Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Histo-Neuro-Behavioral Effects of a Single, Very Mild Trauma on Senescent Rodent Brains: A Systematic Review

Version 1 : Received: 11 December 2020 / Approved: 14 December 2020 / Online: 14 December 2020 (09:33:51 CET)

How to cite: Drima, E.; Vrabie, C. Histo-Neuro-Behavioral Effects of a Single, Very Mild Trauma on Senescent Rodent Brains: A Systematic Review. Preprints 2020, 2020120314 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202012.0314.v1). Drima, E.; Vrabie, C. Histo-Neuro-Behavioral Effects of a Single, Very Mild Trauma on Senescent Rodent Brains: A Systematic Review. Preprints 2020, 2020120314 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202012.0314.v1).

Abstract

Post-concussion syndrome, recently recognized as a complication of mild traumatic brain injury, is considered a consequence of the summative effect of multiple concussions received over lifetime. In elderlies, the main mild brain trauma mechanism is fall (low impact force). Many falls are often not reported or noticed but may generate serious medical and medico-legal consequences. Our research question was to find if a single, very mild brain trauma can induce neuro-behavioral consequences in elderlies. One database was queried (PubMed – MeSH terminology) looking for histopathological, neuro-cognitive and behavioral changes that can be generated by sub-concussional trauma in senescent rodents, in comparison with young animals. 41 published research articles were selected. 17 of them used very mild brain trauma in young and senescent animals, in the same experiment (6 rats and 11 mice). 24 articles evaluated the effect of sub-threshold brain trauma in adult animals (no control group). Five trauma models were used (blast models were excluded). Neuro-inflammatory changes were detected immediate after very mild primary impact. In young animals, observed pathology disappeared fast (after 3 to 7 days). Increased apoptosis, mild axonal injury in white matter tracts plus maladaptive astrogliosis and microglial activation was stronger in aged animals, persisted over time (8 months) and significantly altered animals’ cognition and behavior. Associated preexisting pathology (hypertension, tau protein deposits, microbleeds, reactive inflammation) was often responsible for amplification of the primary impact results. As translation of observation is the weak spot of pathology and behavior animal research, further investigation is needed before to conclude that even a single, very mild brain trauma may have medical consequences on human senescent brain.

Subject Areas

Very mild Traumatic Brain Injury; Animal models (rodents); Post-concussion syndrome; neuro-behavioral changes; “inflammaging”; brain apoptosis

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