REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0770.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: CDP-choline; citicoline; pharmacological neuroprotection; brain ischemia; traumatic brain injury; head injury
Online: 31 March 2021 (14:42:27 CEST)
Head injury is among the most devastating types of injury, specifically called Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). There is need to diminish the morbidity related with TBI and to improve the outcome of patients suffering TBI. Among the improvements on the treatment of TBI, neuroprotection is one of the upcoming improvements. Citicoline has been used in the management of brain ischemia related disorders, such as TBI. Citicoline has biochemical, pharmacological, and pharmacokinetic characteristics that make it a potentially useful neuroprotective drug for the management of TBI. A short review of these characteristics is included in this paper. Also, a narrative review of almost all the published or communicated studies performed with this drug in the management of patients with head injury is included. Based on the results obtained in these clinical studies, it is possible to conclude that citicoline was able to accelerate recovery of consciousness and to improve the outcome of this kind of patients, with an excellent safety profile. Thus, citicoline could have a potential role in the management of TBI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0196.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: traumatic brain injury; fluid percussion injury; neurodegeneration; apoptosis; sensorimotor deficit
Online: 28 December 2017 (08:58:32 CET)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can result in persistent sensorimotor and cognitive deficits, which occur through a cascade of deleterious pathophysiological events over time. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that neurodegeneration caused by TBI leads to impairments in sensorimotor function. TBI induces the activation of the caspase-3 enzyme, which triggers cell apoptosis in an in vivo model of fluid percussion injury (FPI). We analyzed caspase-3 mediated apoptosis by TUNEL staining and PARP and annexin V western blotting. We correlated the neurodegeneration with sensorimotor deficits by conducting the animal behavioral tests including grid walk, balance beam, inverted screen test, and climb test. Our study demonstrated that the excess cell death or neurodegeneration correlated with the neuronal dysfunction and sensorimotor impairments associated with TBI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0310.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: astroglial injury; GFAP; calpain; caspase; biomarkers; traumatic brain injury
Online: 22 June 2022 (08:28:02 CEST)
Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is the major intermediate filament III protein of astroglia cells which is upregulated in traumatic brain injury (TBI). Here we reported that GFAP is truncated at both the C- and N-terminals by cytosolic protease calpain to GFAP breakdown products (GBDP) of 46-40K then 38K following pro-necrotic (A23187) and pro-apoptotic (staurosporine) challenges to primary cultured astroglia or neuron-glia mixed cells. In addition, with another pro-apoptotic challenge (EDTA) where caspases are activated but not calpain, GFAP was fragmented internally, generating a C-terminal GBDP of 20 kDa. Following controlled cortical impact in mice, GBDP of 46-40K and 38K were formed from day 3 to 28 post-injury. Purified GFAP protein treated with calpain-1 and -2 generates (i) major N-terminal cleavage sites between A-56 and A-75, and (ii) major C-terminal cleavage sites between T-383 and Q-388, producing a limit fragment of 38K. Caspase-6 treated GFAP was cleaved at D-78, R-79, D-266 and A-267, where GFAP was relatively resistant to caspase-3. We also derived a GBDP-38K N-terminal-specific antibody which only labels injured astroglia cell body in both cultured astroglia and mouse cortex and hippocampus after TBI. As a clinical translation, we observed that CSF samples collected from severe human TBI have elevated levels of GBDP-38K as well as two C-terminally released GFAP peptides (DGEVIKES and DGEVIKE). Thus, in addition to intact GFAP, both the GBDP-38K as well as unique GFAP released C-terminal proteolytic peptides species might have the potential in tracking brain injury progression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0529.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: extracellular vesicles, EVs , traumatic brain injury, bone loss, TBI
Online: 23 October 2018 (08:56:08 CEST)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major source of worldwide morbidity and mortality. Patients suffering from TBI exhibit a higher susceptibility to bone loss and an increased rate of bone fractures; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly defined. Herein, we observed significantly lower bone quality and elevated levels of inflammation in bone and bone marrow niche after controlled cortical impact-induced TBI in in-vivo CD-1 mice. Further, we identified dysregulated NFB signaling, an established mediator of osteoclast differentiation and bone loss, within the bone marrow niche of TBI mice. Ex vivo studies revealed increased osteoclast differentiation in bone marrow-derived cells from TBI mice, as compared to sham injured mice. Finally, we found bone marrow derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) from TBI mice enhanced the colony forming ability and osteoclast differentiation efficacy of bone marrow cells and activated NFB signaling genes in bone marrow-derived cells. Taken together, we provide evidence that TBI-induced inflammatory stress on bone and the bone marrow niche may activate NFB leading to accelerated bone loss. Targeted inhibition of these signaling pathways may reverse TBI-induced bone loss and reduce fracture rates.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0449.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: vision rehabilitation; review of systems; traumatic brain injury; concussion; patient advocacy.
