ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0151.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Circular Economy; Traceability; Sustainability; BPMN; Eco-Gamification; Textiles and Clothing Value Chain
Online: 9 February 2023 (01:24:56 CET)
The Textile and Clothing (T\&C) value chain is one of the most polluting in the world and one that produces the most waste. It is, therefore, important to encourage the Circular Economy (CE) model in this sector, to reduce pollution and mitigate the effects of waste production, and consequently increase environmental sustainability. For that, the involvement of the final consumer is essential. And, the final consumer's use of an Eco-gamified application for registering and promoting Consumer-to-Consumer (C2C) and Consumer-to-Business (C2B) activities, which extends the life time of textile products, is of utmost importance. In this article, we survey gamification frameworks for analyzing system design level techniques that enable engaging the final consumer in the CE process. Then, we select and use one of such frameworks, Gameful Design Heuristics (GDH), for defining the gamification structure needed to implement on a Business-to-Consumer-to-Consumer (B2C2C) context of a circular economy. As result, we present a B2C2C circular business process model for the T\&C value chain, and propose the design model of a gamified platform for the final consumers, which allows them to register the C2B and C2C activities, from the circular value chain's business process, and benefit from a game-like experience. All model features have been mapped to GDH framework heuristics, validating that it is possible to support a set of defined heuristics of applied gamification for promoting CE in the T\&C value chain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0516.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: gamification; university students; higher education; gamer profile
Online: 7 September 2023 (08:19:50 CEST)
In recent years, the use of gamified systems in education has increased due to the growing empirical evidence of their usefulness in improving motivation and participation in learning processes. In order to take advantage of the opportunities for improvement in education presented by gamification, plus the decision to create gamified systems in higher education, this article investigates the willingness of student teachers to learn with gamified systems. The research method is quantitative with validated instruments to measure: 1) student perception of gamification; 2) player profile; and 3) screen time, with an n=569 student teachers from the fifteen regions of Chile. The results show that students prefer to learn with gamified systems than in a traditional way with a significant difference (Wilcoxon z= -18.86, p < 0.01). There are significant positive and negative relationships in correspondence with the Gamer Profile. However, as a finding, a negative relationship was found between the number of hours spent playing video games and the perception of learning through gamified systems. In conclusion, Chilean student teachers present a favorable disposition to teacher training with gamified systems. However, the disposition varies in relation to the number of hours spent playing video games.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0360.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: GBL; Games; Education; Learning; Motivation; Mathematics; Gamification
Online: 19 January 2023 (12:17:57 CET)
In this paper I describe elements of Game-Based Learning that can be used to support mathematics teaching using games. After creating a game that incorporates the elements described, the game was playtested against a small number of people who answered a questionnaire focusing on user experience, learning motivation and game design. The results are attached separately as well as the analysis. I believe that with further development this game-based approach can be a powerful tool to gamify common learning tools and increase learning motivation and appreciation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0051.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: problematic smartphone use; adolescence; marketing; unhook; gamification
Online: 27 May 2020 (04:59:36 CEST)
Background: Smartphones have become an indispensable part of the daily lives of adolescents in the 21st century, which is characterized by a highly digitized modern world. Besides their many advantages, smartphones might pave the way to compulsive usage and addictive experiences. To remedy this problem, this study proposes an authentic approach which integrates consumer behavior theories and techniques such as unhook and gamification. An education program has been designed based on these approaches to decrease the problematic smartphone use. Method: The participants of the education program consisted of 305 students (48.2% girls and 51.8% boys) with a mean age of 14.57 (SD = 0.74). The Demographic Form and Smartphone Addiction Scale for Adolescents (SASA) were conducted before the education program and three weeks after the education. Results: The results of the paired sample t-test analysis before and after the education program revealed that the SASA total scores decreased significantly (p < 0.01). There are significant differences in terms of gender, mothers’ education and class levels. Conclusion: This research emphasizes the role of an interdisciplinary approach to the addiction problem. The content used in the education program includes strategies that originally aimed at increasing consumption. The effectiveness of the program can be enhanced further in the future along with self-regulatory additions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0139.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Software Keywords: education; cyber threats; gamification; phishing; survey; taxonomies
Online: 8 March 2020 (16:14:56 CET)
Phishing is a set of devastating techniques which lure target users to provide critical resources. They are successful because they rely on human weaknesses. Gamification which is a recent and non-traditional learning method with purpose to motivate and engage user to carry out activities, is more and more applied to prevent such cyber threats. This paper provides the first survey of gamified solutions dedicated to educate against phishing from 2007 to 2019. The investigation is conducted on eight proposals in terms of core concepts, game mechanics and learning process. We provide three taxonomies of dimensions to systematically characterize researches on gamified solutions, discuss lacks of surveyed works and opens further orientations to enhance this research area. Some key results are: solutions do not consider elementary level of knowledge and do no offer basic notions; solutions are not adapted to general audience and therefore not reliably applicable in different contexts; platforms partially educate about phishing; learners are evaluated predictably and within a short period. This study constitutes a cornerstone to understand and enhance research on phishing education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0424.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: curing conditions; carbonated recycled concrere aggregate; eco-efficiency indexes; eco-efficient index
Online: 26 May 2020 (08:18:52 CEST)
The paper presents the influence of different curing conditions – wet, dry and protection against water evaporation on selected properties of concretes with different amount of recycled concrete aggregate previously subjected to atmospheric CO2 sequestration. Additionally, the eco-efficiency bi and ci indexes as well as eco-durability S-CO2 index were calculated. It was found that dry conditions deteriorate the properties of concrete, especially made of blast furnace slag cement, while protection against evaporation allows to achieve results comparable to wet conditions. Moreover, for series with the highest amount of coarse recycled aggregate and after longer period of curing, the difference between the effects of wet curing and protection against water evaporation disappears. The eco-efficiency and eco-durability indexes approach confirms the beneficial effect of blast-furnace slag cement used as a binder but on condition of proper way of curing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0012.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: M.E.N. (MEGA-ECO-NEGA) ecoenergetical paradigm; eco-energetic efficiency; ecological coefficient; eco-energetical chains; sustenability; circular economy model; ecoenergetic diagram
Online: 4 February 2017 (08:48:33 CET)
The paper combines two new original concepts about eco-energetic systems. The first one is related to the M.E.N. (Mega-Eco-Nega-Watt) paradigm, which is based on three different but complementary ecological economic spaces: MEGAWATT, as needed energy, ECOWATT, as ecological energy, and NEGAWATT, as preserved energy, even the renewable energies and technologies, in the context of electrical energy production. The second concept presented in this paper is the eco-energetic efficiency, introduced in order to facilitate a correlation between the energetic efficiency of the system and a necessary, new defined ecological coefficient. The proposed formula for eco-energetic efficiency enables an interesting form of reporting to the different situations in which the input energy, output energy, lost energy and externalities, involved in an energetic process interact to produce energy in a specific energetic system, in connection with the circular economy model. Finally, is presented an original diagram of the energetic chains to produce electricity in a resilience regim, with high eco-energetic efficiency from originating in different primary energetic sources as external (gravitation & solar sources), fuels (classical & radioactive), internal sources and others. Even what kind of energetic sources are used to obtain electricity, as coals, gas, wood, hydropower, nuclear power, wind power, biomass, solar systems, and others, the entire process should be sustainable in what is the transdisciplinary integration of the different representative spheres as energy, socio-economy, ecology (environment), with the main core, sustainable education, inclueding the law and administrative aspects, as necessary fields of the knowledge based society/economy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1857.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Humanities Keywords: collaboration; gamification; game-based; massification; student engagement; talent
