ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0157.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Land use and land cover; Classification; Object-based change detection; Multi-temporal image analysis; Landsat; Tiaoxi
Online: 7 June 2021 (09:27:22 CEST)
The changing of land use and land cover (LULC) are both affected by climate and human activity and affect climate, biological diversity, and human well-being. Accurate and timely information about the LULC pattern and change is crucial for land management decision-making, ecosystem monitoring, and urban planning, especially in developing economies undergoing industrialization, urbanization, and globalization. Biodiversity degradation and urban expansion in eastern China are research hot-spots. However, the influence of LULC changes on the region remains largely unexplored. Here, an object-based and multi-temporal image analysis approach was developed to detect how LULC changes during 1985-2015 in the Tiaoxi watershed (Zhejiang province, eastern China) using Landsat TM and OLI data. The main objective of this study is to improve the accuracy of unsupervised change detection from object-based and multi-temporal images. To this end, a total of seven LULC maps are generated with multi-temporal images. A random stratified sample design was used for assessing change detection accuracy. The proposed method achieved an overall accuracy of 91.86%, 92.14%, 92.00%, and 93.86% for 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2015, respectively. Nevertheless, the proposed method, in conjunction with object-oriented and multi-temporal satellite images, offers a robust and flexible approach to LULC changes mapping that helps with emergency response and government management. Urbanization and agriculture efficiency are the main reasons for LULC changes in the region. We anticipate that this freely available data will improve the modeling for surface forcing, provide evidence of changes in LULC, and inform water-management decision-making.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0426.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: event-based vision; object detection and tracking; high-temporal resolution tracking; frame-based vision; hybrid approach
Online: 30 June 2022 (09:54:14 CEST)
Event-based vision is an emerging field of computer vision that offers unique properties such as asynchronous visual output, high temporal resolutions, and dependence on brightness changes to generate data. These properties can enable robust high-temporal-resolution object detection and tracking when combined with frame-based vision. In this paper, we present a hybrid, high-temporal-resolution, object detection and tracking approach, that combines learned and classical methods using synchronized images and event data. Off-the-shelf frame-based object detectors are used for initial object detection and classification. Then, event masks, generated per each detection, are used to enable inter-frame tracking at varying temporal resolutions using the event data. Detections are associated across time using a simple low-cost association metric. Moreover, we collect and label a traffic dataset using the hybrid sensor DAVIS 240c. This dataset is utilized for quantitative evaluation using state-of-the-art detection and tracking metrics. We provide ground truth bounding boxes and object IDs for each vehicle annotation. Further, we generate high-temporal-resolution ground truth data to analyze the tracking performance at different temporal rates. Our approach shows promising results with minimal performance deterioration at higher temporal resolutions (48 – 384 Hz) when compared with the baseline frame-based performance at 24 Hz.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0506.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: neural network; object detection; object classification; Darknet; programming.
Online: 22 July 2020 (09:39:51 CEST)
The article’s goal is to overview challenges and problems on the way from the state of the art CUDA accelerated neural networks code to multi-GPU code. For this purpose, the authors describe the journey of porting the existing in the GitHub, fully-featured CUDA accelerated Darknet engine to OpenCL. The article presents lessons learned and the techniques that were put in place to make this port happen. There are few other implementations on the GitHub that leverage the OpenCL standard, and a few have tried to port Darknet as well. Darknet is a well known convolutional neural network (CNN) framework. The authors of this article investigated all aspects of the porting and achieved the fully-featured Darknet engine on OpenCL. The effort was focused not only on the classification with the use of YOLO1, YOLO2, and YOLO3 CNN models. They also covered other aspects, such as training neural networks, and benchmarks to look for the weak points in the implementation. The GPU computing code substantially improves Darknet computing time compared to the standard CPU version by using underused hardware in existing systems. If the system is OpenCL-based, then it is practically hardware independent. In this article, the authors report comparisons of the computation and training performance compared to the existing CUDA-based Darknet engine in the various computers, including single board computers, and, different CNN use-cases. The authors found that the OpenCL version could perform as fast as the CUDA version in the compute aspect, but it is slower in memory transfer between RAM (CPU memory) and VRAM (GPU memory). It depends on the quality of OpenCL implementation only. Moreover, loosening hardware requirements by the OpenCL Darknet can boost applications of DNN, especially in the energy-sensitive applications of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0172.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: object detection; larger-scale dataset; stacked carton
Online: 11 March 2022 (15:48:23 CET)
Carton detection is an important technique in the automatic logistics system and can be applied to many applications such as the stacking and unstacking of cartons, the unloading of cartons in the containers. However, there is no public large-scale carton dataset for the research community to train and evaluate the carton detection models up to now, which hinders the development of carton detection. In this paper, we present a large-scale carton dataset named Stacked Carton Dataset (SCD) with the goal of advancing the state-of-the-art in carton detection. Images are collected from the Internet and several warehouses, and objects are labeled using per-instance segmentation for precise localization. There are total of 250,000 instance masks from 16,136 images. Naturelly, a suite of benchmarks are established with several popular detectors. In addition, we design a carton detector based on RetinaNet by embedding our proposed Offset Prediction between Classification and Localization module (OPCL) and Boundary Guided Supervision module (BGS). OPCL alleviates the imbalance problem between classification and localization quality which boosts AP by 3.1%∼4.7% on SCD at the model level while BGS guides the detector to pay more attention to boundary information of cartons and decouple repeated carton textures at the task level. To demonstrate the generalization of OPCL to other datasets, we conduct extensive experiments on MS COCO and PASCAL VOC. The improvements of AP on MS COCO and PASCAL VOC are 1.8%∼2.2% and 3.4%∼4.3% respectively. Source dataset is available here.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0139.v1
Online: 27 September 2017 (16:45:25 CEST)
Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA) has been successfully used to map slums. In general, the occurrence of uncertainties in producing geographic data is inevitable. However, most studies concentrated solely on assessing the classification accuracy and neglecting the inherent uncertainties. Our research analyses the impact of uncertainties in measuring the accuracy of OBIA-based slum detection. We selected Jakarta as our case study area, because of a national policy of slum eradication, which is causing rapid changes in slum areas. Our research comprises of four parts: slum conceptualization, ruleset development, implementation, and accuracy and uncertainty measurements. Existential and extensional uncertainty arise when producing reference data. The comparison of a manual expert delineations of slums with OBIA slum classification results into four combinations: True Positive, False Positive, True Negative and False Negative. However, the higher the True Positive (which lead to a better accuracy), the lower the certainty of the results. This demonstrates the impact of extensional uncertainties. Our study also demonstrates the role of non-observable indicators (i.e., land tenure), to assist slum detection, particularly in areas where uncertainties exist. In conclusion, uncertainties are increasing when aiming to achieve a higher classification accuracy by matching manual delineation and OBIA classification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0088.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: YOLOv2; transfer learning; pig farming; object detection
Online: 4 September 2020 (07:59:03 CEST)
Generic object detection is one of the most important and flourishing branches of computer vision and has real-life applications in our day to day life. With the exponential development of deep learning-based techniques for object detection, the performance has enhanced considerably over the last 2 decades. However, due to the data-hungry nature of deep models, they don't perform well on tasks which have very limited labeled dataset available. To handle this problem, we proposed a transfer learning-based deep learning approach for detecting multiple pigs in the indoor farm setting. The approach is based on YOLO-v2 and the initial parameters are used as the optimal starting values for train-ing the network. Compared to the original YOLO-v2, we transformed the detector to detect only one class of objects i.e. pigs and the back-ground. For training the network, the farm-specific data is annotated with the bounding boxes enclosing pigs in the top view. Experiments are performed on a different configuration of the pen in the farm and convincing results have been achieved while using a few hundred annotated frames for fine-tuning the network.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0544.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: pillar-based lake management; object-based lake management; Lake Rawapening
Online: 29 November 2022 (08:49:57 CET)
Lake Rawapening, Semarang Regency, Indonesia, has incorporated a holistic plan in its management practices. However, despite successful target achievements, some limitations remain that a review of its management plan is needed. This paper identifies and analyzes existing lake management strategies as a standard specifically in Lake Rawapening by exploring various literature, both legal frameworks and scholarly articles indexed in Google Scholar and published in Water by MDPI about lake management in many countries. There are two major types of lake management, namely pillar-based and object-based. While the former is the foundation of a conceptual paradigm that does not comprehensively consider the roles of finance and technology in the lake management, the latter indicates the objects to manage so as to create standards or benchmarks for the implementation of various programs. Overall, Lake Rawapening management should include more programs on erosion-sedimentation control and monitoring of operational performance using information systems.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0679.v1
Online: 27 May 2021 (14:14:20 CEST)
The study aimed to identify different molds that grow on various food surfaces. As a result, we conducted a case study for the detection of mold on food surfaces based on the “you only look once (YOLO) v5” principle. In this context, a dataset of 2050 food images with mold growing on their surfaces was created. The dataset was trained using the pre-trained YOLOv5 algorithm. In comparison to YOLOv3 and YOLOv4, this current YOLOv5 model had better precision, recall, and average precision (AP), which were 98.10%, 100%, and 99.60%, respectively. The YOLOv5 algorithm was used for the first time in this study to detect mold on food surfaces. In conclusion, the proposed model successfully recognizes any kind of mold present on the food surface. Using YOLOv5, we are currently conducting research to identify the specific species of the detected mold.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0070.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: scene recognition; object detection; scene classification; TF-IDF
Online: 5 July 2022 (08:38:17 CEST)
Indoor scene recognition and semantic information can be helpful for social robots. Recently, in the field of indoor scene recognition, researchers have incorporated object-level information and shown improved performances. This paper demonstrates that scene recognition can be performed solely using object-level information in line with these advances. A state-of-the-art object detection model was trained to detect objects typically found in indoor environments and then used to detect objects in scene data. These predicted objects were then used as features to predict room categories. This paper successfully combines approaches conventionally used in computer vision (YOLO) and Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency (TF-IDF). These approaches could be further helpful in the field of embodied research and dynamic scene classification, which we elaborate on.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0105.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: fusion; point clouds; images; object detection
Online: 12 February 2019 (16:53:19 CET)
This paper aims at tackling with the task of fusion feature from images and its corresponding point clouds for 3D object detection in autonomous driving scenarios basing on AVOD, an Aggregate View Object Detection network. The proposed fusion algorithms fuse features targeted from Bird’s Eye View (BEV) LIDAR point clouds and its corresponding RGB images. Differs in existing fusion methods, which are simply the adoptions of concatenation module, element-wise sum module or element-wise mean module, our proposed fusion algorithms enhance the interaction between BEV feature maps and its corresponding images feature maps by designing a novel structure, where single level feature maps and another utilizes multilevel feature maps. Experiments show that our proposed fusion algorithm produces better results on 3D mAP and AHS with less speed loss comparing to existing fusion method used on the KITTI 3D object detection benchmark.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0511.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: real sea surface; object detection; performance detection
Online: 31 December 2021 (11:16:15 CET)
The video images captured at long range usually have low contrast floating objects of interest on a sea surface. A comparative experimental study of the statistical characteristics of reflections from floating objects and from the agitated sea surface showed the difference in the correlation and spectral characteristics of these reflections. The functioning of the recently proposed modified matched subspace detector (MMSD) is based on the separation of the observed data spectrum on two subspaces: relatively low and relatively high frequencies. In the literature the MMSD performance has been evaluated in generally and moreover using only a sea model (additive Gaussian background clutter). This paper extends the performance evaluating methodology for low contrast object detection and moreover using only the real sea dataset. This methodology assumes an object of low contrast if the mean and variance of the object and the surrounding background are the same. The paper assumes that the energy spectrum of the object and the sea are different. The paper investigates a scenario in which an artificially created model of a floating object with specified statistical parameters is placed on the surface of a real sea image. The paper compares the efficiency of the classical Matched Subspace Detector (MSD) and MMSD for detecting low-contrast objects on the sea surface. The article analyzes the dependence of the detection probability at a fixed false alarm probability on the difference between the statistical means and variances of a floating object and the surrounding sea.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0244.v1
Subject: Keywords: salient object; local binary pattern; histogram features; conditional random field
Online: 22 April 2019 (11:40:11 CEST)
We propose a novel method for salient object detection in different images. Our method integrates spatial features for efficient and robust representation to capture meaningful information about the salient objects. We then train a conditional random field (CRF) using the integrated features. The trained CRF model is then used to detect salient objects during the online testing stage. We perform experiments on two standard datasets and compare the performance of our method with different reference methods. Our experiments show that our method outperforms the compared methods in terms of precision, recall, and F-Measure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0384.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Deep Learning; Smartphone Image; Acne Grading; Acne Object DetectionDeep Learning, Smartphone Image, Acne Grading, Acne Object Detection
Online: 28 June 2022 (10:05:25 CEST)
Skin image analysis using artificial intelligence (AI) has recently attracted significant research interest, particularly for analyzing skin images captured by mobile devices. Acne is one of the most common skin conditions with profound effects in severe cases. In this study, we developed an AI system called AcneDet for automatic acne object detection and acne severity grading using facial images captured by smartphones. AcneDet includes two models for conducting two tasks: (1) a Faster R-CNN-based deep learning model for the detection of acne lesion objects of four types including blackheads/whiteheads, papules/pustules, nodules/cysts, and acne scars; and (2) a LightGBM machine learning model for grading acne severity using the Investigator’s Global Assessment (IGA) scale. The output of the Faster R-CNN model, i.e., the counts of each acne type, were used as input for the LightGBM model for acne severity grading. A dataset consisting of 1,572 labeled facial images captured by both iOS and Android smartphones was used for training. The results show that the Faster R-CNN model achieves a mAP of 0.54 for acne object detection. The mean accuracy of acne severity grading by the LightGBM model is 0.85. With this study, we hope to contribute to the development of artificial intelligent systems that are able to help acne patients understand more about their conditions and support doctors in acne diagnosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0069.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantation; phenology; Xishuangbanna; Landsat; object-based approach; pixel-based approach
Online: 6 August 2016 (11:54:28 CEST)