Online: 17 March 2021 (16:05:12 CET)
Treating a patient with traumatic brain injury requires an interdisciplinary approach because of the pervasive, profound and protean manifestations of this condition. In this review, key aspects of the medical history and review of systems will be described in order to highlight how the role of any provider must evolve to become a better patient advocate. Although this review is written from the vantage point of a vision care provider, it is hoped that patients, caregivers and providers will recognize the need for the team approach; it truly takes a village.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0340.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: cerebral blood flow and oxygenation; diffuse correlation spectroscopy; EEG; traumatic brain in-jury; neurointensive care unit; neuromonitoring
Online: 14 July 2021 (15:19:40 CEST)
Survivors of severe brain injury may require care in a neurointensive care unit (neuro-ICU), where the brain is vulnerable to secondary brain injury. Thus, there is a need for noninvasive, bedside, continuous cerebral blood flow monitoring approaches in the neuro-ICU. Our goal is to address this need through combined measurements of EEG and functional optical spectroscopy (EEG-Optical) instrumentation and analysis to provide a complementary fusion of data about brain activity and function. The present case demonstrates in a patient with traumatic brain injury, noninvasive cerebral blood flow transients can be recorded that correlate with gold-standard invasive measurements and with the frequency content changes in the EEG data during clinical care.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0443.v1
Subject: Keywords: traumatic brain injury (TBI); Dysarthria; transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS); Quantitative Electroencephalography (QEEG); speech therapy
Online: 24 April 2020 (13:56:38 CEST)
Purpose: Dysarthria, a neurological injury of the motor component of the speech circuitry, is of common consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Palilalia is a speech disorder characterized by involuntary repetition of words, phrases, or sentences. Based on the evidence supporting the effectiveness of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in some speech and language disorders, we hypothesized that using tDCS would enhances the effectiveness of speech therapy in a client with chronic dysarthria following TBI. Method: We applied the constructs of the “Be Clear” protocol, a relatively new approach in speech therapy in dysarthria, together with tDCS on a chronic subject who affected by dysarthria and palilalia after TBI. Since there was no research on the use of tDCS in such cases, regions of interest (ROIs) were identified based on deviant brain electrophysiological patterns in speech tasks and resting state compared with normal expected patterns using the Quantitative Electroencephalography (QEEG) analysis. Results: Measures of perceptual assessments of intelligibility, an important index in the assessment of dysarthria, were superior to the primary protocol results immediately and 4 months after intervention. We did not find any factor other than the use of tDCS to justify this superiority. The percentage of repeated words, an index in palilalia assessment, had a remarkable improvement immediately after intervention but fell somewhat after 4 months. We justified this case with subcortical origins of palilalia. Conclusion: Our present case-based findings suggested that applying tDCS together with speech therapy may improve intelligibility in similar case profiles as compared to traditional speech therapy. To reconfirm the effectiveness of the above approach in cases with dysarthria following TBI, more investigation need to be pursued.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0244.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: Traumatic brain injury; buprenorphine; Bup-SR-Lab; microglia; astrocyte; myelin, membrane disruption; somatosensory sensitivity
Online: 12 August 2022 (13:52:14 CEST)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major leading cause of death and disability. While previous studies regarding focal pathologies following TBI have been done, there is a lack of information concerning the role of analgesics and their influences on injury pathology. Buprenorphine (Bup), an opioid analgesic, is a commonly used analgesic in experimental TBI models. Our previous studies investigated the acute effects of Buprenorphine-sustained release-Lab (Bup-SR-Lab) on diffuse neuronal/glial pathology, neuroinflammation, cell damage, and systemic physiology. The current study investigated the longer-term chronic outcomes of Bup-SR-Lab treatment at 4 weeks following TBI utilizing a central fluid percussion injury (cFPI) model in adult male rats. Histological assessments of physiological changes, neuronal damage, cortical and thalamic cytokine expression, microglial and astrocyte morphological changes, and myelin alterations were done, as we had done in our acute study. In the current study the Whisker Nuisance Task (WNT) was also performed pre- and 4w post-injury to assess changes in somatosensory sensitivity following saline or Bup-SR-Lab treatment. Bup-SR-Lab treatment had no impact on overall physiology or neuronal damage at 4w post-injury regardless of region or injury, nor did it have any significant effects on somatosensory sensitivity. However, greater IL-4 cytokine expression with Bup-SR-Lab treatment was observed compared to saline treated animals. Microglia and astrocytes also demonstrated region-specific morphological alterations associated with Bup-SR-Lab treatment, in which cortical microglia and thalamic astrocytes were particularly vulnerable to Bup-mediated changes. There were discernable injury-specific and region-specific differences regarding myelin integrity and changes in specific myelin basic protein (MBP) isoform expression following Bup-SR-Lab treatment. This study indicates that use of Bup-SR-Lab could impact TBI-induced glial alterations in a region-specific manor 4w following diffuse brain injury.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0374.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: mild traumatic brain injury; mTBI; concussion; cognitive; sensorimotor; visual; postural balance; methylation; 5-mC%; blood