Online: 29 August 2023 (02:31:28 CEST)
Massification in higher education has made the satisfaction of students’ needs a difficult conundrum among university lecturers. In contrast, the use of innovative design for collaborative learning enhances student engagement in the populous student’s context. Moreover, this paper aims to extensively explore innovative designs for fostering student engagement and collaborative learning among first-year students at the University of Venda. The study employed a qualitative research method with the purposive sampling technique. Subsequently, a group of 200 students was the population of this study. Participant Observation and narrative inquiry were used as data collection instruments. The students in their respective groups were assigned topics from the module content to use their talents to demonstrate their understanding of certain content in the module. The non-surprising findings of this paper elucidated that collaborative learning expedites students’ mastery of key concepts and subject content. The module lecturers introduced students to these innovative designs to ensure collaborative learning and effective student engagement. The key findings elucidated these aspects namely, role-playing exercises, group projects, peer-to-peer learning, use of talents, and peer feedback. The implication of this study is that students learn to work together, delegate responsibilities and communicate effectively to attain a common goal. Using these strategies, the lecturers promote collaboration among students and foster a more engaging and interactive learning experience. This paper further recommends efficient and effective techniques and strategies to foster student engagement and collaboration to track and monitor at-risk students timeously.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0196.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: gamification methodology; teaching strategies; online teaching; chemical engineering
Online: 16 May 2022 (04:08:16 CEST)
As consequence of the digital transformation, e-learning methodologies have become an inseparable part of the standard classes in schools and universities, assuming an increasingly significant role in compensating for the difficulties resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic. Numerous pedagogical methodologies and strategies can be easily implemented in high education, promoting students’ motivation and interest in learning. This research study analyses the implementation of gamification pedagogical strategy on 50-60 undergraduate chemical engineering students at the university, by evaluating its effect on the success rate on a specific topic of Chemical Reactions Engineering subject and the motivation effect for the following topics. Our results show a significant positive effect of the gamification strategy on university lectures, increasing up to 25-30 % of the success ratio with an apparent motivation effect. During the subsequent years, the changes in the lifestyle of study also play a role in students’ performance. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate case studies such as the one presented here to understand better the use of these pedagogical methods and strategies in high education, especially in technical subjects described in this paper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0292.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: sonification; gamification; auditory display; smartphone apps; video games
Online: 10 June 2021 (13:21:22 CEST)
As sonification is supposed to communicate information to users, experimental evaluation of the subjective appropriateness and effectiveness of the sonification design is often desired and sometimes indispensable. Experiments in the laboratory are typically restricted to short-term usage by a small sample size under unnatural conditions. We introduce the multi-platform CURAT Sonification Game that allows us to evaluate our sonification design by a large population during long-term usage. Gamification is used to motivate users to interact with the sonification regularly and conscientiously over a long period of time. In this paper we present the sonification game and some initial analyses of the gathered data. Furthermore, we hope to reach more volunteers to play the CURAT Sonification Game and help us evaluate and optimize our psychoacoustic sonification design and give us valuable feedback on the game and recommendations for future developments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0129.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Gamification education; manufacturing shopfloor; virtual reality; student engagement
Online: 7 May 2020 (15:01:29 CEST)
This paper shares our work in developing and implementing an immersive gamification training platform for students who undergo manufacturing shopfloor training at the School of Engineering, Nanyang Polytechnic, Singapore. In this gamification training platform, we developed a virtual manufacturing shopfloor that is identical to the actual shopfloor located in the school. Students have the freedom to learn the manufacturing shopfloor operations and safety acts through the various game scenarios and training tasks which include workshop safety, CNC machine introduction, CNC machining dynamics, MES, etc. In addition, the assessment feature with immediate feedback were embedded within the gamification platform, which aim to help students to assess their level of understanding and help teachers to monitor the learning progress of their students. To investigate the impact of this gamification training platform on students’ learning outcome and motivation in manufacturing shopfloor technologies and safety acts, a pilot study was conducted in AY2018 semester 2 for a total 134 students from 4 classes of digital & precision engineering diploma. It is found that gamification can be integrated effectively into manufacturing education to motivate students and enhance their learning effectiveness. Based on the collected data from the technical quizzes and satisfactory survey, the results showed that the integration of gamification into the classroom learning not only added a stimulating and captivating game-like layer to the learning experience of the students, but also provided a safe environment for students to learn without fear of making errors. Challenges faced in implementing this gamification training platform will also be discussed in this paper.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0504.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: app; somatotropin; serious games; gamification; digital; mobile health
Online: 26 July 2018 (04:41:50 CEST)
Growth hormone (GH) deficiency affects up to 1 in 4,000 children and is usually treated with daily injections of GH whilst the child is still growing. With children typically diagnosed around 5 years old, this can mean over 10 years of therapy, which can place a considerable burden on the child and parent. Over three-quarters of children are estimated to be not fully compliant with therapy, which can compromise their chances of attaining their target height. In recent years, interactive mobile health (smart phone or tablet) interventions using game-like concepts, so called ‘gamification’, have increased in popularity and have demonstrated success in promoting positive self-management behaviour in children with chronic conditions, such as diabetes. The application of gamified interventions has the potential to support adherence to therapy and positive behaviour in children with GH deficiency in a number of ways: 1) By providing education in a format that the child understands and accepts (e.g. using behavioural constructs to facilitate explaining why adherence is important); 2) By providing a mechanism to reduce the anxiety and stress associated with administering the injection (e.g. diversion with a virtual pet); and 3) By providing feedback to encourage on-going engagement (e.g. rewards, progression through levels).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0198.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: gamification; motivational theories; engineering education; micro-credentials & engineering
Online: 4 December 2023 (11:29:39 CET)
Engineering Education needs to be approached in different, innovative ways to meet the needs of society, learners, and education providers. This ranges from new educational programs and innovative pedagogies in individual classrooms, to online and immersive learning, to micro-credentials and modularity along with how to enable rapid adaptation for reskilling and upskilling, to entirely new pathways of restructuring education. Gamification is the application of game elements and digital game design techniques to non-game problems, such as learning challenges. It is about using game-based mechanics, aesthetics, and game thinking to enhance users’ engagement, motivate action, and support learning. At first view, the concept of gamification does not contain game design elements, but with the addition of additional elements such as the video game component that is applied in different contexts, the users are encouraged to participate in learning activities and complete learning challenges successfully. The first step in the process of designing a gamification activity is to think like a game designer. According to Cook (2013), any process can be gamified when the following requirements are covered: (i) the gamified activity is easy to learn, (ii) user progress can be measured, (iii) continuous feedback is provided to users.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1513.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Adaptive Gamification; Science Education; Adapted game Elements; Students' Motivation