Effectively mapping and monitoring rubber plantation is still changing. Previous studies have explored the potential of phenology features for rubber plantation mapping through a pixel-based approach (pixel-based phenology approach). However, in fragmented mountainous Xishuangbanna, it could lead to noises and low accuracy of resultant maps. In this study, we investigated the capability of an integrated approach by combining phenology information with an object-based approach (object-based phenology approach) to map rubber plantations in Xishuangbanna. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data were firstly used to acquire the temporal profile and phenological features of rubber plantations and natural forests, which delineates the time windows of defoliation and foliation phases. Landsat images were then used to extract a phenology algorithm comparing three different approaches: pixel-based phenology, object-based phenology, and extended object-based phenology to separate rubber plantations and natural forests. The results showed that the two object-based approaches achieved higher accuracy than the pixel-based approach, having overall accuracies of 96.4%, 97.4%, and 95.5%, respectively. This study proved the reliability of a phenology-based rubber mapping in fragmented landscapes with a distinct dry/cool season using Landsat images. This study indicated that the object-based phenology approaches can effectively improve the accuracy of the resultant maps in fragmented landscapes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0509.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: synthetic aperture radar; deep learning; data augmentation; object detection; ship detection
Online: 26 August 2021 (12:00:22 CEST)
Maritime ship monitoring plays an important role in maritime transportation. Fast and accurate detection of maritime ship is the key to maritime ship monitoring. The main sources of marine ship images are optical images and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. Different from natural images, SAR images are independent to daylight and weather conditions. Traditional ship detection methods of SAR images mainly depend on the statistical distribution of sea clutter, which leads to poor robustness. As a deep learning detector, RetinaNet can break this obstacle, and the problem of imbalance on feature level and objective level can be further solved by combining with Libra R-CNN algorithm. In this paper, we modify the feature fusion part of Libra RetinaNet by adding a bottom-up path augmentation structure to better preserve the low-level feature information, and we expand the dataset through style transfer. We evaluate our method on the publicly available SAR dataset of ship detection with complex backgrounds. The experimental results show that the improved Libra RetinaNet can effectively detect multi-scale ships through expansion of the dataset, with an average accuracy of 97.38%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0342.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: cadastral boundaries; automation; feature extraction; object based image analysis
Online: 29 May 2019 (04:37:50 CEST)
The objective to fast-track the mapping and registration of large numbers of unrecorded land rights globally, leads to the experimental application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in the domain of land administration, and specifically the application of automated visual cognition techniques for cadastral mapping tasks. In this research, we applied and compared the ability of rule-based systems within Object Based Image Analysis (OBIA), as opposed to human analysis, to extract visible cadastral boundaries from Very high resolution (VHR) World View-2 image, in both rural and urban settings. From our experiments, machine-based techniques were able to automatically delineate a good proportion of rural parcels with explicit polygons where the correctness of the automatically extracted boundaries was 47.4% against 74.24% for humans and the completeness of 45% for machine, as against 70.4% for humans. On the contrary, in the urban area, automatic results were counterintuitive: even though urban plots and buildings are clearly marked with visible features such as fences, roads and tacitly perceptible to eyes, automation resulted in geometrically and topologically poorly structured data, that could neither be geometrically compared with human digitised, nor actual cadastral data from the field. These results provide an updated snapshot with regards to the performance of contemporary machine-drive feature extraction techniques compared to conventional manual digitising.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0313.v3
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: object detection; faster region-based convolutional neural network (FRCNN); single-shot multibox detector (SSD); super-resolution; remote sensing imagery; edge enhancement; satellites
Online: 29 April 2020 (13:33:56 CEST)
The detection performance of small objects in remote sensing images has not been satisfactory compared to large objects, especially in low-resolution and noisy images. A generative adversarial network (GAN)-based model called enhanced super-resolution GAN (ESRGAN) showed remarkable image enhancement performance, but reconstructed images usually miss high-frequency edge information. Therefore, object detection performance showed degradation for small objects on recovered noisy and low-resolution remote sensing images. Inspired by the success of edge enhanced GAN (EEGAN) and ESRGAN, we applied a new edge-enhanced super-resolution GAN (EESRGAN) to improve the quality of remote sensing images and used different detector networks in an end-to-end manner where detector loss was backpropagated into the EESRGAN to improve the detection performance. We proposed an architecture with three components: ESRGAN, EEN, and Detection network. We used residual-in-residual dense blocks (RRDB) for both the ESRGAN and EEN, and for the detector network, we used a faster region-based convolutional network (FRCNN) (two-stage detector) and a single-shot multibox detector (SSD) (one stage detector). Extensive experiments on a public (car overhead with context) dataset and another self-assembled (oil and gas storage tank) satellite dataset showed superior performance of our method compared to the standalone state-of-the-art object detectors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0336.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: nature-based solutions; climate change adaptation; biodiversity; ecosystem-based adaptation
Online: 23 October 2021 (14:19:30 CEST)
Nature-based solutions (NbS) are increasingly recognised for their potential to address both the climate and biodiversity crises. These outcomes are interdependent, and both rely on the capacity of NbS to support and enhance the health of an ecosystem: its biodiversity, the condition of its abiotic and biotic elements, and its capacity to function normally despite environmental change. However, while understanding of ecosystem health outcomes of nature-based interventions for climate change mitigation is growing, the outcomes of those implemented for adaptation remain poorly understood with evidence scattered across multiple disciplines. To address this, we conducted a systematic review of the outcomes of 109 nature-based interventions for climate change adaptation using 33 indicators of ecosystem health across eight broad categories (e.g. diversity, biomass, ecosystem functioning and population dynamics). We showed that 88% of interventions with positive outcomes for climate change adaptation also reported measurable benefits for ecosystem health. We also showed that interventions were associated with a 67% average increase in local species richness. All eight studies that reported benefits in terms of both climate change mitigation and adaptation also supported ecosystem health, leading to a triple win. However, there were also trade-offs, mainly for forest management and creation of novel ecosystems such as monoculture plantations of non-native species. Our review highlights two major limitations of research to date. First, only a limited selection of metrics are used to assess ecosystem health and these rarely include key aspects such as functional diversity and habitat connectivity. Second, taxonomic coverage is poor: 67% of outcomes assessed only plants and 57% did not distinguish between native and non-native species. Future research addressing these issues will allow the design and adaptive management of NbS to support healthy and resilient ecosystems, and thereby enhance their effectiveness for meeting both climate and biodiversity targets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0060.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Autonomous Driving; Deep Learning; LIDAR Data; Wavelets; 3D Object Detection
Online: 5 September 2022 (13:03:00 CEST)
3D object detection is crucial for autonomous driving to understand the driving environment. Since the pooling operation causes information loss in the standard CNN, we have designed a wavelet multiresolution analysis-based 3D object detection network without a pooling operation. Additionally, instead of using a single filter like the standard convolution, we use the lower-frequency and higher-frequency coefficients as a filter. These filters capture more relevant parts than a single filter, enlarging the receptive field. The model comprises a discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and an inverse wavelet transform (IWT) with skip connections to encourage feature reuse for contrasting and expanding layers. The IWT enriches the feature representation by fully recovering the lost details during the downsampling operation. Element-wise summation is used for the skip connections to decrease the computational burden. We train the model for the Haar and Daubechies (Db4) wavelets. The two-level wavelet decomposition result shows that we can build a lightweight model without losing significant performance. The experimental results on the KITTI’s BEV and 3D evaluation benchmark show our model outperforms the Pointpillars base model by up to 14 \% while reducing the number of trainable parameters. Code will be released.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0025.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: object detection; semi-supervised learning; Mask R-CNN; floor-plan images; computer vision
Online: 1 September 2022 (15:16:43 CEST)
Research has been growing on object detection using semi-supervised methods in past few years. We examine the intersection of these two areas for floor-plan objects to promote the research objective of detecting more accurate objects with less labelled data. The floor-plan objects include different furniture items with multiple types of the same class, and this high inter-class similarity impacts the performance of prior methods. In this paper, we present Mask R-CNN based semi-supervised approach that provides pixel-to-pixel alignment to generate individual annotation masks for each class to mine the inter-class similarity. The semi-supervised approach has a student-teacher network that pulls information from the teacher network and feeds it to the student network. The teacher network uses unlabeled data to form pseudo-boxes, and the student network uses both unlabeled data with the pseudo boxes and labelled data as ground truth for training. It learns representations of furniture items by combining labelled and unlabeled data. On the Mask R-CNN detector with ResNet-101 backbone network, the proposed approach achieves mAP of 98.8%, 99.7%, and 99.8% with only 1%, 5% and 10% labelled data, respectively. Our experiment affirms the efficiency of the proposed approach as it outperforms the fully supervised counterpart using only 10% of the labels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0377.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: object detection; contour; polygonal approximation; piecewise split-merge algorithm; Coupled Hidden Markov Model
Online: 26 July 2022 (02:27:17 CEST)
Since the conventional split-merge algorithm is sensitive to the object scale variance and splitting starting point, a piecewise split-merge polygon approximation method is proposed to extract the object contour features. Specifically, the contour corner is used as the starting point for the contour piecewise approximation to reduce the sensitivity of the contour segment on the starting point; then, the split-merge algorithm is used to implement the polygon approximation for each contour segments. Both the distance ratio and the arc length ratio instead of the distance error are used as the iterative stop condition to improve the robustness to the object scale variance. Both the angle and length as two features describe the shape of the contour polygon, and affect each other along the contour order relationship. Since they have a strong coupling relationship. To improve the description correction of the contour, these two features are combined to construct a Coupled Hidden Markov Model to detect the object by calculating the probability of the contour feature. The proposed algorithm is validated on ETHZ Shape Classes and INRIA Horses standard datasets. Compared with other contour-based object detection algorithms, the proposed algorithm reduces the complexity of contour description, improves the robustness of contour features to scale variance, and has a higher object detection rate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0441.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Paper based sensor; whole virus; Zika; Aptamer
Online: 28 February 2020 (13:30:18 CET)
Paper-based sensors, microfluidic platforms and electronic devices have attracted attention in the past couple of decades because they are flexible, can be recycled easily, environmentally friendly, and inexpensive. Here we report a paper aptamer-based potentiometric sensor to detect the whole Zika virus for the first time with a minimum sensitivity of 2.6 nV/Zika and the minimum detectable signal (MDS) of 0.8x1e6 Zika. Our paper sensor works very similar to a P-N junction where a junction is formed between two different wet regions with different electrochemical potentials near each other on the paper. These two regions with slightly different ionic contents, ionic species and concentrations, produce a potential difference given by the Nernst equation. Our paper sensor consisted of a 2-3 mm x 10 mm segments of a paper with a conducting silver paint contact patches on its two ends. The paper is soaked in a buffer solution containing aptamers designed to bind to the capsid proteins on Zika. Atomic force microscopy studies were carried out to show both the aptamer and Zika become immobilized in the paper. We then added the Zika (in its own buffer or simulant Urine) to the region close to one of the silver-paint contacts. The Zika virus (40 nm diameter with 43 kDa or 7.1x10-20 gm weight), became immobilized in the paper’s pores and bonded with the resident aptamers creating a concentration gradient. The potential measured between the two silver paint contacts reproducibly became more negative as upon adding the Zika. We also showed that an LCD powered by the sensor, can be used to detect the sensor output.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0390.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Object detection; Feature fusion network; Multiple feature selection; Angle prediction; Pixel Attention Mechanism
Online: 29 June 2022 (03:09:52 CEST)
The object detection task is usually affected by complex backgrounds. In this paper, a new image object detection method is proposed, which can perform multi-feature selection on multi-scale feature maps. By this method, a bidirectional multi-scale feature fusion network is designed to fuse semantic features and shallow features to improve the detection effect of small objects in complex backgrounds. When the shallow features are transferred to the top layer, a bottom-up path is added to reduce the number of network layers experienced by the feature fusion network, reducing the loss of shallow features. In addition, a multi-feature selection module based on the attention mechanism is used to minimize the interference of useless information on subsequent classification and regression, allowing the network to adaptively focus on appropriate information for classification or regression to improve detection accuracy. Because the traditional five-parameter regression method has severe boundary problems when predicting objects with large aspect ratios, the proposed network treats angle prediction as a classification task. The experimental results on the DOTA dataset, the self-made DOTA-GF dataset and the HRSC 2016 dataset show that, compared with several popular object detection algorithms, the proposed method has certain advantages in detection accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0014.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: spectrogram data set; wireless network monitoring; spectrum analysis; frame detection; object detection; deep learning
Online: 4 October 2022 (09:56:48 CEST)
Automated spectrum analysis serves as a troubleshooting tool that helps to diagnose faults in wireless networks like difficult signal propagation conditions and coexisting wireless networks. It provides a higher monitoring coverage while requiring less expertise compared to manual spectrum analysis. In this paper, we introduce a data set that can be used to train and evaluate deep learning models, capable of detecting frames from different wireless standards as well as interference between single frames. Since manually labelling a high variety of frames in different environments is too challenging, an artificial data generation pipeline has been developed. The data set consists of 20 000 augmented signal segments, each containing a random number of different Wi-Fi and Bluetooth frames, their spectral image representations and labels that describe the position and type of frame within the spectrogram. The data set contains results of intermediate processing steps that enables the research or teaching community to create new data sets for specific requirements or to provide new interesting examination examples.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0204.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: computer vision; image processing; medication adherence; object detection; pill detection
Online: 17 February 2022 (08:45:14 CET)
Objective tools to track medication adherence are lacking. A tool to monitor pill intake that can be implemented in mHealth apps without the need for additional devices was developed. We propose a pill intake detection tool that uses digital image processing to analyze images of a blister to detect the presence of pills. The tool uses the circular Hough transform as a feature extraction technique and is therefore primarily useful for the detection of pills with a round shape. This pill detection tool is composed of two steps. First, the registration of a full blister and storing of reference values in a local database. Second, the detection and classification of taken and remaining pills in similar blisters, to determine the actual number of untaken pills. In the registration of round pills in full blisters, 100% of pills in gray blisters or blisters with a transparent cover were successfully detected. In counting of untaken pills in partially opened blisters, 95.2% of remaining and 95.1% of taken pills were detected in gray blisters, while 88.2% of remaining and 80.8% of taken pills were detected in blisters with a transparent cover. The proposed tool provides promising results for the detection of round pills. However, the classification of taken and remaining pills need to be further improved, in particular for the detection of pills with non-oval shapes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0131.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Adversarial examples; Remote sensing images; Universal adversarial patch; Object detection; Joint optimization; Scale factor.