Online: 31 January 2020 (04:28:21 CET)
People who suffer a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) have heterogeneous symptoms and disease trajectories, which make it difficult to precisely diagnose and assess complications long-term. Insufficient information is available regarding how to precisely diagnose and assess mTBI. This study identified and compared deficits in cognitive, psychosocial, visual functions, and balance performance between college students with and without histories of mTBI. Global DNA methylation ratio (5-mC%) in blood was also compared as a peripheral epigenetic marker. Twenty-five volunteers participated in this pilot study, including 11 mTBI cases (27.3% females; mean age of 28.7 years, SD=5.92) and 14 healthy controls (64.3% females; mean age of 22.0, SD=4.13). All the participants were assessed for cognitive (by NIH toolbox—executive function, memory, and processing speed), psychological (by PROMIS—depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbances), visual function (by King-Devick and binocular accommodative tests), postural balance performance (by a force plate), and blood 5-mC% (global methylation) levels. Students with mTBI reported significantly poorer episodic memory, severe anxiety, and more sleep disturbance problems. They also had higher blood 5-mC% level (all p’s<.05). No significant differences were found in visual function and postural balance. These findings validate changes in cognitive, psychosocial, and global DNA methylation long after mTBI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0694.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Causes, post traumatic stress disorder,refugees
Online: 26 April 2021 (20:51:27 CEST)
Abstract Objectives To assess the causes and risk factors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adult asylum seekers and refugees. To explore whether the causes and risk factors of PTSD, between male and female adult refugees/ asylum seekers is different. Study design Systematic review of current literature. Data Sources PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus and Google Scholar up until February 2019 Method A structured systematic search was conducted in the relevant databases. Papers were excluded, if they failed to meet the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Afterwards, a qualitative assessment was performed on the selected papers. Results 12 Studies were included for the final analysis. All papers were either case studies/report or cross sectional studies. The number of traumatic events experienced by refugees/asylum seekers, is the most frequently reported pre-migration causes for PTSD development. Whilst acculturative stress, is the most common post migration stressor. There were mixed reports, regarding the causes of PTSD between both genders of refugees/asylum seekers. Conclusion This reviews’ findings, have potential clinical application into helping clinicians, to risk stratify refugees/asylum seekers for PTSD development and thus aid in embarking on earlier intervention measures. However, more rigorous research similar to this one, is needed for it to be implemented into clinical practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0097.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: traumatic optic neuropathy; mice; axon injury; TBI; neurodegeneration
Online: 4 November 2021 (09:26:51 CET)
Injury to the optic nerve, termed, traumatic optic neuropathy (TON) is a known comorbidity of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and is now known to cause chronic and progressive retinal thinning up to 35 years after injury. Although animal models of TBI have described the presence of optic nerve degeneration and research exploring acute mechanisms is underway, few studies in humans or animals have examined chronic TON pathophysiology outside the retina. We used a closed-head weight-drop model of TBI/TON in 6-week-old male C57BL/6 mice. Mice were euthanized 7-, 14-, 30-, 90-, and 150-days post injury (DPI) to assess histological changes in the visual system of the brain spanning a total of 12 regions. We show chronic elevation of FluoroJade-C, indicative of neurodegeneration, throughout the time course. Intriguingly, FJ-C staining revealed a bimodal distribution of mice indicating the possibility of subpopulations that may be more or less sus-ceptible to injury outcomes. Additionally, we show that microglia and astrocytes react to optic nerve damage in both temporally and regionally different ways. Despite these differences, as-trogliosis and microglial changes were alleviated between 14-30 DPI in all regions examined, perhaps indicating a potential critical period for intervention/recovery that may determine chronic outcomes.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0424.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Traumatic cardiac arrest; gastrothorax; diaphragmatic rupture; diaphragmatic hernia; localized tamponade
Online: 27 July 2022 (15:03:27 CEST)
Traumatic cardiac arrest has a high mortality. We report the case of a 65 years old women who presented a cardiac arrest following traffic accident. Examinations concluded to a tension gastro thorax with a delayed diagnosis. Naso gastric tube insertion was for many authors a temporary care while waiting for surgery. We report on the diagnostic difficulties found in the literature and a recent review of published cases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0064.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: traumatic brain injury; return to play; risk aversion; choice behaviour; health
