ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0359.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Adaptation; climate change; composite indices; resilience; livelihoods; adaptation
Online: 29 May 2019 (16:43:50 CEST)
The missing link between cross-sectoral resource utilisation and management, and full-scale adoption of the water-energy-food (WEF) nexus has been lack of analytical tools to support policy and decision-making. This paper defined WEF nexus sustainability indicators and developed a methodology to calculate composite indices to facilitate WEF nexus performance, monitoring and evaluation. WEF nexus indicators were integrated through the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) in a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM). Data were normalised to determine composite indices. The method established quantitative relationships among WEF nexus sectors to indicate resource utilisation and performance over time, using South Africa as a case study. A spider graph of normalised indices was used to illustrate WEF nexus indicator performance and inter-relationships, providing a synopsis of the level of interactions and inter-connectedness of WEF nexus sectors. The shape of the spider graph is determined by the level of the interdependencies and interactions among the WEF nexus sectors, whose management is viewed either as sustainable or unsustainable depending on the classification of the developed integrated index. The spider graph produced for South Africa shows an over emphasis on food self-sufficiency and water productivity at the expense of other sectors, which results from the sectoral approach in resource management. Although the calculated integrated index of 0.203 for South Africa is classified as lowly sustainable, the emphasis is on the quantitative relationships among the indicators and on how to improve them to achieve sustainability. The developed method provides evidence to decision makers, indicating priority areas for intervention. The analytical model is another niche area for the WEF nexus, as it is now capable to evaluate synergies and trade-offs in a holistic way to improve efficiency and productivity in resource use and management for sustainable development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0092.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: climate adaptation; flexibility; flood risk management; urban adaptation
Online: 20 January 2017 (04:25:55 CET)
Adaptation to climate change is being addressed in many domains. This means that there are multiple perspectives on adaptation; often with differing visions resulting in disconnected responses and outcomes. Combining singular perspectives into coherent, combined perspectives that include multiple needs and visions can help to deepen the understanding of various aspects of adaptation and provide more effective responses. Such combinations of perspectives can help to increase the range and variety of adaptation measures available for implementation or avoid maladaptation compared with adaptations derived from a singular perspective. The objective of this paper is to present and demonstrate a framework for structuring the local adaptation responses using the inputs from multiple perspectives. The adaptation response framing has been done by: (i) contextualizing climate change adaptation needs; (ii) analyzing drivers of change; (iii) characterizing measures of adaptation; and (iv) establishing links between the measures with a particular emphasis on taking account of multiple perspectives. This framework was demonstrated with reference to the management of flood risks in a case study Can Tho, Vietnam. The results from the case study show that multiple perspective framing of adaptation responses enhance the understanding of various aspects of adaptation measures, thereby leading to flexible implementation practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0422.v1
Online: 19 July 2021 (15:59:12 CEST)
Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a crop of nutritional and economic importance worldwide, cultivated in more than 100 tropical and subtropical countries including Ecuador, traditionally cultivated in its three continental regions: the Amazon, the Coast and in the valleys of the Sierra. The purpose of this study was to characterize 195 accessions from INIAP's Ecuadorian cassava collection through 1) morphological characterization with qualitative and quantitative descriptors; and 2) ecogeographic characterization to know the climatic, geophysical and edaphic conditions in which cassava grows and which environments are frequent or marginal for its cultivation. For the morphological characterization, 27 morphological descriptors were used (18 qualitative and nine quantitative), and for the ecogeographic characterization, 55 variables (41 climatic, two geophysical and 12 edaphic). As a result, four morphological groups and three ecogeographic groups were identified. In the research, morphological variability was evidenced, mainly in descriptors related to the leaf, stems and inflorescences. In addition, it was possible to identify accessions that can adapt to extreme conditions of drought and poor soils, which could be used for improvement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0256.v1
Online: 27 June 2019 (08:06:01 CEST)
Cancer, a disease of multicellular organisms, probably developed almost immediately following the transition from unicellular to metazoan life, about one billion years ago. Great efforts have been made to understand the carcinogenesis for many years. In this paper, We tried to explain the cancer based on “chaos”, “adaptation” and “information” with the context of new literature findings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0336.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: nature-based solutions; climate change adaptation; biodiversity; ecosystem-based adaptation
Online: 23 October 2021 (14:19:30 CEST)
Nature-based solutions (NbS) are increasingly recognised for their potential to address both the climate and biodiversity crises. These outcomes are interdependent, and both rely on the capacity of NbS to support and enhance the health of an ecosystem: its biodiversity, the condition of its abiotic and biotic elements, and its capacity to function normally despite environmental change. However, while understanding of ecosystem health outcomes of nature-based interventions for climate change mitigation is growing, the outcomes of those implemented for adaptation remain poorly understood with evidence scattered across multiple disciplines. To address this, we conducted a systematic review of the outcomes of 109 nature-based interventions for climate change adaptation using 33 indicators of ecosystem health across eight broad categories (e.g. diversity, biomass, ecosystem functioning and population dynamics). We showed that 88% of interventions with positive outcomes for climate change adaptation also reported measurable benefits for ecosystem health. We also showed that interventions were associated with a 67% average increase in local species richness. All eight studies that reported benefits in terms of both climate change mitigation and adaptation also supported ecosystem health, leading to a triple win. However, there were also trade-offs, mainly for forest management and creation of novel ecosystems such as monoculture plantations of non-native species. Our review highlights two major limitations of research to date. First, only a limited selection of metrics are used to assess ecosystem health and these rarely include key aspects such as functional diversity and habitat connectivity. Second, taxonomic coverage is poor: 67% of outcomes assessed only plants and 57% did not distinguish between native and non-native species. Future research addressing these issues will allow the design and adaptive management of NbS to support healthy and resilient ecosystems, and thereby enhance their effectiveness for meeting both climate and biodiversity targets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0257.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: climate change adaptation; adaptation plan; small municipality; France, United States; climate services; information
Online: 14 November 2022 (11:10:35 CET)
There is a growing consensus that to effectively adapt to climate change, cities need user-friendly tools and reliable high-resolution biophysical and socio-economic data for analysis, mapping, modeling, and visualization. This study examines availability of various types of information used in climate adaptation plans of 40 municipalities with population less than 300,000 people in the United and in France, probing into the choice and usage of relevant information by small municipalities. We argue that non-climatic spatial data, such as population demographic and socio-economic patterns, urban infrastructure, and environmental data must be integrated with climate tools and datasets to inform effective vulnerability assessment and equitable climate adaptation planning goals. Climate adaptation plans frequently fail to address the existing structural inequalities and environmental injustices in urban infrastructure and land use. Adaptation methodological approaches should be reassessed in the context of much needed societal transformation. Lessons learned from our studies offer valuable insights for potential development of the national and state-level climate adaptation information services for cities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0226.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: adaptation; adaptive capacity; adaptation tracking; climate change; systematic review; vulnerability; developed nation; Australia
Online: 13 August 2018 (10:13:42 CEST)
We develop and apply a systematic literature review methodology to identify and characterize the ways in which the peer-reviewed literature depicts how climate change adaptation is occurring in Australia. We reviewed the peer-reviewed, English-language literature between January 2005 and January 2018 for examples of documented adaptation actions. Our results challenge previous assumptions that adaptation action is not happening in Australia and describes adaptation processes that are underway. For the most part, actions can be described as preliminary or groundwork, with a particular focus on documenting stakeholder perspectives on climate change and adaptation, and modelling or scenario planning in the coastal zone, agriculture and health sectors. Where concrete adaptations are reported, they are usually in the agricultural sector and are most common in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia’s food basket. The findings of the review advance our understanding of adaptation to climate change as a process and the need to consider different stages in the process when tracking adaptation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0172.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Linguistics Keywords: Finnish; dialect adaptation; computational creativity
Online: 8 September 2020 (05:02:35 CEST)
We present a novel approach for adapting text written in standard Finnish to different dialects. We experiment with character level NMT models both by using a multi-dialectal and transfer learning approaches. The models are tested with over 20 different dialects. The results seem to favor transfer learning, although not strongly over the multi-dialectal approach. We study the influence dialectal adaptation has on perceived creativity of computer generated poetry. Our results suggest that the more the dialect deviates from the standard Finnish, the lower scores people tend to give on an existing evaluation metric. However, on a word association test, people associate creativity and originality more with dialect and fluency more with standard Finnish.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0503.v1
Online: 26 July 2018 (04:31:39 CEST)
Propagation of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) in cultured cells results in genetic adaptations that confer improved growth in vitro and significant attenuation in vivo. Mutations in RL13 arise quickly during cell culture passage, while mutations in the UL128-131A locus emerge later during fibroblast passage and disrupt expression of a glycoprotein complex that is important for entry into epithelial and endothelial cells. As in vivo CMV replicates in the context of host antibodies, we reasoned that antibodies might mitigate the accumulation of adaptive mutations during cell culture passage. To test this, CMV in infant urine was used to infect replicate fibroblast cultures. One lineage was passaged in the absence of CMV-hyperimmuneglobulin (HIG) while the other was passaged with HIG in the culture medium. The former lost epithelial tropism and aquired mutations disrupting RL13 and UL131A expression, whereas the latter retained epithelial tropism and both gene loci remained intact after 22 passages. An epitheliotropic RL13+/ UL131A+ virus was isolated by limiting-dilution in the presence of HIG and expanded to produce a working stock sufficient to conduct cell tropism experiments. Thus, culture in the presence of antibodies may facilitate in vitro experiments using viruses that are genetically more authentic than has been previously possible.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0289.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: adaptation failure; adaptation planning; economic interests; climate change; ecosystem spillovers; policy; risk perception; transformation
Online: 27 October 2019 (02:54:10 CET)
The failure to acknowledge and account for environmental externalities or spillovers in climate change adaptation policy, advocacy and programming spaces exercabates the risk of ecological degradation, more so, degradation of land. In particular use of unsuitable water sources for irrigation may increase salinisation risks. However, little if any policy assessments and research effort has been directed at investigating how farmer perceptions mediate spillovers from the ubiquitous irrigation adaptation strategy. In this study cognitive failure and/or bias construct is examined and proposed as an analytical lens in research, policy and learning and the convergence of disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation discourses. The findings from small-scale farmers, Machakos and Kakamega counties, Kenya, suggest multifaceted biases and failures about the existence and importance of externalities in adaptation planning discourses. Among other dimensions, cognitive failure which encompasses fragmented approaches among institutions for use and management of resources, inadequate policy and information support, as well as, poor integration of actors in adaptation planning accounts for adaptation failure. The failures in such Human-Environment system interactions have the potential to exercabate existing vulnerability of farmer production systems in the long run. The findings further suggest that in absence of risk message information dissemination, education level, farming experience and information accumulation, as integral elements to human capital, do not seem to have significant effect on behaviour about mitigation of environmental spillovers. Implicitly, reversing the inherent adaptation failures calls for system approaches that enhance coordinated adaptation planning, prioritises proactive mitigation of slow onset disaster risks and broadens decision support systems, such as, risk information dissemination integration into the existing adaptation policy discourses and practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0394.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Climate change adaptation; Coastal cities; Ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA); Socio-economic assessment; Systematic literature review
Online: 26 October 2022 (03:33:30 CEST)
Coastal areas are highly vulnerable to climate change hazards (e.g., sea-level rise, flooding, coastal erosion), which can lead to significant impacts at the ecosystem and societal level. Interest in Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) is gaining importance due to its potential multiple benefits, including social and environmental aspects, when compared to more traditional approaches such as hard engineering interventions. When assessing EbA strategies, further understanding of the nature-society functions, processes, values, and benefits is needed to increase its application. This study contributes to a better knowledge of EbA by developing a systematic literature review of studies performing socio-economic assessments of climate change adaptation in coastal areas. The analysis of 54 publications revealed that most of the studies assessed adaptation solutions through cost-benefit analysis, followed by multi-criteria analysis, and other techniques. Hybrid adaptation strategies based on different combinations of hard, soft and EbA interventions were considered as potential optimal solutions in a significant part of the assessments. This study suggests the potential co-benefits of EbA in the form of ecosystem services, livelihood diversification or biodiversity conservation, but also stresses the need for further research on this topic, as well as on evaluating how EbA perform in the long-term under climate changing conditions scenarios.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0564.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: cellular senescence; metastasis; metabolic adaptation; invasion
Online: 30 November 2022 (04:23:43 CET)
Metastasis is a systemic condition and the major challenge among cancer types, as it can lead to multiorgan vulnerability. Recently, attention has been drawn to cellular senescence, a complex stress response condition, as a factor implicated in metastatic dissemination and outgrowth. Here, we examine the current knowledge of the features required for cells to invade and colonize secondary organs and how senescent cells can contribute to this process. First, we described the role of senescence in placentation, itself an invasive process which has been linked to higher rates of invasive cancers. Second, we describe how senescent cells can contribute to metastatic dissemination and colonization. Third, we discuss several metabolic adaptations by which senescent cells could promote cancer survival along the metastatic journey. In conclusion, we posit that targeting cellular senescence may have a potential therapeutic efficacy to limit metastasis formation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0075.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: nap; sleep; motor adaptation; learning; consolidation
Online: 6 May 2022 (10:36:15 CEST)
Daytime napping offers benefits for motor memory learning and is used as habitual countermeasure to improve daytime functioning. A single napping is shown to ameliorate motor memory learning, although the effect of consecutive napping on motor memory consolidation remains unclear. This study aimed to explore the effect of daytime napping over multiple days on motor memory learning. Twenty university students were divided into the napping group and no-nap (awake) group. Napping group performed motor adaption tasks before and after napping for three consecutive days, whereas no-nap group performed the task on the similar time schedule as the napping group. In addition, a subsequent retest was conducted one week after the end of the intervention. The speed to complete the task of the napping group was significantly shorter than that of the awake group in the retention test. No significant difference was confirmed for trajectory length to complete the task. Thus, consecutive napping may facilitate motor learning and motor memory consolidation in the long term.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0281.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: microevolution; adaptation; ecometabolomics; ACCase-inhibiting herbicides
Online: 28 April 2022 (10:23:01 CEST)
Herbicide resistance is an evolutionary process that affects entire agricultural regions' yield and productivity. The high number of farms and the diversity of weed management can generate hot selection spots along regions. Resistant biotypes can present a diversity of mechanisms of resistance and resistance factors depending on selective conditions inside the farm; this situation is similar to predicts by the geographic mosaic theory of coevolution. In Mexico, the agricultural region of Bajio has been affected by herbicide resistance for 25 years. To date, Avena fatua L. is one of the most abundant and problematic weed species. The objective of this study was to determine the mechanism of resistance of biotypes with failures in the weed control in 70 wheat and barley crop fields in Bajio, Mexico. The results showed that 70% of farms have biotypes with TSR, the most common mutations where Trp – 1999 – Cys, Asp – 2078 – Gly, Ile – 2041 – Asn, such mutations confer cross-resistance to ACCase-inhibiting herbicides. Metabolomic fingerprinting showed four different metabolic expression patterns. The results confirmed that in the Bajio exist multiple selection sites for both resistance mechanisms, which proves that this area can be considered as a geographic mosaic of resistance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0226.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Antarctica; cold adaptation; hemocyanin; amphipod; transcriptome
Online: 9 February 2021 (09:20:04 CET)
