed model was validated using factor analysis and structural equation modeling techniques. The results indicated that E-SCM has a direct impact on CS. The effect of SQ was also confirmed. A positive and significant relationship was identified between E-SCM and CS, E-SCM and SQ, as well as SQ and CS (P> 0.05). The first limitation was to convince respondents to cooperate with the researchers. The second one was the lack of research-related background due to the subject being relatively new. This study, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, is the first empirical analysis on the CS assessment of SQ of E-Supply Chain in online shopping. This important link to online shopping has rarely been explored. It is expected that by filling this gap, this study will help in strengthening online shopping, which needs a change in the marketing area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0328.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: green supply chain; manufacturer’s fairness preferences; leading retailer; Stackelberg Game
Online: 14 July 2021 (12:14:03 CEST)
This study investigates optimal decisions in a green supply chain consisting of a manufacturer and a leading retailer considering the green marketing and fairness preferences of member firms. Four Stackelberg game decision models are constructed in which the manufacturer and the re-tailer engage in green marketing separately when the manufacturer has no and has fairness preferences. The impacts of fairness preferences and green marketing on the optimal decision in the green supply chain are comparatively analyzed. The study finds that member firms perform green marketing regardless of the presence or absence of fairness preferences and that such be-havior increases the wholesale price, retail price, and market demand of low-carbon products as well as the profits of member firms and the supply chain. A more interesting finding is that the profit growth of member firms and the supply chain due to the manufacturer’s green marketing is more pronounced than that due to the retailer’s green marketing. When the retailer and the manufacturer engage in conduct green marketing, the manufacturer's fairness preferences have different effects on the wholesale price, retail price, market demand, level of green marketing efforts, member enterprises and profits of supply chain. Therefore, firms should consider the impact of green marketing and fairness preferences to make pricing and performance decisions, so as to achieve efficient operation of the whole supply chain and avoid double marginal effects. Finally, the above conclusions are verified through numerical simulation, providing a reference for the decision-making of member firms in the green supply chain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0039.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: Mixed-chain lipids; Neutron scattering; X-ray scattering; MD simulations
Online: 1 July 2021 (22:26:58 CEST)
We addressed the frequent occurrence of mixed-chain lipids in biological membranes and their impact on membrane structure by studying several chain-asymmetric phosphatidylcholines and the highly asymmetric milk sphingomyelin. Specifically, we report trans-membrane structures of the corresponding fluid lamellar phases using small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering, which were jointly analyzed in terms of a membrane composition-specific model, including a headgroup hydration shell. Focusing on terminal methyl groups at the bilayer center we found a linear relation between hydrocarbon chain length mismatch and the methyl-overlap for phosphatidylcholines, and a non-negligible impact of the glycerol backbone-tilting, letting the sn1-chain penetrate deeper into the opposing leaflet by half a CH2 group. That is, penetration-depth differences due to the ester-linked hydrocarbons at the glycerol backbone, reported previously for gel phase structures also extend to the physiological more relevant fluid phase, but are significantly reduced. Moreover, milk sphingomyelin was found to follow the same linear relationship suggesting a similar tilt of the sphingosine backbone. Complementary performed molecular dynamics simulations revealed that there is always a part of the lipid tails bending back, even if there is a high interdigitation with the opposing chains. This suggests that hydrocarbon chain interdigitation plays only a minor role in transbilayer coupling. For both cases of adaption to chain length mismatch, chain-asymmetry has a large impact on hydrocarbon chain ordering, inducing disorder in the longer of the two hydrocarbons.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0032.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Econometrics & Statistics Keywords: global value chain; global economic integration; nestedness; evolutionarily stable equilibrium
Online: 1 July 2021 (14:20:58 CEST)
Nested structure is a structural feature that is conducive to system stability formed by the co-evolution of species in mutualistic ecosystems, and reflects the ability of ecosystem stability to be restored to a stable state again after being destroyed. The co-opetition relationship and value flow between industrial sectors in the global value chain are similar to the mutualistic ecosystem, and the pattern of the global economic system is always changing in dynamic equilibrium. Nestedness theory is used in this article to define the generalist and specialist sectors in the global value chain to analyze the changes in the global supply pattern. Then we study the mechanism of the global economic system to reach a stable equilibrium and the role of different sectors in the steady of the economic system, so as to provide countermeasures for enhancing the stability of the global economic system. At the end of the article, the domestic trade network, export trade network and import trade network of each country are extracted, and an econometric model is designed to analyze how the microstructure of the production system affects a country’s macroeconomic performance, thereby deriving the conclusion that the stability of the international trade network is crucial to a country's economic development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0561.v2
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: polyethylene; blend; long-chain branch; thermorheological complexity; activation energy spectrum