Online: 21 June 2023 (09:33:46 CEST)
In recent years, gamification has captured the attention of researchers and educators, particularly in science education, where students often express negative emotions. Gamification methods aim to motivate learners to participate in learning by incorporating intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors. However, the effectiveness of gamification has yielded varying outcomes, prompting researchers to explore adaptive gamification as an alternative approach. Nevertheless, there needs to be more research on adaptive gamification approaches, particularly concerning motivation, which is the primary objective of gamification. In this study, we developed and tested an adaptive gamification environment based on specific motivational and psychological frameworks. This environment incorporated adaptive criteria, learning strategies, gaming elements, and all crucial aspects of science education for six classes of 3rd-grade students in primary school. We employed a quantitative approach to gain insights into the motivational impact on students and their perception of the adaptive gamification application. We aimed to understand how each game element experienced by students influenced their motivation. The findings of our study revealed encouraging results in terms of increased motivation and engagement among students, as well as the influence of different game elements when connected with an individual's profile based on a multidimensional adaptive framework.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0363.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: gamification; science education; flipped classroom; active learning methods; higher education
Online: 31 October 2019 (07:56:59 CET)
Innovative teaching strategies are designing a new and promising landscape in education. They fill up the lessons with creativity and imagination either for the students and teachers. This article addresses an attempt to make easier the approach to science in a non-scientific environment: primary education at university level. Gamification methodologies were combined with flipped classroom in order to free up in-class time and engage the students with the taught courses. A qualitative study was merged with quantitative measures of emotional and motivational parameters. These results were improved with four semi-structured interviews. The results clearly showed a raise in the students' motivational level, an acknowledgment of good teaching practice and an evident enhancement of felt positive emotions toward science teaching and scientific issues.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0677.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Software Keywords: low back pain; virtual reality; virtual rehabilitation; serious game; gamification
Online: 29 October 2018 (11:38:57 CET)
Low Back Pain (LBP) is one of the most common problems among adults. The usual physiotherapy treatment is to perform physical exercises. However, some LBP patients have false beliefs regarding their pain and they tend to avoid physical movements which might increase their pain and disability. Virtual Reality (VR) has shown to be an effective intervention in improving motor functions and reducing pain perception. Existing VR interventions for LBP rehabilitation were based on a non-immersive VR, whereas to effectively reduce the pain intensity, we need an immersive VR. In this paper, we introduce the development and evaluation of a serious game called RabbitRun with an immersive experience to engage the patients in a virtual environment and distract them from the pain while performing LBP exercises. The initial usability evaluation results suggest that RabbitRun game is enjoyable and acceptable. The game is easy to play and learn and most of the participants are willing to play the game at home. This solution will enhance the rehabilitation outcome since the patients who are suffering from LBP can use the system at their home and train more for long period of time using a smartphone and low-cost virtual reality device such as Google Cardboard.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0198.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: eco-driving; GLOSA; signalized intersection; diesel bus; eco-cooperative adaptive cruise control; fuel consumption model; field test
Online: 13 December 2021 (12:34:52 CET)
This paper develops a Green Light Optimal Speed Advisory (GLOSA) system for buses (B-GLOSA). The proposed B-GLOSA system is implemented on diesel buses, and field tested to validate and quantify the potential real-world benefits. The developed system includes a simple and easy to calibrate fuel consumption model that computes instantaneous diesel bus fuel consumption rates. The bus fuel consumption model, a vehicle dynamics model, the traffic signal timings, and the re-lationship between vehicle speed and distance to the intersection are used to construct an optimi-zation problem. A moving-horizon dynamic programming problem solved using the A-star algo-rithm is used to compute the energy-optimized vehicle trajectory through signalized intersections. The Virginia Smart Road test facility was used to conduct the field test on 30 participants. Each participant drove three scenarios including a base case uninformed drive, an informed drive with signal timing information communicated to the driver, and an informed drive with the recom-mended speed computed by the B-GLOSA system. The field test investigated the performance of using the developed B-GLOSA system considering different impact factors, including road grades and red indication offsets, using a split-split-plot experimental design. The test results demonstrated that the proposed B-GLOSA system can produce smoother bus trajectories through signalized in-tersections producing fuel consumption and travel time savings. Specifically, compared to the uninformed drive, the B-GLOSA system produces fuel and travel time savings of 22.1% and 6.1% on average, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0479.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: sanitary; menstrual; female; waste; management; eco-friendly
Online: 22 February 2021 (14:56:22 CET)
Sherubtse College under Royal University of Bhutan has a total of 1582 students, where 787 0f them are female. They suffer from menstrual and menstrual cramps every month and they use napkins to stay clean and healthy. As all the college girls are educated on the norms and use of sanitary napkins, the proper management of the waste generated is lacking. The disposal of used sanitary napkins and management is a challenge to the college management. This small research aims to investigate on how girls in college campus manage the menstural waste and the amount of sanitary napkins used. The lack of proper dumping areas leads to the improper sanitary waste management and sometimes the waste generated from the sanitary napkins are toxic and unhealthy. It is very important to initate some ways to dump the pads and its related problem should be seriously addressed by the college management. It is also important to come up with different soultion and management of these wastes for sustainable environment. Therefore, this research will be mainly mentioning about the suggestions and how the sanitary waste is being managed in Sherubtse College campus and the amount of sanitary pads used in a month or an year.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0008.v1
Subject: Engineering, Metallurgy And Metallurgical Engineering Keywords: Recycling; DL-Malic Acid; WEEE; eco-friendly; pretreatment
Online: 1 May 2023 (03:41:58 CEST)
The lithium-ion batteries are widely used as a power source for portable devices, including cell phones. The useful life is about 2 years or 500 cycles, contributing to the generation of waste from electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). Mining of lithium and cobalt damages the environment and is onerous; therefore, sustainable alternatives, such as obtaining these elements from secondary sources as recycling of lithium-ion batteries, are essential to provide the inputs used in the sector. However, the metallurgical route which will used to recovering them must be considered, due to this work aims for a more environmentally favorable process using DL-malic acid 1.5 M and instead of compared with sulfuric acid 2 M, heat pretreatment of 1 h and 3 h, and for all conditions, experiments were carried out with and without adding the oxidizing agent hydrogen peroxide. The best yields occurred in presence of H2O2 10 % v/v, and heat pretreatment of 1 h: 33.49 % Co and 4.63 % Li, and 29.78 % Co e 3.44 % Li were recovered by sulfuric acid and DL-malic acid, respectively.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0152.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Natural surfactants; plants; saponins; eco-friendly; synthetic surfactants
Online: 6 August 2021 (08:15:01 CEST)