We here report the de novo transcriptome assembly and functional annotation of Eusirus cf. giganteus clade g3, providing the first database of expressed sequences from this giant Antarctic amphipod. RNA-sequencing, carried out on the whole-body of a single juvenile individual likely undergoing molting, revealed the dominant expression of hemocyanins. The mRNAs encoding these oxygen-binding proteins cumulatively accounted for about 40% of the total transcriptional effort, highlighting the key biological importance of high hemocyanin production in this Antarctic amphipod species. We speculate that this observation may mirror a strategy previously described in Antarctic cephalopods, which compensate the decreased ability to release oxygen to peripheral tissues at sub-zero temperatures by massively increasing total blood hemocyanin content compared with temperate species. These preliminary results will undoubtedly require confirmation through proteomic and biochemical analyses aimed at characterizing the oxygen-binding properties of E. cf. giganteus clade g3 hemocyanins, and at investigating whether other Antarctic arthropod species exploit similar adaptations to cope with the challenges posed by the extreme conditions of the polar environment.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0481.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: climate change; coastal adaptation; collective action
Online: 18 December 2020 (16:27:48 CET)
Not only are humans responsible for the anthropogenic causes of currently observed climate change, but we are also responsible for our responses to climate change. How we choose to respond provides important insights into our ability to collectively act in the face of threats with the unique characteristics of climate change. This communication attempts to provide an overview of some the difficulties in forging new policy directions along our coastlines in an era of climate change. It is meant as a referential framing for the research presented in this special issue. As this communication is being written, the world is gripped by a global pandemic caused by a variant of the coronavirus. There are important corollaries between the underlying characteristics of the coronavirus and the causes and effects of climate change. Seeing how the global citizenry is responding to the current epidemic provides some insight into the difficulties in fostering collective action towards climate change. As with the pandemic, the issue is not really one of understanding the problem, but rather the varying human responses to the problem. We can expect the same difficulties as we continue to confront the ever-growing problem of climate change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0478.v1
Online: 27 April 2020 (04:34:38 CEST)
Riverbed farming (RbF) has emerged as an alternative form of agriculture. This farming supports the poor and marginalized farmers to adapt to climate change, especially in the degraded lands because of floods and flood-induced riverbank erosions every year. The government and non-government organizations (GOs/NGOs) have supported and built capacities of farmers to adopt this as an effective adaptation strategy in the region. This study aims to analyze the determinants of riverbed farming at the household level mainly in Deukhuri valley of Western Terai, Nepal. A total of 150 households were selected randomly for the study in Sisahaniya rural municipality for the household survey. The determinants of the adoption of riverbed farming have been analyzed utilizing independent variables such as age, gender, education, occupation, ethnicity, family size, and others. Education and occupation are positively significant for the adoption of riverbed farming whereas the family size is negatively significant. Agriculture is the main occupation in the area and education helped them to understand the concept and procedure of RbF as alternative farming in the degraded lands. However, not all the family members have actively contributed to the RbF. This is an interesting study that could be expanded with the support of GOs/NGOs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0171.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: adaptation; climate change; green economy; agriculture
Online: 15 April 2019 (12:30:46 CEST)
An opinion dependent cross sectional survey was conducted among charland peoples of Noakhali, Bangladesh with a view to identify the factors that affect green economy. Nijhumdwip Island and Tamaruddi union are highly affected by cyclone and soil salinity. Unpredictable rainfall is the most acute in Nijhumdwip. Lack of information the main problem in Nijhumdwip Island. Farmers are found less interest in integrated farming and crop diversification. Few farmers from Sonadia Union are involved in homestead gardening. Regression analysis have shown a negative relationship (p<0.001) between education of stockholders and decrease of crop production. On the other hand education level of stockholders is to be found positively (p<0.05) varied with decrease of food insecurity. So it can be said that educated farmers are more adaptive against climate change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0616.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Numerical Analysis & Optimization Keywords: tsunami wave; finite elements; mesh adaptation; domain adaptation; co-seismic displacements; tsunami wave energy; FreeFem++; unstructured meshes
Online: 27 August 2020 (12:17:44 CEST)
A simplified nonlinear dispersive system of BBM-type, initially derived by D. Mitsotakis, is employed here in order to model the generation and propagation of surface water waves over variable bottom. The simplification consists in applying the so-called Boussinesq approximation. Using the finite element method and the FreeFem++ software, we solve numerically this system for three different complexities for the bathymetry function: a flat bottom case, a variable bottom in space, and a variable bottom both in space and in time. The last case is illustrated with the Java 2006 tsunami event. This article is designed rather as a tutorial paper even if it contains the description of completely new adaptation techniques.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0149.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: virtual team adaptation; individual differences; management perspective
Online: 10 March 2022 (12:54:03 CET)
In the contemporary business world, digital transformations have undergone vast and important developments over the last several decades, and they have aided in the development of the virtual team concept, in which geographically dispersed team members work to achieve a common goal. Virtual teams, according to the literature, suffer from process losses more frequently than their face-to-face counterparts. Although just a few studies have looked at the effects of individual differences in virtual teams, this study fills in the gaps by examining the impact of individual differences: Age Disparity (AD), Gender Disparity (GD), Language Competency (LC), and IT Competency (ITC) in management perspective on virtual team adaptation in the Sri Lankan private sector. A survey was used to collect data from a sample of 175 private sector companies in Sri Lanka during the COVID- 19 pandemic, and the data was analyzed using partial least squares path modeling (PLS) to test the study's hypotheses. The results indicated that the hypotheses were statistically significant only in the language competency and IT competency and their effects were in the expected direction. Future research could benefit from perceptions of employees in public sector organizations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0028.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: adaptation; problem-solving; robotics; predicates; manufacturing system
Online: 4 January 2021 (12:20:55 CET)
Proposed article deals with analyses on trends of problem-solving robotic applications in manu-facturing, especially in transportations and manipulations. Intelligent agent-based manufacturing systems with robotic agents are observed. Intelligent core of such units must be able to propose the plan of problem-solving in form of strategy. The logical model of adaptive strategies planning for intelligent robotic system is described in form of predicates with presentation of data processing on base of set theory descriptions. Dynamic structure of workspace and possible change of goals are considered as reasons for functional strategies adaptation. Proposed formal descriptions are sup-ported by model of mobile robotic platform, acting in warehouse.
Online: 24 November 2019 (13:05:56 CET)
There is growing awareness that “Nature-based Solutions” (NbS) can help to protect us from climate change impacts whilst slowing further warming, supporting biodiversity and securing ecosystem services. However, the potential of NbS to provide the intended benefits has not been rigorously assessed. There are concerns over their reliability and cost-effectiveness compared to engineered alternatives, and their resilience to climate change. Trade-offs can arise if climate mitigation policy encourages NbS with low biodiversity value, such as afforestation with non-native monocultures. This can result in maladaptation, especially in a rapidly changing world where biodiversity-based resilience and multifunctional landscapes are key. Here we highlight the rise of NbS in climate policy—focussing on their potential for climate change adaptation as well as mitigation—and discuss barriers to their evidence-based implementation. We outline the major financial and governance challenges to implementing NbS at scale, highlighting avenues for further research. As climate policy turns increasingly towards greenhouse gas removal approaches such as afforestation, we stress the urgent need for natural and social scientists to engage with policymakers. They must ensure that NbS can achieve their potential to tackle both the climate and biodiversity crisis while also contributing to sustainable development. This will require systemic change in the way we conduct research and run our institutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci1030057
Online: 20 September 2019 (00:00:00 CEST)
This study assessed farmers’ perception of climate change, estimated the determinants of, and evaluated the relationship among adaptation practices using the multivariate probit model. A survey in 300 agricultural households was carried out covering 10 sample districts considering five agro-ecological zones and a vulnerability index. Four adaptation choices (change in planting date, crop variety, crop type and investment in irrigation) were deemed as outcome variables and socioeconomic, demographic, institutional, farm-level and perceptions variables were deployed as explanatory variables. Their marginal effects were determined for three climatic variables—temperature, precipitation and drought. Age, gender and education of head of household, credit access, farm area, rain-fed farming and tenure, are found to be more influential compared to other factors. All four adaptation-options are found to be complimentary to each other. Importantly, the intensity of impact of dependent variables in different models, and for available adaptation-options, are found to be unequal. Therefore, policy options and support facilities should be devised according to climatic variables and adaptation options to achieve superior results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0460.v1
Online: 27 August 2018 (12:55:03 CEST)
Ecosystem services (ES) are increasingly recognized as a means to adapt to the ongoing impact of climate change and associated impacts. However, these ES itself are facing adverse impact of climate change especially in developing countries where most of the people are dependent on these services for their livelihood. Very little is known about the relationship between the climate change and ES. Here we assess the impact of climate change on ecosystem services in ES rich landscape of Panchase Mountain Ecological Region of western Nepal. The study area was divided into three ecoregions from lowland through midland to the upland region. Focus group discussion, and key informant interview were used to elicit the required data for the study, which was further supported by transect walk, field observation and secondary source of information. Major impacts of climate change were observed are, reduced availability of water, reduced food production, forest ecosystem, shifting species composition in forest ecosystem, farmland abandonment, and their associated ecosystem services. We recommend to initiate the management actions to help ES adapt to climate change, and which in return could support the ecosystem itself and people dependent on the ES in adaptation to climate change by providing various goods and services.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0206.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: CO2; adaptation; photosynthesis; growth; weeds; carboxylation efficiency
Online: 22 January 2018 (17:44:14 CET)
Seeds of three C3 and one C4 annual weedy species were collected from agricultural fields in Beltsville, Maryland in 1966 and 2006, when atmospheric CO2 concentrations averaged about 320 and 380 mmol mol-1, respectively. Plants from each collection year were grown over a range of CO2 concentrations to test for adaptation of these weedy species to recent changes in atmospheric CO2. In all three of the C3 species, the increase in CO2 concentration from 320 to 380 mmol mol-1 increased total dry mass at 24 days in plants from seeds collected in 2006, but not in plants from seeds collected in 1966. Shoot and seed dry mass at maturity was greater at the higher growth CO2 in plants collected in 2006 than in 1966 in two of the species. Down regulation of photosynthetic carboxylation capacity during growth at high CO2 was less in the newer seed lots than in the older in two of the species. Overall, the results indicate that adaptation to recent changes in atmospheric CO2 has occurred in some of these weedy species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0220.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: climate change; adaptation; WaSH; policy; sustainability; development
Online: 31 May 2017 (11:44:04 CEST)
Climate change threatens water, sanitation and hygiene (WaSH) facilities and services, as these are intimately linked to the water cycle and are vulnerable to changes in the quantity and quality of available water resources. Floods and droughts, which pollute and reduce water delivery respectively, have now become a perennial issue to deal with in the northern regions of the country, including the Bolgatanga Municipality. This study aimed to assess the degree to which climate change adaptation measures are mainstreamed into the WaSH development planning process in Ghana. Stakeholders from government and non-government agencies were interviewed to gain perspectives on the threat of climate change, the inclusion of climate change in WaSH planning and the barriers preventing mainstreaming. In general, despite awareness and concern about climate change, adaptation measures have been regarded to be far away from the immediate concerns of WaSH development planning. Most of the current measures are reactive and respond to environmental issues rather than to climate change stressors. In essence, stakeholders expressed the view that the adaptive capacity of the Municipality was low and that mainstreaming has not yet occurred. Despite the lack of progress, there are great opportunities for mainstreaming climate change adaptation into planning through increasing awareness and capacity, legislative and institutional changes and the development of participatory systems to provide early warning systems and disaster risk analyses that will inform future planning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0006.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: adaptation; Brazil; climate change policy; mitigation; risks
Online: 7 July 2016 (10:54:49 CEST)
Subnational governments play a key role responding to climate change risks in terms of policy strategies and instruments. This article analyzes how Brazilian municipal and state governments have developed and implemented public policies to mitigate and to adapt to climate change risks. We surveyed all cities’ and states’ climate policies within the country. The methodological approach includes five main points of analysis: 1. mitigation targets and intentions; 2. adaptation actions; 3. stakeholders’ participation; 4. policy implementation; 5. participation in networks related to climate change. Our results suggest that even though subnational climate policies in Brazil are isolated initiatives within the national context, they play an important role responding to climate change risks in different scales and levels. The strongest Brazilian policies with both mitigation and adaptation actions counted on previous mobilization for the climate issue involving different stakeholders from several segments of the society. These governments have also participated in transnational cooperation networks related to climate change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0224.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Climate change; contract farming; coping; adaptation strategies; Zimbabwe
Online: 15 September 2022 (08:27:58 CEST)
The literature on contract farming and climate change in Zimbabwe has blind spots in relation to the study of contract farming as a climate change response. While the literature on contract farming and climate change abounds, such literature is lacking when it comes to the exploration of how contract farming can facilitate climate change coping and adaptation strategies by smallholder farmers. This paper fills this gap. It draws on in-depth interviews with 10 contracted and 10 non-contract farmers who were engaged through face-to-face in-depth interviews in the Chipinge South Constituency. It found that contract farming does not only boost productivity, but it also enables farmers to positively respond to the ravages of climate change, and therefore, it should be supported and encouraged. Future research should explore more viable and sustainable way through which the state, instead of private sector actors, should be at the centre of contract farming.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0079.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: thermal neutral; acclimation; acclimatization; adaptation; health; indoor environments
Online: 4 March 2022 (11:23:44 CET)
The goal of this short communication is to analyze a published discussion that states that long-term residing at a thermoneutral indoor temperature condition hinders human thermal acclimation capacities. According to current research, human thermal acclimation and acclimatization capacities can be easily gained through repeated heat and cold exposures mixed with physical activity over a period of days (often 3–21 days). Furthermore, heat and cold adaptations are not permanent, and heat acclimation would progressively fade away if frequent heat exposures (associated with physical work/exercise) were discontinued. People who have been heat acclimatized for a long period and live in tropical places may progressively lose their physiological and perceptual benefits when they shift to temperate zones. On the other hand, the decay of cold acclimation and cold acclimatization has not been well examined, demanding future research on this area. To summarize, there is no evidence to support the claim that extended exposure to thermoneutral conditions impairs human acclimatization abilities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0705.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: elite athletes; olympic sailors; body temperature; heat adaptation
Online: 27 April 2021 (11:41:24 CEST)
Objective On the eve of the summer Olympic Games in Tokyo research focus has shifted on the core temperature responses of elite athletes competing in the heat. In the absence of the field data of core temperature during Olympic sailing competition aim of the present study was to identify core temperature response during the Tokyo 2020 Olympic Test Event. Methods Four elite athletes from Olympic sailing (177.5±5.2 cm, 71.1±7.4 kg, body mass index 22.5±1.4 kg/m2, 24.8±3.7 yrs, VO2max 50.6±7.2 mL/min/kg)): 2 males and 2 females participated in the study. Core temperature was recorded using e-Celsius ingestible capsules, heart rate using a heart rate monitor. Ambient conditions in direct sunlight were measured using portable meteo station. Results Core temperature was recorded at water environment via an ingestible capsule in 4 sailors during the training (T), and competition (C), respectively. Ambient conditions in direct sunlight were hot and humid: during training temperature were 30.9°C±1.7°C and relative humidity 81.4%±2.8%, corresponding to a wet-bulb globe temperature of 41°C±4°C and during competition temperature was 31.2°C±2.3°C and relative humidity 87.2%±4.4%, corresponding to a wet-bulb globe temperature of 45.2°C±8.9°C. Core temperature increased during training reaching higher peak values (38.6°C±0.4°C) and during competition (38.9°C±0.4°C). The highest temperature recorded was 39.4°C (C). Conclusion The current study provides unique information into the core temperature parameters under heat stress in elite Olympic sailors during training and race event.