Online: 22 January 2021 (13:06:37 CET)
Long-chain branched metallocene-catalyzed high-density polyethylenes (LCB-mHDPE) were solution blended to obtain blends with varying degrees of branching. A high molecular LCB-mHDPE was mixed with low molecular LCB-mHDPE are varying concentrations, whose rheological behavior is similar but whose molar mass and molar mass distribution is significantly different. Those blends were characterized rheologically to study the effects of concentration, molar mass distribution, and long-chain branching level of the low molecular LCB-mHDPE. Owing to the ultra-long relaxation times of the high molecular LCB-mHDPE, the blends started behaving clearly more long-chain branched than the base materials. The thermorheological complexity showed an apparent increase in the activation energies Ea determined from G’, G”, and especially δ. Ea(δ), which for LCB-mHDPE is a peak function, turned out to produce even more pronounced peaks than observed for regular LCB-mPE and also LCB-mPE with broader molar mass distribution. Thus, it is possible to estimate the molar mass distribution from the details of the thermorheological complexity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0143.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: autonomous electrical vehicles; the Internet of Things; supply chain strategy
Online: 11 April 2019 (12:59:18 CEST)
This paper outlines a new methodology for developing strategy for supply chain integration of Autonomous Electrical Vehicles (AEV) to the Internet of Things (IoT). The methodology consists of external architecture and internal design that anticipates the business strategy in the development process. The methodology is designed to anticipate the impact of developments in new road transport technologies, such as Tesla Truck or Tesla Pickup. Since the methodology is designed to anticipate the impact of non-existing technologies, it represents green-field analysis. Green-field is defined as a new and non-existent operation. Green-field strategy architecture in this paper is presented as a process of accepting the world and acting upon that version of the world. The results of the analysis are presented as pathways and outcomes, emerging from the interrelated relationship between AEV and IoT. The emerging methodology is applied through two case studies to evaluate the impact to environment, performance and operationalisation. The methodology proposes architecture and design for integrating AEV and IoT in the supply chain strategy, and a set of new evaluation criteria that promote acceptance of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in the design process. The main contribution to knowledge is a new methodology for integrating AEV and the IoT to the supply chains. The paper applies interplay between inductive and deductive case study and grounded theory approach to build upon the concept of supply chain architecture and contribute to knowledge to the topic of formulating green-field integrated AEV- IoT supply chain strategy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0323.v2
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Logistics, Supply Chain, Integrated, Fuzzy Vikor, Network, Iran Khodro Co
Online: 26 June 2018 (15:07:46 CEST)
Logistics Engineering has transcended over the decades into an approach for competitive benefits in organisational performance and logistics efficiency. Most industries are recognising that significant savings are available to companies that are able to ordinate and improve within their logistics operations. Companies today face great challenges because the successful supply of many products and services needs to the effective integration of logistics activities across a prolongation supply chain and an increasing geographical separation. Moreover, logistics integration approach involves both internal integration for an ordinated, unified process as well as relationships to react flexibly, changeability, and responsibility to customer's demands. In this study, by using of Fuzzy Vikor (F-Vikor), the best combination of RIR was selected and RIR Locating was done. The main aim of this paper is survey and design of the integrated operational logistics network (IOLN) and also, a proposed IOLN to integration of the Iran Khodro Co Supply Network.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0030.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Microeconomics And Decision Sciences Keywords: carbon emissions reduction; technology spillover; game theory; supply chain coordination
Online: 8 September 2016 (11:39:40 CEST)
We study a two-echelon supply chain made up of a supplier and a manufacturer, both of which can reduce their component/product carbon emissions. With the vertical technology spillovers, we explore the optimal decisions of centralized and decentralized supply chains with price dependent demand and propose coordination strategy for the decentralized supply chain. Considering the cost contraction effectiveness of the technology spillovers, the centralized and decentralized game theoretic models of a two-echelon supply chain are developed to investigate optimal decisions of pricing and carbon emissions reduction. Through a systematic comparison and numerical analysis, we show that the profits of both players and the entire supply chain improve with the effect of technology spillovers increasing. Carbon emissions reduction will be taken by various protective measures so that the supplier and the manufacturer who do not innovate can hardly share the results of innovating via the “free-riding” methods when the technology spillover is relatively small. We also propose a revenue-cost sharing contract through bargaining to enhance the performance of the decentralized supply chain.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0421.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: Mitochondria; Respiratory chain; Krebs cycle; Succinate; Cancer; Encephalopathy; SDH, SDHI; pesticides
Online: 30 June 2022 (08:31:22 CEST)