Increasing environmental concern and consumer demand for natural, sustainable and eco-friendly products have prompted the replacement of synthetic surfactants with their natural plant-based alternatives. Saponins are the plant based natural surfactants characterized by their foam forming properties in aqueous solution. Their natural origin makes them eco-friendly, bio-degradable and non-toxic. Further, they possess better physicochemical properties than the syn-thetic ones. They are also reported to exhibit a lot of useful biological activities such as anti-cancer, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant and cholesterol-lowering properties. Because of their excellent surface activity, biological activities and wide distribution in nature, saponin rich plants deserve deeper insight as a sustainable source of natural surfactants as they possess the potential to replace toxic synthetic surfactants abundant today. This review article is intended to provide a brief overview on the saponins with a special notion on their surface-active properties. It encourages further studies on development of commercial formulations based on saponins for the complete replacement of the synthetic counter parts, making better use of plants sources thereby contributing to global agenda of green environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0387.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: environmental diversity; eco-tourism; Asir region; GIS; RS
Online: 17 September 2020 (08:06:50 CEST)
This is study follows environmental diversity assessment for geotourism development in Asir region. Geotourism seeks to supporting the tourism landscape in its interaction with the historical and archaeological, architectural or immaterial heritage, and requires diversification in terms of product, market and geographical potential. The study is based on various tourist facades and environmental diversity in Asir. As tourism development is a comprehensive undertaking involving many sectors, and these are the challenges to which the country’s tourism industry should respond to promote domestic tourism. quality and spatial pattern of tourism resources, climate comfort, and natural disaster possibility. Based on analyze multi-source datasets collected, geomorphological features of this area, we created a GIS database comprising geologic and topographic maps, and satellite images using these datasets. The findings of the study provided valuable insights into the role of environmental diversity in achieving tourism. The study examined the interrelationship between tourism and environmental diversity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0003.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Eco-friendly; water-based nanolubricant; industrial-scale; hot rolling
Online: 1 October 2020 (08:52:21 CEST)
Eco-friendly and low-cost water-based nanolubricants containing rutile TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) were developed for accelerating their applications in industrial-scale hot steel rolling. The lubrication performance of developed nanolubricants was evaluated in a 2-high Hille 100 experimental rolling mill at a rolling temperature of 850 ℃ in comparison to that of pure water. The results indicate that the use of nanolubricant enables to decrease the rolling force, reduce the surface roughness and the oxide scale thickness, and enhance the surface hardness. In particular, the nanolubricant consisting of 4 wt% TiO2, 10 wt% glycerol, 0.2 wt% sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) and 1 wt% Snailcool exhibits the best lubrication performance by lowering the rolling force, surface roughness and oxide scale thickness up to 8.1%, 53.7% and 50%, respectively. The surface hardness is increased by 4.4%. The corresponding lubrication mechanisms are attributed to its superior wettability and thermal conductivity associated with the synergistic effect of rolling, mending and laminae forming that are contributed by TiO2 NPs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0036.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: conservation; governance; habitat loss; livelihood; eco-tourism; carbon credits
Online: 7 December 2016 (11:13:38 CET)
Establishment of protected areas (PAs) is one of the key global conservation strategies that currently cover approximately 15% of the earth’s land surface. Globally, PA networks are designed to curb the growing anthropogenic pressures in areas with high biological diversity. Despite the importance of PAs in conserving the vanishing biodiversity and unique habitats, many of them are in critical condition due to poor governance thus functioning below the expected level. Moreover, in many developing countries, the PA coverage is below the global standard. Recognizing their contemporary role in conservation, governments have recently agreed to expand the global PA coverage to 17% by the year 2020 (Aichi target 11). This book with eight chapters from different regions of the world provides an overview of the PAs governance, institutional mechanisms, conservation benefits, limitations and challenges associated with their respective policy discourse, integrated management, and functional attributes. Protected areas expect to to play an important role in the long rn in conservation and protection of biodiversity and ecosystems particularly in countries where population pressure and habitat loss are high. Regular intervention, political commitment, and effective governance are essential for the sustainability of PAs across the world. Here, we also attempted to shed some light on future development clues for the sustainable management and monitoring of PAs worldwide.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0342.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: bio-waste; material development; engineering; architecture; eco-friendly dry wall
Online: 3 August 2023 (11:11:19 CEST)
Amidst the strong demand for wood-based products, and the clamor of environmental consciousness, more functional and green solutions arise to meet both of these goals. Pursuant to this, the study looked into the potential of a bio-waste taken from Cocos nucifera tree known as phellem—the tree’s outermost skin made of dead tissues, to be a main component of a new construction material. This study builds on existing research showing phellem is impermeable, buoyant, elastic, has a slow burn rate, and repels water during precipitation, which supports the hypothesis that phellem may be a potential substitute material for dry wall boards. To test this, three (3) formulations were developed as experimental setups to test the physico-mechanical properties of coconut palm phellem (COPAP): Formulation A (40% COPAP and 60% cement); Formulation B ( 25% COPAP and 75% cement); and lastly, Formulation C that was (10% COPAP and 90% cement). The study tested (1) which among these formulations exhibited the best physico-mechanical properties, then it (2) compared the formulations with common dry wall products available in the market, and subsequently, (3) identified the possible architectural applications of COPAP board as a new building material. Of the three setups, Formulation C exhibited the best physico-mechanical properties in terms of compressive and flexural strength, fire resistivity, and water absorption. It fared better than the particle board in terms of compressive strength, better than wafer and particle board in fire resistivity, performed best in the water absorption test, and was almost equivalent in flexural strength to fiber cement board. With these findings, the study concluded that COPAP board can be used for projects that entail a high number of interior partitions, such as offices, BPO firms and commercial stalls in shopping malls, etc. The findings were conclusive only for interior applications, as the results clearly suggest that the COPAP boards are not load-bearing. Future investigations may explore and assess other properties of COPAP boards like thermal and sound insulation, resistance to rot and other properties that may prove its competitive advantage as a construction material.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0382.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: anti fouling; eco-friendly; coating; pull-off; crosscut test; rheology
Online: 17 April 2023 (03:25:50 CEST)
in this work formulations of "environmentally compatible" silicone-based antifouling synthesized in the laboratory and based on copper and silver on silica/titania oxides have been characterized, capable of replacing the non-ecological antifouling paints currently on the market. The texture properties and the morphological analysis of these powders with an antifouling action indicate that their activity is linked to the nanometric size of the particles and to the homogeneous dispersion of the metal on the substrate. The presence of two metal species on the same support limits the for-mation of nanometric species and therefore the formation of homogeneous compounds. The presence of the antifouling filler (specifically the one based on TiO2 and Ag) facilitates the achievement of a higher degree of cross-linking of the pure resin, and therefore a better compactness and completeness of the coating. This leads to a consequent better degree of adhesion to the tie-coat and therefore to the steel support used for the construction of the boats.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0715.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Video Games; Gamification; Game Based Learning; Sustainable Development; Sustainability; Higher Education; Undergraduate Students; College Students
Online: 10 May 2023 (08:54:10 CEST)