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: wheat; reticulate evolution; introgression; speciation; hybridization; adaptation; breeding
Online: 21 April 2021 (08:55:42 CEST)
Reticulate evolution through the interchanging of genetic components across organisms can impact significantly on the fitness and adaptation of species. Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum subsp. aestivum) is one of the most important crops in the world. Allopolyploid speciation, frequent hybridization, extensive introgression, and occasional horizontal gene transfer (HGT) have been shaping a typical paradigm of reticulate evolution in bread wheat and its wild relatives, which is likely to have a substantial influence on phenotypic traits and environmental adaptability of bread wheat. In this review, we outlined the evolutionary history of bread wheat and its wild relatives with a highlight on the interspecific hybridization events, demonstrating the reticulate relationship between species/subspecies in the genera Triticum and Aegilops. Furthermore, we discussed the genetic mechanisms and evolutionary significance underlying the introgression of bread wheat and its wild relatives. An in-depth understanding of the evolutionary process of Triticum species should be beneficial to future genetic study and breeding of bread wheat.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0104.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: children; leukaemia; in treatment; parenting; adaptation; moderation effect
Online: 5 April 2021 (11:55:13 CEST)
Parents’ attitudes and practices may support the children’s reactions to treatments for leukemia and their general adjustment. This study has two aims: to explore parenting depending on child's age and to develop and test a model on how family processes influence the psycho-social development of children with leukemia. Patients were 118 leukemic children and their parents recruited at the Haematology-Oncologic Clinic of the Department of Pediatrics, University of Padua. All parents were Caucasian with a mean age of 37.39 years (SD = 6.03). Children’s mean age was 5.89 years (SD = 4.21). After the signature of the informed consent, the parents were interviewed using the EFI-C from which we derived Parenting dimension and 3 parental perceptions on child’s factors. One year later, the clinical psychologist interviewed again parents using the VABS scales. The analyses revealed the presence of a significant difference in parenting by child’s age: Infants required a higher and more intensive parenting. Child’s coping to medical procedures at the second week after the diagnosis, controlled for parenting effect, impacted upon child’s adaptation one-year post diagnosis. Specific intervention programmes are proposed in order to help children more at risk just after the diagnosis for developmental delays.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0479.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: climate change; adaptation options; raking system; applicability level
Online: 23 October 2020 (10:26:10 CEST)
Failure to adapt to climate change is currently considered one of the major threats affecting humanity. Hence, much effort is being put into discussing adaptation approaches. While many adaptation options have been identified, the academic literature does not present a simple process that local councils and community members can use to rank adaptation options. In this context, community members participating on planning processes are presented with many adaptation options, but with no objective approach for selection, which adds challenge to the planning process. With the objective of addressing this issue, this work proposes a simple equation that allows calculating the applicability level of adaptation options. Results can then be plotted into graphs that allow correlating adaptation options and applicability level, which can be easily understood by community members. To develop such equation, this work built on existing sophisticated models from where the indicators used on the equation were identified, as well as the relationship between them. A scale was proposed to help on identifying adaptation options that should be implemented on the short, medium and long term, and options that should only be implemented if the circumstance change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0049.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Econometrics & Statistics Keywords: Adaptation; Indigenous knowledge; CD production; paddy; hilly Nepal
Online: 4 October 2019 (11:44:11 CEST)
Climate change is a buzzword in the world. Scientist has approved it as global warming with its projection of undesired and unpredicted frequent extreme events and their vulnerabilities not only at present but also at future. There is an assumption of occurrence of adaptive capacity and behavior of farmers in agriculture production activity at some extent to neutralize climate change vulnerabilities of flood and landslides on paddy production. This paper empirically examines the effects of climate change in paddy production and farmer’s adaptive behaviors to neutralize such climatic shocks and events in paddy production by employing CD production function based econometric model. The study employed primary data collected through 642 household surveys. The study finds that climatic shocks and events have huge loss (60%) in paddy production and revenue income in such plot where farmers have not indigenous knowledge and practices. But both small and larger farmers who have adaptive capacity and behavior with their indigenous knowledge have less loss in paddy production and revenue income, although they have heterogeneity in their socio economic characteristics (income, asset holding, literacy, experience, land holding and age). The farmers who have used adaptive behavior have indigenous knowledge and experiences including bamboo wall construction to control flood and landslides and seed change to resist climatic shocks and events. In hilly region, the farmers have not sufficient alternative measures, except both adaptive measures because of their poverty, illiteracy and remote locations. The study finds their higher effective level to minimize vulnerabilities to paddy production and revenue per farm plot, although these adaptive behaviors are cost effective and local entity. Comparatively, bamboo wall construction is more effective measure in the paddy production than others are (seed switch) to minimize the flooding materials from the flood and the landslides. Thus, low cost indigenous adaption behavior of farmers is effective measure to climate change and climate change induced disasters and events vulnerability in paddy production.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0257.v1
Online: 22 September 2019 (17:10:00 CEST)
Climate-smart agriculture (CSA) is a new and emerging concept in climate discourse to address the issues of climate change impacts in agriculture. Few researchers and organizations have concentrated on CSA policies and practices in Nepal. This study aims to review and analyze the policies and practices in relation to CSA and define local level CSA indicators in the Central and Western Nepal. This study adopted the scoping review of climate policies and practices in Nepal and also utilized the household survey information particularly focusing on climate adaptation relating to agriculture. Through the scoping review, it is recognized that the number of climate policies in Nepal has specifically prioritized agriculture and food security as an important thematic area. Among those policies, National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA), National Framework for Local Adaptation Plan of Action (LAPA) and National Adaptation Plan (NAP) have specific sections on CSA practices, however, these policies/plans lack specific indicators. Different categories of CSA practices are common in Nepal, but many of these practices are popular as agricultural and environmental practices prior to the CSA concept and approach. The output indicators specific to CSA practices help the communities and policymakers to measure and monitor the progress of its implementation. Additional researches are required in this field to better understand the CSA concept, approaches, and mechanisms in the Nepalese context.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0309.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: UDP-glucuronosyltransferase; host adaptation; Myzus persicae; nicotine tolerance
Online: 30 June 2019 (09:31:43 CEST)
Uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) are major phase II detoxification enzymes involved in glycosylation of lipophilic endobiotics and xenobiotics, including phytoalexins. Nicotine, one of the most abundant secondary plant metabolites, is highly toxic to herbivorous insects. Plant-herbivore competition has been the major impetus for evolution of large superfamilies of UGTs and other detoxification enzymes. However, UGT functions in Myzus persicae adaptation have remained unknown. In this study, UGT inhibitors (sulfinpyrazone and 5-nitrouracil) significantly increased nicotine toxicity in M. persicae nicotianae, suggesting UGTs may be involved in nicotine tolerance. One hundred one UGT transcripts identified from the M. persicae genome/transcriptome were renamed according to UGT Nomenclature Committee guidelines and clustered into 11 families: UGT329, UGT330, UGT339, UGT341-UGT345, and UGT348-UGT350. UGT344 contained the most UGTs (fifty-seven). Ten UGTs (UGT330A3, UGT339A2, UGT341A6, UGT342B3, UGT343C3, UGT344D5, UGT344D8, UGT348A3, UGT349A3 and UGT350A3) were overexpressed in M. persicae nicotianae compared with M. persicae sensu stricto. UGT330A3/UGT344D5/UGT348A3/UGT349A3 knockdown significantly increased M. persicae nicotianae nicotine sensitivity, suggesting UGT upregulation in this subspecies may be associated with nicotine tolerance and thus host adaptation. This study reveals possible UGTs relevant to nicotine adaptation in tobacco-consuming M. persicae nicotianae and might facilitate further validation of the roles of these UGTs in nicotine tolerance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0001.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: chronic heat stress; dairy buffaloes; proteomics; adaptation mechanisms
Online: 3 January 2019 (08:32:13 CET)
Chronic heat stress (HS), aggravated by global warming, reduces the production efficiency of the buffalo dairy industry. Here, we conducted a proteomic analysis to investigate the adaptation strategies used by buffalo in response to heat stress. Seventeen differentially abundant proteins with known functions were detected using label-free quantification (LFQ), and five of these differentially expressed proteins were validated with parallel reaction monitoring (PRM). These five proteins were associated with various aspects of heat stress, including decreased heat production, increased blood oxygen delivery, and enhanced natural disease resistance. Lipase (LPL), glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPX3), cathelicidin-2 (CATHL2, LL-37), ceruloplasmin (CP), and hemoglobin subunit alpha 1 (HBA1) were shown to play cooperative roles in the tolerance of chronic HS in dairy buffalo. We found that high levels of HBA1 increased blood oxygen transport capacity. Our results increase our understanding of the adaptation of dairy buffalo to chronic heat stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0337.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: drought; coffee farmers; adaptation; coping strategies; central highlands
Online: 28 December 2018 (07:00:52 CET)
Vietnam is the second largest coffee producer in the world, mostly from the Central Highlands region where water has been becoming a scarce resource. Since 2014, drought has been strongly affecting Central Highlands’ agriculture, particularly coffee production. The drought leads to changes in flowering, ripening and thus harvesting times of coffee. Coffee productivity has reduced about 50 percent. Ultimately, coffee quantity and quality is jeopardized which endangers coffee farmers who occupy 90 per cent of population and their livelihoods mainly rely on coffee. Most of coffee farmers have had to develop alternative strategies to respond to the drought. Based on quantitative and qualitative data collected from 50 coffee households in a community in the Central Highlands, this research has indicated that farmers had to find the ways to adapt as well as to cope with drought. The ways of adaptation and coping were diverse, including short, medium and long-term plans. To strengthen the adaptation and coping strategies of farmers with drought in the short term, it is recommended that authorities provide more technical and financial support to farmers. Furthermore, longer term strategies need to focus on land use planning, investment in irrigation schemes, and consolidated afforestation schemes in appropriate areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0203.v2
Subject: Keywords: biodiversity; climate change adaptation; ecosystems; Paris agreement; policy; nature-based solutions
Online: 14 September 2019 (12:07:15 CEST)
Ecosystems are not merely vulnerable to climate change but, if sustainably restored and protected, are a major source of human resilience. Not only is the evidence-base for the importance of these “Nature-based Solutions” (NbS) growing rapidly, but NbS are featuring with increasing prominence in global climate change policy. Here we report on the prominence of NbS in the 141 adaptation components of the 167 Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) that were submitted to UNFCCC by all signatories of the Paris Agreement. In total, 103 nations include NbS in the adaptation component of their NDC, 76 nations include them in both their adaptation and mitigation component, and an additional 27 include them as part of their mitigation plans only. In other words, 130 nations—or 66% of all signatories to the Paris Agreement—have articulated intentions of working with ecosystems, in one form or another, to address the causes and consequences of climate change. However, commitments rarely translate into robust science-based targets. As climate pledges are revised in 2020, we urge the ecosystem science community to work closely with policymakers to identify meaningful adaptation targets that benefit both people and the ecosystems on which they depend.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0486.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: sepsis; dysregulation; adaptation; evolution; natural selection; medical reversal
Online: 25 July 2018 (13:19:58 CEST)
For decades, sepsis research has been motivated by the idea of a dangerous overreaction of the immune system in sepsis. But is it true that the response to sepsis is dysregulated? This review surveys the history of sepsis trials and found that evidence for dysregulation does not exist in many of the physiologic mechanisms of sepsis. It is time to consider the alternative hypothesis, that sepsis traits are often functional, and do more harm than good. This review discusses the implications of this perspective for the future of sepsis research
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0072.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Climate Variability; Food Security; Climate Change Adaptation; Malnutrition
Online: 8 February 2018 (15:59:16 CET)