Online: 11 October 2022 (02:34:23 CEST)
Although deep learning has received extensive attention and achieved excellent performances in various of scenarios, it suffers from adversarial examples to some extent. Especially, physical attack poses more threats than digital attack. However, existing researches pay less attention to physical attack of object detection in remote sensing images (RSIs). In this work, we systematically analyze the universal adversarial patch attack for multi-scale objects in the remote sensing field. There are two challenges for adversarial attack in RSIs. On one hand, the number of objects in remote sensing images is more than that of natural images. Therefore, it is difficult for adversarial patch to show adversarial effect on all objects when attacking a detector of RSIs. On the other hand, the wide range of height of photography platform causes that the size of objects diverse a lot, which brings challenges for generating universal adversarial perturbation for multi-scale objects. To this end, we propose an adversarial attack method on object detection for remote sensing data. One of the key ideas of the proposed method is the novel optimization of adversarial patch. We aim to attack as many objects as possible by formulating a joint optimization problem. Besides, we raise a scale factor to generate a universal adversarial patch that adapts to multi-scale objects, which ensures the adversarial patch is valid for multi-scale objects in the real world. Extensive experiments demonstrate the superiority of our method against state-of-the-art methods on YOLO-v3 and YOLO-v5. In addition, we also validate the effectiveness of our method in real-world applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0279.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: object detection; challenging environments; low-light; image enhancement; complex environments; deep neural networks; computer vision
Online: 28 April 2022 (09:42:37 CEST)
In recent years, due to the advancement of machine learning, object detection has become a mainstream task in the computer vision domain. The first phase of object detection is to find the regions where objects can exist. With the improvement of deep learning, traditional approaches such as sliding windows and manual feature selection techniques have been replaced with deep learning techniques. However, object detection algorithms face a problem when performing in low light, challenging weather, and crowded scenes like any other task. Such an environment is termed a challenging environment. This paper exploits pixel-level information to improve detection under challenging situations. To this end, we exploit the recently proposed hybrid task cascade network. This network works collaboratively with detection and segmentation heads at different cascade levels. We evaluate the proposed methods on three complex datasets of ExDark, CURE-TSD, and RESIDE and achieve an mAP of 0.71, 0.52, and 0.43, respectively. Our experimental results assert the efficacy of the proposed approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0291.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: paper based sensor; whole virus; Zika; aptamer
Online: 20 February 2020 (07:24:39 CET)
Paper-based sensors, microfluidic platforms and electronic devices have attracted attention in the past couple of decades because they are flexible, can be recycled easily, environmentally friendly, and inexpensive. Here we report a paper aptamer-based potentiometric sensor to detect the whole Zika virus for the first time with a minimum sensitivity of 2.6 nV/Zika and the minimum detectable signal (MDS) of 1.2x106 Zika. Our paper sensor works very similar to a P-N junction where a junction is formed between two different wet regions with different electrochemical potentials near each other on the paper. These two regions with slightly different ionic contents, ionic species and concentrations, produce a potential difference given by the Nernst equation. Our paper sensor consisted of a 2-3 mm x 10 mm segments of a paper with a conducting silver paint contact patches on its two ends. The paper is soaked in a buffer solution containing aptamers designed to bind to the capsid proteins on Zika. Atomic force microscopy studies were carried out to show both the aptamer and Zika become immobilized in the paper. We then added the Zika (in its own buffer) to the region close to one of the silver-paint contacts. The Zika virus (40 nm diameter with 43 kDa or 7.1x10-20 gm weight), became immobilized in the paper’s pores and bonded with the resident aptamers creating a concentration gradient. The potential measured between the two silver paint contacts reproducibly became more negative as upon adding the Zika. We also showed that an LCD powered by the sensor, can be used to detect the sensor output.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0244.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: Image Fusion, Sentinel-1, Sentinel-2, Wetlands, Object-Based Classification, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
Online: 13 July 2018 (17:11:07 CEST)
Wetlands benefits can be summarized but are not limited to their ability to store floodwaters and improve water quality, providing habitats for wildlife and supporting biodiversity, as well as aesthetic values. Over the past few decades, remote sensing and geographical information technologies has proven to be a useful and frequent applications in monitoring and mapping wetlands. Combining both optical and microwave satellite data can give significant information about the biophysical characteristics of wetlands and wetlands` vegetation. Also, fusing data from different sensors, such as radar and optical remote sensing data, can increase the wetland classification accuracy. In this paper we investigate the ability of fusion two fine spatial resolution satellite data, Sentinel-2 and the Synthetic Aperture Radar Satellite, Sentinel-1, for mapping wetlands. As a study area in this paper, Balikdami wetland located in the Anatolian part of Turkey has been selected. Both Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 images require pre-processing before their use. After the pre-processing, several vegetation indices calculated from the Sentinel-2 bands were included in the data set. Furthermore, an object-based classification was performed. For the accuracy assessment of the obtained results, number of random points were added over the study area. In addition, the results were compared with data from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle collected on the same data of the overpass of the Sentinel-2, and three days before the overpass of Sentinel-1 satellite. The accuracy assessment showed that the results significant and satisfying in the wetland classification using both multispectral and microwave data. The statistical results of the fusion of the optical and radar data showed high wetland mapping accuracy, with an overall classification accuracy of approximately 90% in the object-based classification. Compared with the high resolution UAV data, the classification results give promising results for mapping and monitoring not just wetlands, but also the sub-classes of the study area. For future research, multi-temporal image use and terrain data collection are recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0077.v1
Subject: Keywords: biodiversity; climate change; forests; nature-based solutions; policy; resilience
Online: 6 December 2018 (07:39:13 CET)
The current focus on afforestation in climate policy runs the risk of compromising both longterm carbon storage and human adaptation. It also works against efforts to stem the tide of biodiversity loss. We outline why an emphasis on diverse, intact natural ecosystems—as opposed to tree plantations with fast-growing exotic species—will help nations deliver the goals of the Paris Agreement and much more.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0109.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Kalman filter; median filter; impulse noise; estimate prediction; object distance determination; lidar; value calibration; point cloud.
Online: 7 September 2022 (10:20:49 CEST)
The task of determining the distance from one object to another is one of the important tasks solved in robotics systems. Conventional algorithms rely on an iterative process of predicting distance estimates, which results in an increased computational burden. Algorithms used in robotic systems should require minimal time costs, as well as be resistant to the presence of noise. To solve these problems, the paper proposes an algorithm for Kalman combination filtering with a Goldschmidt divisor and a median filter. Software simulation showed an increase in the accuracy of predicting the estimate of the developed algorithm in comparison with the traditional filtering algorithm, as well as an increase in the speed of the algorithm. The results obtained can be effectively applied in various computer vision systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0089.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Object Detection; Cascade Mask R-CNN; Floor Plan Images; Deep Learning; Transfer Learning; Dataset Augmentation; Computer Vision
Online: 5 October 2021 (15:09:26 CEST)
Object detection is one of the most critical tasks in the field of Computer vision. This task comprises identifying and localizing an object in the image. Architectural floor plans represent the layout of buildings and apartments. The floor plans consist of walls, windows, stairs, and other furniture objects. While recognizing floor plan objects is straightforward for humans, automatically processing floor plans and recognizing objects is a challenging problem. In this work, we investigate the performance of the recently introduced Cascade Mask R-CNN network to solve object detection in floor plan images. Furthermore, we experimentally establish that deformable convolution works better than conventional convolutions in the proposed framework. Identifying objects in floor plan images is also challenging due to the variety of floor plans and different objects. We faced a problem in training our network because of the lack of publicly available datasets. Currently, available public datasets do not have enough images to train deep neural networks efficiently. We introduce SFPI, a novel synthetic floor plan dataset consisting of 10000 images to address this issue. Our proposed method conveniently surpasses the previous state-of-the-art results on the SESYD dataset and sets impressive baseline results on the proposed SFPI dataset. The dataset can be downloaded from SFPI Dataset Link. We believe that the novel dataset enables the researcher to enhance the research in this domain further.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0524.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: object detection; tomato organ; K-means clustering; Soft-NMS; migration learning; convolutional neural network; deep learning
Online: 23 October 2018 (07:57:44 CEST)
In the current natural environment, due to the complexity of the background and the high similarity of the color between immature green tomato and plant, the occlusion of the key organs (flower and fruit) by the leaves and stems will lead to low recognition rate and poor generalization of the detection model. Therefore, an improved tomato organ detection method based on convolutional neural network has been proposed in this paper. Based on the original Faster R-CNN algorithm, Resnet-50 with residual blocks was used to replace the traditional vgg16 feature extraction network, and K-means clustering method was used to adjust more appropriate anchor size than manual setting to improve detection accuracy. A variety of data augmentation techniques were used to train the network. The test results showed that compared with the traditional Faster R-CNN model, the mean average precision (mAP) of the optimal model was improved from 85.2% to 90.7%, the memory requirement decreased from 546.9MB to 115.9 MB, and the average detection time was shortened to 0.073S/sheet. As the performance greatly improved, the training model can be transplanted to the embedded system, which lays a theoretical foundation for the development of precise targeting pesticide application system and automatic picking device.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0323.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: Intrusion Detection System (IDS); HNADAM-SDG(Hybrid Nestrov-Accelerated Adaptive Moment Estimation –Stochastic Gradient Descent); Network-based Intrusion Detection System (NIDS); Host-based Intrusion Detection System (HIDS); Signature-based Intrusion Detection System (SIDS); Anomaly-based Intrusion Detection System (AIDS); Algorithms; Machine Learning.
Online: 21 December 2021 (11:45:39 CET)
A single Information security is of pivotal concern for consistently streaming information over the widespread internetwork. The bottleneck flow of incoming and outgoing data traffic introduces the issue of malicious activities taken place by intruders, hackers and attackers in the form of authenticity desecration, gridlocking data traffic, vandalizing data and crashing the established network. The issue of emerging suspicious activities is managed by the domain of Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS). The IDS consistently monitors the network for identifica-tion of suspicious activities and generates alarm and indication in presence of malicious threats and worms. The performance of IDS is improved by using different signature based machine learning algorithms. In this paper, the performance of IDS model is determined using hybridization of nestrov-accelerated adaptive moment estimation –stochastic gradient descent (HNADAM-SDG) algorithm. The performance of the algorithm is compared with other classi-fication algorithms as logistic regression, ridge classifier and ensemble algorithm by adapting feature selection and optimization techniques
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0122.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: Classification, SVM Classifier, ML Classifier, Supervised and Unsupervised Classification, Object-based Classification, Multispectral Data
Online: 11 March 2019 (09:01:44 CET)
This paper focuses on the crucial role that remote sensing plays in divining land features. Data that is collected distantly provides information in spectral, spatial, temporal and radiometric domains, with each domain having the specific resolution to information collected. Diverse sectors such as hydrology, geology, agriculture, land cover mapping, forestry, urban development and planning, oceanography and others are known to use and rely on information that is gathered remotely from different sensors. In the present study, IRS LISS IV Multi-spectral data is used for land cover mapping. It is known, however, that the task of classifying high-resolution imagery of land cover through manual digitizing consumes time and is way too costly. Therefore, this paper proposes accomplishing classifications by way of enforcing algorithms in computers. These classifications fall in three classes: supervised, unsupervised, and object-based classification. In the case of supervised classification, two approaches are relied upon for land cover classification of high-resolution LISS-IV multispectral image. These approaches are Maximum Likelihood and Support Vector Machine (SVM). Finally, the paper proposes a step-by-step procedure for optical image classification methodology. This paper concludes that in optical data classification, SVM classification gives a better result than the ML classification technique.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0123.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: geobody modeling, object-based facies modeling (OBFM), variogram analysis, farewell formation, paleo-depositional environment
Online: 15 January 2018 (10:01:00 CET)
The early-mid Paleocene Farewell Formation is stratigraphically distributed across the southern Taranaki Basin (STB) which is also encountered within the Maui Gas Field. Using available 3D seismic and well log data, a challenging task to delineate the spatial distribution and geobody patterns of the potential reservoir sands of the formation was performed. Object based modeling coupled with sequential indicator simulation were used to analyze the spatial distribution of facies configuration and a conceptual model was developed based on the outputs from the structurally- modeled grids. The facies modeling followed a hierarchical object-based mechanism which was set to perform with constraints like channel geometry and heterogeneity within the formation. The resultant 3D geobody model showed that the distributary channels, mainly braided geobodies flowed from northeast cutting through several regional normal-fault systems to the southwest. Overbank facies was adhered to the fringe of the channels whereas the floodplain facies was at the periphery of the model. Meandering channel-sand facies were mostly observed at the center of the model flowing in a more random manner, occupying major flow directions of northwest to southwest and southeast to northwest within the model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0203.v2
Subject: Keywords: biodiversity; climate change adaptation; ecosystems; Paris agreement; policy; nature-based solutions
Online: 14 September 2019 (12:07:15 CEST)
Ecosystems are not merely vulnerable to climate change but, if sustainably restored and protected, are a major source of human resilience. Not only is the evidence-base for the importance of these “Nature-based Solutions” (NbS) growing rapidly, but NbS are featuring with increasing prominence in global climate change policy. Here we report on the prominence of NbS in the 141 adaptation components of the 167 Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) that were submitted to UNFCCC by all signatories of the Paris Agreement. In total, 103 nations include NbS in the adaptation component of their NDC, 76 nations include them in both their adaptation and mitigation component, and an additional 27 include them as part of their mitigation plans only. In other words, 130 nations—or 66% of all signatories to the Paris Agreement—have articulated intentions of working with ecosystems, in one form or another, to address the causes and consequences of climate change. However, commitments rarely translate into robust science-based targets. As climate pledges are revised in 2020, we urge the ecosystem science community to work closely with policymakers to identify meaningful adaptation targets that benefit both people and the ecosystems on which they depend.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0102.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: Content-Based Remote Sensing Image Retrieval; Change Information Detection; Information Management; Remote Sensing Data Service
Online: 29 August 2017 (16:18:20 CEST)
With the rapid development of satellite remote sensing technology, the volume of image datasets in many application areas is growing exponentially and the demand for Land-Cover and Land-Use change remote sensing data is growing rapidly. It is thus becoming hard to efficiently and intelligently retrieve the change information that users need from massive image databases. In this paper, content-based image retrieval is successfully applied to change detection and a content-based remote sensing image change information retrieval model is introduced. First, the construction of a new model framework for change information retrieval in a remote sensing database is described. Then, as the target content cannot be expressed by one kind of feature alone, a multiple-feature integrated retrieval model is proposed. Thirdly, an experimental prototype system that was set up to demonstrate the validity and practicability of the model is described. The proposed model is a new method of acquiring change detection information from remote sensing imagery and so can reduce the need for image pre-processing, deal with problems related toseasonal changes as well as other problems encountered in the field of change detection. Meanwhile, the new model has important implications for improving remote sensing image management and autonomous information retrieval.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0352.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: artificial intelligence; color naming; color constancy; cognitive science; computer vision; object-based image analysis (OBIA); physical and statistical data models; radiometric calibration; semantic content-based image retrieval; spatial topological and spatial non-topological information components
Online: 28 August 2018 (07:57:02 CEST)
The European Space Agency (ESA) defines as Earth observation (EO) Level 2 information product a single-date multi-spectral (MS) image corrected for atmospheric, adjacency and topographic effects, stacked with its data-derived scene classification map (SCM), whose thematic map legend includes quality layers cloud and cloud-shadow. ESA EO Level 2 product generation is an inherently ill-posed computer vision (CV) problem never accomplished to date in operating mode by any EO data provider at the ground segment. Herein, it is considered: (I) necessary not sufficient pre-condition for the yet-unaccomplished dependent problems of semantic content-based image retrieval (SCBIR) and semantics-enabled information/knowledge discovery (SEIKD) in multi-source EO big data cubes. (II) Synonym of EO Analysis Ready Data (ARD) format. (III) Equivalent to a horizontal policy for background developments in Space Economy 4.0. In compliance with the GEO-CEOS Quality Assurance Framework for EO Calibration/Validation guidelines, to contribute toward filling an analytic and pragmatic information gap from multi-sensor EO big data to timely, comprehensive and operational EO value-adding information products and services, this work presents an innovative AutoCloud+ CV software toolbox for cloud and cloud-shadow quality layer detection in ESA EO Level 2 product. In vision, spatial information dominates color information. Inspired by this true-fact, the inherently ill-posed AutoCloud+ CV software was conditioned, designed and implemented to be “universal”, meaning fully automated (no human-machine interaction is required), near real-time, robust to changes in input data and scalable to changes in MS imaging sensor’s spatial and spectral resolution specifications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0590.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Object detection; challenging environments; low-light; image enhancement; complex environments; state-of-the-art; deep neural networks; computer vision; performance analysis.