Nowadays, the European Union and the governments of the different countries have focused on the development of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) and the 2030 agenda, something that has been translated into education itself. Video Games, Gamification, and Game Based Learning have become different strategies and tools to enhance the learning process and some of the growing approaches used by teachers to develop sustainable education in the classrooms. This research aims to analyze the characteristics to promote sustainability in education using games and technology, specifically its learning benefits for Higher Education. A systematic review of the literature was conducted following the PRISMA methodology. At first, 2025 documents were found which, after the filtering phases, the number of articles has been reduced to nine, which subsequently were analyzed in depth. The results indicated that among the benefits of the use of games mediated by technologies are the following: it favors education for sustainability and it promotes the educational inclusion and the work of various social skills such as collaborative and cooperative work. Also, showed an increase of the number of publications between 2019 and 2023, reflecting the growing interest in the topic. However, there are some research gap in this field.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1092.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aquatic Science Keywords: Micro-plastics; routes of MPs; eco-toxicology; aquatic organisms; human exposure
Online: 17 November 2023 (02:27:47 CET)
Micro-plastics (MPs) become significantly important to society since their commercial manufacture began in the 1950s because of their low production costs, stability, light weight, and adaptability. Plastic was produced in 400 million tons worldwide in 2020, compared to 1.5 million tons just 60 years earlier. Scientists predict that by 2050, plastic production would increase to 33 billion tons. MPs are a rising scientific and societal issue in the environment as a new type of contaminant that is widely disseminated in aquatic ecosystems and organisms. Aquatic species that come into contact with MPs for an extended period of time experience ecotoxicity, which includes oxidative stress, genotoxicity, neurotoxicity, and reproductive issues. In aquatic environments, MPs not only transport chemicals within animals but also serve as mediators for chemicals or other contaminants. As a result of co-exposure of MPs and chemical contaminants, various toxicity incidences involving aquatic organisms have been reported. The final exposure of MPs occurs in humans through biomagnification of aquatic edible products. This study presents an important overview of the literature on MP ingestion by aquatic biota. It covers topics such as the present scenario of plastic pollution worldwide, the pathways that MPs take to reach humans and aquatic species, the eco-toxicological impacts of MPs on aquatic species, the relation between MPs and other environmental pollution and the ensuing effects on aquatic organisms, and the MP pollution status in Bangladesh.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1650.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Organic Chemistry Keywords: Porous organic polymer; biomass conversion; lignocellulose; 5-hydroxymethylfurfural; eco-friendly catalysts
Online: 23 May 2023 (11:04:40 CEST)
In the face of the current energy and environment problems, the full use of biomass resources instead of fossil energy to produce a series of high-value chemicals has great application prospects. 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), which can be synthesized from lignocellulose as raw material, is an important biological platform molecule. Its preparation and catalytic oxidation of subsequent products have important research significance and practical value. In the actual production process, porous organic polymer (POPs) catalysts are highly suitable for biomass catalytic conversion due to its high efficiency, low cost, good designability, and environmentally friendly features. Here, we briefly described the application of various types of POPs (including COFs、PAFs、HCPs、CMPs) in the preparation and catalytic conversion of HMF from lignocellulosic biomass, and analyzed the influence of the structural properties of catalysts for the catalytic performance. Finally, we summarized some challenges that POPs catalysts will face in biomass catalytic conversion, and prospected the important research directions in future. This review would provide valuable references for the efficient conversion of biomass resources into high-value chemicals in practical applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0192.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Eco-Efficiency; Human Capital Efficiency; family farms; TOPSIS-CRITIC; sustainable development
Online: 7 April 2021 (11:24:26 CEST)
Small and medium-sized family farms are the place of life and source of income for about half of the population. The aim of the analysis was to determine the relationship between Eco-Efficiency, Human Capital Efficiency in small and medium-sized family farms. The analyses were carried out using an economic measure (value of agricultural production per work hour calculated per 1 ha) and synthetic measures: human capital and environmental measures. The synthetic measures were determined using the CRITIC-TOPSIS method by defining weights for variables used in the synthetic measures. The analyses covered five countries, namely: Lithuania (960 farms), Moldova (532 farms), Poland (696 farms), Romania (872 farms), and Serbia (524 farms). All the countries qualified for analysis are characterised by a high fragmentation of agricultural holdings. The analyses carried out allowed us to formulate the following conclusions: the Eco-Efficiency and Human Capital Efficiency indexes increase with area for small and medium-sized family agricultural farms. An increase in the Eco-Efficiency index with an increase in farm area leads to a suspicion that the smaller the farm area is, the more extensive the agricultural production being carried out. In addition, an increase in human capital efficiency with an increase in the area of a farm indicates that there is inefficiency in the utilisation of human capital resources in the agricultural farms studied.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0133.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: entrepreneurship; entrepreneurial interest; youth, family; entrepreneurial eco-system; principal component analysis
Online: 10 February 2020 (15:52:32 CET)
As entrepreneurial interest is believed to represent a causal factor increasing entrepreneurship, research has begun to explore how family systems affect youth entrepreneurial interests. In the present study, we attempt to identify different types of family influence on the entrepreneurial interests of young people. A questionnaire was used to obtain data from 1,633 Spanish youths, who were 15 to 18 years old, and another questionnaire was used to obtain data from 839 parents. Principal Component Analysis identified unique family types and revealed that they have differential associations to entrepreneurial interest among youths. These findings reaffirm the influence of family on the entrepreneurial ecosystem and the promotion of an entrepreneurial family cuture. This study further suggests that early attention should focus on the detection of entrepreneurial interest among youths so that actions can be implemented in the families of low-interest youths to incentivize an entrepreneurial family culture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0091.v2
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Alginate fiber; rhubarb natural dye; color strength &fastness; SEM; Eco-friendly
Online: 16 October 2017 (13:19:07 CEST)
In this investigation dyeing of alginate fiber was carried out after cationic treatment of EPTAC (2, 3-Epoxypropyl Trimethyl Ammonium Chloride). Optimum dyeing process and parameter show good dyeing performance when alginate fiber dyed with rhubarb dye. In addition to cationic treatment is taken into account for alginate fiber to improve fastness, color strength, breaking strength. Later in dyeing for fixation ferrous sulfate, copper sulphate was considered as mordents. Moreover using pre-mordanting methods conveyed the dyeing of alginate fiber with the stave of metallic mordant and without metallic salt mordents. The evaluation of each color dyed material was done through following two terms for instance CIELAB (L*, a*, and b*) and K/S values. According to AATCC test methods color fastness to washing of the dyed fiber was determined whereas according to the ASTM D3822M standard the breaking strength of alginate fiber was estimated and tested. When dyeing was carried out on alginate fiber through considering optimum parameter like 80◦C for 90 min, M: L 1:40 and at pH 7 which showed optimum results. In addition to mostly very good wash fastness was obtained while there was no fading of the color, whereas the moderate level of color fastness to crocking was achieved. Later after dyeing the evaluations of SEM of the cationized alginate fiber and FTIR of powder from the rhubarb dye were observed. The results suggested that the surface of cationized alginate fiber was smoother than the raw alginate fiber.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0228.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Early-Intervention; High-risk for Eating Disorders; Acceptance and Commitment Therapy; Gamification; Digital Intervention; Vicarious learning
Online: 18 February 2022 (09:12:15 CET)