Climate variability and change has been found to be one of the factors that affect economies leading to food insecurity in various parts of the world. Kenya is no exception. This study looks at how climate variability has contributed to food insecurity in Kisii County, Kenya. The objectives of this study is therefore to, (i) to examine the rainfall and temperature trends in Kisii County for a period of approximately 30 years, (ii) to examine the effect of climate variability on food production and (iii) to assess the perception of local farmers on weather and climate information, (iv) to evaluate the coping strategies adopted at to bridge the gap on food deficit at different household level and (v) to assess the nutritional status of children and the elderly. The study was conducted in two sub-counties of Kisii County; Marani and Bomachoge Chache. The data used was mainly rainfall and temperature data from meteorological stations and sample data gathered from selected groups. The study population comprised of children between 6 months and 59 months, household heads, elderly people and agricultural officers. Purposive sampling was used to select agricultural officers while multistage sampling was used to select respondents at household level. Data was collected by use of a pre-tested questionnaire. The MUAC tape was used to collect nutritional status of children while BMI data was obtained from elderly people. Mann Kendall statistic was used to determine whether the trend of rainfall and temperature observed is significant while Chi-square test was used to determine whether the coping strategies observed varied significantly at household level. From the analysis, rainfall has not shown any significant change in Kisii County while temperature trend has been significantly increasing over the years at 95% confidence level. This could explain the observed reduction in river levels. Analysis of crop production and price trends of major food crops in Kisii County showed a decreasing trend of food production leading to increase in price over the years. This meant that farmers could not produce enough to take them to the next harvesting season making farmers to adopt different coping strategies at household level which differed significantly according to Chi-Square test. Malnutrition status of both elderly people above 59 years and children between 6-59 months were similar with 23% of both children/elderly being severely malnourished/malnourished. This study has only looked at climatic factors such as rainfall and temperature. Other aspects such as depth of underground water, ph level of soil and the effects of land fragmentation also need to be looked at. This study is important to both farmers in choosing the right crop to plant, and policy makers and planners in formulating the best mitigation and intervention strategies for Kisii County food insecurity problem. This will further contribute to national efforts towards achievement of vision 2030.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0150.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: medical fear; children; psychometric properties; cross-cultural adaptation; Spanish
Online: 8 November 2021 (14:33:48 CET)
Having valid and reliable tools that help health professionals to assess fear in children undergoing medical procedures is essential to offer humanized and quality of care in the paediatric population. The aim of this study was to develop the cross-cultural adaptation and the evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the “Child Medical Fear Scale” in its shortened version (CMFS-R). The design consisted of two phases, first of cross-cultural adaptation and second of the psychometric validation of the CMFS-R with a sample of 262 children from Spain. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to assess construct validity and the Cronbach alpha and the adjusted item-total score correlation coefficients were performed to study reliability. The results confirmed internal consistency and construct validity of the Spanish version of the CMFS-R, indicating that the scale has an acceptable level of validity and reliability. Therefore, this study brings a new version of the scale to assess fear related to medical procedures for use in the Spanish paediatric population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0208.v1
Subject: Keywords: Adaptation; Failure; Feedback; Innovation; Learning; Sanitation; Scale-up; Success
Online: 14 October 2021 (08:21:38 CEST)
Background This paper draws learnings and successes based on field implementation experience spanning four years (2016–2019) of implementing CLTS by Prince of Peace Orphans and Widows Vision, a community-based organization located in Kaberamaido district in eastern Uganda. Methods The study aimed to document, disseminate and inform from an evidence-based point of view how adaptation and collaborative engagements triggers learning from mistakes to inform iterative changes from improvements and success.This is a descriptive paper that used project documents review based on field implementation experience. Existing project reports were synthesised, collated and curated for evidence. Data were drawn from project reports and records to inform narratives in writing. Implementation of the project was executed in homogenous rural communities occupied by people of the same dialect, cultural and social settings. Results We note that success in CLTS implementation can hardly be achieved by merely following prescriptions in handbooks and guidelines but rather by devising innovative community engagement and other participatory and community-driven techniques that foster adaptive management, promote ownership, and buy-in.Having learned from our failures, we used data to inform decisions and transformatively deviated from traditional CLTS implementation and introduced high impact and innovative approaches such as the use of CLTS helpdesks and Situation room, the Pamoja approach, learning labs and iterative feedback loops, innovatively tackling slippage and carefully introducing the follow-up mandona approach. These enhanced experiential learning and ultimately resulted in sustained sanitation behaviour. Conclusions The CLTS approach as outlined in the handbook needs to be flexibly adapted to address contextual needs. Reflective and learning sessions reinforced with routine feedback loops from implementers and beneficiaries yields tremendous results, propagates experiential learning, and ultimately results in a transformative deviation from undesirable to desired sanitation behaviours. These innovative approaches once carefully blended have proved to be sustainable, are adaptable and can work in an even larger scale and in a variety of contexts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0475.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Climate change, vulnerable women, perception, adaptation, Bangladesh, high flood
Online: 20 May 2021 (10:23:39 CEST)
The contextual and risk perception of climate change plays a critical role in an individual’s decision-making process. It could also help people to respond appropriately to the consequences of global climate change and eventually take necessary adaptation actions. However, the perceptions of climate change are often gendered and vary among men and women. Therefore, this study explores different perceptions of climate change and its local adaptation options among ultra-poor vulnerable women, particularly in highly vulnerable flood-prone regions of Bangladesh. The research followed an empirical research methodology to collect primary and secondary information using qualitative and quantitative research tools. The study findings reveal that climate change perceptions at the individual level are relatively low (63%). Still, they have been observing significant changes in various climatic variables over the past 30 years. Moreover, this study identified some major adaptation options such as plinth raising (100%), livestock rearing (100%), homestead gardening (82%), seasonal migration (82%), and using indigenous knowledge (69%), and so on to tackle the adverse impacts of climate change-induced extreme events including flooding at the local level. For implementing these adaptation measures, the respondents spent a significant amount of financial resources from individual sources in the study area. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) is used in addition to the statistical analyses to understand any connections between the climate change perceptions and other variables associated with the community under study. The SEM result shows that climate change will be a long–term problem, which offers a strong predictor in this model, considering standardized regression weight β= 0.56. It means, despite inadequate knowledge on climate change of the respondent’s, climate change is occurring and becoming the worst factor limiting cultural, economic, and environmental development in the study area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0668.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Keywords: Fractal Search; Fuzzy Logic; Parameter Adaptation; CEC´2017.
Online: 26 March 2021 (14:17:13 CET)
Metaheuristic algorithms are widely used as optimization methods, due to their global exploration and exploitation characteristics, which obtain better results than a simple heuristic. The Stochastic Fractal Search (SFS) is a novel method inspired by the process of stochastic growth in nature and the use of the fractal mathematical concept. Considering the chaotic-stochastic diffusion property, an improved Dynamic Stochastic Fractal Search (DSFS) optimization algorithm is presented. The DSFS algorithm was tested with benchmark functions, such as the multimodal, hybrid and composite functions, to evaluate the performance of the algorithm with dynamic parameter adaptation with type-1 and type-2 fuzzy inference models. The main contribution of the article is the utilization of fuzzy logic in the adaptation of the diffusion parameter in a dynamic fashion. This parameter is in charge of creating new fractal particles, and the diversity and iteration are the input information used in the fuzzy system to control the values of diffusion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0353.v1
Online: 12 March 2021 (20:27:55 CET)
This study aims to determine the impact of climate change on market garden production in the extreme south of Mali through the perception and adaptation of market gardeners to climatic phenomena. The study used two models, namely the probit selection and Heckman results models and multinomial logistic regression, based on data collected from producers. A total of 194 producers were surveyed. The results of Heckman's probit model indicate that experience in agriculture and the educational level of the producers are the two main determinants of producers' perception and simultaneous adaptation to climate change. Among these variables agricultural experience is both positively and negatively correlated with perception.
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Non-genetic change; translation errors; phenotypic variability; adaptation; evolution
Online: 6 October 2020 (15:16:03 CEST)
The notion that there is a one to one mapping from genotype to phenotype was overturned a long time ago. Along with genotype and environment, ‘non-genetic changes’ orchestrated by altered RNA and protein molecules also guide the development of phenotype. The idea that there is a route through which changes in phenotype can lead to changes in genotype impinges on several phenomena of molecular, developmental, evolutionary and applied interest. Phenotypic changes that do not alter the underlying DNA sequence have been studied across model systems (eg: DNA and histone modifications, RNA editing, prion formation) and are known to play an important role in short term adaptation. However, because of their transient nature and unstable inheritance, the role of such changes in long term evolution has remained controversial. I classify and review three ways in which non-genetic changes can influence genotype and impact cellular fitness across generations, with an emphasis on the enticing idea that they may act as stepping stones for genetic adaptation. I focus on work from microbial systems and attempt to highlight recent experiments and models that bear on this idea. Overall, I review evidence which suggests that non-genetic changes can impact phenotype via their influence on the genotype, and thus play a role in evolutionary change.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0279.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: selection; mutation; genetic drift; adaptation; ploidy drive; genome instability
Online: 13 September 2020 (11:48:30 CEST)
Ploidy is a significant type of genetic variation, describing the number of chromosome sets per cell. Ploidy evolves in natural populations, clinical populations, and lab experiments, particularly in fungi. Despite a long history of theoretical work on this topic, predicting how ploidy will evolve has proven difficult, as it is often unclear why one ploidy state outperforms another. Here, we review what is known about contemporary ploidy evolution in diverse fungal species through the lens of population genetics. As with typical genetic variants, ploidy evolution depends on the rate that new ploidy states arise by mutation, natural selection on alternative ploidy states, and random genetic drift. However, ploidy variation also has unique impacts on evolution, with the potential to alter chromosomal stability, the rate and patterns of point mutation, and the nature of selection on all loci in the genome. We discuss how ploidy evolution depends on these general and unique factors and highlight areas where additional experimental evidence is required to comprehensively explain the ploidy transitions observed in the field and the lab.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0417.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: adaptation physiology; sensors; precision livestock farming; wearable animal sensors
Online: 19 July 2020 (18:27:52 CEST)
Despite recent scientific advancements, there is a gap in the use of technology to measure signals, behaviors, and processes of adaptation physiology of farm animals. Sensors present exciting opportunities for sustained, real-time, non-intrusive measurement of farm animal behavioral, mental, and physiological parameters with the integration of nanotechnology and instrumentation. This paper critically reviews the sensing technology and sensor data-based models used to explore biological systems such as animal behavior, energy metabolism, epidemiology, immunity, health, and animal reproduction. The use of sensor technology to assess physiological parameters can provide tremendous benefits and tools to overcome and minimize production losses while making positive contributions to animal welfare. Of course, sensor technology is not free from challenges; these devices are at times highly sensitive and prone to damage from dirt, dust, sunlight, colour, fur, feathers, and environmental forces. Rural farmers unfamiliar with the technologies must be convinced and taught to use sensor-based technologies in farming and livestock management. While there is no doubt that demand will grow for non-invasive sensor-based technologies that require minimum contact with animals and can provide remote access to data, their true success lies in the acceptance of these technologies by the livestock industry.