Online: 23 June 2021 (16:01:33 CEST)
Recent progress in deep learning has led to accurate and efficient generic object detection networks. Training of highly reliable models depends on large datasets with highly textured and rich images. However, in real-world scenarios, the performance of the generic object detection system decreases when (i) occlusions hide the objects, (ii) objects are present in low-light images, or (iii) they are merged with background information. In this paper, we refer to all these situations as challenging environments. With the recent rapid development in generic object detection algorithms, notable progress has been observed in the field of object detection in challenging environments. However, there is no consolidated reference to cover state-of-the-art in this domain. To the best of our knowledge, this paper presents the first comprehensive overview, covering recent approaches that have tackled the problem of object detection in challenging environments. Furthermore, we present the quantitative and qualitative performance analysis of these approaches and discuss the currently available challenging datasets. Moreover, this paper investigates the performance of current state-of-the-art generic object detection algorithms by benchmarking results on the three well-known challenging datasets. Finally, we highlight several current shortcomings and outline future directions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0007.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: pipeline modeling; leak detection; transient-based method; pipeline system
Online: 1 June 2017 (08:20:31 CEST)
This paper shows a method for pipeline leak detection using a transient-based method with MATLAB® functions. The simulation of a pipeline systems in the time domain are very complex. In the case of the dissipative model, transfer functions are hyperbolic Bessel functions. Simulating a pipeline system in the frequency domain using a dissipative model we could find an approximate transfer function with equal frequency domain response to in order get the pipeline system's time domain response. The method described in this paper can be used to detect, by comparison, to detect a leak in a pipeline system model.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: traffic flow; object detection; object tracking; deep learning
Online: 1 June 2021 (14:42:58 CEST)
This paper proposes a neural network which fuses the data received from a camera system on a gantry, to detect moving objects and calculate relative position and velocity of the vehicles traveling on a freeway, this information is used to estimate the traffic flow. To estimate the traffic flow at both microscopic and macroscopic view, this paper used YOLO v4 and DeepSORT for vehicle detection and tracking, then counting the number of vehicles pass through the freeway by drawing virtual lines and hot zones, also counting the velocity of each vehicles. The information is then pass to the traffic control center, in order to monitoring and control traffic flow on freeways, and analyzing freeway conditions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0102.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: data needs; empirical models; integrated models; process-based models; review
Online: 15 December 2017 (07:13:40 CET)
There is increasing evidence that the impact of climate change on the productivity of grasslands will at least partly depend on their biodiversity. A high level of biodiversity may confer stability to grassland ecosystems against environmental change, but there are also direct effects of biodiversity on the quantity and quality of grassland productivity. To explain the manifold interactions, and to predict future climatic responses, models may be used. However, models designed for studying the interaction between biodiversity and productivity tend to be structurally different from models for studying the effects of climatic impacts. Here we review the literature on the impacts of climate change on biodiversity and productivity of grasslands. We first discuss the availability of data for model development. Then we analyse strengths and weaknesses of three types of model: ecological, process-based and integrated. We discuss the merits of this model diversity and the scope for merging different model types.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0360.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Table detection, table localization, deep learning, Hybrid Task Cascade, Object detection, deformable convolution, deep neural networks, computer vision, scanned document images, document image analysis.
Online: 17 August 2021 (10:26:42 CEST)
Tables in the document image are one of the most important entities since they contain crucial information. Therefore, accurate table detection can significantly improve information extraction from tables. In this work, we present a novel end-to-end trainable pipeline, HybridTabNet, for table detection in scanned document images. Our two-stage table detector uses the ResNeXt-101 backbone for feature extraction and Hybrid Task Cascade (HTC) to localize the tables in scanned document images. Moreover, we replace conventional convolutions with deformable convolutions in the backbone network. This enables our network to detect tables of arbitrary layouts precisely. We evaluate our approach comprehensively on ICDAR-13, ICDAR-17 POD, ICDAR-19, TableBank, Marmot, and UNLV. Apart from the ICDAR-17 POD dataset, our proposed HybridTabNet outperforms earlier state-of-the-art results without depending on pre and post-processing steps. Furthermore, to investigate how the proposed method generalizes unseen data, we conduct an exhaustive leave-one-out-evaluation. In comparison to prior state-of-the-art results, our method reduces the relative error by 27.57% on ICDAR-2019-TrackA-Modern, 42.64% on TableBank (Latex), 41.33% on TableBank (Word), 55.73% on TableBank (Latex + Word), 10% on Marmot, and 9.67% on UNLV dataset. The achieved results reflect the superior performance of the proposed method.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0015.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Wastewater; Surveillance; SARS-CoV-2; Wastewater based epidemiology; COVID-19; Detection; Sewage
Online: 4 April 2022 (11:04:30 CEST)
Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) is presently wreaking havoc on public health and socio-economic development. Besides the upper and lower respiratory tract involvement, gastrointestinal symptoms are also reported in COVID-19 patients through gut-lung axis. Finding its way through the feces of infected individuals and other sources, the genetic material of SARS-CoV-2 (ssRNA) is reported widely in wastewater and is being used as a fingerprint for its detection. With millions of cases arriving every day, there is a need to level up the testing speed efficiency. Due to the restricted sampling potential of testing laboratories, clinical testing is unable to track all the symptomatic and asymptomatic cases. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) bestows an auxiliary monitoring tool that will contribute in community level screening. Sample collection, concentration, RNA extraction, quantification and data analysis are the main steps involved in implementation of WBE that can be relied upon as an alarm call for an upcoming wave, emergence of a new variant or any future pandemic. WBE can be a cheaper and more practical alternative to high end and sophisticated clinical testing for community transmission detection. Worldwide, there are more than 300 reports entailing the occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater exhibiting unique temporal trends with five of them in India. This review aims to address the present knowledge on surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater and its implications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0304.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: Safe-drone; Emergency Detection; Time-window; Event-based Control; UAV(Unmanned Aerial Vehicle)/Quadrotor Drone
Online: 23 May 2022 (10:57:36 CEST)
Quadrotor drones have rapidly gained interest recently. Numerous studies are underway for the commercial use of autonomous drones, and especially the distribution businesses are taking serious reviews on drone delivery services. However, there are still many concerns about urban drone operations. The risk of failures and accidents makes it difficult to provide drone-based services in the real world with ease. There have been many studies that introduced supplementary methods to handle drone failures and emergencies. However, we discovered the limitation of the existing methods. The majority of approaches were improving PID-based control algorithms which is the dominant drone control method. This type of low-level approach lacks situation awareness and the ability to handle unexpected situations. This study introduces an event-based control methodology that takes a high-level diagnosing approach that can implement situation awareness via time-window. While leaving the low-level controller to involve in operating the drone for most of the time in normal situations, our controller operates at a higher level and detects unexpected behaviors and abnormal situations of the drone. We tested our method with real-time 3D computer simulation environments with Unreal Engine and AirSim. We were able to verify that our approach can provide enhanced double safety and better ensure safe drone operations. We hope our discovery to possibly contribute to the advance of real-world drone services in the near future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0439.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Water distribution networks; AnSeong; Transient-based techniques; Leak analysis
Online: 28 January 2022 (14:20:46 CET)
Water is a limited resource that needs to be properly managed and distributed to the ever-growing population of the world. Rapid urbanization and development have drastically increased the overall water demand worldwide. Ageing water distribution networks are vulnerable to deterioration and leakage, thereby causing an estimated annual loss of about 48 trillion liters of water. To address these issues, efficient and reliable leakage detection and management techniques are necessary. In this paper, the results of the experiments performed on a looped water distribution network in AnSeong, Korea are discussed. Transient-based techniques were used and physical data were collected for the detection and localization of leakages in the experimental water pipes. The results obtained from the experiments demonstrated the applicability of transient techniques for leak analysis in looped water distribution networks.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0739.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Deep neural network; survey; document images; review paper; deep learning; performance evaluation; page object detection, graphical page objects; document image analysis; page segmentation
Online: 28 April 2021 (10:17:49 CEST)
In any document, graphical elements like tables, figures, and formulas contain essential information. The processing and interpretation of such information require specialized algorithms. Off-the-shelf OCR components cannot process this information reliably. Therefore, an essential step in document analysis pipelines is to detect these graphical components. It leads to a high-level conceptual understanding of the documents that makes digitization of documents viable. Since the advent of deep learning, the performance of deep learning-based object detection has improved many folds. In this work, we outline and summarize the deep learning approaches for detecting graphical page objects in the document images. Therefore, we discuss the most relevant deep learning-based approaches and state-of-the-art graphical page object detection in document images. This work provides a comprehensive understanding of the current state-of-the-art and related challenges. Furthermore, we discuss leading datasets along with the quantitative evaluation. Moreover, it discusses briefly the promising directions that can be utilized for further improvements.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0105.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: asian breast cancers; mammography screening; risk-based screening
Online: 4 August 2022 (06:20:25 CEST)
Close to half (45.4%) of 2.3 million breast cancers (BC) diagnosed in 2020 were from Asia. While the burden of breast cancer has been examined on the level of broad geographic regions, literature on more in-depth coverage of the individual countries and subregions of the Asian continent is lacking. This review examines the breast cancer burden in 47 Asian countries. Breast cancer screening guidelines and risk-based screening initiatives are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0394.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Climate change adaptation; Coastal cities; Ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA); Socio-economic assessment; Systematic literature review
Online: 26 October 2022 (03:33:30 CEST)
Coastal areas are highly vulnerable to climate change hazards (e.g., sea-level rise, flooding, coastal erosion), which can lead to significant impacts at the ecosystem and societal level. Interest in Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) is gaining importance due to its potential multiple benefits, including social and environmental aspects, when compared to more traditional approaches such as hard engineering interventions. When assessing EbA strategies, further understanding of the nature-society functions, processes, values, and benefits is needed to increase its application. This study contributes to a better knowledge of EbA by developing a systematic literature review of studies performing socio-economic assessments of climate change adaptation in coastal areas. The analysis of 54 publications revealed that most of the studies assessed adaptation solutions through cost-benefit analysis, followed by multi-criteria analysis, and other techniques. Hybrid adaptation strategies based on different combinations of hard, soft and EbA interventions were considered as potential optimal solutions in a significant part of the assessments. This study suggests the potential co-benefits of EbA in the form of ecosystem services, livelihood diversification or biodiversity conservation, but also stresses the need for further research on this topic, as well as on evaluating how EbA perform in the long-term under climate changing conditions scenarios.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0181.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: SARS-CoV-2 detection; Immunofluorescence; Paper-based diagnostic device
Online: 7 July 2021 (13:18:33 CEST)
We report on an immunofluorescent paper-based assay for the detection of severe acute respiratory symptom coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) humanized antibody. The paper-based device was fabricated by using lamination technique for easy and optimized handling. Our approach utilises a two-step strategy that involves (i) initial coating of the paper-electrode with recombinant SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigen to capture the target SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies, and (ii) subsequent detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies using fluorophore-conjugated IgG antibody. The fluorescence readout was observed with fluorescence microscopy. The images were processed and quantified using a MATLAB program. The assay can selectively detect SARS-CoV-2 humanized antibodies spiked in PBS and healthy human serum samples with the relative standard deviation of approximately 6.4% (for n = 3). It has broad dynamic ranges (1 ng to 50 ng/µL in PBS and 5 to 100 ng/µL in human serum samples) for SARS-CoV-2 humanized antibodies with the detection limits of 2 ng/µL (0.025 IU/mL) and 10 ng/µL (0.125 IU/mL) in PBS and human serum samples, respectively. We believe that our assay has the potential to be used as a simple, rapid, and inexpensive paper-based diagnostic device with a portable fluorescent reader to provide point-of-care diagnosis. This assay can be used for rapid examination of a large batch of samples toward clinical screening of SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies as a confirmed infected active case or to evaluate the immune response to a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0570.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Drone and Aerial Remote Sensing; Image Deblurring; Generative Adversarial Networks; Multi-Scale; Image blur level; Object Detection; Deep Learning
Online: 30 December 2022 (04:45:12 CET)