Research focused on succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and its substrate, succinate, culminated in the 50’s accompanying the rapid development of research dedicated to bioenergetics and intermediary metabolism. This allowed to uncover the implication of the SDH in both the mitochondrial respiratory chain and the Krebs cycle. Nowadays this theme is experiencing a real revival following the discovery of the role of SDH and succinate in a subset of tumors and cancers in human. The aim of this review is to enlighten the many questions yet unanswered, ranging from fundamental to clinically oriented aspects, up to the danger of the current use of SDH as a target for a sub class of pesticides.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0419.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Trichuris trichiura; polymerase chain reaction; bead-beating; DNA extraction; Systematic review
Online: 19 April 2021 (11:54:06 CEST)
Objectives: This meta-analysis was designed to assess the effect of addition of a bead-beating step during DNA extraction to effectively isolate Trichuris trichura DNA for quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR)-based diagnosis. Abstract was reported according to PRISMA-DTA abstract checklist. Methods: Eligibility criteria: qPCR-based molecular studies comparing the inclusion of bead-beating step during the DNA extraction from stool samples with extraction without the step were included in the analysis. Information sources: Studies using real patient samples in community settings were included. PubMed and Google search engine were searched in December 2019. Risk of bias and applicability: Risk of bias and applicability were assessed using QUADAS-2 checklist. Synthesis of results: Odds ratio for individual studies were combined to estimate Random Effects Model odds ratio. Additional literature were searched to discuss biochemical nature of helminth eggs. Results:Included studies: A total of six independent sub-studies were gathered from two published original articles. Division of the two major studies into six sub-studies was indispensable due to natures of the study carried. 128 of total 192 samples (in all studies) were positive for Trichiuris trichiura when bead-beating was used during DNA extraction compared to 108/192 when bead-beating was excluded. Combined odds ratio was 1.66 (95% CI: 1.059 to 2.602). Biochemical nature of helminth eggs was discussed. Discussions: Strengths and limitations: Though only two article were included in the study, six exclusive individual sub-studies were analyzed. Inherent differences in the background prevalence of helminth in study population could impact sensitivity of qPCR. Interpretation: It was found that the inclusion of the bead-beating step during DNA extraction significantly increased the sensitivity of the test.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0069.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: coenzyme Q deficiency; mitochondrial disease; respiratory chain; fatty acids; myopathy; ADCK2
Online: 6 August 2019 (07:52:35 CEST)
Fatty acids and glucose are the main bioenergetic substrates in mammals that are alternatively used during the transition between fasting and feeding. Impairment of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation causes mitochondrial myopathy leading to decreased physical performance. Here, we report that haploinsufficiency of ADCK2, a member of the aarF domain-containing mitochondrial protein kinase family, in human is associated with liver dysfunction and severe mitochondrial myopathy with lipid droplets in skeletal muscle. In order to better understand the etiology of this rare disorder, we generated a heterozygous Adck2 knockout mouse model to perform in vivo and cellular studies using integrated analysis of physiological and omics data (transcriptomics-metabolomics). The data show that Aldh2+/- mice exhibits impaired fatty acid oxidation, liver dysfunction, and mitochondrial myopathy in skeletal muscle resulting in lower physical performance. Significant decrease in CoQ biosynthesis was observed and supplementation with CoQ partially rescued the phenotype both in the human subject and mouse model. These results indicate that ADCK2 is involved in organismal fatty acid metabolism and in CoQ biosynthesis in skeletal muscle. We propose that patients with isolated myopathies and myopathies involving lipid accumulation be tested for possible ADCK2 defect as they are likely to be responsive to CoQ supplementation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0149.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: Agro-industry; Ethiopia; oasis wheat; pasta wheat; Senegal River; value chain
Online: 12 April 2019 (11:04:08 CEST)
Durum wheat is an important food crop in the world and an endemic species of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). In the highlands of Ethiopia and the oases of the South Sahara this crop has been cultivated for thousands of years. Today, smallholder farmers still cultivate it on marginal lands to assure production for their self-consumption. However, durum wheat is no longer just a staple crop for food security but it has become a major cash crop. In fact, the pasta and couscous industry currently purchase durum grain at prices 10 to 20% higher than bread wheat. Africa as a whole imports over € 4 billion per year of durum grain to provide the raw material for its food industry. Hence, African farmers could obtain a substantial share of this large market by turning their production to this crop. Here, the achievements of the durum breeding program of Ethiopia are revised to reveal a steep acceleration in variety release and adoption in the last decade. Furthermore, the variety release for Mauritania and Senegal is described to show how modern breeding methods could be used to deliver grain yields above 3 t ha-1 in seasons of just 92 days of length and daytime temperatures always above 32°C. This review describes the ability of releasing durum wheat varieties adapted to all growing conditions of SSA, from the oases of the Sahara to the highlands of Ethiopia. This potential area of expansion for durum wheat production in SSA is not linked to any breeding technology, but rather it remains dependent on the market ability to purchase these grains at a higher price to stimulate farmer adoption. The critical importance of connecting all actors along the semolina value chain is presented in the example of Oromia, Ethiopia, and that success story is then used to prompt a wider discussion on the potential of durum wheat as a crop for poverty reduction in Africa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0213.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: FDI, M&Q, energy, supply chain, inbound investment, outbound investment, BRI.