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: beauty; life; scaling law; adaptation; differentiation; organic world view
Online: 19 September 2019 (04:12:01 CEST)
As Christopher Alexander conceived and defined through his life’s work – The Nature of Order – wholeness is a recursive structure that recurs in space and matter and is reflected in human minds and cognition. Based on the definition of wholeness, a mathematical model of wholeness, together with its topological representation, has been developed, and it is able to address not only why a structure is beautiful, but also how much beauty the structure has. Given the circumstance, this paper is attempted to argue for the wholeness as the scientific foundation of sustainable urban design and planning, with the help of the mathematical model and topological representation. We start by introducing the wholeness as a mathematical structure of physical space that pervasively exists in our surroundings, along with two fundamental laws – scaling law and Tobler’s law – that underlie the 15 properties for characterizing and making living structures. We argue that urban design and planning can be considered to be wholeness-extending processes, guided by two design principles of differentiation and adaptation, to transform a space – in a piecemeal fashion – into a living or more living structure. We further discuss several other urban design theories and how they can be justified by and placed within the theory of wholeness. With the wholeness as the scientific foundation, urban design can turn into a rigorous science with creation of living structures as the primary aim.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0041.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: biomechanics, finite element modelling, pelvis, bone adaptation, musculoskeletal modelling
Online: 2 July 2019 (11:34:08 CEST)
This study presents the development of a number of finite element (FE) models of the pelvis using different continuum and structural modelling approaches. Four FE models were developed using different modelling approaches: continuum isotropic, continuum orthotropic, hybrid isotropic and hybrid orthotropic. The models were subjected to an iterative adaptation process based on the Mechanostat principle. Each model was adapted to a number of common daily living activities (walking, stair ascent, stair descent, sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit) by applying onto it joint and muscle loads derived using a musculoskeletal modelling framework. The resulting models, along with a structural model previously developed by the authors, were compared visually in terms of bone architecture, and their response to a single load case was compared to a continuum FE model derived from CT imaging data. The main findings of this study were that the continuum orthotropic model was the closest to the CT derived model in terms of load response albeit having less total bone volume, suggesting that the role of material directionality in influencing the maximum orthotropic Young's modulus should be included in continuum bone adaptation models. In addition, the hybrid models, where trabecular and cortical bone were distinguished, had similar outcomes, suggesting that the approach to modelling trabecular bone is less influential when the cortex is modelled separately.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: citizen engagement; flood risk governance; governance capacity; climate adaptation
Online: 28 May 2019 (12:27:39 CEST)
Downpours are increasing in frequency and severity due to climate change. Cities are particularly susceptible to downpours because of their large share of impervious surfaces. Minimising pluvial flood risk requires all involved stakeholders to collaborate and overcome probable barriers. Simultaneously, an increase in citizen engagement in climate adaptation is preferred, whereas experiences with inclusive decision-making are still limited. The aim of this paper is to obtain a deeper understanding of how the capacity to govern pluvial flood risk can be developed through citizen engagement. We scrutinised the capacity of local actors to govern pluvial flood risk in the city of Utrecht, the Netherlands. For the analysis of Utrecht’s problem-solving capacity, the Governance Capacity Framework provided a consistent assessment of governance components. The results indicate that Utrecht’s capacity to govern pluvial flooding is relatively well-developed. Collaboration between public authorities is advanced, sufficient financial resources are available and smart monitoring enables high levels of evaluation and learning. However, citizen awareness and engagement in policy making is rather low. Accordingly, citizens’ willingness to pay for flood adaptation is limited. Stimulating flood risk awareness by combining financial incentives with more advanced arrangements for active citizen engagement is key for Utrecht and other cities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0334.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: Adhesive, Dentin, Composite, Adaptation, Tooth, Optical coherence tomography, Gap
Online: 18 September 2018 (08:52:54 CEST)
Objectives: The current study aimed to compare the adaptation of the restored class-I cavities with two self-etch adhesives bonded to two resin composite using cross-polarization optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT). Materials and Methods: Cylindrical class-I cavities were prepared on twenty, extracted human premolars. Two self-etch adhesives; Clearfil SE bond 2 (SE; Kuraray Noritake Dental, Japan) and Bond Force (Palfique Bond) adhesive (PL; Tokuyama Dental, Japan) were used in this study that were bonded to either resin composites materials; Herculite XRV microhybrid dental composite (HRV; Kerr, Italy) or Estelite Alpha composite (ESA; Tokuyama Dental, Japan). The specimens were divided into four groups (n=5); SE-HRV, SE-ESA, PL-HRV and PL-ESA. All specimens were varnished and stored in distilled water for 24h. Then, they were submerged in a contrasting medium. After that, all groups were optically imaged under CP-OCT at every 250 µm interval distance. Later, image binarization and gap quantification were carried out using Image analysis software. Result: There was a significant difference between all the groups except between SE-ESA and PL-ESA (p = 0.51). The highest median gap % was seen in PL-HRV group followed by SE-ESA, PL-ESA and SE-HRV. Conclusion: Other than composite filler loading and adhesive formula, the interactions of the adhesive and composite copolymers have great influence on composite adaptation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0367.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: vulnerability; culture; religion; agency; adaptation; perceptions; climate change; dependency
Online: 25 May 2018 (12:06:03 CEST)
Semi-arid Namibia is marginal for agricultural production. Low soil fertility combined with low and variable rainfall restrict the livelihoods of smallholder farmers who often struggle to produce enough food. Although historically communities have adopted a number of coping mechanisms, climate change threatens to further reduce agricultural production. There are many additional options available to smallholder farmers to adapt to climate change, but they are not necessarily adopting these measures despite having noticed increasing temperatures and declining rainfall. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in three villages in Onesi constituency to examine what agricultural practices smallholder crop farmers use, perception of changes in their yields, their perspective on future yields and whether they are planning on changing their agricultural practices. The results suggest that to sustain the livelihoods of rural communities in north-central Namibia support is needed from local and regional authorities, as well as traditional and religious leaders to assist with enhancing access to information, enabling information sharing on adaptation options, and increasing awareness on climate change, it’s impacts and what can be done about it. In addition to this the implementation of adaptation action also requires demonstration sites and building capacity to enable the development of self-help groups.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0306.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Microeconomics And Decision Sciences Keywords: income distribution; cost distribution; vulnerable region; adaptation measures; Bangladesh
Online: 22 May 2018 (12:54:33 CEST)
Widespread poverty is the most serious threat and social problem that Bangladesh faces. Regional vulnerability to climate change threatens to escalate the magnitude of this poverty. It is essential that projections of poverty be made while bearing in mind the effects of climate change. The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the agrarian sub-national regional analysis of climate change vulnerability in Bangladesh under various climate change scenarios and its potential impact on poverty. This study is relevant to socio-economic research on climate change vulnerability and agriculture risk management and has the potential to contribute new insights to the complex interactions in household income and climate change risks to agricultural communities in Bangladesh and South Asia. The current study uses analysis of variance, cluster analysis, decomposition of variance and log-normal distribution to estimate the parameters of income variability that ascertain vulnerability levels and help us to understand the poverty levels that climate change could potentially incur. It is found that the income share in income sources revealed that income category shares across the various regions of Bangladesh are far from uniform. The variance decomposition of income showed that agricultural income in Mymensingh and Rangpur is the main cause of income difference. Moreover, large variance of agricultural income in the regions is induced by gross income from rice production. Additionally, constant reduction of rice yield due to climate change in Bangladesh is not such a severe problem for farmers, however, the extreme events like flood, flash flood, drought, sea level rise, and greenhouse gas emission based on RCPs could increase the poverty rates in Mymensingh, Rajshahi, Barisal, and Khulna regions that would be highly affected by unexpected yield loss due to extreme climatic events. Therefore, research and development of adaptation measures to climate change for regions where farmers are largely dependent on agricultural income is important.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0046.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: women’s empowerment; climate change adaptation; India; transnational advocacy networks
Online: 2 May 2018 (13:27:14 CEST)
1). As on-the-ground projects come into existence and continue to expand to adapt to climate change and empower women, it is important to understand their location within TANs. Using the Bhungroo technology as a case study, we aim to assess the potential of TANs to increase the scope and scale of local projects as well as the ability of similar and emerging projects to create social change at local levels. 2). We do so by analyzing interview and earned media hits data from the UNFCCC Momentum for Change. 3). We find that while TANs may help increase the scale and scope of projects, increasing their ability to effectively reach more people and areas is still up for debate 4). We conclude by considering how women’s political participation may be enhanced by similar projects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0104.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: sea-level rise; coastal hazard assessment; uncertainty; coastal adaptation
Online: 22 June 2017 (11:41:46 CEST)
Coastal inundation is an increasing problem. Sea-level rise will greatly increase the frequency and depth of inundation, forcing vulnerable communities to adapt. Communities will need to decide when and how to adapt. The process of decision-making along adaptive pathways is now being used internationally to plan for adaptation over time by anticipating decision points in the future however it unfolds. This process requires risk and uncertainty considerations to be transparent in the scenarios used in such planning. We outline a framework for uncertainty identification and management within coastal hazard assessments which recognizes different types of decision and identifies the types of uncertainty that must be accounted for, such as statistical, scenario and deep uncertainty types. We show how coastal-inundation hazard can be mapped and presented in a way that clearly separates sources of uncertainty, so that they are transparent within a dynamic adaptive pathways planning process. Traditional coastal inundation maps show inundated area only. We present maps of inundation depth and frequency which clearly show the degree of exposure, where that exposure occurs, and how much sea-level rise can be tolerated. The new uncertainty framework and mapping techniques can better identify decision points and their expected time range, which provides more useful input to the adaptation process than traditional coastal inundation assessments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0039.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA ST239, osteomyelitis, genome features, adaptation; chronic infection
Online: 2 November 2022 (03:34:29 CET)
Abstract. The increasing frequency of isolation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) limits the chances of effective antibacterial therapy of staphylococcal diseases and results in development of persistent infection such as bacteremia and osteomyelitis. The aim of this study was to identify features of the MRSAST239 0943-1505-2016 (SA943) genome, that contribute to the formation of both acute and chronic musculoskeletal infections. The analysis was performed using comparative genomics data of the dominant epidemic S. aureus lineages namely ST1, ST8, ST30, ST36, ST239. SA943 genome encodes proteins that provide resistance to the host immune system, suppress immunological memory and form biofilms. The molecular mechanisms of adaptation responsible for development of persistent infection were as follows: amino acid substitution in PBP2 and PBP2a, providing resistance to ceftaroline; loss of a large part of prophage DNA and restoration of nucleotide sequence of beta-hemolysin, that greatly facilitates escape of phagocytosed bacteria from phagosome and formation of biofilms; dysfunction of the AgrA system due to the presence of psm-mec and several amino acid substitutions in the AgrC; partial deletion of nucleotide sequence in genomic island vSAβ resulting in the loss of two proteases of Spl - operon; deletion of SD repeats in SdrE amino acid sequence.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0276.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: Roy's Adaptation Model; Nursing Research; Nursing Clinical Practice; Nursing Theory
Online: 20 May 2022 (09:44:47 CEST)
Background: One way to demonstrate the existence of nursing is to develop a nursing theory model through nursing research which can ultimately be implemented in nursing practice. RAM is one of the most frequently used models in guiding nursing research. Roy's Adaptation Model (RAM) is one of the most useful conceptual frameworks that guide nursing practice, direct research, and influence education. Theory-guided nursing practice is fundamental in providing the framework for developing superior and quality nursing care.Objectives: This systematic review aims to critically analyze recent studies using RAM as a conceptual framework to identify the effectiveness of this model in guiding nursing research.Methods: A literature search was conducted on five databases, namely SCOPUS, PubMed, ProQuest, ScienceDirect, and SAGEPub. There were no population boundaries and diagnoses involved in the study. The study is a quantitative design focused on publication between 2015-2021. The methodological quality of applying the Cochrane and JBI bias tools. The analysis uses narrative synthesis.Results: 20 studies were found out of 1,315 studies. The research population found is very diverse. The given intervention follows the conceptual framework of RAM. RAM-based interventions effectively overcome the problems experienced by patients and reduce the perceived symptoms and improve the patient's quality of life.Conclusion: The conceptual use of RAM theory in nursing research has been widely reported. RAM-based interventions have a significant impact and have strong evidence-based practice in improving patient health status.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0124.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: primary health care; family health strategy; health personnel; adaptation; psychological
Online: 8 February 2022 (16:23:26 CET)
The aim was to analyze the coping strategies used by primary health care (PHC) professionals. A cross-sectional, descriptive-analytical study was conducted with professionals working in primary health care units in São José do Rio Preto, a large city in the interior of São Paulo, Brazil. For data collection we used an instrument developed by the researchers, containing sociodemographic and professional variables, as well as the Problem Coping Modes Scale (EMEP). We evaluated 333 PHC professionals. A difference was observed between the scores of the four coping strategies (p<0.001), with the highest score for the problem-focused strategy (3.8) and the lowest score for the emotion-focused strategy (2.4). Physicians had the lowest scores in coping strategies focused on religious practices/fantastical thinking (p<0.001) and pursuit of social support (p=0.045), while community health agents had the highest scores in these coping strategies). Professionals working in PHC have different coping strategies for the problems and stressful situations experienced in the work environment. These strategies can involve more positive attitudes focused on confrontation and problem solving, to emotional responses that involve attitudes of avoidance and denial that involve attitudes of avoidance and denial of the problem.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0219.v3
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: Questionnaire; back health; assessment; cross-cultural adaptation; adolescents; secondary school
Online: 22 December 2020 (16:03:09 CET)
The prevalence of back pain (BP) among children and adolescents has increased over recent years. Some authors advocate promoting back-health education in the school setting. It is therefore important to adopt a uniform suite of assessment instruments to measure the various constructs. The present study aimed to perform a cultural adaptation of a validated measurement instrument (BackPEI), beginning with a translation and cultural adaptation phase, followed by a second phase to test reliability using a test-retest design. The translation and cross-cultural adaptation were performed based on the guidelines. Reliability was tested by applying the questionnaire to 224 secondary school students, at two different times with a 7-day interval between the tests. In general, the Spanish version presented adequate agreement for questions 1–20, with only question 9 achieving a low Kappa range of .312 [-.152- .189]. The question about pain intensity did not show differences between the averages for the test (4.72 ± 2.33) and re-test (4.58 ± 2.37) (p = .333), and the responses for these two tests were highly correlated (ICC= .951 [.928- .966]; p= .0001). Psychometric testing indicated that the Spanish version of the BackPEI is well-adapted and reliable, based on the test-retest design, providing similar results to the original Brazilian version.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0751.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: tunable; genetic part; control; adaptation; cybergenetics; synthetic biology; systems biology
Online: 6 October 2020 (13:32:00 CEST)
Biological systems often need to operate in complex environments where conditions can rapidly change. This is possible due to their inherent ability to sense changes and adapt their behavior in response. Here, we detail recent advances in the creation of synthetic genetic parts and circuits whose behaviors can be dynamically tuned through a variety of intra- and extra-cellular signals. We show how this capability lays the foundation for implementing control engineering schemes in living cells and allows for the creation of biological systems that are able to self-adapt, ensuring their functionality is maintained in the face of varying environmental and physiological conditions. We end by discussing some of the broader implications of this technology for the safe deployment of synthetic biology.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: El Niño; La Niña; statistical indices; climate change adaptation; Ethiopia