Drone and aerial remote sensing images are widely used, but their imaging environment is complex and prone to image blurring. Existing CNN deblurring algorithms usually use multi-scale fusion to extract features in order to make full use of aerial remote sensing blurred image information, but images with different degrees of blurring use the same weights, leading to increasing errors in the feature fusion process layer by layer. Based on the physical properties of image blurring, this paper proposes an adaptive multi-scale fusion blind deblurred generative adversarial network (AMD-GAN), which innovatively applies the degree of image blurring to guide the adjustment of the weights of multi-scale fusion, effectively suppressing the errors in the multi-scale fusion process and enhancing the interpretability of the feature layer. The research work in this paper reveals the necessity and effectiveness of a priori information on image blurring levels in image deblurring tasks. By studying and exploring the image blurring levels, the network model focuses more on the basic physical features of image blurring. Meanwhile, this paper proposes an image blurring degree description model, which can effectively represent the blurring degree of aerial remote sensing images. The comparison experiments show that the algorithm in this paper can effectively recover images with different degrees of blur, obtain high-quality images with clear texture details, outperform the comparison algorithm in both qualitative and quantitative evaluation, and can effectively improve the object detection performance of aerial remote sensing blurred images. Moreover, the average PSNR of this paper's algorithm tested on the publicly available dataset RealBlur-R reached 41.02dB, surpassing the latest SOTA algorithm.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Unsupervised anomalous sound detection; classification-based model; Outlier classifier; ID classifier
Online: 17 August 2021 (08:36:44 CEST)
The task of unsupervised anomalous sound detection (ASD) is challenging for detecting anomalous sounds from a large audio database without any annotated anomalous training data. Many unsupervised methods were proposed, but previous works have confirmed that the classification-based models far exceeds the unsupervised models in ASD. In this paper, we adopt two classification-based anomaly detection models: (1) Outlier classifier is to distinguish anomalous sounds or outliers from the normal; (2) ID classifier identifies anomalies using both the confidence of classification and the similarity of hidden embeddings. We conduct experiments in task 2 of DCASE 2020 challenge, and our ensemble method achieves an averaged area under the curve (AUC) of 95.82% and averaged partial AUC (pAUC) of 92.32%, which outperforms the state-of-the-art models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0422.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: tephra; ground-based weather radar; Bayesian approach; nowcasting; ensemble prediction system
Online: 23 November 2021 (13:00:31 CET)
Tephra plumes can cause a significant hazard for surrounding towns, infrastructure, and air traffic. The current work presents the use of a small and compact X-band Multi-Parameter (X-MP) radar for the remote tephra detection and tracking of two eruptive events at Merapi Volcano, Indonesia, in May and June 2018. Tephra detection was done by analysing the multiple parameters of radar: copolar correlation and reflectivity intensity. These parameters were used to cancel unwanted clutter and retrieve tephra properties, which are grain size and concentration. Real-time spatial and temporal forecasting of tephra dispersal was performed by applying an advection scheme (nowcasting) in the manner of Ensemble Prediction System (EPS). Cross-validation was done using field-survey data, radar observations, and Himawari-8 imagery. The nowcasting model computed both the displacement and growth and decaying rate of the plume based on the temporal changes in two-dimensional movement and tephra concentration, respectively. Our results with ground-based data, where the radar-based estimated grain size distribution fell within the range of in-situ data. The uncertainty of real-time forecasted tephra plume depends on the initial condition, which affects the growth-and decaying rate estimation. The EPS improves the predictability rate by reducing the number of missed and false forecasted events. Our findings and the method presented here are suitable for early warning of tephra fall hazard at the local scale.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0403.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Nature-based solutions; climate change adaptation; climate change vulnerability; social-ecological systems
Online: 20 September 2022 (12:35:06 CEST)
Nature-based solutions (NbS) - working with and enhancing nature to address societal challenges - are increasingly being featured in climate change adaptation policy and plans. While there is growing evidence that NbS can reduce vulnerability to climate change impacts in general, there is a lack of understanding on the mechanisms through which this can be achieved, particularly in the Global South. To address this, we analyse 85 nature-based interventions in rural areas across the Global South, and factors mediating their effectiveness, based on a systematic map of peer-reviewed studies encompassing a wide diversity of ecosystems, climate impacts, and intervention types. We develop and apply an analytical framework of people’s social-ecological vulnerability to climate change, in terms of six pathways of vulnerability reduction: social and ecological exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. Most cases (95%) report a reduction in vulnerability, primarily by lowering ecosystem sensitivity to climate impacts (73% of interventions), followed by reducing social sensitivity (52%), reducing ecological exposure (36%), increasing social adaptive capacity (31%), increasing ecological adaptive capacity (19%) and/or reducing social exposure (14%). An analysis of mediating factors shows that social dimensions are equally important as technical factors in NbS to achieving equitable and effective outcomes. Attention to the distinct social and ecological pathways through which vulnerability is reduced helps to harness the multiple benefits of working with nature in a warming world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0506.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Paper-based microfluidic device; colorimetric; multiple detection; smartphone application
Online: 26 October 2020 (08:56:58 CET)
Paper-based microfluidic analysis devices (μPADs) have attracted attention as a cost-effective platform for point-of-care testing (POCT), food safety, and environmental monitoring. Recently, three-dimensional (3D)-μPADs have been developed to improve the performance of μPADs. For accurate diagnosis of diseases, however, 3D-μPADs need to be developed to simultaneously detect multiple biomarkers. Here, we report a 3D-μPADs platform for the detection of multiple biomarkers that can be analyzed and diagnosed with a smartphone. The 3D-μPADs were fabricated using a 3D digital light processing printer and consisted of a sample reservoir (300 µL) connected to 24 detection zones (of 4 mm in diameter) through 8 microchannels (of 2 mm in width). With the smartphone application, eight different biomarkers related to various diseases were detectable in concentrations ranging from normal to abnormal conditions: glucose (0–20 mmol/L), cholesterol (0–10 mmol/L), albumin (0–7 g/dL), alkaline phosphatase (0–800 U/L), creatinine (0–500 µmol/L), aspartate aminotransferase (0–800 U/L), alanine aminotransferase (0–1000 U/L), and urea nitrogen (0–7.2 mmol/L). These results suggest that 3D-µPADs can be used as a POCT platform for simultaneous detection of multiple biomarkers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0257.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: impervious surface mapping; multi-temporal data; change detection; high-resolution imagery; LiDAR; object-based post-classification fusion
Online: 15 June 2018 (14:32:50 CEST)
Impervious surface mapping with high-resolution remote sensing imagery has attracted increasing interest as it can provide detailed information for urban structure and distribution. Previous studies have suggested that the combination of LiDAR data and high-resolution imagery for impervious surface mapping performs better than using only high-resolution imagery. However, due to the high cost of the acquisition of LiDAR data, it is difficult to obtain the multi-sensor remote sensing data acquired at the same acquisition time for impervious surface mapping. Consequently, real landscape changes between multi-sensor remote sensing data at different acquisition times would lead to the error of misclassification in impervious surface mapping. This issue has mostly been neglected in previous works. Furthermore, the observation differences generated from multi-sensor data, including the problems of misregistration, missing data in LiDAR data, and shadow in high-resolution images would also challenge the final mapping result in the fusion of LiDAR data and high-resolution images. In order to conquer these problems, we propose an improved impervious surface mapping method incorporating both LiDAR data and high-resolution imagery at different acquisition times in consideration of real landscape changes and observation differences. In the proposed method, a multi-sensor change detection by supervised multivariate alteration detection is employed to obtain changed areas and misregistration areas. The no-data areas in the LiDAR data and the shadow areas in the high-resolution imagery are extracted by independent classification yielded by its corresponding single sensor data. Finally, an object-based post-classification fusion is proposed to take advantage of independent classification results with single-sensor data and the joint classification result with stacked multi-sensor data. Experiments covering the study site in Buffalo, NY, USA demonstrate that our method can accurately detect landscape changes and obviously improve the performance of impervious surface mapping.
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: UAV; Object Detection; Object Tracking; Deep Learning; Kalman Filter; Autonomous Surveillance
Online: 28 September 2021 (11:27:07 CEST)
The ever-burgeoning growth of autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has demonstrated a promising platform for utilization in real-world applications. In particular, UAV equipped with a vision system could be leveraged for surveillance applications. This paper proposes a learning-based UAV system for achieving autonomous surveillance, in which the UAV can be of assistance in autonomously detecting, tracking, and following a target object without human intervention. Specifically, we adopted the YOLOv4-Tiny algorithm for semantic object detection and then consolidated it with a 3D object pose estimation method and Kalman Filter to enhance the perception performance. In addition, a back-end UAV path planning for surveillance maneuver is integrated to complete the fully autonomous system. The perception module is assessed on a quadrotor UAV, while the whole system is validated through flight experiments. The experiment results verified the robustness, effectiveness, and reliability of the autonomous object tracking UAV system in performing surveillance tasks. The source code is released to the research community for future reference.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0216.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: SARS-coronavirus; Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome; COVID-19; Stool; Urine; Wastewater; Wastewater-based epidemiology
Online: 18 June 2020 (09:29:00 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has revealed many knowledge gaps with implications toward the speed and nature of our response to contain, assess and mitigate risk. The routine discharge of treated and untreated wastewater into rivers and coastal waters has placed SARS-CoV-2 viability in wastewater at the centre of an emerging hazard and potential risk to water industry workers and the public who come into contact with sewage-impacted water. Here we provide a review of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus primary literature that presents the evidence base pertaining to the key questions of whether the SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 is shed in stool and urine, is recoverable, and infectious in wastewater. We discuss the challenges posed by the current literature base and the extent to which the current evidence is fit for the purpose of informing robust human and environmental risk assessments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0171.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: COVID-19; coronavirus; case-based reasoning; ontology; natural language processing
Online: 15 June 2020 (11:16:23 CEST)
Coronavirus, also known as COVID-19, has been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). At the time of conducting this study, it had recorded over 1.6 million cases while more than 105,000 have died due to it, with these figures rising on a daily basis across the globe. The burden of this highly contagious respiratory disease is that it presents itself in both symptomatic and asymptomatic patterns in those already infected, thereby leading to an exponential rise in the number of contractions of the disease and fatalities. It is therefore crucial to expedite the process of early detection and diagnosis of the disease across the world. The case-based reasoning (CBR) model is an effective paradigm that allows for the utilization of cases’ specific knowledge previously experienced, concrete problem situations or specific patient cases for solving new cases. This study therefore aims to leverage the very rich database of cases of COVID-19 to solve new cases. The approach adopted in this study employs the use of an improved CBR model for state-of-the-art reasoning task in classification of suspected cases of Covid19. The CBR model leverages on a novel feature selection and semantic-based mathematical model proposed in this study for case similarity computation. An initial population of the archive was achieved with 68 cases obtained from the Italian Society of Medical and Interventional Radiology (SIRM) repository. Results obtained revealed that the proposed approach in this study successfully classified suspected cases into their categories at an accuracy of 97.10%. The study found that the proposed model can support physicians to easily diagnose suspected cases of Covid19 base on their medical records without subjecting the specimen to laboratory test. As a result, there will be a global minimization of contagion rate occasioned by slow testing and as well reduce false positive rates of diagnosed cases as observed in some parts of the globe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0099.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: Economic risk assessment, capital-based framework, six-capital framework, climate response, climate adaptation, urban resilience
Online: 2 March 2021 (15:47:00 CET)
Estimating the economic risks of climate shocks and climate stressors on spatially heterogeneous cities over time remain highly challenging. The purpose of this paper is to present a practical methodology to assess the economic risks of climate change in developing cities to inform spatially sensitive municipal climate response strategies. Building on a capital-based framework (CBF), spatially disaggregated baseline and future scenario scores for economic wealth and its exposure to climate change are developed for six different classes of capital and across 77 major suburbs in Cape Town, South Africa. Capital-at-risk was calculated by combining relative exposure and capital scores across different scenarios and with population impacted plotted against the major suburbs and the city’s 8 main planning districts. The economic risk assessment presented here provides a generic approach to assist investment planning and the implementation of adaptation options through an enhanced understanding of relative levels of capital endowment vis-à-vis relative levels of exposure to climate-related hazards over time. An informed climate response strategy in spatially heterogeneous cities need to include spatially sensitive estimates on capital-at-risk and populations disproportionally impacted by climate exposure over time. The economic risk assessment approach presented here helps in advancing to such a goal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0557.v1
Subject: Keywords: Civil Society; Climate Politics; Environmental Governance; Faith-Based Environmentalism; Faith-Based Nonprofits; Global Governance; International Relations; Religion and Ecology; Religion and Society; Sustainability
Online: 24 February 2021 (16:45:12 CET)
How much is religion quantitatively involved in global climate politics? After assessing the role of the Conference of Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change from a normative perspective, this descriptive, transdisciplinary and unconventional study offers the first comprehensive quantitative examination of religious nongovernmental organizations that formally participate in its annual meetings, the largest attempts to solve the climate crisis through global governance. This study finds that although their numbers are growing, only about 3 percent of registered nongovernmental organizations accredited to participate in the conference are overtly religious in nature — and that more than 80 percent of those faith-based groups are Christian. Additionally, this study finds that religious nongovernmental organizations that participate in the conference are mostly from the Global North. The results call for greater participation of religious institutions in the international climate negotiations in order for society to address the planetary emergency of climate change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0059.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: table detection; table recognition; cascade Mask R-CNN; atrous convolution; recursive feature pyramid networks; document image analysis; deep neural networks; computer vision, object detection.