Online: 12 August 2018 (19:19:40 CEST)
Global financial investments in energy production and consumption are significant since all aspects of a country's economic activity, and development require energy resources. In this paper, we assess the investment trends in the global energy sector during, before and after financial crises of 2008 using two data sources: (1) Dealogic database providing cross‐border mergers and acquisitions (M&As), and (2) fDi Intelligence fDi Markets database providing greenfield (GF) foreign direct investments (FDIs). We highlight the changing role of China and compare its M&A and GF FDI activities to those of the United States, Germany, UK, Japan and others during this period. We analyze the investments along each segment of the energy supply chain of these countries to highlight the geographical origin and destination, sectoral distribution, and cross‐border M&As and GF FDI activities. Our paper shows that while energy accounts for nearly 25% of all GF FDI, it only accounts for 4.82% of total M&A FDI activity in the period 1996-2016. China's outbound FDI in the energy sector started its ascent around the time of the global recession and had accelerated in the post-recession phase. In the energy sector, the development of China's outbound cross‐border M&As is similar to USA or UK, located mostly in the developed countries in the west, while their outbound GF investments are spread across many countries around the world. Also, China's outbound energy M&As are concentrated in certain segments (extraction, and electricity generation) while their GF covers all segments of the energy supply chain.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0170.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: forest biomass; timber harvest residue; supply chain; trucking; delivery; logging residue
Online: 12 June 2018 (07:53:15 CEST)
Secondary transportation of raw and comminuted forest products is a major component in forest harvesting operations in terms of economics, public perception, and safety. Consequently, there is a substantial amount of literature on this topic. The existing literature has dealt with many of the technical aspects of transportation with a majority of them focusing on improving supply chain issues; However, there are only few specific to secondary transportation issues in general. This annotated bibliography will help practitioners, researchers, and stakeholders gain a better understanding of the existing literature from 2000 to 2015. To this end, we began by classifying the selected literature into six themes: cost, roads and routes, trucking, efficiency & safety, other modes of transportation, and supply chain & optimization. Woody biomass for bioenergy production was the most researched forest product with respect to transportation. About one-third of the articles were presented in the context of supply chain modeling and optimization. More than half of the studies originated from Europe while the United States had the most publications for any given country. The most articles (16) were published in 2013. Biomass and Bioenergy published the highest number of articles (29) during the timeframe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0026.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: agavins; prebiotics; microbiota; overweight; body weight loss; short chain fatty acids
Online: 25 July 2017 (04:52:34 CEST)
Agavins consumption has lead to accelerate body weight loss in mice. We investigated the changes on cecal microbiota and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) associated to body weight loss in overweight mice. Firstly, mice were fed with standard (ST5) or high fat (HF5) diet for 5 weeks. Secondly, overweight mice were shifted to standard diet alone (HF-ST10) or supplemented with agavins (HF-ST+A10) or oligofructose (HF-ST+O10), five more weeks. Cecal contents were collected before and after supplementation to determine microbiota and SCFA concentrations. At the end of first phase, HF5 mice showed a significant increase of body weight, which was associated with reduction of cecal microbiota diversity (PD whole tree; non-parametric t-test, P < 0.05), increased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and reduced SCFA concentrations (t-test, P < 0.05). After diet shifted, HF-ST10 normalized its microbiota, increase its diversity and SCFA levels, whereas agavins (HF-ST+A10) or oligofructose (HF-ST+O10) led to partial microbiota restoration, with normalization of the Firmicutes/Bacteroides ratio as well as higher SCFA levels (P < 0.1). Moreover, agavins noticeably enriched Klebsiella and Citrobacter (LDA > 3.0); this enrichment has not been reported previously under a prebiotic treatment. In conclusion, agavins or oligofructose modulated cecal microbiota composition, reduced extent of diversity and increased SCFA. Furthermore, identification of bacteria enriched by agavins, opens opportunities to explore new probiotics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0002.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: Smart service systems, Service systems, Service Science, Port Supply Chain Management
Online: 3 April 2017 (16:17:51 CEST)
This paper proposes a re-conceptualization of the port supply chain as a smart service system, according to the theory of the Service science. Starting from a short literature review about the port supply chain approach and the Service science, a new comprehensive framework is provided to better understand the seaport dynamics and the creation of competitive port supply chains. The methodology used is the case study approach. The authors examined the port of Salerno (Italy), and re-conceptualized it as a smart port service systems. Both theoretical and practical implications are provided to enrich the literature about the port supply chain and to support the port operators.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0079.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: accessibility; offshore; operation and maintenance; weather condition; Markov chain; data visualization
Online: 17 January 2017 (11:17:32 CET)
For offshore wind power generation, accessibility is one of the main factors that has great impact on operation and maintenance due to constraints on weather conditions for marine transportation. This paper presents a framework to explore the accessibility of an offshore site. At first, several maintenance types are defined and taken into account. Next, a data visualization procedure is introduced to provide an insight into the distribution of access periods over time. Then, a rigorous mathematical method based on finite state Markov chain is proposed to assess the accessibility of an offshore site from the maintenance perspective. A five-year weather data of a marine site is used to demonstrate the applicability and the outcomes of the proposed method. The main findings show that the proposed framework is effective in investigating the accessibility for different time scales and is able to catch the patterns of the distribution of the access periods. Moreover, based on the developed Markov chain, the average waiting time for a certain access period can be estimated. With more information on the maintenance of an offshore wind farm, the expected production loss due to time delay can be calculated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0432.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: supply chain management; phosphorus fertilizers; environmental issues; sustainability; recycling policy; metaheuristic algorithm
Online: 23 December 2022 (01:39:06 CET)
Phosphorus (P) is the most important substance in inorganic fertilizers used in agriculture industry. In this study, a multi-product and multi-objective model is presented considering economic and environmental concerns to design a renewable and sustainable P-fertilizer supply chain management (PFSCM). To handle complexities of the proposed model, an ensemble knowledge-based three-stage heuristic-metaheuristic algorithm utilizing heuristic information available in the model, whale optimization algorithm, and variable neighborhood search (named H-WOA-VNS) is proposed. At first, a problem-dependent heuristic is designed to generate a set of near-optimal feasible solutions. These solutions are fed into a population-based whale optimization algorithm which benefits from both exploration and exploitation strategies. Finally, a single-solution metaheuristic based on variable neighborhood search is applied to further improve the quality of the solution using local search operators. The objective function of the algorithm is formulated as a weighted average function to minimize total economic cost, while increasing crop yield and P use efficiency. Experimental results over five synthetic datasets and a real case study of the P-fertilizer supply chain confirm the superiority of the proposed method against the state-of-the-art techniques. The results demonstrate that the proposed method performs well in optimizing both the economic cost and environmental issues.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0088.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Refrigerated transport; Photovoltaic panels; Electrical batteries; Thermal model; Cold chain; Carbon emissions
Online: 6 June 2022 (13:14:34 CEST)
The path towards decarbonization requires a progressive adaptation of all refrigeration systems, but only stationary ones have been intensely studied to improve their environmental performance. However, refrigerated transport is a vital piece of the cold chain, and it must be considered in the green transition. In this paper, we propose a model for a hybrid refrigerated van that includes photovoltaic panels and electric batteries to decrease total greenhouse gas emissions from the engine. Thermal, electrical, and battery sub-models are considered and integrated into the comprehensive hybrid solar-powered refrigerated van model. Different technologies are compared in economic terms, including Lithium and Lead-acid batteries and three different types of photovoltaic panels. The model was validated regarding van fuel consumption, showing a 4% deviation. Single and multiple delivery scenarios are considered to assess the energetic, economic, and environmental benefits. Monthly CO2,e emissions could be reduced to 20% compared to a standard refrigerated van. Despite the environmental benefits provided by this sustainable solution, the payback period is still too long (above 20 years) because of the necessary investment to adapt the vehicle and considering fuel and electricity prices currently.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0114.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: Blockchain Technology; Industry 4.0; Supply Chain Management; Text mining; Metaverse; Hashgraph, Baas.