Eating Disorders (ED) constitute a serious public health issue affecting predominantly women and appearing typically in adolescence or early adulthood. EDs are extremely difficult to treat as these disorders are ego-syntonic and many patients do not seek treatment. It is vital to focus on the development of successful early-intervention programs for individuals presenting at-risk and are on a trajectory towards developing EDs. This study is a randomized controlled trial evalu-ating an innovative digital gamified Acceptance and Commitment early-intervention program (AcceptME) for young females showing signs and symptoms of an ED and at high-risk for an ED. Participants (N=92; Mage=15.30 years, SD=2.15) received either AcceptME (N=62) or a waitlist control (N=30). Analyses indicated that the AcceptME program effectively reduced weight and shape concerns, with large effects when compared to waitlist controls. Most participants scored below the at-risk cut-off (WCS score<52) in the AcceptME at end-of-intervention (57.1%) com-pared to controls (7.1%) with odds of falling into the at-risk group being 14.5 times higher for participants in the control group. At follow-up, 72% of completers reported scores below the at-risk cut-off in the AcceptME group. The intervention also resulted in a decrease in ED symp-tomatology and increased body image flexibility. Overall, results suggest that the AcceptME program holds promise for early-intervention of young women at-risk for developing an ED.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1720.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Iraqi and Syrian refugees; displacement-related stressors; eco-systemic resilience; cultural racism
Online: 8 November 2023 (02:03:57 CET)
The ongoing conflict in Syria and Iraq has caused many residents of these countries to flee. This study explored how these refugees cope with traumatic experiences from pre-migration to post-migration phases and how they develop resilience experiences at the individual, familial, and community levels. Data were collected through individual interviews and analyzed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. A discussion of the findings revealed (1) a cumulative effect of prolonged adversity from pre-migration to resettlement phases; (2) the impacts of post-migration context as it facilitates refugees’ adjustment or leads to re-traumatization through increased marginalization; and (3) finally, an overview of refugees’ ongoing survival. Clinical implications are presented along with policy implications and future directions for research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0499.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: urban green-space, eco-authoritarianism, preservation, conservation, cultural praxis; attitude towards nature
Online: 7 July 2023 (11:46:28 CEST)
The concept of "Eco-authoritarianism", although appeared in the 1970s, through the writings of Robert Heilbroner, William Ophuls etc., but Eco-authoritarianism as a theory has emerged very recently . In this era of global environmental degradation and rampant defacement of green space in the rapidly expanding cities of developing countries especially in India, historical sites of green belts, or eco-space developed by royal dynasties or colonial rulers are still preserved by eco-authoritarianism and cultural praxis. A lot of such heritage sites and built-up eco-spaces have faded out over time but at the same time, huge numbers are still present due to the imposition of restrictions by the state or national government or statutory organizations. Built up eco-space under Burdwan Raj Dynasty during the 18th and 19th centuries is still preserved almost in its original form due to the eco-authoritarianism outlook of the present stakeholder (The University authority mainly and the Forest Department). People of this urban unit not only feel proud of such built up eco-space; they also give credit to the university authority for maintaining the legacy of the Raj Dynasty. This investigation attempts to capture not only the role of authoritarian legacy for the preservation and conservation of eco-space in the urban context but also clarify the benefits of this eco-space regarding the cultural ecosystem services and outlook of urbanites towards nature. To portray this, both the qualitative and quantitative methods have been applied to glean the whole perspective.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0045.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: circular economy; eco-design; business education; economics education; competencies; Management Education; ADKAR
Online: 5 May 2022 (15:57:09 CEST)
The Circular Economy is matter of recent discussions and quite popular, however the meaning has not been understood by most Business stakeholders. This Case study proposes to illustrate the Circular Economy importance and its status now. The contribution that UAE education sector can make to the Circular Economy is immense and is the focus of this study. Circular Economy awareness and its inner meaning can be only spread by the education sector and the author emphasizes the role of the education can play in implementing the Circular Economy. The study shows the way for the future Managers and Business stakeholders to participate in this crucial endeavor of Businesses to follow the Circular Economy. The ADKAR change management can be adopted to inspire the CE initiatives of the UAE Education sector.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0270.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: sediments; circular economy; cement; ternary eco-binders; flash calcination method; mixture design
Online: 15 September 2021 (15:25:47 CEST)
CO2 emissions resulting from the production of cement is a major issue, but can be limited by the partial substitution of cement by low-carbon-impact additions. The aim of this study was the formulation of a ternary binder based on ordinary Portland cement (OPC), ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS) and flash-calcined sediment (FCS), a dredged waste which was valorized after applying a new heat treatment: flash calcination. The used materials were physically, chemically and mineralogically characterized. The composition of the formulations was optimized using mixture designs. Five formulations, one reference formulation RM (100% OPC), one binary formulation (50% OPC/50% GGBS), and three ternary formulations with a variable FCS rate (10%, 15%, 20%), were selected and characterized fresh and hardened. Results showed that the incorporation of FCS reduced the workability and increased the density. In addition, a decrease in the initial setting time and the heat of hydration peak were observed. In the hardened state, the formulation containing 10% FCS showed 90-day mechanical strengths superior to that of RM. The use of FCS in ternary binders could reduce the environmental impact by reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0032.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: ecovillage movement; eco-discourses; ethnic traditions; innovation; intentional community; social media, Romania
Online: 1 February 2021 (13:27:35 CET)
This case study explores social media discourses of a virtual ecovillage community based in Central Romania, in a Hungarian speaking region of Transylvania. The investigated virtual community embraces the idea of ecovillage as a local constructive answer to the challenges of the global ecological crisis, based on strategies of revitalizing local ethnic traditions, promoting sustainable development solutions, and innovations. Our key question is the relationship between tradition and innovation—as revealed by the discursive practices of the ecovillage Facebook group most active members. Using ecolinguistic as a frame of reference, the investigation unveiled the role social media played in fostering the formation of a virtual intentional community, and in clarifying the shared values of the group. We found that the local ecovillage is part of a larger regional and global movement, unfolding the organic connection between the Hungarian and the Romanian intentional communities, and the reframing of traditional values within innovative, sustainable everyday practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0542.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Automotive Engineering, Electric Bus, CFD, Numerical Fluid Mechanics, Electromobility, Noise, Eco-Design
Online: 26 January 2021 (15:23:24 CET)
The dynamic development of electromobility poses challenges to designers regarding not only the efficiency of energy transformation but also the battery life, which is influenced by the stability of its operating temperature. Designing cooling systems is connected not only with the optimization of energy management but also with other environmental parameters, such as noise emission. The paper presents the numerical optimization of an innovative radiator for use in electric buses in terms of energy consumption and noise emission. The results of the numerical studies were verified in laboratory and field conditions, showing a very good convergence of the model with the results of the experiments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0483.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Humanities Keywords: Humanities, World citizenship, World Languages, Higher Education, Peter Critchley, Eco-praxis, Ethics
Online: 25 July 2018 (12:45:08 CEST)
It is time that universities reexamine what is meant by globalization. Contemporary researchers in science and the humanities (Critchley, Chomsky, Mumford, Ostrom, Eisenstein, Ferry, Orr, Shiva, Klein, Margulis, Meadows, Capra and Tolba, just to name a few) have aptly redefined the concept of « world » as a biological and cultural ecosystem. This paper seeks ways to integrate the theory and practice of eco-citizenship into various cross-disciplinary aspects of higher education, with a focus on curricular adjustments that may be steered by World Languages and Cultures programs. While "global citizenship" is still often understood today as a form of supranational citizenship that may find its actualization through the valuable, yet often arrested efforts of the United Nations, or as the individualistic result of a neoliberal economic emancipation of markets and capital throughout the world, this notion must rather be embedded within a radically cultural, natural and ethical bedrock from which a more potent world citizenry will stem. Departments of World Languages and Cultures and cultures are ideally positioned in the academic landscape to foster the development of a greater eco-civic and biospheric awareness that can permeate new curricular orientations of universities in the US and abroad.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0153.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Eco-security; Land use and cover change (LUCC); Sustainability development and assessment