Online: 7 June 2020 (07:51:52 CEST)
Purpose: To explore the influence of education and other factors on an athlete’s decision to return to sport post-concussion injury, and whether general risk-taking tendencies are related to return to sport post-concussion decisions in these athletes. Participants and Methods: A self-administered electronic survey was designed to examine their decision-making process when faced with scenario-based questions regarding returning to sport post-concussion injury. Students from the Health Sciences and Medicine Faculty at Bond University were invited to participate. Participants were allocated to a concussion education or non-education group prior to commencement of questionnaire via the random generator on Qualtrics software function. The risk propensity scale was used to assess the risk aversion of each participant. Results: Sixteen respondents were randomized evenly to education and non-education groups. Seven (43.8%) had previously received concussion education training prior to completing the questionnaire, with one (14%) choosing to return to sport in the scenario-based questions. The education group reported two (25%) respondents return to sport, while three (75%) respondents out of four returned to sport with no education or previous concussion training. Influential factors that impacted the decision whether to return to sport or not included: game importance, concussion severity and symptoms, and various internal and external factors. Finally, there was a divergence in results from the risk propensity scale when deciding to return to sport and general risk-taking propensities. Conclusion: This study identified several influential factors including game importance, concussion severity and symptoms which play a significant role in the return to sport decisions post-concussion injury.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0197.v2
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: COVID-19; Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD); victims; psychological problems; counseling
Online: 30 April 2020 (05:40:55 CEST)
Since January, the disease caused by the Sars Cov-2 virus has spread and following pandemic. In a few months, the virus is seriously affecting the health systems of the various countries of the world and placing people in difficult psychological conditions. Few scientific resources on mental health have been published but still no one has proposed an action plan to cope the future psychological problems.This manuscript provides a plan to easily frame the priorities of mental health area related to COVID-19 to be taken into consideration which should be disseminated and that should be known by all health professionals and also by the major administrators of public health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0142.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: CIDER; post-traumatic stress disorder; trauma; adolescent; trauma-focused group psychotherapy
Online: 15 February 2019 (15:04:13 CET)
We aimed to evaluate the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of trauma-focused group psychotherapy in adolescents who experienced traumatic events in Korea. Participants were assigned and recruited from two sites in Korea. Children in Disaster: Evaluation and Recovery (CIDER) V1.0 is a trauma-focused group psychotherapy approach consisting of psychoeducation, normalization, stabilization, and techniques of managing the traumatic memory. The CIDER intervention consists of eight 50-minute-long sessions. The effectiveness of the intervention was evaluated using the Korean version of the Children’s Response to Traumatic Events Scale-Revised (K-CRTES-R), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the State Anxiety Inventory for Children (SAIC), and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedQL). Data were analyzed by Wilcoxon signed-rank test. We recruited 22 traumatized adolescents (mean age 16 years; SD 1.43; range 13–18 years old; 71.4% boys) in this pilot study. The K-CRTES-R scores were significantly improved (Z = −2.85, p < 0.01). The BDI demonstrated the effectiveness of the therapy (Z = −2.35, p < 0.05). The assessment of the PedQL supported the effect of CIDER (Z = −3.08, p < 0.01). However, there was no statistically significant differences in the SAIC scores (Z = −1.90, p > 0.05). The results show that there is preliminary evidence that CIDER intervention reduces post-traumatic stress and depressive symptoms and improves quality of life. Our findings indicate that CIDER is feasible for treating adolescents exposed to traumatic events. Larger controlled trials are needed to establish the efficacy of this trauma-focused group psychotherapy and examine its impact on post-traumatic stress disorder.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0165.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: growth hormone; traumatic brain injury; neural plasticity; neurogenesis; actin; nestin; striatum; thalamus
Online: 15 October 2019 (08:03:13 CEST)