Online: 9 May 2022 (10:01:43 CEST)
In the current business environment, firms are eager to adopt new technology as they witness and perceive more and more successful business applications of new technologies, e.g., Big Data, Artificial Intelligence (A.I.), Cloud Computing, etc. As one of the disruptive technologies, Blockchain technology (BCT) is now drawing public attention owing to the cryptocurrency phenomenon (e.g., Bitcoin), for which Blockchain serves as the backbone technology. Given certain innovative features of BCT, especially its transparency, traceability, security, efficiency, confidentiality, and immutability, BCT holds out the promise of impacting supply chain operational and financial efficiencies. Recently, the burgeoning of Metaverse and Non-Fungible Token (NFT) has boosted the BCT as state-of-the-art technology to another notch. Motivated by the proliferating adoption of BCT, we conduct a holistic literature review with a focus on the status of research on BCT in the context of Supply Chain Management (SCM). In particular, this Blockchain-centered research reviews the research up to date on the Blockchain application in SCM. It provides holistic review in terms of (1) the functionality of BCT and its salient features; (2) the prevailing and potential applications of BCT; (3) and the business benefits and impact of BCT in SCM. Finally, we substantiate and highlight a variety of research directions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0317.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: EBPR; polyphosphate chain length; NMR; polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; single-cell Raman spectroscopy
Online: 17 September 2021 (12:50:48 CEST)
Polyphosphate (polyP) accumulating organisms (PAOs) are the key agent to perform enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) activity, and intracellular polyP plays a key role in this process. Potential associations between EBPR performance and the polyP structure have been suggested, but are yet to be extensively investigated, mainly due to the lack of established methods for polyP characterization in the EBPR system. In this study, we explored and demonstrated that single-cell Raman spectroscopy (SCRS) can be employed for characterizing intracellular polyPs of PAOs in complex environmental samples such as EBPR systems. The results, for the first time, revealed distinct distribution patterns of polyP length (as Raman peak position) in PAOs in lab-scale EBPR reactors that were dominated with different PAO types, as well as among different full-scale EBPR systems with varying configurations. Furthermore, SCRS revealed distinctive polyP composition/features among PAO phenotypic sub-groups, which are likely associated with phylogenetic and/or phenotypic diversity in EBPR communities, highlighting the possible resolving power of SCRS at the microdiversity level. To validate the observed polyP length variations via SCRS, we also performed and compared bulk polyP length characteristics in EBPR biomass using conventional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and solution 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (31P-NMR) methods. The results are consistent with the SCRS findings and confirmed the variations in the polyP lengths among different EBPR systems. Compared to conventional methods, SCRS exhibited advantages as compared to conventional methods, including the ability to characterize in situ the intracellular polyPs at subcellular resolution in a label-free and non-destructive way, and the capability to capture subtle and detailed biochemical fingerprints of cells for phenotypic classification. SCRS also has recognized limitations in comparison with 31P-NMR and PAGE, such as the inability to quantitatively detect the average polyP chain length and its distribution. The results provided initial evidence for the potential of SCRS-enabled polyP characterization as an alternative and complementary microbial community phenotyping method to facilitate the phenotype-function (performance) relationship deduction in EBPR systems.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0712.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: dietary fibers; short chain fatty acid; gut microbiota; colorectal cancer prevention; epigenetics
Online: 29 March 2021 (22:22:00 CEST)
Dietary factors play an important role in shaping the gut microbiome which, in turn, regulates the molecular events in colonic mucosa. The composition and resulting metabolism of the gut microbiome have been implicated in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). Diets low in dietary fibers and phytomolecules as well as other lifestyle-related factors may predispose to CRC. Emerging evidence demonstrates that the predominance of microbes, such as Fusobacterium nucleatum, can predispose the colonic mucosa to malignant transformation. Dietary and lifestyle modifications have been demonstrated to restrict the growth of potentially harmful opportunistic organisms. In this study, we aim to present evidence regarding the relationship of dietary factors to the gut microbiome and development of CRC.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0068.v1
Subject: Keywords: Bio-energy; Artiﬁcial intelligence; Industry 4.0; Biodiesel; Biogas; Renewable energy; Supply Chain
Online: 3 September 2020 (09:32:40 CEST)
Machine learning (ML) is penetrating in all walks of life and is one of the major driving forces behind the fourth industrial revolution, typically known as Industry 4.0. This study reviews the state-of-the-art ML applications in the biofuels’ life cycle stages, i.e., soil, feedstock, production, consumption, and emissions. A keyword search is performed to retrieve relevant articles from the databases of the Web of Science and Google Scholar. ML applications in the soil stage were mostly based on the use of satellite images of land for estimation of biofuels yield or suitability analysis of agricultural land. In the second stage of the life cycle, assessment of rheological properties of the feedstocks and their effect on the quality of biofuels were dominant studies reported in the literature. The production stage included estimation and optimization of quality, quantity, and process conditions. The fuel consumption and emissions stage included analysis of engine performance and estimation of emissions temperature and composition, such as NOx, CO, and CO2. This study identiﬁed the following trends: dominant ML method, the stage of life cycle getting more usage of ML, the type of data used for the development of the ML-based models, and the stage-wise frequently used input and output variables. The ﬁndings of this article are beneﬁcial for academia and industry-related people involved in model development in different stages of biofuel’s life cycle.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0033.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Bio-energy; Artificial intelligence; Industry 4.0; Biodiesel; Biogas; Renewable energy; Supply Chain