Online: 15 August 2016 (12:41:51 CEST)
Land use and cover change (LUCC) is an important method to investigate the causes of global environment change. We utilized the emergy ecological footprint (EEF) model to construct a land-use change model to be used as a systematic measuring tool for monitoring sustainable development trends. In particular, we estimated the eco-security of the Cing-jing region as a case study so that responsible agencies can use it to maintain a balance between ecological preservation and tourism development. The results indicated the following: First, the ecological environment of the Cing-jing region satisfied the safety standard in 2008–2014; however, the related indices increased considerably. Second, the grey model predicted a decrease in 2015–2024 ecological carrying capacities of Cing-jing and a large increase in capita EFs, resulting in a larger ecological deficit and higher EFI. The eco-security from 2015–2024 was higher compared to 7 years ago and is predicted to reach the Grade 2 intermediate level in 2022; thus the Cing-jing region is gradually becoming ecologically unsustainable. Strengths of our study included the use of EEF theory in a quantitative analysis of slope lands for the effective evaluation of ecological security. Finally, we expanded our research to include ecological security issues.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1938.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Other Keywords: online streaming contents; eWOM; online streaming contents service; online streaming contents service performance; publication period; gamification likelihood
Online: 30 October 2023 (12:49:29 CET)
Online streaming contents are creating greater service uncertainty, as consumers need to experience such contents before making a decision to continue to purchase them. Few studies have investigated the interaction between eWOM (online word-of-mouth) and online streaming content service characteristics in online streaming contents’ performance and explained the way this interaction can promote service characteristics’ role in service performance or remedy service uncertainty attributable to these characteristics. Thus, this paper examines the interaction between eWOM and service (webtoon) characteristics (i.e., author experience, genre (drama or fantasy), completion, transfer to pay service, and publication time (Wednesday)) on online streaming contents’ service performance measures such as publication period and gamification of contents. Author experience and genre interact with the number of reviews to affect gamification. The transfer to pay service interacts crucially with review ratings and the number of reviews to influence both publication period and gamification. Online streaming contents completion and publication time are interacting factors with review ratings that affected publication period. Service providers need to cope with service uncertainty in furthering online streaming contents service by considering service characteristics as well as customers’ responses through eWOM.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0413.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: financial capacity instruments; Semi-Structured Clinical Interview for Financial Capacity; deci-sional capacity; mild cognitive impairment; gamification
Online: 31 May 2022 (07:37:21 CEST)
Financial capacity instruments are psychometric tools designed to evaluate individual decisional capacity based on financial decisions. As tests are complex and need special conditions for administration and evaluation, it is difficult to use them in daily geriatric clinics. Our scoping review objective was to evaluate existing financial capacity instruments from the perspective of simplicity and portability. We evaluated one English speaking knowledge database (Medline) using a dedicated MeSH terminology. The review yielded one independent instrument, The Semi-Structured Clinical Interview for Financial Capacity, that can be easy adapted for every-day clinical use. It is simple to understand and perform and do not need trained personnel for administration. It can be finalized in 15 minutes. Initially validated on 261 subjects (with different forms of cognitive impairment), it showed good accuracy and precision mainly in subjects with cognitive impairment. The test is less apt to detect early or fluctuating cognitive impairment. Simplicity, the main advantage of the test, allows gamification fact that increases portability. Familiar images (coins, money) that are used for performing simple tasks does not need complex translation and adaptation. In form of a game, the test is suitable for serial administration, increasing the chance for early capacity reduction detection. Results reflect a physician judgement related to the subjects’ capacity to understand and execute simple financial instructions and not financial proficiency scores. The main limitation of our review is that we investigated only one, English speaking, knowledge database. The scoping strategy generated a financial capacity instrument that can be used in geriatric clinics for early diagnostic of decisional capacity reduction. Further studies are needed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the test in conditions of serial administration and in populations having various financial experience.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2066.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: Eco-friendly green synthesis; Nano zero-valent iron; Cadmium; Nickel; Definitive screening design
Online: 31 August 2023 (03:03:28 CEST)
The creation of nano-zero-valent iron (nZVI) by implementing plant extracts is an environmentally friendly process. High antioxidant capacity and phenol content indicated the possibility of oak-nZVI synthesis using oak leaf extract as a stable material with minimal agglomeration. Simultaneously removal of Cd and phosphates and Ni and phosphates was optimized by a statistically designed experiment with a definitive screening design. In terms of significance, 4 input parameters on process productivity were monitored: initial metal concentration (1 - 9 mgL-1), initial ion concentration (1- 9 mgL-1), pH value (2 - 10) and oak-nZVI dosage (2 - 16 ml). Phosphate removal efficiency, in the presence of cadmium, was the most influenced by oak-nZVI dose and cadmium concentration, while pH gave three statistically significant interactions with oak-nZVI dosage, cadmium concentration, and phosphate concentration. Phosphate removal efficiency, in the presence of Ni, is the most influenced by nickel concentration, phosphate concentration, pH, two-factor interaction between nZVI dose and Ni concentration, and quadratic phosphate interaction. The process optimization yielded the highest simultaneous removal efficiency of 98.99% and 87.30% for cadmium and phosphate ions, respectively. Also, the highest simultaneous removal efficiency of nickel and phosphates ion was 93.44% for 96.75%, respectively. The optimization process fits into the confidence intervals, confirming the assumption that the adopted regression model describes the process well. This work demonstrated an enormous potential and prosperous application for the Cd(II), Ni(II), and phosphate removal from water matrices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1150.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: tourism development; eco-environment resilience; spatiotemporal heterogeneity; Yangtze River Economic Belt of China
Online: 16 May 2023 (10:20:47 CEST)
Tourism sustainability is a significant approach to forming a synergistic model of industry and ecology in ecologically vulnerable areas. Scientifically detecting the effect mechanism of tourism development (TDI) on eco-environment resilience (ERI) is important in achieving regional social-ecological system sustainability. Empirical exploration is conducted on the levels of TDI and ERI in the Yangtze River Economic Belt (YREB) to study the spatiotemporal heterogeneity of TDI's effect on ERI. The results indicate a significant growth in TDI in the YREB, with the formation of tourist clusters around Shanghai and Chongqing as the core. Although ERI typically exhibits a declining trend, the rate of decline has notably slowed, forming a "high at the sides and low in the middle" spatial pattern. TDI and ERI are spatially dependent in the YREB, with predominantly high-high (HH) and low-high (LH) clusters in Shanghai, Zhejiang, and Jiangsu. Conversely, upstream regions with strong eco-environmental foundations exhibit low-low (LL) and high-low (HL) clusters. In general, TDI promotes ERI, but there is significant spatiotemporal heterogeneity in the YREB. Positive impact regions are expanding, while negative impact regions are shrinking. These results could provide scientific evidence for differentiated classification and control policies in the YREB.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0759.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Eco-label; Customer; WTP; PLS-SEM; Cocoa powder; Biosphere reserve; Dong Nai; Vietnam.