Previously we demonstrated, in rats, that the treatment with growth hormone (GH) and rehabilitation, carried out immediately after a motor cortical ablation, significantly improved the motor affectation produced by the lesion and induced the re-expression of nestin in the contralateral motor cortex. Here we analyze cortical proliferation after ablation of the frontal motor cortex and investigate the re-expression of nestin in the contralateral motor cortex and the role of the striatum and thalamus in motor recovery. The rats were subjected to ablation of the frontal motor cortex in the dominant hemisphere or sham-operated and immediately treated with GH or vehicle (V), for five days. At 1 dpi (days after injury), 5 rats received daily injections (4 days) of bromodeoxyuridine and were sacrificed. The other 15 rats (n = 5 / group) underwent treatment and rehabilitation and were sacrificed at 25 dpi. GH induced the greatest number of proliferating cells in the perilesional cortex. GH and rehabilitation produced the functional recovery of the motor lesion and increased the expression of nestin in the striatum. In the thalamic ventral nucleus ipsilateral to the lesion, cells positive for nestin and actin were detected, but this was independent of GH. Our data suggest that GH-induced striatal nestin is involved in motor recovery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0394.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: acute subdural hematoma; comorbidity; elderly; outcome; surgery; timing of surgery; traumatic brain injury
Online: 23 August 2022 (05:08:46 CEST)
Background: The incidence of traumatic acute subdural hematomas (ASDH) in elderly is increasing. Despite surgical evacuation, these patients have poor survival and low rate of functional outcome, and surgical timing plays a no clear role as predictor. We investigated if the timing of surgery has a major role in influencing outcome in these patients.Methods: We retrospectively retrieved clinical and radiological data of all patients ≥70 years operated on for post-traumatic ASDH in a 3 years period in 5 Italian Hospitals. Patients were divided in 3 surgical timing groups from hospital arrival: ultra-early (within 6h); early (6-24h); delayed (after 24h). Outcome was measured at discharge using two endpoints: survival (alive/dead) and functional outcome at Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS). Univariate and multivariate predictor models were constructed.Results: We included 136 patients. About 33% died for consequences of ASDH and among the survivors only 24% were in good functional outcome at discharge. Surgical timing groups appeared different according to presenting GCS, which was on average lower in ultra-early surgery group, and radiological findings, which appeared worse in the same group. Delayed surgery was more frequent in patients with subacute clinical deterioration. Surgical timing appeared associated neither with survival nor with functional outcome also after stratification for preoperative GCS. Preoperative midline shift was the strongest outcome predictor. Conclusions: An earlier surgery was offered to patients with worse clinical-radiological findings. Also after stratification for GCS it was not associated with better outcome. Among the radiological markers, preoperative midline shift was the strongest outcome predictor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0194.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: COVID-19; health care workers; Greece; mental health; depression; anxiety; traumatic stress; burnout
Online: 8 February 2021 (11:41:59 CET)
COVID-19 pandemic has the potential to adversely affect the mental health of healthcare workers (HCWs). The public healthcare system in Greece was already facing serious challenges at the outset of the outbreak following years of austerity and an escalating refugee crisis. The multi-center, cross-sectional study aims to assess the levels and associated risk factors of anxiety, depression, traumatic stress and burnout of frontline staff in Greece. A total of 464 HCWs in six reference hospitals completed a self-administered questionnaire comprising of sociodemographic and work-related information and psychometric scales. The proportion of HCWs with symptoms of moderate/severe depression, anxiety and traumatic stress were 30%, 25% and 33% respectively. Burnout levels were particularly high with 65% of respondents scoring moderate/severe in Emotional Exhaustion, 92% severe in Depersonalization and 51% low/moderate in Personal Accomplishment. Predictive factors of adverse psychological outcomes included fear, perceived stress, risk of infection, lack of protective equipment and low social support. The psychological burden associated with Covid-19 in healthcare professionals in Greece is considerable with more than half experiencing at least mild mental health difficulties. Findings signal the need for immediate organizational and individually tailored interventions to enhance resilience and support wellbeing under pandemic conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0690.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: COVID-19 Pandemic; Finland; health care personnel; psychological distress; post-traumatic stress disorder
Online: 28 September 2020 (15:37:39 CEST)
On March 2020 strict measures took place in Finland to limit the COVID -19 pandemic. A majority of the Finnish COVID -19 –patients have been located in the southern Finland and consequently cared for in the HUS Helsinki University Hospital. During the ongoing pandemic, HUS personnel’s psychological symptoms are followed via an electronic survey, which also delivers information on psychosocial support services. The baseline survey in June 2020 was sent to 25494 HUS employees out of whom 4804 (19%) answered; altogether 62.4% of the respondents were nursing staff and 8.9% medical doctors. While the follow-up continues for a year and a half, this report shares the sociodemographic characteristics of the respondents and the first results of psychological symptoms from the baseline survey. Out of those who were directly involved in pandemic patients` care, 43.4% reported potentially traumatic COVID-19 pandemic-related experiences vs. 21.8% among the other (p < 0.001). While over a half of the personnel was symptomless, a group of respondents reported pandemic work –related traumatic events and concurrent depressive, insomnia and anxiety symptoms. This highlights the need to ensure appropriate psychosocial support services to all traumatized personnel and PTEs were present especially among nursing staff.