Online: 2 September 2020 (07:56:48 CEST)
Machine learning (ML) is penetrating in all walks of life and is one of the major driving forces behind the fourth industrial revolution, typically known as Industry 4.0. The purpose of the present study is to review the state-of-the-art ML applications in the biofuels' life cycle stages, i.e., soil, feedstock, production, consumption, and emissions. A keyword search is performed to retrieve relevant articles from the databases of the Web of Science and Google Scholar. ML applications in the soil stage were mostly based on the use of satellite images of land for estimation of biofuels yield or suitability analysis of agricultural land. In the second stage of the life cycle, assessment of rheological properties of the feedstocks and their effect on the quality of biofuels were dominant studies reported in the literature. The production stage included estimation and optimization of quality, quantity, and process conditions. The fuel consumption and emissions stage included analysis of engine performance and estimation of emissions temperature and composition, such as NOx CO, and CO2. This study identified the following trends: dominant ML method, the stage of life cycle getting more usage of ML, the type of data used for the development of the ML-based models, and the stage-wise frequently used input and output variables. The findings of this article are beneficial for academia and industry-related people involved in model development in different stages of biofuel’s life cycle.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0355.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Colletotrichum truncatum; Colletotrichum gloeosporioides; chilli anthracnose; polymerase chain reaction assay; disease distribution
Online: 16 July 2020 (13:13:10 CEST)
This paper reviews the current knowledge of pepper anthracnose in the Philippines. We present research outputs on pepper anthracnose from the last three years. Then, we present evidence of the widespread occurrence of C. acutatum sensu lato in the Philippines. Finally, we highlight some research prospects that would contribute towards developing an integrated anthracnose management program.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0531.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: ocimum sanctum; alternative livelihoods; crop depredation; out-scaling; tulsi; value chain development
Online: 23 October 2018 (09:51:17 CEST)
This study assesses the pursued impacts of Tulsi value chain development intervention on the livelihoods of rural poor in Uttarakhand state of India. Tulsi as an alternative livelihood, particularly for the rural poor, is less explored. With increased crop depredation of major cereal crops grown in the district by wild animals and pests, and decreasing availability of water agriculture, attempts were made to improve earnings from Tulsi as an alternative livelihood. Findings suggest that the average households’ gross profit from Tulsi farming increases by more than double within a span of two years. Total crop income of beneficiary farmers’ increases by 0.8 percent for every 1 percent increase in Tulsi income. Intervention helped enhance productivity of Tulsi, thereby enhancing earnings from Tulsi farming. Most importantly, intervention has shown a tremendous adoption rate. Towards the end of the intervention, the value chain work was out-scaled to another 19 villages in Chamoli district, thereby reaching out to more than 400 households.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0169.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: European sardine; draft genome; teleosts; comparative genomics; long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids
Online: 10 September 2018 (12:37:23 CEST)
Clupeiformes, such as sardines and herrings, represent an important share of worldwide fisheries. Among those, the European sardine (Sardina pilchardus, Walbaum 1792) exhibits significant commercial relevance. While the last decade showed a steady and sharp decline in capture levels, recent advances in culture husbandry represent promising research avenues. Yet, the complete absence of genomic resources from sardine imposes a severe bottleneck to understand its physiological and ecological requirements. We generated 69 Gbp of paired-end reads using Illumina HiSeq X Ten and assembled a draft genome assembly with an N50 scaffold length of 25579 bp and BUSCO completeness of 82.1% (Actinopterygii). The estimated size of the genome ranges between 655 and 850 Mb. Additionally, we generated a relatively high-level liver transcriptome. To deliver a proof of principle of the value of this dataset, we established the presence and function of enzymes (elovl2, elovl5 and fads2) that have pivotal roles in the biosynthesis of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, essential nutrients particularly abundant in oily fish such as sardines. Our study provides the first omics dataset from a valuable economic marine teleost species, the European sardine, an essential resource for their effective conservation, management and sustainable exploitation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0021.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Atomic & Molecular Physics Keywords: Markov chain Monte Carlo; stochastic dynamics integrators; decorrelation time; integrated autocorrelation time
Online: 7 September 2017 (03:43:35 CEST)
Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling propagators, including numerical integrators for stochastic dynamics, are central to the calculation of thermodynamic quantities and determination of structure for molecular systems. Efficiency is paramount, and to a great extent, this is determined by the integrated autocorrelation time (IAcT). This quantity varies depending on the observable that is being estimated. It is suggested that it is the maximum of the IAcT over all observables that is the relevant metric. Reviewed here is a method for estimating this quantity. For reversible propagators (which are those that satisfy detailed balance), the maximum IAcT is determined by the spectral gap in the forward transfer operator, but for irreversible propagators, the maximum IAcT can be far less than or greater than what might be inferred from the spectral gap. This is consistent with recent theoretical results (not to mention past practical experience) suggesting that irreversible propagators generally perform better if not much better than reversible ones. Typical irreversible propagators involve a parameter controlling the mix of ballistic and diffusive movement. To gain insight into the effect of the damping parameter for Langevin dynamics, its optimal value is obtained here for a multidimensional quadratic potential energy function.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0412.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Frank-Starling; angiotensin receptor; muscle contraction; myosin light chain kinase; Protein Kinase C-βII; myosin light chain phosphatase; β-arrestin; MgATP; MgADP-phosphomyosin; myosin LC affinity for Ca2+
Online: 11 January 2020 (13:24:08 CET)
The involvement of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor in the Frank-Starling Law of the Heart, where the various activations are very limited, allows simple analysis of the kinase systems involved and thence extrapolation of the mechanism to that of angiotensin control of activation of cardiac and skeletal muscle contraction. The involvement of phosphorylation of the myosin light chain in the control of contraction is accepted but not fully understood. The involvement of troponin-I phosphorylation is also indicated but of unknown mechanism. There is no known signal for activation of myosin light chain kinase or Protein Kinase C-βII other than Ca2+/calmodulin but the former is constitutively active and thus has to be under control of a regulated inhibitor, the latter kinase may also be the same. Ca2+/calmodulin is not activated in Frank-Starling, i.e. there are no diastolic or systolic [Ca2+] changes. I suggest here that that the regulated inhibition is by myosin light chain phosphatase and/or β-arrestin. Angiotensin activation is by translocation of the β-arrestin from the sarcoplasm to the PM thus reducing its kinase inhibition action in the sarcoplasm, this reduced inhibition has been wrongly attributed to a mythical downstream agonist property of β-arrestin.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0040.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Circular Economy; Traceability; BPMN; Blockchain; IoT; Electric and Electronic Equipment; EEE Value Chain
Online: 2 February 2023 (09:28:39 CET)
With the continuous growth of electric and electronic appliances’ usage, the waste produced with obsolete material (e-waste) has an increasing environmental impact. Also, the production of such appliances bears to increased consumption of natural resources and produces a multitude of toxic and hazardous substances, which typically are not properly treated. One of the approaches that may be adopted to reduce such problems relies on the circularization of the current linear model, commonly adopted in the EEE value chain. This includes recovering eol products and reintroducing its parts, components, or raw materials into the value chain (e.g. semiconductors, circuit boards, raw metals, etc.), thus contributing to a more sustainable value chain. In this article, we present a state-of-art review that focuses on approaches and solutions for the EEE value chain traceability, and analyses the technologies that may be beneficial for promoting and implementing the CE model in this value chain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0488.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: Opioid crisis; PDMP; Pill Mill; Difference-in-Difference; Policy Analysis; Pharmaceutical Supply Chain
Online: 26 December 2022 (11:10:57 CET)
The opioid crisis in the United States has had devastating effects on communities across the country, leading many states to pass legislation that limits the prescription of opioid medications in an effort to reduce the number of overdose deaths. This study evaluates the impact of two categories of PDMP and Pill Mill regulations on the supply of opioid prescriptions at the level of dispensers and distributors (excluding manufacturers) using ARCOS data. The study uses a difference-in-difference method with a two-way fixed design to analyze the data. The study finds that both of the regulations are associated with reductions in the volume of opioid distribution. However, the study reveals that these regulations may have unintended consequences, such as shifting the distribution of controlled substances to neighboring states. For example, in Tennessee, the implementation of Operational PDMP regulations reduces in-state distribution of opioid drugs by 3.36% (95% CI, 2.37 to 4.3), while the out-of-state distribution to Georgia, which did not have effective PDMP regulations in place, increases by 16.93% (95% CI, 16.42 to 17.44). Our studies emphasize that policymakers should consider the potential for unintended distribution shifts of opioid drugs to neighboring states with laxer regulations as well as varying impacts on different dispenser types.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0262.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: value chain analysis; medicinal plants; Jiaogulan; ethnic minority; NTFPs; geopark; transboundary landscape; Vietnam
Online: 19 October 2022 (03:21:58 CEST)
Non-timber forest products (NTFP) have contributed in various ways to the living, livelihoods, and trading of households and communities who live in rural and urban areas all over the world. This paper analyses the value chain of Jiaogulan (Gynostemma pentaphyllum) in the Cao Bang Geopark, Vietnam. 106 actors were surveyed using a semi-structured questionnaire: experts (agricultural extension officers, farmers' associations), harvesters, traders, primary processors, processors, distributors, and consumers. The results show that a map of Jiaogulan value chain, value added of households in main market channels, and impact of value added and distribution of Jiaogulan products on household income.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0436.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Uncertainty; Climate risk assessment; Impact chain; Climate change; Risk; Tourism risk; Heat index