Online: 3 September 2021 (11:05:10 CEST)
Table detection is a preliminary step in extracting reliable information from tables in scanned document images. We present CasTabDetectoRS, a novel end-to-end trainable table detection framework that operates on Cascade Mask R-CNN, including Recursive Feature Pyramid network and Switchable Atrous Convolution in the existing backbone architecture. By utilizing a comparatively lightweight backbone of ResNet-50, this paper demonstrates that superior results are attainable without relying on pre and post-processing methods, heavier backbone networks (ResNet-101, ResNeXt-152), and memory-intensive deformable convolutions. We evaluate the proposed approach on five different publicly available table detection datasets. Our CasTabDetectoRS outperforms the previous state-of-the-art results on four datasets (ICDAR-19, TableBank, UNLV, and Marmot) and accomplishes comparable results on ICDAR-17 POD. Upon comparing with previous state-of-the-art results, we obtain a significant relative error reduction of 56.36%, 20%, 4.5%, and 3.5% on the datasets of ICDAR-19, TableBank, UNLV, and Marmot, respectively. Furthermore, this paper sets a new benchmark by performing exhaustive cross-datasets evaluations to exhibit the generalization capabilities of the proposed method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0418.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: detailed vegetation mapping; kudzu mapping; coarse label; two-step classification; object-based image analysis; lidar point clouds; sampling specificity
Online: 31 December 2019 (16:58:25 CET)
Mapping vegetation species is critical to facilitate related quantitative assessment, and for invasive plants mapping their distribution is important to enhance monitoring and controlling activities. Integrating high resolution multispectral remote sensing (RS) image and lidar (light detection and ranging) point clouds can provide robust features for vegetation mapping. However, using multiple source of high-resolution RS data for vegetation mapping at large spatial scale can be both computationally and sampling intensive. Here we designed a two-step classification workflow to decrease computational cost and sampling effort, and to increase classification accuracy by integrating multispectral and lidar data to derive spectral, textural, and structural features for mapping target vegetation species. We used this workflow to classify kudzu, an aggressive invasive vine, in the entire Knox County (1,362 km2) of Tennessee, the United States. Object-based image analysis was conducted in the workflow. The first-step classification used 320 kudzu samples and extensive coarsely labeled samples (based on national land cover) to generate an overprediction map of kudzu using random forest (RF). For the second step, 350 samples were randomly extracted from the overpredicted kudzu and labeled manually for the final prediction using RF and support vector machine (SVM). Computationally intensive features were only used for the second-step classification. SVM had constantly better accuracy than RF, and the Producer’s Accuracy, User’s Accuracy, and Kappa for the SVM model on kudzu was 0.94, 0.96, and 0.90, respectively. SVM predicted 1010 kudzu patches covering 1.29 km2 in Knox County. We found the sample size of kudzu used for algorithm training impacted the accuracy and number of kudzu predicted. The proposed workflow could also improve sampling efficiency and specificity. Our workflow had much higher accuracy than the traditional method conducted in this research, and could be easily implemented to map kudzu in other regions or other vegetation species.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Model-Based Systems Engineering; Category Theory; Object-Process Methodology; Model Analytics; Concept-Model-Graph-View-Concept; Graph Data Structures; Graph Query; Decision Support Matrix; Matrix-Based Analysis
Online: 18 February 2021 (12:27:50 CET)
We introduce the Concept-Model-Graph-View Cycle (CMGVC). The CMGVC facilitates coherent architecture analysis, reasoning, insight, and decision-making based on conceptual models that are transformed into a generic, robust graph data structure (GDS). The GDS is then transformed into multiple views of the model, which inform stakeholders in various ways. This GDS-based approach decouples the view from the model and constitutes a powerful enhancement of model-based systems engineering (MBSE). The CMGVC applies the rigorous foundations of Category Theory, a mathematical framework of representations and transformations. We show that modeling languages are categories, drawing an analogy to programming languages. The CMGVC architecture is superior to direct transformations and language-coupled common representations. We demonstrate the CMGVC to transform a conceptual system architecture model built with the Object Process Modeling Language (OPM) into dual graphs and a stakeholder-informing matrix that stimulates system architecture insight.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0125.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Computational Mathematics Keywords: Parkinson’s disease (PD); Biomedical voice measurements; Multi-layer Perceptron Neural Network (MLP); Biogeography-based Optimization (BBO); Medical diagnosis. Bio-inspired computation
Online: 10 May 2019 (13:56:59 CEST)
In recent years, Parkinson's Disease (PD) as a progressive syndrome of the nervous system has become highly prevalent worldwide. In this study, a novel hybrid technique established by integrating a Multi-layer Perceptron Neural Network (MLP) with the Biogeography-based Optimization (BBO) to classify PD based on a series of biomedical voice measurements. BBO is employed to determine the optimal MLP parameters and boost prediction accuracy. The inputs comprised of 22 biomedical voice measurements. The proposed approach detects two PD statuses: 0– disease status and 1– reasonable control status. The performance of proposed methods compared with PSO, GA, ACO and ES method. The outcomes affirm that the MLP-BBO model exhibits higher precision and suitability for PD detection. The proposed diagnosis system as a type of speech algorithm detects early Parkinson’s symptoms, and consequently, it served as a promising new robust tool with excellent PD diagnosis performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0653.v1
Online: 26 April 2021 (10:55:00 CEST)
The aim of this paper is to use deep learning tools to innovate pre-trained object detection models to improve the accuracy of non-destructive testing (NDT) of civil aviation maintenance. First, this thesis classifies object defects for NDT, such as cracks, undercut, etc. Nowadays, thesis surveys innovation deep-learning methods technology is used to improve the defect detection performance inferencing capability, increase the accuracy and efficiency of automatic identification which in enhanced the safety and reliability of aircraft fuselage in future, mark hidden cracks and solve the challenges that cannot be identified by manual inspection. Second, recent mainstream techniques the YOLOv4 neural network to the graphics card GPU core operator to speed up the recognition of defect images is being applied to the non-destructive inspection process of aircraft maintenance on A, C and D-Level, fully validating the deep learning model's powerful defect detection target capability. The attention-based YOLOv4 algorithm is improved by applying a one-stage attention mechanism to the YOLOv4, thereby improving the accuracy of the innovation model. Finally, thesis improved YOLOv4 based on an attention mechanism is proposed for object detection NDT via the deep learning method to effectively improve and shorten the inspection anomaly detection method for automatic detection sensor systems.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Deep Learning; Reducing Training Annotations per Image; Object Detection; Object Counting; Asymmetric Loss Function
Online: 15 January 2021 (15:44:51 CET)
Annotating training data is a time consuming and labor intensive process in deep learning, especially for images with many objects present. In this paper, we propose a method to allow deep networks to be trained on data with reduced numbers of annotations (per image) in heatmap regression tasks (e.g. object detection and counting), by applying an asymmetric loss function. In a real scenario, this reduction of annotations can be imposed by the researchers (e.g. ask the annotators to label only 50% of what they see in each image), or can potentially counteract unintentionally missing labels from the annotators. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our method, we conduct experiments in two domains, crowd counting and wheat spikelet detection, using different deep network architecture. We drop various percentages of instance annotations per image in training. Results show that an asymmetric loss function is effective across different models and datasets, even in very extreme cases with limited annotations provided (e.g. 90% of the original annotations reduced). Whilst tuning of the key parameters are required, we find that setting conservative parameter values can help more realistic situations, where only small amounts of data have been missed by annotators.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0113.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: conceptual modeling; cyber-physical systems; cyber-physical gap; Object-Process Methodology; model-based systems engineering; Three Mile Island 2 Accident
Online: 26 June 2017 (04:59:29 CEST)
: The cyber-physical gap (CPG) is the difference between the 'real' state of the world and the way the system perceives it. This discrepancy often stems from the limitations of sensing and data collection technologies and capabilities, and is an inevitable issue in any cyber-physical system (CPS). Ignoring or misrepresenting such limitations during system modeling, specification, design, and analysis can potentially result in systemic misconceptions, disrupted functionality and performance, system failure, severe damage, and potential detrimental impacts on the system and its environment. We propose CPG-Aware Modeling & Engineering (CPGAME), a conceptual model-based approach for capturing, explaining, and mitigating the CPG, on top of and in sync with the conventional system model, and as an inherent systems engineering activity. This approach enhances the systems engineer’s ability to cope with CPGs, mitigate them by design, and prevent erroneous decisions, actions, and hazardous implications. CPGAME is a generic, conceptual approach, specified and demonstrated with Object Process Methodology (OPM). OPM is a holistic conceptual modeling paradigm for multidisciplinary, complex, dynamic systems, which is also ISO-19450. We analyze the 1979 Three Miles Island 2 nuclear accident as a prime example of the disastrous consequences of unmitigated CPGs in complex systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0205.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: itch; scratch; automated real-time detection; machine-learning based image classifier; image sharpness
Online: 19 January 2020 (03:13:48 CET)
A 'little brother' of pain, itch is an unpleasant sensation that creates a specific urge to scratch. To date, various machine-learning based image classifiers (MBICs) have been proposed for quantitative analysis of itch-induced scratch behaviour of laboratory animals in an automated, non-invasive, inexpensive and real-time manner. In spite of MBICs' advantages, the overall performances (accuracy, sensitivity and specificity) of current MBIC approaches remains inconsistent, with their values varying from ~50% to ~99%, for which the reasons underlying have yet to be investigated further, both computationally and experimentally. To look into the variation of the performance of MBICs in automated detection of itch-induced scratch, this article focuses on the experimental data recording step, and reports here for the first time that MBICs' overall performance is inextricably linked to the sharpness of experimentally recorded video of laboratory animal scratch behaviour. This article furthermore demonstrates for the first time that a linearly correlated relationship exists between video sharpness and overall performance (accuracy and specificity, but not sensitivity) of MBICs, and highlight the primary role of experimental data recording in rapid, accurate and consistent quantitative assessment of laboratory animal itch.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0390.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: botulinum neurotoxin; biosensor; CANARY®, detection; B-cell based assay; immunoassay; food matrices
Online: 22 August 2018 (04:59:24 CEST)
Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) intoxication can lead to the disease botulism, characterized by flaccid muscle paralysis that can cause respiratory failure and death. Due to the significant morbidity and mortality costs associated with BoNTs high toxicity, developing highly sensitive, rapid, and field-deployable assays are critically important to protect the nation’s food supply against either accidental or intentional contamination. We report here that the B-cell based biosensor assay (CANARY® Zephyr) detects BoNT/A in buffer and various food matrices rapidly in ≤ 40 min, in small volumes ≈ 50 μL, with minimal processing of samples, and is extremely portable (suitcase-sized equipment). BoNT/A was detected at limits of detection (LOD) < 0.075 ng ± 0.02 in assay buffer while milk matrices (non-fat, 2 %, whole milk) increased the LOD to < 0.175 – 0.314 ng. Limits of detection for the assay in complex foods were < 1 ng ± 0.0 (neutralized acidic juices-carrot, orange and apple); < 16.7 ng ± 7.7 (liquid egg); and varied from < 0. 39 – 3.125 ng for solid complex foods (ground beef, green bean baby puree, smoked salmon). These results show that the CANARY® Zephyr assay can be a highly useful tool in clinical, environmental, and food safety surveillance programs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0030.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: OpenCV; Python; objects; object detection; card
Online: 3 January 2023 (09:40:17 CET)
Computer vision is a rapidly developing field that focuses on highly sophisticated picture analysis, manipulation, and comprehension. Its objective is to analyze what is happening in front of a camera and utilize that understanding to control a computer or robotic system or to present users with fresh visuals that are more enlightening or appealing than the original camera images. Computer vision technologies make it feasible for new user interfaces, augmented reality gaming, biometrics, automobile, photography, movie creation, Web search, and many more applications. This essay seeks to explain how computer vision can be utilized to play blackjack successfully.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0543.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: OpenCV; Python; objects; object detection; card
Online: 28 December 2022 (12:42:17 CET)
Computer vision is a fast-expanding discipline focusing on analyzing, altering, and comprehending images at a high level. Its goal is to figure out what's going on in front of a camera and use that knowledge to manage a computer or robotic system or to show people new visuals that are more instructive or attractive than the original camera photos. Video surveillance, biometrics, automotive, photography, movie production, Web search, medicine, augmented reality gaming, new user interfaces, and many other applications are all possible with computer vision technologies. This paper aims to describe how computer vision will be used to play a winning game of blackjack.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0651.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Art History & Restoration Keywords: wooden object; cultural heritage; history; analysis
Online: 29 October 2018 (04:32:23 CET)
Aims of the paper are the results of a research on a wooden box that holds an important historical document, which is a hand Bible handwritten in the thirteenth century. The tradition connect this Bible to the name of Marco Polo (Venice, 1254 - Venice, 1324), who would be the owner and that it would accompany him on his travels (1262 and 1271) in China. The Bible, of fine workmanship, written on thin parchment, and its container, along with a yellow silk cloth, is preserved in the ancient and prestigious Laurentian Library in Florence. The manuscript was in very poor condition and in the course of the study (2011) was being restored. Aims of survey were to determine the place and period of realization of the box, or rather if it be contemporary or later than the manuscript it contains and whether it was made in the East or in Europe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0219.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: informal settlement indicators; very high resolution (VHR); urbanisation; sustainable development goals; object-based image analysis (OBIA); machine learning (ML); random forest (RF)
Online: 12 September 2018 (12:32:25 CEST)
The identification of informal settlements in urban areas is an important step in developing and implementing pro-poor urban policies. Understanding when, where and who lives inside informal settlements is critical to efforts to improve their resilience. This study aims to analyse the capability of machine-learning (ML) methods to map informal areas in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, using very-high-resolution (VHR) imagery and terrain data. Fourteen indicators of settlement characteristics were derived and mapped using an object-based ML approach and VHR imagery. These indicators were categorised according to three different spatial levels: environ, settlement and object. The most useful indicators for prediction were found to be density and texture measures, (with random forest (RF) relative importance measures of over 25% and 23% respectively). The success of this approach was evaluated using a small, fully independent validation dataset. Informal areas were mapped with an overall accuracy of 91%. Object-based ML as a hybrid approach performed better (8%) than object-based image analysis alone due to its ability to encompass all available geospatial levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0101.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: tactile sensing; artificial robotic skin; active tactile object perception; active tactile object learning; active tactile transfer learning
Online: 16 November 2017 (03:49:49 CET)
Reusing the tactile knowledge of some previously explored objects helps us to easily recognize the tactual properties of new objects. In this paper, we enable a robotic arm equipped with multi-modal artificial skin, like humans, to actively transfer the prior tactile exploratory action experiences when it learns the detailed physical properties of new objects. These experiences, or prior tactile knowledge, are built by the feature observations that the robot perceives from multiple sensory modalities, when it applies the pressing, sliding, and static contact movements on objects with different action parameters. We call our method Active Prior Tactile Knowledge Transfer (APTKT), and systematically evaluated its performance by several experiments. Results show that the robot improved the discrimination accuracy by around 10% when it used only one training sample plus the feature observations of prior objects. By incorporating the auxiliary features, the transfer learning improved the discrimination accuracy by over 20%. The results also show that the proposed method is robust against transferring irrelevant prior tactile knowledge (negative knowledge transfer).