Subject: Keywords: brain injuries; traumatic brain injury; children; diversity; student-led; participant-focused; recruitment; sample; methods
Online: 7 July 2020 (04:42:39 CEST)
The advancement of the pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) knowledge base requires biospecimens and data from large samples. This study seeks to describe a novel clinical research modality to establish best practices for enrolling a diverse pediatric TBI population and quantifying key information on enrollment into biobanks. Screening form responses were standardized and cleaned through Google Sheets. Data was used to analyze total individuals at each enrollment stage. R was utilized for final analysis, including chi-square goodness of fit and proportion statistical tests, to determine further significance and relationships. Issues throughout data cleaning shed light on limitations of the consent modality. Results suggest that through a diverse research team, the recruited sample exceeds traditional measures of representation (e.g. sex, race, ethnicity). Sex demographics of the study are representative of the local population. Screening for candidates is critical to the success of the consent modality. The consent modality may be modified to increase diversity of study population and accept bilingual candidates. Researchers must implement best practices, including increasing inclusivity of bilingual populations, utilizing technology, and improving participant follow-up, to improve health disparities for understudied clinical populations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0149.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: neurological wake-up test; multimodality monitoring; neurologic examination; daily-interruption of sedation; traumatic brain injury
Online: 7 December 2020 (12:41:39 CET)
Sedation is a ubiquitous practice in ICUs and NCCUs. It has the benefit of reducing cerebral energy demands, but also precludes an accurate neurologic assessment. Because of this, sedation is intermittently stopped for the purposes of a neurologic assessment, which is termed a neurologic wake-up test (NWT). NWTs are considered to be the gold-standard in continued assessment of brain-injured patients under sedation. NWTs also produce an acute stress response that is accompanied by elevations in blood pressure, respiratory rate, heart rate, and ICP. Utilization of cerebral microdialysis and brain tissue oxygen monitoring indicates that this is not mirrored by alterations in overall cerebral metabolism, and seldom affects oxygenation. The hard contraindications for the NWT are preexisting intracranial hypertension, barbiturate treatment, status epilepticus, and hyperthermia. However, hemodynamic instability, sedative use for primary ICP control, and sedative use for severe agitation or respiratory distress are considered significant safety concerns. Despite ubiquitous recommendation, it is not clear if additional clinically relevant information is gleaned through its use, especially with the contemporaneous utilization of multimodality monitoring. Various monitoring modalities provide unique and pertinent information about neurologic function, however, their role in improving patient outcomes and guiding treatment plans has not been fully elucidated. There is a paucity of information pertaining to the optimal frequency of NWTs, and if it differs based on type of injury. Only one concrete recommendation was found in the literature, exemplifying the uncertainty surrounding its utility. The most common sedative used and recommended is propofol because of its rapid onset, short duration, and reduction of cerebral energy requirements. Dexmedetomidine may be employed to facilitate serial NWTs, and should always be used in the non-intubated patient or if propofol infusion syndrome (PRIS) develops. Midazolam is not recommended due to tissue accumulation and residual sedation confounding a reliable NWT. Thus, NWTs are well tolerated in most patients and remain recommended as the gold-standard for continued neuromonitoring. Predicated upon one expert panel, they should be performed at least one time per day. Propofol or dexmedetomidine are the main sedative choices, both enabling a rapid awakening and consistent NWT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0082.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: Brain injury, coma, consciousness, cognitive motor dissociation, disorders of consciousness, ethics, neurorehabilitation, traumatic brain injury
Online: 6 December 2018 (10:05:52 CET)
Background: The vegetative state (VS)/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS) denotes brain-injured, awake patients who are seemingly without awareness. Still, up to 15% of these patients show signs of covert consciousness when examined by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) or EEG, which is known as cognitive motor dissociation (CMD). Most experts prefer the term unresponsive wakefulness syndrome to avoid the negative connotations associated with vegetative state and to highlight the possibility for CMD. However, the perception of VS/UWS by the public has never been studied systematically. Methods: Using an online crowdsourcing platform, we recruited 1297 participants from 32 countries. We investigated if vegetative state and unresponsive wakefulness syndrome might have a different influence on attitudes towards VS/UWS and CMD. Results: Participants randomized to be inquired about the vegetative state believed that CMD was less common (mean estimated frequency in unresponsive patients 38.07% ± SD 25.15) than participants randomized to unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (42.29% ± SD 26.63; p=0.016). Attitudes towards treatment withdrawal were similar. Most participants preferred unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (60.05%), although a sizeable minority favored vegetative state (24.21%; difference 35.84%, 95% CI 29.36 to 41.87; p<0.0001). Searches on PubMed and Google Trends revealed that unresponsive wakefulness syndrome is increasingly used by academics but not lay people.Discussion: Simply replacing vegetative state with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome may not be fully appropriate given that 1 of 4 prefer the first term. We suggest that physicians take advantage of the controversy around the terminology to explain relatives the concept of CMD and its ethical implications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0264.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: concussion; mild traumatic brain injury; working memory; long-term cognitive outcome; support vector machine classifier; personalized prediction