Online: 3 September 2020 (15:33:05 CEST)
El Niño is warming of the sea surface temperature of the Pacific Ocean. Extreme flooding, drought, lack of potable water for livestock and domestic use, food insecurity and market imbalance are associated with El Niño and La Niña in Ethiopia. Drought following El Niño caused 50 to 90% crop failure, in the eastern parts of Ethiopia. El Niño episodes are detected using different statistical indices such as Oceanic Nino Index (ONI), Agricultural Stress Index System (ASIS) and the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), with magnitude ranging from weak to strong. Identifying the El Niño and La Niña seasons it is very important to adopt suitable adaptation strategies, which can resolve and/or reduce the negative impacts. Early warning and immediate support to the impacted areas have been carried out to minimize risks from El Niño animal feed for livestock from other areas has been transported to the vulnerable areas. Planting early maturing and drought resistant crops, supplementary irrigation, early waning information on weather and climate have been exercised as climate change adaptation strategies, early warning mechanisms by the government of Ethiopia. El Niño and La Niña are natural phenomena; however, it is necessary to study the occurrence and distribution of El Niño and La Niña episodes to enable early warning and identify suitable adaptation strategies and policy implications in the country.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0315.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: awareness of sustainability; education; psychological adaptation; environmental attitudes; policy support
Online: 26 June 2020 (12:43:46 CEST)
Identifying the determinants of human behavior is useful to adjust interventions and lead the civil society towards a stronger commitment with climate change mitigation and adaptation objectives, achieving greater support for successfully implementing environmental policies. Existing research has largely focused on case studies of pro-environmental behaviors (PEBs) in developed economies but there is yet very little evidence for developing countries. This study provides estimations of the effect of internal factors, such as sociodemographic variables, and four psychological dimensions (climate change knowledge, environmental attitudes, self-efficacy, trust in sources of environmental information) on PEBs. Data was obtained through a survey applied with future decision makers - university students - from Colombia (n = 4769) and Nicaragua (n = 2354). Indices were generated for PEBs and the psychological dimensions using z-scores and Principal Component Analysis. Partial correlations were evaluated through the Ordinary Least Squares method. Our results suggest that, in order to reach the planned emission reduction targets, policy approaches should more strongly focus on educating and motivating citizens and prepare them for contributing to the environmental cause, as well as provide individual solutions to combat climate change, rather than providing only information on its causes and consequences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0212.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: prison; criminal law; mobility; mobilitarian ideal; activity; activation; participation; adaptation
Online: 12 March 2020 (13:20:52 CET)
In our paper, we develop the hypothesis of a general call for high mobility and discuss the consequences of it. First, we examine the contemporary social representations of mobility, looking for a definition of what is seen as being properly mobile. We will then show how intertwined social representations of space and time result in the prevalent vision of an inevitable and constant mobility. Next, we will thus discuss the importance of seeing mobility as much more than its material facet. Our third step will be to propose a formalisation of the contemporary requisite for mobility. Through four imperatives (activity, activation, participation, adaptation), the mobilitarian ideal requires each person and organisation to be constantly active, mobile, flexible, networking, etc. We argue that, today, we are all meant to be highly mobile. We will illustrate this point with the example of the parliamentary documents of the Belgian Prison Act (2005) in which prison is open and porous, good inmates are described as dynamic individuals on the move and the legitimate penitentiary system is a paradoxical mobilisation system. We will conclude by discussing the need to reshape our vision of the prison, considering its apparently paradoxical relation with mobility.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0433.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: microbiome; water stress; adaptation; function prediction; microbial network topology; extremophiles
Online: 28 February 2020 (12:34:35 CET)
Over the past 150 million years, the hyperarid core of the Atacama Desert has been transformed by geologic and atmospheric conditions into one of the most unique and inhospitable landscapes on the planet. This makes it an ideal Mars analog that has been explored for decades as preliminary studies on the space life discovery. However, two heavy rainfalls that occurred in the Atacama in 2015 and 2017 provide a unique opportunity to study the response of resident extremophiles to rapid environmental change associated with excessive water and salt shock. Here we combine geochemical analyses with molecular biology to study the variations in salts and microbial communities along an aridity gradient, and to examine the reshuffling of hyperarid microbiomes before and after the two rainfall events. Analysis of microbial community composition revealed that soils within the southern desert were consistently dominated by Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Planctomycetes, Chloroflexi, Bacteroidetes, Gemmatimonadetes, and Verrucomicrobia; soils within the hyperarid sites were dominated by Aquificae and Deinococcus-Thermus before heavy rainfalls, while these organisms almost totally diminished after rainfall, and the hyperarid microbial consortia and metabolisms transformed to a more southern desert pattern along with increased biodiversity. Salts at the shallow subsurface were dissolved and leached down to a deeper layer, both benefitting and challenging indigenous microorganisms with the excessive input of water and ions. Microbial viability was found to change with aridity and rainfall events but correlated with elevation, pH, conductivity, chloride, nitrate, sulfate, and soil organic matters (SOM). Metagenomic functional pathways related to stressor responses also increased in post-rainfall hyperarid soils. Our findings contribute to the primary goal of Atacama Mars analog research for understanding the microbial community structure and adaptations: this study sheds light on the structure of xerophilic, halophilic, and radioresistant microbiomes in hyperarid environments, and their response to changes in water availability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0427.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: Water recycle; upscaling; water governance; water availability; climate change adaptation
Online: 18 October 2018 (16:34:29 CEST)
Cleaning wastewater and using it again for secondary purposes is a measure to address water scarcity in urban areas. However, upscaling of recycled water schemes is challenging due to the possible emergence of various barriers. Based on a review of the governance literature we suggest that a set of five governance conditions is necessary for a successful upscaling of recycled water schemes; (1) policy leadership, (2) policy coordination, (3) availability of financial resources, (4) awareness of a problem, and (5) the presence of a public forum. In order to elaborate on the practical relevance of these conditions we studied a recycled water scheme currently being upscaled in Sabadell, Spain. We reviewed policy documents, conducted a set of 21 semi-structured interviews, and attended two policy meetings about the subject. Our results suggest that Sabadell meets the required conditions for upscaling reused water to a certain extent. However, the presence of a public forum is lacking. We discuss the implications of the absence of the venue and procedures for public participation in Sabadell and how it could be strengthened. Following this discussion, we conclude with some lessons for other cities that plan to upscale their recycled water schemes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0197.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: water-energy nexus; MENA region; climate change; mitigation/adaptation strategies
Online: 10 October 2018 (03:59:07 CEST)
The present paper aims to elucidate the impact of climate change on the availability and security of water and energy in the Middle East and North Africa Region (MENA Region). The region is particularly challenged by a number of factors including a large variability of bio-geographical characteristics, extreme population growth over the last few decades and substantial societal and economical transitions as well as armed conflicts in some of the countries of the region. Anticipated changes in climate conditions will exacerbate the challenges with regard to providing sufficient amounts of water and energy to the communities in the region. Impacts of climate change will materialize as an increasing number of heat waves, primarily in urban structures and the decline in water availability as a result of enhanced droughts and a growing numbers of dry spells. The interrelationships between energy and water and their mutual dependencies are addressed by the Water-Energy-Nexus concept. With regard to the challenges addressed here, Cyprus and the Eastern Mediterranean are a particular point in case. Mitigation and adaptation strategies include enhanced efficiency of energy and water use, integrated technology assessments regarding electricity generation and the production of potable water and electricity through concentrated solar power.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0301.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: adaptation; complex adaptative systems; ecosystem services; governance; resilience; sustainability; transdisciplinary
Online: 17 July 2018 (10:06:22 CEST)
In the last decade, probably in response to global changes and environmental crisis, the use of the term “social-ecological system” (SES) in the scientific literature has been growing. This is certainly a sign of the recognition of the need and importance of transdisciplinary research. Here, we explore whether the use of the term is a buzzword, or it actually represents a key concept toward the integration of social and ecological research. We compiled a data base of publications (N = 1289) that mentioned SES in title, keywords and abstract. Subsequently, we analyzed: authors affiliations, type of work (conceptual, empirical, review), study site, prevailing human use, temporal and spatial scales of analysis, kind of variables analyzed (socioeconomic, biophysical), and the method/s used to integrate them. We detected four time spans in the use of the term (1975–1997, 1998–2006, 2007–2012, 2013–2016). Our results suggest that SES is a widely invoked concept to study the interface between social and ecological systems. Most works show some common elements such as the analysis of resilience, ecosystem services, sustainability, governance and adaptive management. However, the majority of studies does not study SES as a whole, integrating both social and ecological variables and their feedback loops. We consider that SES is still a concept in construction in order to build a necessary framework to integrate social and ecological sciences. For a robust evolution we recommend to focus on 1. a conscious, discussed and agreed effort of scientists to conduct transdisciplinary research needed to study SES; 2. developing methodological tools for the true integration of social and ecological data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0068.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: cultural heritage; preventative conservation; climate change; mitigation; adaptation; climate modelling
Online: 4 July 2018 (10:36:51 CEST)
There is a range of local weather and climate-related factors that contribute to the degradation of cultural heritage buildings, structures and sites over time. Some of these factors are influenced by changes in climate and some of these changes manifest themselves though a speeding up of the rate of degradation. It is the intention of this paper to review this situation with special reference to the Nordic Countries, where typical trends resulting from climate change are shorter winters and increased precipitation all year round. An attempt is made to initially draw up a classification of materials and structures relevant to cultural heritage that are affected, with a proposed numeric scale for the urgency to act. The intention is to provide information on where best to concentrate cultural heritage site preservation resources in the future.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0132.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: BMD; aBMD; vBMD; QCT; HRpQCT; structure; mechanical loading; bone adaptation
Online: 16 March 2018 (07:12:31 CET)
In 2011 over 1.7 million people were hospitalized because of a fragility fracture, and direct costs associated with osteoporosis treatment exceeded 70 billion dollars in the United States. Failure to reach and maintain optimal peak bone mass during adulthood is a critical factor in determining fragility fracture risk later in life. Physical activity is a widely accessible, low cost, and highly modifiable contributor to bone health. Here, we will review the evidence linking exercise and physical activity to bone health in women. Bone structure and quality will be discussed, especially in the context of clinical diagnosis of osteoporosis. We will review the mechanisms governing bone metabolism in the context of physical activity and exercise. Questions such as, when during life is exercise most effective, and what specific types of exercises improve bone health, will be addressed. Finally, we will discuss some emerging areas of research on this topic, and will summarize areas of need and opportunity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0132.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: intelligent fault diagnosis; convolutional neural networks; domain adaptation; anti-noise
Online: 30 January 2017 (12:15:03 CET)
Intelligent fault diagnosis techniques have replaced the time-consuming and unreliable human analysis, increasing the efficiency of fault diagnosis. Deep learning model can improve the accuracy of intelligent fault diagnosis with the help of its multilayer nonlinear mapping ability. This paper has proposed a novel method named Deep Convolutional Neural Networks with Wide First-layer Kernels (WDCNN). The proposed method uses raw vibration signals as input (data augmentation is used to generate more inputs), and uses the wide kernels in first convolutional layer for extracting feature and suppressing high frequency noise. Small convolutional kernels in the preceding layers are used for multilayer nonlinear mapping. AdaBN is implemented to improve the domain adaptation ability of the model. The proposed model addresses the problem that currently, the accuracy of CNN applied to fault diagnosis is not very high. WDCNN can not only achieve 100% classification accuracy on normal signals, but also outperform state of the art DNN model which is based on frequency features under different working load and noisy environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0076.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: South Asian monsoon; rainy season, TIMESAT, APSIM, crop modeling, climate adaptation
Online: 3 November 2022 (09:24:42 CET)
The rice-wheat rotation is the dominant cropping system in Bihar, where food security of the rural population depends heavily on the production of rice and wheat. In Bihar, climatic shocks induced by low temperatures and terminal heat stress can significantly affect rice and wheat yields. The present work evaluates the benefit of using the monsoon onset as the date for planting rice in reducing thermal stress on rice-wheat systems. High-resolution gridded crop simulations using the APSIM model were performed to simulate potential yields of rice and wheat using the monsoon onset and the farmers’ practice as planting dates. The monsoon onset was calculated using an agronomic definition and farmers’ practice dates were estimated using satellite data. Model outputs were analyzed in terms of planting dates, yields, and the incidence of low temperature stress on rice and high temperature stress on wheat by means of the APSIM yields limiting factors. The results show that the rice planting and harvest dates using the monsoon onset are in general 20-30 days earlier, decreasing the incidence of thermal stress in rice and wheat, and generating higher and more stable yields. These results can help design mitigation strategies for the impacts of climate shocks induced by low and high temperature events in the context of the advances in sub-seasonal and seasonal forecasting, targeting climate services for farmers in Bihar.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0500.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Urban Development Plans; Climate Change; Adaptation and Mitigation Policies; Tehran Metropolis
Online: 21 May 2021 (07:53:50 CEST)
Climate change has emerged as one of the defining issues of the early 21st century. It is now more certain than ever and poses a serious threat to sustainable urban development. Climate change has many destructive effects on cities. Land subsidence, rising air pollutants, severe storms, dust and water scarcity are just some effects of this phenomenon in the urban area of Tehran. Urban management must be prepared to deal with these effects and adopt policies to mitigate and adapt to climate change. One of these tools in urban planning is urban development plans. The plans can have a great impact on controlling and counteracting with the effects of climate change. In this research, using content analysis method, 6 dimensions and 31 indicators have been used to evaluate 8 city and region development plans of Tehran from the view of reflecting the effects of climate change. Indicators were scored after studying the content of the plans. Findings indicate that among the reviewed plans, the second and third five-year development plans of Tehran with 61.9% and 61.3% as the highest rate and plan to reduce air pollution in Tehran and the transportation master plan with 20.6% and 23.2%, respectively have the least attention to the effects of climate change. Also, among the indicators, the urban transportation sector with 54.3% as the highest and the energy sector with 20.5% have the least attention to mitigation and adaptation policies.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: music therapy; telemedicine; telehealth; remote therapy; COVID-19; adaptation; scoping review
Online: 24 March 2021 (17:10:58 CET)
Background: In the midst of a worldwide COVID-19 pandemic music therapists previously not involved in telehealth had to develop effective remote forms of music therapy. The objective of this review was to systematically explore how music therapists previously working in-person adapted to the transfer to remote forms of therapy in the context of the coronavirus outbreak. Methods: We searched Scopus, Web of Science Core Collection, CINAHL, Medline, ProQuest Central, PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO and PsyARTICLES, grey literature (October 2020), and websites of professional organizations. We followed the JBI methodology for scoping reviews. Results: Out of the 194 screened texts, we included ten very heterogenous articles with an overall very low quality. Most texts described remote therapy in the form of synchronous video calls using the Internet, one paper described a concert in a patio of a residential home. We report the authors´ experience with the adaptation and activities, challenges and benefits of remote forms of therapy, recommendations of organizations, and examples and tips for online therapies. Conclusions: Music therapists have adapted the musical instruments, the hours, the technology used, the therapeutic goals, the way they prepared their clients for sessions, and other aspects. They needed to be more flexible, consult with colleagues more, and mind the client-therapist relationship's boundaries. It seems, when taken as a necessary short-term measure, online music therapy works sufficiently well. The majority of papers stated that benefits outweighed the challenges, although many benefits were directly linked with the pandemic context.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0213.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: crop diversification; C3 xerophtyes; food security; underutilized crops; drought adaptation strategies