Online: 28 September 2022 (09:23:03 CEST)
The Impact Chain framework for risk assessment has proven to be a robust and effective It is very useful to set up the conceptual framework associated to a given risk and allows accommodating naturally the different components that shape that However, the operationalization of the impact chain may not be straightforward, in particular due to the inherent uncertainties associated to the selected indicators and the assigned In this paper, we introduce an extension to the Impact Chain framework that allows to consider uncertainties in the different components of the risk In the framework of the UNCHAIN project, a web-based tool has been developed to ease the task of implementing that The tool has been applied to a case study on the loss of tourist attractiveness due to heat stress conditions on the Balearic island, Spain, to illustrate how uncertainties in different components of the impact chain can affect the robustness of the final risk Also, the tool provides an estimate of the sensitivity of the final risk to each component, which can be used to guide risk mitigation Finally, a proposal for the validation of the risk assessment is presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0191.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: Wolbachia; Aedes sp.; Culex sp.; Ctenocephalides felis; Acanthocheilonema reconditum; poly-merase chain reaction
Online: 16 February 2022 (04:38:29 CET)
Background: Wolbachia sp. is an endosymbiotic bacterium that is widespread among arthropods and filarial nematodes. It affects the fertility and maturation of its arthropod hosts, which in some cases are vectors of infectious diseases of humans and animals. Acanthocheilonema reconditum is a canine filarial nematode, which can eventually infect humans through arthropods. An outbreak of A. reconditum has been reported recently in dogs in the southwest of Colombia, specifically in Cali. In addition, Wolbachia sp. is currently used for the biological control of the mosquito Aedes egypti in cities in the north and south-west of Colombia. Aedes egypti is a vector of dengue fever, a major public health disease in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. The objectives of this study were to detect Wolbachia sp. in mosquito and flea samples collected from dogs in southwestern Colombia and to determine the co-infection of Wolbachia sp. and A. reconditum in the recent outbreak of canine filariasis in Santiago de Cali. Methods: A total of 18 mosquitoes of the genera Aedes and Culex and 18 Ctenocephalides felis fleas were collected in Santiago de Cali and nearby municipalities. DNA was extracted and 16S rRNA and ftsZ gene fragments were identified using conventional and nested polymerase chain reaction. In addition, the presence of Wolbachia sp. was analyzed in 55 cases positive for A. reconditum previously detected in the city, using the same molecular techniques. Results: From the analysis of 18 mosquitoes and 18 fleas, using molecular techniques based on the 16S rRNA and ftsZ genes, Wolbachia sp. was detected in all the arthropods analyzed. Wolbachia sp. was not detected in the samples obtained from dogs infected with A. reconditum. Conclusions: Molecular analyses were shown to be effective for the identification of Wolbachia sp. in mosquitoes and fleas but not in samples positive for A. reconditum.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0261.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: Seismic interferometry; Transdimensional tomography; Surface wave dispersion; probabilistic inversion; Markov chain Monte Carlo
Online: 19 October 2021 (08:23:56 CEST)
Seismic travel time tomography using surface waves is an effective tool for three-dimensional crustal imaging. Historically, these surface waves are the result of active seismic sources or earthquakes. More recently, however, also surface waves retrieved through the application of seismic interferometry are exploited. Conventionally, two-step inversion algorithms are employed to solve the tomographic inverse problem. That is, a first inversion results in frequency-dependent, two-dimensional maps of phase velocity, which then serve as input for a series of independent, one-dimensional frequency-to-depth inversions. As such, a two-dimensional grid of localized depth-dependent velocity profiles are obtained. Stitching these separate profiles together subsequently yields a three-dimensional velocity model. Relatively recently, a one-step three-dimensional non-linear tomographic algorithm has been proposed. The algorithm is rooted in a Bayesian framework using Markov chains with reversible jumps, and is referred to as transdimensional tomography. Specifically, the three-dimensional velocity field is parameterized by means of a polyhedral Voronoi tessellation. In this study, we investigate the potential of this algorithm for the purpose of recovering the three-dimensional surface-wave-velocity structure from ambient noise recorded on and around the Reykjanes Peninsula, southwest Iceland. To that end, we design a number of synthetic tests that take into account the station configuration of the Reykjanes seismic network. We find that the algorithm is able to recover the 3D velocity structure at various scales in areas where station density is high. In addition, we find that the standard deviation on the recovered velocities is low in those regions. At the same time, the velocity structure is less well recovered in parts of the peninsula sampled by fewer stations. This implies that the algorithm successfully adapts model resolution to the density of rays. Also, it adapts model resolution to the amount of noise on the travel times. Because the algorithm is computationally demanding, we modify the algorithm such that computational costs are reduced while sufficiently preserving non-linearity. We conclude that the algorithm can now be applied adequately to travel times extracted from (time-averaged) station-station cross correlations by the Reykjanes seismic network.