Online: 16 December 2021 (10:24:08 CET)
Concussion, also known as mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), commonly causes transient neurocognitive symptoms, but in some cases, it causes cognitive impairment, including working memory (WM) deficit, which can be long-lasting and impede a patient’s return to work. The predictors of long-term cognitive outcomes following mTBI remain unclear because abnormality is often absent in structural imaging findings. The purpose of the study was to determine whether machine learning-based models using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) biomarkers and demographic or neuropsychological measures at baseline could effectively predict 1-year cognitive outcomes of concussion. We conducted a prospective, observational study of patients with mTBI who were compared with demographically-matched healthy controls enrolled between September 2015 to August 2020. Baseline assessments were collected within the first week of injury, and follow-ups were conducted at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year. Potential demographic, neuropsychological, and fMRI features were selected according to the significance of correlation with the estimated changes in WM ability. The support vector machine classifier was trained using these potential features and estimated changes in WM between the predefined time periods. Patients demonstrated significant cognitive recovery at the third month, followed by worsened performance after 6 months, which persisted until 1 year after concussion. Approximately half of the patients experienced prolonged cognitive impairment at 1-year follow up. Satisfactory predictions were achieved for patients whose WM function did not recover at 3 months (accuracy=87.5%), 6 months (accuracy=83.3%), 1 year (accuracy=83.3%), and performed worse at 1-year follow-up compared to baseline assessment (accuracy=83.3%). This study demonstrated the feasibility of personalized prediction for long-term postconcussive WM outcomes based on baseline fMRI and demographic features, opening a new avenue for early rehabilitation intervention in selected individuals with possible poor long-term cognitive outcomes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0314.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Very mild Traumatic Brain Injury; Animal models (rodents); Post-concussion syndrome; neuro-behavioral changes; “inflammaging”; brain apoptosis
Online: 14 December 2020 (09:33:51 CET)
Post-concussion syndrome, recently recognized as a complication of mild traumatic brain injury, is considered a consequence of the summative effect of multiple concussions received over lifetime. In elderlies, the main mild brain trauma mechanism is fall (low impact force). Many falls are often not reported or noticed but may generate serious medical and medico-legal consequences. Our research question was to find if a single, very mild brain trauma can induce neuro-behavioral consequences in elderlies. One database was queried (PubMed – MeSH terminology) looking for histopathological, neuro-cognitive and behavioral changes that can be generated by sub-concussional trauma in senescent rodents, in comparison with young animals. 41 published research articles were selected. 17 of them used very mild brain trauma in young and senescent animals, in the same experiment (6 rats and 11 mice). 24 articles evaluated the effect of sub-threshold brain trauma in adult animals (no control group). Five trauma models were used (blast models were excluded). Neuro-inflammatory changes were detected immediate after very mild primary impact. In young animals, observed pathology disappeared fast (after 3 to 7 days). Increased apoptosis, mild axonal injury in white matter tracts plus maladaptive astrogliosis and microglial activation was stronger in aged animals, persisted over time (8 months) and significantly altered animals’ cognition and behavior. Associated preexisting pathology (hypertension, tau protein deposits, microbleeds, reactive inflammation) was often responsible for amplification of the primary impact results. As translation of observation is the weak spot of pathology and behavior animal research, further investigation is needed before to conclude that even a single, very mild brain trauma may have medical consequences on human senescent brain.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0189.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: astrocytes; reactive astrogliosis; TGF-β; traumatic brain injury; stroke; aging; Alzheimer’s disease; Parkinson’s disease; amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; multiple sclerosis; epilepsy
Online: 20 April 2022 (09:06:47 CEST)
Astrocytes are essential for normal brain development and functioning. They respond to brain injury and disease through a process referred to as reactive astrogliosis, where the reactivity is highly heterogenous and context dependent. Reactive astrocytes are active contributors to brain pathology and can exert beneficial, detrimental, or mixed effects following brain insults. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) has been identified as one of the key factors regulating astrocyte reactivity. Genetic and pharmacological manipulation of TGF-β signaling pathway in animal models of CNS injury and disease alters pathological and functional outcomes. This review aims to provide recent understanding regarding astrocyte reactivity and TGF-β signaling in brain injury, aging, and neurodegeneration. Further, it explores how TGF-β signaling modulates astrocyte reactivity and function.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0449.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Central Nervous System; Ependymal Cells; Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells; NG2+ Cells; Regenerative Medicine; Retina Injury; Spinal Cord Injury; Traumatic Brain Injury.