Online: 12 January 2021 (10:19:08 CET)
Citron watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) is an underexploited and under-researched crop species with potential to contribute to crop diversification in sub-Saharan Africa and beyond. The species is commonly cultivated in the drier parts of Southern Africa, mainly by smallholder farmers who maintain a wide range of landraces. Understanding the molecular and morpho-physiological basis for drought adaptation of Citron watermelon in these dry environments can aid in screening local germplasm, identification of suitable traits for crop improvement and improving food system resilience among smallholder farmers by adding to crop diversification. This paper reviews literature on drought adaptation of C. lanatus spp. (C3 xerophytes), using the systematic review approach. The review discusses; (i) the potential role of citron watermelon in adding to crop diversification, (ii) alternative food uses and potential by-products that can be processed from citron watermelon and (iii) the role of Sub-Saharan farmers as key actors in conserving citron watermelon germplasm and biodiversity. Finally, the review provides a summary of significant findings and identifies critical knowledge gaps for further research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0061.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: limits; adaptation; small island developing states; impacts; sustainable development; policy-making
Online: 4 January 2021 (16:26:11 CET)
Small Island States (SIDS) are among the nations most exposed to climate change (CC) and are characterised by a high degree of vulnerability. Their special nature means there is a need for more studies focused on the limits to CC adaptation on such fragile nations, particularly in respect of their problems and constraints. This paper addressed a perceived need for research into the limitations of adaptation on SIDS, focusing on the many restrictions which are unique to them. The main research question raised by this study was that how and to what extent the challenges by human activities (e.g., agriculture and tourism) posed to coastlines of SIDS could be addressed. This paper identified and described the adaptation limits they have, by using a review of the literature and an analysis of case studies from a sample of five SIDS in the Caribbean and Pacific regions (Barbados, Trinidad and Tobago, Cook Islands, Fiji, Solomon Islands, and Tonga). The findings of this research showed that an adaptable SIDS is characterised by awareness of various values, appreciation and understanding of a diversity of impacts and vulnerabilities, and acceptance of certain losses through change. The implications of this paper are two-fold. It explains why island nations continue to suffer from the impacts of CC, and suggest some of the means via which adequate policies may support SIDS in their efforts to cope with the threats associated with a changing climate. This study concluded that, despite the technological and ecological limits (hard limits) affecting natural systems, adaptation to CC is not only limited by such complex forces, but also by societal factors (soft limits) that could potentially be overcome by more adequate adaptation strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0102.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: climate change; environmental impact assessment; adaptation; scenario analysis; back casting; transdisciplinary
Online: 12 June 2019 (05:04:33 CEST)
Consideration of climate change in Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a rather novel topic, which became partly mandatory through the revised EU Directive on EIA. Through a mixed-methods approach involving key-actors from EIA practice, decision making and climate adaptation planning, this study presents a transdisciplinary point of view on barriers and opportunities to tackle climate change adaptation in environmental assessment of large-scale projects. It is based on both a retrospective ex-post evaluation of existing practices in Austria and Germany as well as prescriptive examination and development of outcomes for practice through the development of a climate-fit toolkit that supports the incorporation of climate change impacts into EIAs. The scenario analysis applied with a back casting approach provided the opportunity to look beyond limitations related to legal compliance and partly lack of data identified by previous research. Three scenario narratives were elaborated based on nine key impact factors based on literature review, content analysis of EIA documents and interviews with EIA actors. The groups of actors carried out a prioritization of actions towards consideration of climate change in EIA. Finally, the actors were involved in co-production of an online tool-kit for Austrian and German EIA practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0151.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: climate change; adaptation; loss & damage; damage function; return period; tropical cyclone
Online: 13 May 2019 (10:07:41 CEST)
This paper constructs a model of climate-related damage for small island developing states (SIDS). We focus on the loss of private productive capital stocks through extreme climate events. In contrast to most economic analyses of climate impacts, which assume temperature-dependent damage functions, we draw on the engineering literature to allow for a greater or lesser degree of anticipation of climate change when designing capital stocks and balancing current adaptation expenditure against future loss & damage. We apply the model to tropical storm damage in the small island developing state of Barbados and show how anticipatory behavior changes the damage to infrastructure for the same degree of climate change. Thus, in the model, damage depends on behavior as well as climate variables.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0275.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: water scarcity; water withdrawal; food security; water management; climate change; adaptation
Online: 16 September 2018 (07:38:53 CEST)
Water scarcity is significantly increasing water stress in Africa and some parts of the world. This is due to human induced factors such as climate change, increase of human population that raises demand which outstrips food availability, and put great changes of land use which results in changes of hydrological mechanics and water availability as whole. The investigation was through literature review and it tries to examine the criticality of water scarcity in Africa regions, and the major factors that mastermind this menace. Also possible strategies that can be promptly used to manage water scarcity at domestic level and in agriculture are described in this paper, not with standing the fact that agriculture sectors in Africa and the rest of the world remain the utmost vulnerable enterprise to water scarcity and withdrawal on the planet earth.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0055.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: rapid light adaptation; glare; discrimination threshold; increment threshold; direct current electroretinogram
Online: 19 July 2017 (23:33:45 CEST)
The excitation of the visual system increases with increasing retinal illumination. At the same time, the sensitivity of the system decreases (light adaptation). Higher excitation automatically results in a lower sensitivity. This study investigates whether this parallelism between the excitation and the sensitivity also applies in the dynamic case, that is, during the transition to a higher excitation level after an increase in the retinal illuminance. For this purpose, the courses of the subjective and the electroretinographic threshold during the transitional phase after a step of the adaptation illumination was determined by means of a special light-stimulation apparatus. As a measure of the course of the excitation during this time, the response ERG on the adaptation step was recorded with a special amplifier. The threshold curve always has an overswing, which shows subjectively very strong differences. It can be concluded that the glare caused by a sudden increase in illuminance is subjectively very different. The comparison between the response ERG on the adaptation step and the course of the electroretinographic increment threshold during this time shows a broad agreement between the two courses. It can thus be assumed that the sensitivity of the visual system follows the course of the excitation also in the dynamic case. In addition, the investigation shows that the glare experienced after a step in the illuminance clearly shows great subjective differences.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0235.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: social determinants; epigenetics; exposome; public health policy; resilience; allostatic load; adaptation
Online: 31 March 2017 (11:35:57 CEST)
Globally, humans are struggling with the double threat of communicable and non-communicable diseases, which are presenting new challenges to public health. Public health problems are generally studied and addressed at primary, secondary and tertiary levels. Most effective results are seen with primary interventions. Public health is becoming more aware of the importance of environment-gene interactions in the ontology of health and disease using epigenetics. Epigenetics is the study of altered gene expression without change in base pairs. Be it physical, social, behavioral, or economic factors; they all influence quality of life and health of individuals and populations. That environments are changing the human health phenotype and these changed phenotypes are heritable is of concern for the future of the human race. Knowing the causes of non-communicable human diseases using epigenetics will contribute to the development of new policies to encourage prevention using primary public health initiatives. Research and application of epigenetics shows great promise for improving population health. Continued advances in epigenetics will enhance how we understand and address the way environments are affecting the human health phenotype. For some time, health systems have been and continue to be tertiary in nature. Epigenetic changes can provide information necessary to better understand how social determinants of health can be used to build societies focused on equitable health for all people, rather than continuing to focus on treatment of diseases in the tertiary phase that leads to health disparities. Understanding mechanisms of social determinants of disease, will allow society to evolve in a health-oriented rather than a disease-oriented world. For this reason, we must enhance and apply epigenetics (physical, social, behavioral, economic) research to policy development. We will discuss how bringing social determinants together with biology can be used as new tools for public health policy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0429.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Digital Twin; hazard; vulnerability; resilience; adaptive climate adaptation; groundwater; DK-model HIP
Online: 24 November 2022 (02:47:00 CET)
The paper analyses the national DK-model Hydrological Information and Prediction (HIP) system and HIP portal viewed as a ‘Digital Twin’ and how the introduction of real-time dynamic updating of the DK-model HIP simulations can give room for plug-in sub-models with real-time boundary conditions made available from a HIP portal. The possible feedback to a national real-time risk knowledge base during extreme events (flooding and drought) is also discussed. Under climate change conditions, Denmark is likely to experience more rain in winter, more evapotranspiration in summer, intensified cloudbursts, drought, and sea level rise. These challenges have been addressed as part of the Joint Governmental Digitalization Strategy 2016-2020 for better use and sharing of public data about the terrain, water, and climate to support climate adaptation, water management, and disaster risk reduction. This initiative included the development of a new web-based data portal (HIP portal) developed by the Danish Agency for Data Supply and Infrastructure (SDFI). GEUS delivered 5 terra-byte of hydrological model data to the portal with robust calibration methods and hybrid Machine Learning (ML) being key parts of the deliverables. The paper discusses the challenges and potentials of further developing the HIP Digital Twin with ‘plug-in Digital Twins’ for local river basins including feedback to the national level.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0403.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Nature-based solutions; climate change adaptation; climate change vulnerability; social-ecological systems
Online: 20 September 2022 (12:35:06 CEST)
Nature-based solutions (NbS) - working with and enhancing nature to address societal challenges - are increasingly being featured in climate change adaptation policy and plans. While there is growing evidence that NbS can reduce vulnerability to climate change impacts in general, there is a lack of understanding on the mechanisms through which this can be achieved, particularly in the Global South. To address this, we analyse 85 nature-based interventions in rural areas across the Global South, and factors mediating their effectiveness, based on a systematic map of peer-reviewed studies encompassing a wide diversity of ecosystems, climate impacts, and intervention types. We develop and apply an analytical framework of people’s social-ecological vulnerability to climate change, in terms of six pathways of vulnerability reduction: social and ecological exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. Most cases (95%) report a reduction in vulnerability, primarily by lowering ecosystem sensitivity to climate impacts (73% of interventions), followed by reducing social sensitivity (52%), reducing ecological exposure (36%), increasing social adaptive capacity (31%), increasing ecological adaptive capacity (19%) and/or reducing social exposure (14%). An analysis of mediating factors shows that social dimensions are equally important as technical factors in NbS to achieving equitable and effective outcomes. Attention to the distinct social and ecological pathways through which vulnerability is reduced helps to harness the multiple benefits of working with nature in a warming world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0550.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: Adaptation; Biodiversity; Climate Change; Conservation Planning; Land use; Netowrks; Optimization; Protected areas
Online: 29 November 2021 (15:44:44 CET)
Current species’ range displacements are mostly triggered by climate change but European landscapes are largely dominated by human activities. In this study we identify the most promising spatial adaptive trajectories (SATs) for the thirty most threatened non volant mammal species in Europe up to 2080 (under three climate and land change scenarios) and where/when SATs of each species synchronically converge. We found large contrasts on the persistence of species in SATs, with some species largely reliant on the functionality of areas where many SATs converge. Overall, SATs and convergence centers are not adequately covered by existing conservation areas and coincide with crop and arable lands, compromising species persistence. It is important to invest in the protection of SATs and convergence centers through a mix of conventional instruments and new collaborative forms with the socio-economy. Anticipative plans at long-term coupled with risk analysis offer decision–makers templates to prevent negative surprises.
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Hypoxia Inducible Factor; HIF; Ischemia; Hypoxia; Adaptation; Alzheimer’s Disease; Parkinson Disease; Neurodegeneration
Online: 26 February 2021 (15:34:31 CET)
Hypoxia is one of the most common pathological conditions which results from ischemic injury, trauma, inflammatory conditions, tumors, The adaptation of the body to hypoxia is a phenomenon that is of great importance both in normal conditions and in Most of the cellular response’ reactions to hypoxia is associated with a family of transcription factors called hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF). They induce the expression of a wide range of genes that help cells adapt to a hypoxic HIF functions are currently being extensively studied. In 2019, William G. Kaelin and Gregg Semenza from the USA and Sir Peter J. Ratcliffe from the UK received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the discovery of the basic mechanisms of adaptation to hypoxia and investigation of the role of HIF factor in the regulation of the hormone erythropoietin Based on its pivotal physiological importance, the HIF factor attracts more and more attention as a new potential target for treating a large number of diseases associated with Most of the experimental work dealing with the HIF factor is focused on its role in liver and However, increasing amount of experimental results clearly demonstrates that the HIF factor-based response represents an universal adaptation mechanism for all kinds of tissues, including the nervous system where HIF is critical for regulating neurogenesis, nerve cell differentiation, and neuronal This review provides actual overview about the complex role of HIF-1 in the adaptation of nerve cells to hypoxia with the focus on its potential role by various neuronal
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0308.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: local adaptation; genetic diversity; outlier loci; environmental variables; phylogeography; SNPs and microsatellites
Online: 10 November 2020 (12:11:18 CET)
Temperature is one of the most important range-limiting factors for many seaweeds. Driven by the recent climatic changes, rapid northward shifts of species’ distribution ranges can potentially modify the phylogeographic signature of Last Glacial Maximum such as increased genetic diversity at lower latitudes. To explore this question in detail in the kelp Saccharina latissima, we used microsatellites and double digest RAD-sequencing derived SNPs on S. latissima sporophytes sampled within 11 sites spanning the entire European Atlantic latitudinal range of this species. In addition, we checked for statistical correlation between genetic marker allele frequencies and three environmental proxies (sea surface temperature, salinity, and water turbidity). Our findings revealed that genetic diversity was significantly higher for the northern localities compared to the southern ones in contrast to the expected phylogeographic pattern. This suggests that the southernmost S. latissima populations are negatively affected by the recent climatic changes but also that the recolonization of S. latissima range following the LGM may have occurred from northerly refugia. Seven SNPs and 12 microsatellite alleles were found to be significantly associated with at least one of the three environmental variables. We discuss the potential adaptive functions of the genes associated with the outlier markers and the importance of these markers for successful conservation and aquaculture strategies for S. latissima in this age of rapid global change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0418.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: traditional market; state promoted market; coordination problems; market devise; market flexibility; adaptation
Online: 18 October 2018 (11:28:00 CEST)
The penetration of modern supermarkets is believed to be the cause of the declining role of traditional markets and street vendors in Indonesia. But the competition between state-promoted markets and traditional markets is rarely discussed. This investigation focuses on traditional markets as social institutions, which continuously have developed a variety of strategies in order to remain competitive in the midst of intense rivalry. Firstly, we will outline a theoretical understanding of the traditional markets positioning along the concepts of flexibility and market devices. Secondly, we empirically reflect the strategies of four traditional vegetable markets in the District of Malang, East Java Province, as case studies. We show that the traditional markets build flexibility without governmental support by: (1) specifying commodities, (2) segmenting customers, (3) managing the load time, (4) modifying transportation to operate more efficiently, and (5) minimizing transaction costs by leveraging social capital. We argue that traditional vegetable markets institutionally reduce the potential of transaction costs to be competitive and avoid problems of coordination by building social capital through networks. All in all, market institutions supported by market devices are flexibly capable of adapting to the pressures of both selfishness among actors and competition with other markets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0149.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: influenza; H1N1; mouse adaptation; deep sequencing; polymerase; PA; PB1; defective viral genomes
