Khandelwal, S.; Kondal, D.; Chaudhry, M.; Patil, K.; Swamy, M.K.; Pujeri, G.; Mane, S.B.; Kudachi, Y.; Gupta, R.; Ramakrishnan, U.; Stein, A.D.; Prabhakaran, D.; Tandon, N. Prenatal Maternal Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) Supplementation and Newborn Anthropometry in India: Findings from DHANI. Nutrients2021, 13, 730.
Khandelwal, S.; Kondal, D.; Chaudhry, M.; Patil, K.; Swamy, M.K.; Pujeri, G.; Mane, S.B.; Kudachi, Y.; Gupta, R.; Ramakrishnan, U.; Stein, A.D.; Prabhakaran, D.; Tandon, N. Prenatal Maternal Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) Supplementation and Newborn Anthropometry in India: Findings from DHANI. Nutrients 2021, 13, 730.
Long-chain omega-3 fatty acid status during pregnancy may influence newborn anthropometry and duration of gestation. Evidence from high-quality trials from LMICs is limited. We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial among 957 pregnant women (singleton gestation, 14-20 weeks’ gestation at enrollment) in India to test the effectiveness of 400 mg/d algal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) compared to placebo provided from enrollment through delivery. Among 3379 women who were screened, 1171 were found eligible; 957 enrolled and were randomized. The intervention was two microencapsulated algal DHA (200 X 2= 400 mg/d) or two microencapsulated soy and corn oil placebo tablets to be consumed daily from enrollment (20 weeks) through delivery. The primary outcome was newborn anthropometry (birth weight, length, head circumference). Secondary outcomes were gestational age and 1 and 5 min Appearance, Pulse, Grimace, Activity, and Respiration (APGAR) score. The groups (DHA; n=478 and placebo; n=479) were well balanced at baseline. There were 902 live births. Compliance with the intervention was similar across groups (DHA: 88.5%; placebo: 87.1%). There were no significant differences between DHA and placebo group for birth weight (2750.6 ± 421.5 vs. 2768.2 ± 436.6 g, p=0.54), length (47.3 ± 2.0 vs. 47.5 ±2.0 cm, p=0.13) or head circumference (33.7 ± 1.4 vs 33.8 ± 1.4 cm, p=0.15). The mean gestational age at delivery was similar between groups (DHA: 38.8 ± 1.7 placebo: 38.8 ± 1.7 wk, p= 0.54) as were APGAR scores at 1 and 5 min. Supplementing mothers through pregnancy with 400mg/d DHA did not impact the offspring birthweight, length or head circumference.
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); long chain omega-3 fatty acids; maternal supplementation; pregnancy outcomes; anthropometry; birth weight; birth length; head circumference
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