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0168.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: autoantibodies; type I interferon; interferon-ω; interferon-α2; multiplex assay; protein microarray; cell-based autoantibody assay; ELISA
Online: 22 November 2022 (02:20:41 CET)
Autoantibodies against type 1 interferons (IFN-I) are highly specific marker for type 1 autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APS-1). Moreover, determination of antibodies to IFN-ω and IFN-α2 allows a short-term diagnosis in patients with isolated and atypical forms of APS-1. In this study, a comparison of three different methods, namely, multiplex microarray-based, cell-based and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for detection of antibodies against omega-interferon and alpha2-interferon was carried out. A total of 206 serum samples from adult patients with APS-1, APS-2, isolated autoimmune endocrine pathologies, non-autoimmune endocrine disorders and healthy individuals were analyzed. In the APS-1 patient cohort (n=18), there was good agreement between the results of anti- IFN-I antibody tests performed by three methods, with 100% specificity and sensitivity for microarray-based assay. Although only the cell-based assay can determine the neutralizing activity of autoantibodies, the microarray-based assay can serve as a highly specific and sensitive screening test to identify anti- IFN-I antibody positive patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0309.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General & Theoretical Computer Science Keywords: feature selection; hybrid optimization; Whale Optimization Algorithm; Flower Pollination Algorithm; classification; Opposition Based Learning; Email Spam Detection
Online: 26 January 2020 (07:07:23 CET)
Feature Selection (FS) in data mining is one of the most challenging and most important activities in pattern recognition. The problem of choosing a feature is to find the most important subset of the main attributes in a specific domain, and its main purpose is removing additional or unrelated features, and ultimately improving the accuracy of the classification algorithms. As a result, the problem of FS can be considered as an optimization problem, and use metaheuristic algorithms to solve it. In this paper, a new hybrid model combining whale optimization algorithm (WOA) and flower pollination algorithm (FPA) is presented for the problem of FS based on the concept of Opposition based Learning (OBL) which name is HWOAFPA. In our proposed method, using natural processes of WOA and FPA, we tried to solve the problem of optimization of FS; and on the other hand, we used an OBL method to ensure the convergence rate and accuracy of the proposed algorithm. In fact, in the proposed method, WOA create solutions in their search space using the prey siege and encircling process, bubble invasion and search for prey methods, and try to improve the solutions for the FS problem; along with this algorithm, FPA improves the solution of the FS problem with two global and local search processes in an opposite space with the solutions of the WOA. In fact, we used all of the possible solutions to the FS problem from both the solution search space and the opposite of solution search space. To evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm, experiments were carried out in two steps. In the first stage, the experiments were performed on 10 FS datasets from the UCI data repository. In the second step, we tried to test the performance of the proposed algorithm in terms of spam e-mails detection. The results obtained from the first step showed that the proposed algorithm, performed on 10 UCI datasets, was more successful in terms of the average size of selection and classification accuracy than other basic metaheuristic algorithms. Also, the results from the second step showed that the proposed algorithm which was run on the spam e-mail dataset, performed much more accurately than other similar algorithms in terms of accuracy of detecting spam e-mails.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0641.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: foraminifera; instance segmentation; object detection; deep learning
Online: 26 May 2021 (13:33:54 CEST)
Foraminifera are single-celled marine organisms that construct shells that remain as fossils in the marine sediments. Classifying and counting these fossils are important in e.g. paleo-oceanographic and -climatological research. However, the identification and counting process has been performed manually since the 1800s and is laborious and time-consuming. In this work, we present a deep learning-based instance segmentation model for classifying, detecting, and segmenting microscopic foraminifera. Our model is based on the Mask R-CNN architecture, using model weight parameters that have learned on the COCO detection dataset. We use a fine-tuning approach to adapt the parameters on a novel object detection dataset of more than 7000 microscopic foraminifera and sediment grains. The model achieves a (COCO-style) average precision of 0.78±0.00 on the classification and detection task, and 0.80±0.00 on the segmentation task. When the model is evaluated without challenging sediment grain images, the average precision for both tasks increases to 0.84±0.00 and 0.86±0.00, respectively. Prediction results are analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively and discussed. Based on our findings we propose several directions for future work, and conclude that our proposed model is an important step towards automating the identification and counting of microscopic foraminifera.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0188.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: minimum noise fraction (MNF) transformation; object-based image analysis (OBIA); APEX hyperspectral imagery; Random forest (RF) classifier; multiresolution segmentation (MRS); tree species classification
Online: 12 June 2018 (10:55:07 CEST)
Tree species composition is an important key element for biodiversity and sustainable forest management, and hyperspectral data provide detailed spectral information, which can be used for tree species classification. There are two main challenges for using hyperspectral imagery: a) Hughes phenomena, meaning by increasing the number of bands in hyperspectral imagery, the number of required classification samples would increase exponentially, and b) in a more complex environment, such as riparian mixed forest, focusing on spectral variability per pixel may not be adequate for definability of tree species. Therefore, the focus of this study is to assess spectral-spatial dimensionality reduction of airborne hyperspectral imagery by using minim noise fraction (MNF) transformation, and object-based image analysis (OBIA). An airborne prism experiment (APEX) hyperspectral imagery was used. A study area was a riparian mixed forest located along the Salzach river, and six tree species including Picea abies, Populus (canadensis and balsamifera), Fraxinus excelsior, Alnus incana, and Salix alba were selected. A machine learning algorithm random forest (RF) was used to train and apply a prediction model for classification. Using a spectral dimensionality reduced APEX, a pixel-level classification was also done. According to a confusion matrix, the object-level classification of MNF-derived components achieved the overall accuracy of 85 %, and kappa coefficient of 0.805. The performance of classes according to producer’s accuracy varied between 80% for Fraxinus excelsior, Alnus incana, and Populus canadensis to 90% for Salix alba and Picea abies. Comparison the results to a pixel-level classification, showed a better performance of object-level classification (an overall accuracy of 63% and Kappa coefficient of 0.559 were achieved for pixel-level classification). The performance of classes using pixel-based classification varied 45 % for Alnus incana to 80% for Picea abies. In general, Spectral-spatial complexity reduction using MNF transformation and object-level classification yielded a statistically satisfactory results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0279.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: galaxy morphology, machine learning; data analysis; object classification
Online: 22 October 2018 (13:01:42 CEST)
Automated machine classifications of galaxies are necessary because the size of upcoming surveys will overwhelm human volunteers. We improve upon existing machine classification methods by adding the output of SpArcFiRe to the inputs of a machine learning model. We use the human classifications from Galaxy Zoo 1 (GZ1) to train a random forest of decision trees to reproduce the human vote distributions of the Spiral class. We prefer the random forest model over other black box models like neural networks because it allows us to trace post hoc the precise reasoning behind the classification of each galaxy. We find that, across a sample of 470,000 Sloan galaxies that are large enough that details could be seen if they were there, the combination of SpArcFiRe outputs with existing SDSS features provides a better machine classification than either one alone on comparison to Galaxy Zoo 1. We suggest that adding SpArcFiRe outputs as features to any machine learning algorithm will likely improve its performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0153.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General & Theoretical Computer Science Keywords: image segmentation; object labeling; color space; fruit counting
Online: 23 November 2017 (10:37:25 CET)
Identifying the total number of fruits on trees has long been of interest in agricultural crop estimation work. Yield prediction of fruits in practical environment is one of the hard and significant tasks to obtain better results in crop management system to achieve more productivity with regard to moderate cost. Utilized color vision in machine vision system to identify citrus fruits, and estimated yield information of the citrus grove in-real time. Fruit recognition algorithms based on color features to estimate the number of fruit. In the current research work, some low complexity and efficient image analysis approach was proposed to count yield fruits image in the natural scene. Semi automatic segmentation and yield calculation of fruit based on shape analysis is presented. Color and shape analysis was utilized to segment the images of different fruits like apple, pomegranate obtained under different lighting conditions. First the input sectional tree image was converted from RGB colour space into the colour space transform (i.e., YUV, YIQ, or YCbCr). The resultant image was then applied to the algorithm for fruit segmentation. After it is applied Morphological Operations which is enhanced image then execute Blob counting method which identify the object and count the number of it. Accuracy of this algorithm used in this thesis is 82.21% for images that have been scanned.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0665.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Delft3D; Object Mobility Model; Munitions Mobility and Burial; Object Shields Parameter; Sediment Shields Parameter; Equilibrium Burial Percentage; Sediment Supporting Point
Online: 28 June 2021 (14:24:25 CEST)
Coupled Delft3D-object model has been developed to predict object’s mobility and burial on sandy seafloor. The Delft3D model is used to predict seabed environment such as currents, waves (peak period, significant wave height, wave direction), water level, sediment transport, and seabed change, which are taken as the forcing term to the object model consisting of three components: (a) object‘s physical parameters such as diameter, length, mass, and rolling moment, (b) dynamics of rolling cylinder around its major axis, and (c) empirical sediment scour model with re-exposure parameterization. The model is compared with the observational data collected from a field experiment from 21 April to 23 May 2013 off the coast of Panama City, Florida funded by the Department of Defense Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program. The experimental data contain both objects’ mobility using sector scanning and pencil beam sonars and simultaneous environmental time series data of the boundary layer hydrodynamics and sediment transport conditions. Comparison between modeled and observed data clearly show the model capability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0111.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: close range photogrammetry; 3D linear control network; object dimensioning
Online: 7 March 2022 (19:57:21 CET)
In surveying engineering tasks, close-range photogrammetry belongs to leading technology considering different aspects like the achievable accuracy, availability of hardware and software, accessibility to measured objects, or the economy. Hence, constant studies on photogrammetric data processing are desirable. Especially in industrial applications, the control points for close-range photogrammetry are usually measured using total stations. In the case of small objects, more precise positions of control points can be obtained by deploying and adjusting a three-dimensional linear network set up on the object. The article analyzes the accuracy of the proposed method, based on the measurement of the linear network using a tape with a precision of ±1 mm. The experiment shows that the adjusted positions of the network control points can be determined with high, one-millimeter accuracy. The photogrammetric 3D model derived referring to such control points and stereo-images captured with a non-metric camera is also characterized by the highest possible precision, which qualifies the presented method to accurate measurements used in surveying engineering. The authors prove that the distance between two randomly optional points derived from the 3D model of a dimensioned object is equal to the actual distance measured directly on it with one-millimeter accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0170.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: object detection; semantic segmentation; computer vision; automatic check-out
Online: 14 June 2020 (12:51:26 CEST)
Auto checkout has received more and more attention in recent years and this system automatically generates a shopping bill by identifying the picture of the products purchased by the customers. However, the system is challenged by the domain adaptation problem, where each image of the training set contains only one commodity, whereas the test set is a collection of multiple commodities. The existing solution to this problem is to resynthesize the training images to enhance the training set. Then the composite images are rendered using CycleGAN to make the image distribution of the training set and the test set more similar. However, we find that the detection boxes given by the ground truth of the common dataset contain a large part of the background area, the area will affect the training process as noise. To solve this problem, we propose a mask data priming method. Specifically, we redo the large scale Retail Product Checkout (RPC) dataset and add segmentation annotation information to each item in the training set image based on the original dataset using pixel-level annotation. Secondly, a new network structure is proposed in which we train the network using joint learning of detectors and counters, and fine-tune the detection network by filtering out suitable images from the test set. Experiments on the RPC dataset have shown that our method yields better results. we used an approach that reached 81.87% compared to 56.68% for the baseline approach which demonstrates that pixel-level information helps to improve the detection results of the network.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0155.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: object-oriented technique; change detection; eCognition® software; landuse
Online: 29 September 2017 (12:51:40 CEST)
This study compared two object-oriented land use change detection methods—detection after classification (DAC) and classification after detection (CAD) —based on a digital elevation model, slope data, and multi-temporal Landsat images (TM image for 2000 and ETM image for 2010). We noted that the overall accuracy of the DAC (86.42%) was much higher than that of the CAD (71.71%). However, a slight difference between the accuracies of the two methods exists for deciduous broadleaf forest, evergreen coniferous forest, mixed wood, upland, paddy, reserved land, and settlement. Owing to substantial spectrum differences, these land use types can be extracted using spectral indexes. The accuracy of DAC was much higher than that of CAD for industrial land, traffic land, green shrub, reservoir, lake, river, and channel, all of which share similar spectrums. The discrepancy was mainly because DAC can completely utilize various forms of information apart from spectrum information during a two-stage classification. In addition, the change-area boundary was not limited at first, but was adjustable in the process of classification. DAC can overcome smoothing effects to a great extent using multi-scale segmentations and multi-characters in detection. Although DAC yielded better results, it was more time-consuming (28 days) because it uses a two-stage classification approach. Conversely, CAD consumed less time (15 days). Thus, a hybrid of the two methods is recommended for application in land use change detection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0190.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General & Theoretical Computer Science Keywords: wireless sensor network; object tracking; dual sink; data collection
Online: 26 May 2017 (04:58:00 CEST)
Continuous object tracking in WSNs, such as monitoring of mud-rock flows, forest fires etc., is a challenging task due to characteristic nature of continuous objects. They can appear randomly in the network field, move continuously, and can change in size and shape. Monitoring such objects in real-time generally require tremendous amount of messaging between sensor nodes to synergistically estimate object’s movement and track its location. In this paper, we propose a novel twofold-sink mechanism, comprising of a mobile and a static sink node. Both sink nodes gather information about boundary sensor nodes, which is then used to uniformly distribute energy consumption across all network nodes, thus helping in saving residual energy of network nodes. Numerous object tracking schemes, using mobile sink, have been proposed in the literature. However, existing schemes employing mobile sink cannot be applied to track continuous objects, because of momentous variation of network topology. Therefore, we present in this paper a mechanism, transformed from K-means algorithm, to find the best sensing location of the mobile sink node. It helps to reduce transmission load on the intermediate network nodes situated between static sink node and the ordinary network sensing nodes. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme can distinctly improve life time of the network, compared to one-sink protocol employed in continuous object tracking.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0159.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General & Theoretical Computer Science Keywords: object detection; background subtraction; video surveillance; Kinect sensor fusion