Online: 19 March 2018 (08:59:26 CET)
Mice are not natural hosts for influenza A viruses (IAVs), but they are useful models for studying antiviral immune responses and pathogenesis. Serial passage of IAV in mice invariably causes the emergence of adaptive mutations and increased virulence. Typically, mouse-adaptation studies are conducted in inbred laboratory strains BALB/c and C57BL/6, which have defects in the antiviral Mx1 gene that results in increased susceptibility to infection and disease severity. Here, we report the adaptation of IAV reference strain A/California/07/2009(H1N1) (a.k.a. CA/07) in outbred Swiss Webster mice. Serial passage led to increased virulence and lung titers, and dissemination of the virus to brains. We adapted a deep-sequencing protocol to identify and enumerate adaptive mutations across all genome segments. Among mutations that emerged during mouse-adaptation, we focused on amino acid substitutions in polymerase subunits: polymerase basic-1 (PB1) T156A and F740L, and polymerase acidic (PA) E349G. These mutations were evaluated singly and in combination in minigenome replicon assays, which revealed that PA E349G increased polymerase activity. By selectively engineering these three adaptive PB1 and PA mutations into the parental CA/07 strain, we demonstrated that adaptive mutations in polymerase subunits decreased the production of defective viral genome segments with internal deletions, and dramatically increased the release of infectious virions from mouse cells. Together, these findings increase our understanding of the contribution of polymerase subunits to successful host adaptation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0434.v1
Subject: Biology, Entomology Keywords: Apis cerana; A. c. koreana; population; gene vitellogenin; genetic structure; nucleotide polymorphism; adaptation
Online: 28 September 2022 (09:02:03 CEST)
Apis cerana and Apis mellifera, are very important honey species for agriculture in Asian countries. In recent decades, A. cerana populations have sharply declined in all Asian countries as a result of Sacbrood Virus infection and have now recovered to their original size. It can change the genetic structure of local populations of A. cerana. We used the nuclear gene Vitellogenin VG to assess the genetic structure of local populations of A. cerana and the signature of adaptive selection. We performed a population genetic analysis of the honey bees A. cerana from South Korea in comparison with A. cerana samples from Russia, Japan, Nepal, and China. The sequences of the gene VG of a closely related honey bee species, A. mellifera, from India and Poland were used as outgroup samples. A comparative analysis of northern and southern A. cerana populations was performed. The signatures of positive adaptive selection were found in the local population of A. cerana. We performed the Tajima's neutrality D test for A. cerana populations from different local populations based on the gene VG exon sequences. All A. cerana populations showed signs of population size expansion following the possible recent decline in population sizes. The local populations of A. c. koreana were subdivided according to their geographical distribution into southern, northern, and central Korean clusters. The gene VG exon sequences can be used as informative markers for monitoring the changes in genetic structure and adaptation to the environment processes in A. cerana populations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0314.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Differential Evolution; APGSK algorithm; Constrained Optimization; transformation; parameter adaptation; multi-operator; Evolutionary Algorithms
Online: 17 August 2022 (09:47:59 CEST)
Real-world optimization problems are often gov- erned by one or more constraints. Over the last few decades, extensive research has been performed in Constrained Opti- mization Problems (COPs) fueled by advances in computational power. In particular, Evolutionary Algorithms (EAs) are a preferred tool for practitioners for solving these COPs within practicable time limits. We propose a novel hybrid Evolutionary Algorithm based on the Differential Evolution algorithm and Adaptive Parameter Gaining Sharing Knowledge-based algo- rithm to solve global real-world constrained parameter space. The proposed CHAGSKODE algorithm leverages the power of multiple adaptation strategies concerning the control parameters, search mechanisms, as well as uses knowledge sharing between junior and senior phases. We test our method on the benchmark functions taken from the CEC2020 special session & competition on real-world constrained optimization. Experimental results indicate that CHAGSKODE is able to achieve state-of-the- art performance on real-world constrained global optimization when compared against other well-known real-world constrained optimizers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0307.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: constrained optimization; multi-operator; multi-parameter adaptation; ensemble constraint handling techniques; Evolutionary Algorithms
Online: 17 August 2022 (08:35:44 CEST)
Real-world optimization problems are often governed by one or more constraints. Over the last few decades, extensive research has been performed in Constrained Optimization Problems (COPs) fueled by advances in computational intelligence. In particular, Evolutionary Algorithms (EAs) are a preferred tool for practitioners for solving these COPs within practicable time limits. We propose an ensemble of multi- method hybrid EA framework with four mutation operators, two crossover operators, multi-search [Differential Evolution (DE) & Gaining Sharing Knowledge (GSK)] optimization algorithm, and ensemble of constraint handling techniques to solve global real- world constrained optimization problem. The proposed frame- work FEPEA has an ascendancy of multiple adaptation strategies concerning the control parameters, search mechanisms, two sub-populations as well as uses knowledge sharing mechanism between junior and senior phases. The algorithm also combines the power of four popular constraint handling techniques (CHT) and uses a voting mechanism to select any particular CHT. On top of that, this algorithm also uses both linear and non- linear population size reduction in every step of the evolutionary process. We test our method on 57 real-world problems provided as part of the CEC 2020 special session & competition on real- world constrained optimization benchmark suite. Experimental results indicate that FEPEA is able to achieve state-of-the- art performance on real-world constrained global optimization when compared against other well-known real-world constrained optimizers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0410.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: climate proofing; spatial planning; climate change adaptation; framework; cross-regional; integral; co-benefits
Online: 18 May 2021 (10:21:27 CEST)
Spatial planning holds a key role in preventing or mitigating the impacts of climate change on both cities and rural areas, taking a forward-thinking and holistic approach to urban and regional development. As such, spatial planning deals with challenges occurring at different scales and across sectors. The international literature points out the need for horizontal and vertical cooperation to tackle climate change impacts. While there is abundant knowledge regarding the challenges related to climate change at different spatial levels, procedural integration into planning frameworks and practice is currently under-researched. This paper presents a novel theoretical framework that integrates various steps towards a holistic, integrative and adaptive climate proofing process. An iterative process was used for conceptual development, based on literature review followed by external feedback meetings and two workshops with the core team of planning experts responsible for exchange across federal states. By specifically addressing the challenges relating to cross-regional and cross-sectoral planning, this novel framework attempts to (i) facilitate a hierarchy of measures, (ii) maximise co-benefits for various adaptation purposes and climate change mitigation and (iii) foster the long-term institutionalisation of integrative processes across sectors, planning areas and policy levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0391.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Host-microbe; Zebrafish; Shewanella; Symbiosis; Microbial evolution; Msh pilus; Adaptation; Biofilms; Fitness; Colonization
Online: 15 December 2020 (16:34:25 CET)
Symbioses between animals and bacteria are ubiquitous. To better understand these relationships, it is essential to unravel how bacteria evolve to colonize hosts. Previously, we serially passaged the free-living bacterium, Shewanella oneidensis, through the digestive tracts of germ-free larval zebrafish (Danio rerio) to uncover the evolutionary changes involved in the initiation of a novel symbiosis with a vertebrate host. After 20 passages, we discovered an adaptive missense mutation in the mshL gene of the msh pilus operon, which improved host colonization, increased swimming motility, and reduced surface adhesion. In the present study, we have determined that this mutation was a loss-of-function mutation and found that it improved zebrafish colonization by augmenting S. oneidensis representation in the water column outside larvae through a reduced association with environmental surfaces. Additionally, we found that strains containing the mshL mutation were able to immigrate into host digestive tracts at higher rates per capita. However, mutant and evolved strains exhibited no evidence of a competitive advantage after colonizing hosts. Our results demonstrate that bacterial behaviors outside the host can play a dominant role in facilitating the onset of novel host associations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0005.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: motivational mechanism; labor interests; personnel selection; adaptation and training; the structure of interests
Online: 2 December 2019 (04:46:36 CET)
The issue of actualization of labor interests as a motivational driver and one of the sources of labor productivity is little-studied in applied and organizational psychology. The study given in the paper fills some “blanks” of this problem. The leading approach to research is the motivational system proposed on the basis of theoretical analysis and the developed psychological model of labor interests. Using the methods of a special survey, questioning and interview guides, the analysis and comparative assessment of the labor interests of 50 candidates for the service manager position (entertainment and restaurant industry field) was conducted; as well as of 45 employees in this industry aged 18 to 25. The main results of the paper show the connection of labor interests with the company's personnel management system, namely with the processes of selection, adaptation, and training. It was revealed that the candidates selected for the service manager position were of primary group interest and financial incentive was secondary. At the same time, financial incentive contributed to the successful passage of the adaptation period. Occupational interests of employees depended on their education and job specifics. Career interests were influenced by the time spent with the company. The recommendations necessary for employers to create the conditions corresponding to the leading labor interests of employees were substantiated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0433.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Climate change; loss and damage; human well-being; marginal salt farmers; adaptation; vulnerability; Bangladesh
Online: 19 May 2021 (07:58:13 CEST)
In recent years in Bangladesh, there has been regular cyclonic event, flooding and erratic pre-monsoons precipitation that has hampered production greatly and forced Bangladesh to import salt from abroad to manage market deficiency. There is much uncertainty about the effects of climate change on the frequency and intensity of small-scale, sudden onset weather phenomena such as heavy rainfall and subsequent loss and damage (L&D). But, several studies indicate that an obvious strong relationship exists between irregular rainfall and associated L&D. Nowadays, severe changing rainfall patterns are observed in Bangladesh, which is rapid-onset in nature, but low exposed in terms of response. The current study explored a ‘double-exposed’ burden combined of both climatic (e.g., uneven rainfall) and non-climatic governance factors (e.g., imperfect trade policy, the absence of risk transfer mechanisms) which are hindering salt production and pushing the country from the aspiration of salt exporting to the net buyer. This chapter mainly assesses the impacts of L&D due to climatic events that are causing overwhelming effects on the well-being of marginal salt farmers at Kutubdia Upazila of Bangladesh. Data were mainly collected through Participatory Vulnerability Analysis (PVA), Key informant interviews (KII), and Sample Surveys (SS). This study would provide insights for improved disaster management policy and an appropriate adaptive measure to address such extreme events as well as to initiate a further study for understanding the nexus of ‘nature and market’ in building resilience among the marginal salt farmers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0526.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: SLA; Violation; Adaptive SLA Template; Ontology; Context-aware; Virtual, Dynamic adaptation; Context-Aware Application
Online: 24 August 2020 (10:06:00 CEST)
During recent decades, contextual computing applications have emerged in the field of healthcare and particularly in the field of telemonitoring of patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). According to WHO rankings, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death worldwide. Various research works are therefore carried out to improve the health of patients and the monitoring of patients in the comfort of their home environment. To this end, several telemonitoring systems are designed to COPD patients. These systems are connected to health center. Emergency physicians follow the patients subscribed to these systems remotely. These systems focus mainly on prediction, decision-making and the requirements of the healthcare profession, and do not address the quality control aspects of services or QoS based on service level agreements (SLAs). This situation can be dangerous for patients in case of extreme exacerbation of COPD patients. For example, the unavailability of the monitoring system can lead to the death of the patient because the emergency physician could not have access to the patient's data in real time in the context of COPD Patient Monitoring. In addition, Remote medical monitoring platforms are manipulating large volumes of data and the risks of data lost or data quality are real. It is therefore important to have the mechanisms to continuously improve the quality of service of these monitoring platforms in general and COPD patients particularly. In this article, we propose an ontology that uses SLA information from COPD monitoring platforms with dynamic data from the patient context. The purpose of this article is to propose a dynamic mechanism model for evaluating SLA violations. This solution allows retrieving knowledge from the main items of the SLA document based on XML and the COPD patient context data dynamically from a COPD SLA ontology. These data retrieved in real time allow the calculation of SLO-based metrics and display a SLA template available on the supplier and consumer interfaces. The information of the SLA violation control Interface changes dynamically depending the context-aware system and SLA document data. The SLA parties can dynamically control their Key Performance Indicators (KPI) Target.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0131.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: adaptation; mental model refinement; food systems; knowledge management participatory modeling; system dynamics; systems thinking
Online: 27 November 2016 (04:12:49 CET)
Food systems will need to undergo considerable transformation. To be better prepared for and resilient to uncertainty and disturbances in the future, resource users and managers need to further develop knowledge about the food and farming system, with its dominating feedback structures and complexities, and to test robust and integrated system-based solutions. This paper investigates how participatory system dynamics modeling can be adapted to groups at the community level with low or no formal educational background. The paper also analyzes the refinement of workshop participants’ mental models as a consequence of a participatory system dynamics intervention. For this purpose, we ran two workshops with small-scale farmers in Zambia. Analysis of workshop data and post-workshop interviews shows that participatory system dynamics is well adaptable to support an audience-specific learning-by-doing approach. The use of pictures, objects and water glasses in combination with the basic aspects of causal loop diagramming makes for a well-balanced toolbox. Participants acquire understanding that is also relevant beyond systems thinking in that is offers a range of practical insights such as a critical evaluation of common food security strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0099.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: Economic risk assessment, capital-based framework, six-capital framework, climate response, climate adaptation, urban resilience
Online: 2 March 2021 (15:47:00 CET)
Estimating the economic risks of climate shocks and climate stressors on spatially heterogeneous cities over time remain highly challenging. The purpose of this paper is to present a practical methodology to assess the economic risks of climate change in developing cities to inform spatially sensitive municipal climate response strategies. Building on a capital-based framework (CBF), spatially disaggregated baseline and future scenario scores for economic wealth and its exposure to climate change are developed for six different classes of capital and across 77 major suburbs in Cape Town, South Africa. Capital-at-risk was calculated by combining relative exposure and capital scores across different scenarios and with population impacted plotted against the major suburbs and the city’s 8 main planning districts. The economic risk assessment presented here provides a generic approach to assist investment planning and the implementation of adaptation options through an enhanced understanding of relative levels of capital endowment vis-à-vis relative levels of exposure to climate-related hazards over time. An informed climate response strategy in spatially heterogeneous cities need to include spatially sensitive estimates on capital-at-risk and populations disproportionally impacted by climate exposure over time. The economic risk assessment approach presented here helps in advancing to such a goal.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0299.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: Lactate Shuttle; Lactate; Exercise; Postabsorptive Metabolism; Postprandial Metabolism; Gene Adaptation; Muscle; Fiber Type; Gluconeogenesis; Glycogenolysis
Online: 13 September 2020 (16:31:28 CEST)
After a Century it is time to turn the page on understanding of lactate metabolism and appreciate that lactate shuttling as an important component of intermediary metabolism in vivo. Cell-Cell and intracellular Lactate Shuttles fulfill purposes of energy substrate production and distribution as well as cell signaling under fully aerobic conditions. Recognition of lactate shuttling came first in studies of physical exercise where roles of driver and recipient cells and tissues were obvious. Moreover, the presence of lactate shuttling as part of postprandial glucose disposal has been recognized. Mitochondrial respiration creates the physiological sink for lactate disposal in vivo. Repeated lactate exposure from regular exercise results in adaptive processes such as mitochondrial biogenesis and other healthful circulatory and neurological characteristic such as improved physical work capacity, metabolic flexibility and cognition. The importance of lactate and lactate shuttling in healthful living is further emphasized when lactate signaling and shuttling are dysregulated as occur in illness and injury. Like a Phoenix, lactate rises again in importance in 21st Century Biology.