Online: 16 June 2021 (15:02:02 CEST)
Adult neural stem and progenitor cells (NSPCs) contribute to learning, memory, maintenance of homeostasis, energy metabolism and many other essential processes. They are highly heterogeneous populations that require input from a regionally distinct microenvironment including a mix of neurons, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, ependymal cells, NG2+ glia, vasculature, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and others. The diversity of NSPCs is present in all three major parts of the CNS, i.e., the brain, spinal cord, and retina. Intrinsic and extrinsic signals, e.g., neurotrophic and growth factors, master transcription factors, and mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix (ECM), collectively regulate activities and characteristics of NSPCs: quiescence/survival, proliferation, migration, differentiation, and integration. This review discusses the heterogeneous NSPC populations in the normal physiology and highlights their potentials and roles in injured/diseased states for regenerative medicine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0198.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Public Safety Personnel; First Responders; Mental Disorders; Mental Health; Well-Being; Trauma; Operational Stress Injuries; Post-Traumatic Stress Injuries; Role Identity Theory; Qualitative Research
Online: 14 January 2022 (08:31:02 CET)
Role identity theory describes the purpose and meaning in life that comes, in part, from occupying social roles. While robustly linked to health and well-being, this may become, however, when an individual is unable to fulfil the perceived requirements of an especially salient role in the way that they believe they should. Amid high rates of mental illness among public safety personnel, we interviewed a purposely selected sample of 21 paramedics from a single service in Ontario, Canada to explore incongruence between an espoused and able-to-enact paramedic role identity. Situated in an interpretivist epistemology, and using successive rounds of thematic analysis, we developed a framework for role identity dissonance wherein chronic, identity-relevant disruptive events cause emotional and psychological distress. While some participants were able to recalibrate their sense of self and understanding of the role, for others, this dissonance was irreconcilable, contributing to disability and lost time from work. In addition to contributing a novel perspective on paramedic mental health and well-being, our work also offers a modest contribution to the theory in using the paramedic context as an example to consider identity disruption through chronic workplace stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0368.v2
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: Public Safety Personnel; First Responders; Mental Disorders; Mental Health; Well-Being; Trauma; Operational Stress Injuries; Post-Traumatic Stress Injuries; Resilience; Peer Support; Paramedics; Emergency Medical Services
Online: 27 January 2022 (13:57:44 CET)
There is growing recognition in research and policy of a mental health crisis among Canada’s paramedics but despite this, epidemiological surveillance of the problem is in its infancy. Just weeks before the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic, we surveyed paramedics from a single, large, urban paramedic service in Ontario, Canada to assess for symptom clusters consistent with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder and to identify potential risk factors for each. In total, we received 589 completed surveys (a 97% completion rate) and found that 11% screened positive for PTSD, 15% for depression, and 15% for anxiety, with 1 in 4 active-duty paramedics screening positive for any of the three as recently as February 2020. In adjusted analyses, the risk of a positive screen varied as a function of employment classification, gender, self-reported resilience, and previous experience as a member of the service’s peer support team. Our findings support the position that paramedics screen positive for mental disorders at high rates – a problem likely to have worsened since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. We echo the calls of researchers and policymakers for urgent action to support paramedic mental health in Canada.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0344.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: chronic inflammation; low grade inflammation; immune tolerance; inflammatory factor; kynurenine; kynurenic acid; depression; bipolar disorder; substance use disorder; post-traumatic stress disorder; schizophrenia; autism spectrum disorder
Online: 14 June 2021 (10:06:50 CEST)
The tryptophan (TRP)-kynurenine (KYN) metabolic pathway is a main player of TRP metabolism through which more than 95% of TRP is catabolized. The pathway is activated by acute and chronic immune responses leading to a wide range of illnesses including cancer, immune diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, and psychiatric disorders. The TRP-KYN pathway synthesizes multifarious metabolites including oxidants, antioxidants, neurotoxins, neuroprotectants, and immunomodulators. The immunomodulators are known to facilitate the immune system towards a tolerogenic state, resulting in chronic low-grade inflammation (LGI) that is commonly present in obesity, poor nutrition, exposer to chemicals or allergens, prodromal stage of various illnesses, and chronic diseases. KYN, kynurenic acid, xanthurenic acid, and cinnabarinic acid are aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligands that serve as immunomodulators. Furthermore, TRP-KYN pathway enzymes are known to be activated by the stress hormone cortisol and inflammatory cytokines, and genotypic variants were observed to contribute to inflammation and thus various diseases. The tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase, the indoleamine 2, 3-oxygenases, and the kynurenine-3-monooxygenase are main enzymes in the pathway. This review article discusses the TRP-KYN pathway with special emphasis on its interaction with the immune system and the tolerogenic shift towards chronic LGI and overviews the major symptoms, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and toxic and protective KYNs to explore the linkage between chronic LGI, KYNs, and major psychiatric, including depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, substance use disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, schizophrenia, and autism spectrum disorder.