Online: 20 March 2017 (10:21:40 CET)
Depth-sensing technology has led to broad applications of inexpensive depth cameras that can capture human motion and scenes in 3D space. Background subtraction algorithms can be improved by fusing color and depth cues, thereby allowing many issues encountered in classical color segmentation to be solved. In this paper, we propose a new fusion method that combines depth and color information for foreground segmentation based on an advanced color-based algorithm. First, a background model and a depth model are developed. Then, based on these models, we propose a new updating strategy that can eliminate ghosting and black shadows almost completely. Extensive experiments have been performed to compare the proposed algorithm with other, conventional RGB-D algorithms. The experimental results suggest that our method extracts foregrounds with higher effectiveness and efficiency.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0233.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: primate hand use; primate grooming; manual grooming; object manipulation; primate evolution; oral grooming; object play; tool use; Machiavellian Intelligence; Bayesian decision theory
Online: 20 September 2019 (06:39:59 CEST)
The evolution of manual grooming and its implications have received little attention in the quest to understand the origins of simian primates and their social and technical intelligence. All simians groom manually, whereas prosimians groom orally despite comparable manual dexterity between some members of the two groups. Simians also exhibit a variable propensity for the manipulation of inanimate, non-food objects, which has culminated in tool making and tool use in some species. However, lemuriform primates also seem capable of tool use with training. Furthermore, lemuriforms appear to understand the concept of a tool and use their own body parts as “tools”, despite not using inanimate objects. This suggests that prosimian primates are pre-adapted for proprioceptive object manipulation and tool use, but do not express these cognitive abilities by default. This essay explores the paleontological, anatomical, cognitive, ethological, and neurological roots of these abilities and attempts to explain this behavioural divide between simians and prosimians. Common misconceptions about early primate evolution and captive behaviours are addressed, and chronological inconsistencies with Machiavellian Intelligence are examined. A “licking to picking” hypothesis is also proposed to explain a potential link between manual grooming and object manipulation, and to reconcile the inconsistencies of Machiavellian Intelligence. Bayesian decision theory, the evolution of the parietal cortex and enhanced proprioception, and analogies with behavioural changes resulting from artificial selection may help provide new insights into the minds of both our primate kin and ourselves.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0012.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: role-based access control; attribute-based access control; attribute-based encryption
Online: 8 July 2016 (10:12:21 CEST)
Cloud Computing is a promising and emerging technology that is rapidly being adopted by many IT companies due to a number of benefits that it provides, such as large storage space, low investment cost, virtualization, resource sharing, etc. Users are able to store a vast amount of data and information in the cloud and access it from anywhere, anytime on a pay-per-use basis. Since many users are able to share the data and the resources stored in the cloud, there arises a need to provide access to the data to only those users who are authorized to access it. This can be done through access control schemes which allow the authenticated and authorized users to access the data and deny access to unauthorized users. In this paper, a comprehensive review of all the existing access control schemes has been discussed along with analysis. Keywords: role-based access control, attribute-based access control, attribute-based encryption
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: Multi-Target Detection and Tracking; Multi-copter Drone; Aerial Imagery, Image Sensor, Deep Learning, GPU-based Embedded Module, Neural Computing Stick; Image Processing
Online: 18 July 2019 (10:09:05 CEST)
In recent years, demand has been increasing for target detection and tracking from aerial imagery via drones using onboard powered sensors and devices. We propose a very effective method for this application based on a deep learning framework. A state-of-art embedded hardware system empowers small flying robots to carry out the real-time onboard computation necessary for object tracking. Two types of embedded modules were developed: one is designed using a Jetson TX or AGX Xavier, and the other is based on an Intel Neural Compute Stick. These are suitable for real-time onboard computing power on small flying drones with limited space. A comparative analysis of current state-of-art deep-learning-based multi-object detection algorithms was carried out utilizing the designated GPU-based embedded computing modules to obtain detailed metric data about frame rates as well as the computation power. We also introduce an effective target tracking approach for moving objects. The algorithm for tracking moving objects is based on the extension of simple online and real-time tracking. It was developed by integrating a deep-learning-based association metric approach (Deep SORT), which uses a hypothesis tracking methodology with Kalman filtering and a deep-learning-based association metric. In addition, a guidance system that tracks the target position using a GPU-based algorithm is introduced. Finally, we demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms by real-time experiments with a small multi-rotor drone.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0358.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Metaheuristic algorithms; Health data analytics; Multi-object simulated annealing; optimization
Online: 15 July 2021 (12:03:44 CEST)
Metaheuristic algorithms have been frequently using to tackle optimization problems, however such algorithms in the analysis of health-related data is not commonly used as developing metaheuristic algorithms that work well on health-related data is a difficult task due to complexity of the health data in particular genomics and epigenetics data. One of the important tasks in genomics is to predict genomic elements that are incorporating together to regulate a disease-related genes. Predicting such elements are important as they can be used to develop a personalized cure. In this study, we present for the first time, a multi-object simulated annealing algorithm to identify enhancer-promoter like interactions from Hi-C (chromosome conformation capture) data. These regulatory elements can potentially play vital roles as promoters and/or enhancers in appearance and exacerbation of the regulation of gene.s To evaluate the efficiency of the proposed method, we applied our proposed method and traditional methods on the Hi-C data from mice and compared together. Our results show that the interacting elements identified by our new method are more likely to be functional. The source code of the method is publicly available.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0035.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: smart environment; smart sensors; distributed architectures; object detection; information integration
Online: 4 November 2019 (03:45:21 CET)
Objects recognition is a necessary task in smart city environments. This recognition can be used in processes such as the reconstruction of the environment map or the intelligent navigation of vehicles. This paper proposes an architecture that integrates heterogeneous distributed information to recognize objects in intelligent environments. The architecture is based on the IoT / Industry 4.0 model to interconnect the devices, called Smart Resources. Smart Resources can process local sensor data and send information to other devices. These other devices can be located in the same operating range, the Edge, in the same intranet, the Fog, or on the Internet, the Cloud. Smart Resources must have an intelligent layer in order to be able to process the information. A system with two Smart Resources equipped with different image sensors has been implemented to validate the architecture. Experiments show that the integration of information increases the certainty in the recognition of objects between 2\% and 4\%. Consequently, in the field of intelligent environments, it seems appropriate to provide the devices with intelligence, but also capabilities to collaborate closely with other devices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0238.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: Multiple object tracking; Airborne video; Tracklet confidence; Hierarchical association framework
Online: 13 July 2018 (14:27:22 CEST)
Multi-object tracking (MOT) in airborne videos is a challenging problem due to the uncertain airborne vehicle motion, vibrations of the mounted camera, unreliable detections, size, appearance and motion of the moving objects as well as occlusions due to the interaction between the moving objects and with other static objects in the scene.To deal with these problems, this work proposes a four-stage Hierarchical Association framework for multiple object Tracking in Airborne video (HATA). The proposed framework combines data association-based tracking (DAT) methods and target tracking using a Compressive Tracking approach, to robustly track objects in complex airborne surveillance scenes. In each association stage, different sets of tracklets and detections are associated to efficiently handle local tracklet generation, local trajectory construction, global drifting tracklet correction and global fragmented tracklet linking. Experiments with challenging airborne video datasets show significant tracking improvement compared to existing state-of-art methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0277.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Cervical cancer; Pap smear test; whole slide image (WSI); feature pyramid network (FPN); global context aware (GCA); region based convolutional neural networks (R-CNN); Region Proposal Network (RPN).
Online: 12 July 2021 (23:05:34 CEST)
Cervical cancer is a worldwide public health problem with a high rate of illness and mortality among women. In this study, we proposed a novel framework based on Faster RCNN-FPN ar-chitecture for the detection of abnormal cervical cells in cytology images from cancer screening test. We extended the Faster RCNN-FPN model by infusing deformable convolution layers into the feature pyramid network (FPN) to improve scalability. Furthermore, we introduced a global contextual aware module alongside the Region Proposal Network (RPN) to enhance the spatial correlation between the background and the foreground. Extensive experimentations with the proposed deformable and global context aware (DGCA) RCNN were carried out using the cer-vical image dataset of “Digital Human Body" Vision Challenge from the Alibaba Cloud TianChi Company. Performance evaluation based on the mean average precision (mAP) and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve has demonstrated considerable advantages of the proposed framework. Particularly, when combined with tagging of the negative image samples using tra-ditional computer-vision techniques, 6-9% increase in mAP has been achieved. The proposed DGCA-RCNN model has potential to become a clinically useful AI tool for automated detection of cervical cancer cells in whole slide images of Pap smear.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0423.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: autonomous vehicles; SWOT analysis; 3D object detection; artificial intelligence; market dominance
Online: 21 January 2021 (14:50:05 CET)
Scientific and technological advances in telecommunications and onboard electronics, and advances in sustainability standards, dictated major changes to various industrial sectors, including the automotive industry, where hard and soft approaches to manufacturing are vying for market dominance. This work presents a prospective analysis of the autonomous vehicle (AV) market, analyzing three of the main US AV technology firms, Tesla, Waymo and Apple. Their designs and solutions are compared, and prospective scenarios were constructed based on an analysis of their strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT). The results suggest that Tesla currently exhibits the greatest market leadership in the group studied. However, it was concluded that in the medium term, Waymo would surpass Tesla and assume market leadership. In the long run, it was concluded that Apple will overcome its rivals and dominate this market.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0161.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Navier-Stokes solver; multi-object tracking; collision risk assessment; road scenes
Online: 14 August 2019 (09:26:07 CEST)
Prediction of the likely evolution in the traffic scenes is a challenging task because of high uncertainty of sensing technology and dynamic environment. It leads to failure of planning for intelligent agents like autonomous vehicles. In this paper, we propose a fluid-based physical model to present the influence of surrounding object's motion on driving safety. In our pipeline, the input sensor could be LiDAR, camera, or multi-modal data. We use a Kalman filter to estimate the state space of each detected object, and adopt the properties of stable fluid to build a riskmap based on the density field. The noisy state space are then modeled as the boundary conditions in the simulation of advection and diffusion process. We test our approach on the public KITTI dataset and find this model could handle the short-term prediction in case of misdetection and tracking failure caused by object occlusion, which shows promising in collision risk assessment on road scenes.
Subject: Keywords: system-analysis; complex systems; system-theory; biological systems; object oriented programming
Online: 11 April 2019 (11:24:35 CEST)
The following series of Articles about a contextual system-theory, with focus on biological systems, shall give a guideline of how to explore complex systems. It is written not only for scientists, and therefore I will try to describe part of the way of understanding as an intuitive approach. This approach will also help scientists to get a deeper understanding of complexity. Some definitions and rules may seem at first simple and obvious. If practiced in a multidimensional complex system, one will see the difficulties. Even without mathematization or computer modeling the multidimensional sub space, which we try to describe phenomenologically for approaching the understanding of this Subsystem, will need a lot of training. Easily we get lost in the multidimensional world. Some of the chapters here and in the following publications of this series are written for specialists, but it will always come back to the essence of a phenomenological description. Concepts like Symbolic programming, Object oriented modeling, simulation and optimizing as well as experimental and mathematical approaches are the described tools to unpuzzle a complex scenario.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0471.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: Deep learning; Convoluted Neural Networks; LSTM; MediaPipe; Google Cloud; Object detection; Classification
Online: 26 December 2022 (04:10:07 CET)
The Median American Sign Language Interpretation Software (ASL) Interpretation Software is a web application that is capable of interpreting American Sign Language in real-time, utilizing an internet connection and a primary web camera, complete with basic phrases and letters. Extensive use of Deep Learning and Neural Networks, specifically Convoluted Neural Networks, enables Median to interpret video inputs and generate accurate results directly displayed to the user in text format. The ultimate goal for Median is to have it act as a bridge between hearing people and members of the deaf community, allowing deaf people to communicate with non-signing people using American Sign Language. Furthermore, Median has been designed to benefit people who lack access to a human ASL Translator, as its format as a website allows it to be accessible anywhere at any time, giving increased availability over human interpreters. Median is designed to be a very versatile program with great potential for growth and expansion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0275.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Bicycle Behavior; Naturalistic Cycling Data; Car/Bike Interactions; Computer Vision; Object Detection
Online: 19 September 2022 (10:22:00 CEST)
As machine learning and computer vision techniques and methods continue to advance, the collection of naturalistic traffic data from video feeds is becoming more and more feasible. That is especially true for the case of bicycles, for which the collection of naturalistic data is not achievable in the traditional vehicle approach. This study describes a research effort that aims to extract naturalistic cycling data from a video dataset for use in safety and mobility applications. The used videos come from a dataset collected in a previous Virginia Tech Transportation Institute study in collaboration with SPIN in which continuous video data at a non-signalized intersection on the Virginia Tech campus was recorded. The research team applied computer vision and machine learning techniques to develop a comprehensive framework for the extraction of naturalistic cycling trajectories. In total, this study resulted in the collection and classification of 619 bicycle trajectories based on their type of interactions with other road users. The results confirm the success of the proposed methodology in relation to extracting the locations, speeds, and accelerations of the bicycles at a high level of precision. Furthermore, preliminary insights into the acceleration and speed behavior of bicyclists around motorists are determined.