Online: 23 April 2023 (04:10:32 CEST)
This study examines the Willingness-To-Pay (WTP) of consumers and the determinants of eco-labeling for the organic cocoa powder produced in the Dong Nai UNESCO Biosphere Reserve (DNBR), Southern Vietnam. Eco-labels are designed according to Tiers of eco-labeling for biosphere reserves (BR) introduced by UNESCO include BR Destination (Tier 1), BR Quality Label (Tier 2), and Professional Certification Label (Tier 3). Questionnaires are delivered to 203 customers in the DNBR and nearby places, such as Dong Nai and HCMC. This study employs a hybrid approach using descriptive statistics, ANOVA test, and Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Model (PLS-SEM). The results indicate that gender and educational level have a positive effect on consumers' preferences. Customers are willing to pay more for cocoa powder with an eco-label than one with an organic label. Perceived food safety and product knowledge lower customers’ WTP, whereas agricultural environment and pricing concerns increase it. Tier 2 is suggested for labeling cocoa powder in the DNBR. The DNBR Management Board, together with the federal and provincial governments, should all follow a similar certification process. Increased eco-label awareness is crucial for the future of environmentally responsible shopping and responsible business practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0045.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Surface Urban heat island; Northeastern region; Sentinel 3; Eco-environmental spaces; Thermal comfort
Online: 4 April 2023 (12:37:09 CEST)
The Surface Urban Heat Island (UHI) is caused by the difference in temperature between the urban and its surrounding areas. However, in the scientific literature, there is no solid methodology defining urban and non-urban areas, which is essential to estimate the SUHI with greater accuracy. This study uses the official national urban areas limit, to obtain the SUHI more accurately on the nine northeastern Brazilian capitals. The land surface temperature was obtained using the Sentinel 3 satellite data for the years 2019 and 2020. Afterward, the maximum and average SUHI, and the complementary indexes were calculated, such as the Urban Thermal Field Variation Index (UTFVI) and the Thermal Discomfort Index (TDI) for the urban areas and their surrounding areas. The Maximum and Average SUHI, obtained values between 1.85 and 8.25 and -4.92 and 2.59 degree difference, respectively, proving the SUHI existence in the study areas. The UTFVI, with values between 0.010 and 0.040, expresses how bad the eco-environmental spaces of urban are. The TDI, with values between 24.61 and 28.89 ºC, expresses the population’s thermal comfort. Therefore, this study provides a better understanding of the surface UHI pioneeringly for the Brazilian Northeast Region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1065.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: environmental health; eco-hydrology; hydrologic model; water quality; soil and water assessment tool (SWAT)
Online: 15 August 2023 (08:14:22 CEST)
Water is one of the most critical factors affecting environmental health. For this reason, estimating and monitoring the behavior of water in nature and preventing water pollution before it occurs are advantageous to avoid problems that may occur in terms of environmental health. In order to predict the behavior of water, the hydrological cycle needs to be evaluated on a basin basis. At this point, hydrological models can be used to make mathematical representations of hydrologi-cal processes. These models play an essential role in predicting and monitoring problems such as poor water quality, pollution, particle and sediment transport, and proliferation of oil and petro-leum derivatives among frequently encountered issues in environmental health. In this study, a 2D surface water model was created using soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) to simulate the lotic ecosystem and existing water quality in Tatlıçay Basin and to propose solutions for im-proving environmental health in Cankiri provincial center in Türkiye. The accuracy of the input data and the validity of the model were checked with the calibration and validation studies by using the monthly or 3-monthly observation data of the General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works’ flow observation & water quality stations from 2016 to 2020. The aim was to provide the opportunity to produce fast, accurate, and practical solutions in the face of negative scenarios with this model. This modelling study obtained successful results in the calibration and valida-tion process with very few observed data. With this study, a significant contribution to the litera-ture on environmental health is made, as there aren't many examples of hydrological modeling from the Middle East.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0186.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Other Keywords: Capacity building; decision criteria; determining factor; entrepreneurship; entrepreneurial eco-system; entrepreneurial startup; social inclusion
Online: 4 May 2023 (04:21:33 CEST)
The main goal of the study is to assess the Decision criteria, and the determining factor for the sustainability of entrepreneurial startups in order to contribute towards social inclusion and capacity building. Both concepts are in the development phase and are the outcome of entrepreneurial ecosystem and individual behavior and traits. The current study observed the research problem as entrepreneurship and the entrepreneurial startups are the continuous phenomena required for every economy. The lack of an efficient ecosystem and incompetent trait of an entrepreneur drags the entrepreneurial startup to a failure. Therefore, an assessment on decision criteria and determining factors categorizing them with their importance may provide requisites to lead a successful entrepreneurial startup contributing to the social inclusion and capacity building. The study solved the research problem by statistical assessment of decision criteria and determining factors and categorizing them with their importance may provide requisites to lead a successful entrepreneurial startup. The research is built on research questions, objectives, conceptual model, and hypothesis which are tested based on the data collected. The collection of data was done through a survey questionnaire on a sample of established entrepreneurs. The study concludes that five components of decision criteria are Region, Competition, Funding Opportunities, Tax System, and Country Economic Situation, whereas the eight components Consciousness and Reliable, Pursuit Results, Flexibility, Stress Resistance, Skills Identification Exploitation Potential Market Opportunities, Leadership, Creativity and Innovation, and Delegation Decision Making of determining factor are required for a successful entrepreneurial startup to be able to work towards social inclusion and capacity building.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0417.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Dynamic Programming; Vehicle-to-Everything; Real-World Scenario; Energy Minimization; Eco-driving; Speed Optimization
Online: 17 April 2023 (07:10:55 CEST)
The connectivity level of last-generation vehicles is constantly on the rise. The combined use of Vehicle-To-Everything (V2X) connectivity and autonomous driving can provide remarkable benefits through the optimization of the route and speed trajectory. In this framework, this paper focuses on vehicle eco-driving optimization in a connected environment. The virtual test rig of a premium segment passenger car was used for generating the simulation scenarios. The benefits, in terms of energy and time savings, that the introduction of V2X communication, integrated with cloud computing, can have in a real-world scenario were assessed. The Reference Scenario is a pre-defined Real Driving Emissions (RDE) compliant route, while the simulation scenarios were generated by assuming two different penetration levels of V2X technologies. The associated energy minimization problem is formulated and solved by means of a global optimization algorithm, i.e., Dynamic Programming (DP). The optimization framework includes information coming from the surrounding environment, e.g., traffic lights state, speed limits, distance to travel, etc. The simulations show that introducing a smart infrastructure along with optimizing the vehicle speed in a real-world route can potentially reduce the required energy by 54% while shortening the travel time by 38%. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is performed on the bi-objective optimization cost function to find a set of Pareto optimal solutions, between energy and travel time minimization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0143.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Nuclear And High Energy Physics Keywords: Cold nuclear fusion; Iron-56 as a fuel; Eco friendly Thermal energy; Power plant
Online: 9 January 2023 (06:46:39 CET)
In this contribution, we make an attempt to write a theoretical proposal for designing an eco friendly thermal power plant which runs with cold nuclear fusion technology at a temperature of (1500 to 2000) deg.C. In our recently published papers, we have proposed a clear cut mechanism for understanding and implementing cold nuclear fusion technique pertaining to fusion of hydrogen with metals of mass numbers starting from 50. In this context, we would like to stress the point that, fusion of hydrogen under controllable temperature and pressure can be understood as a phenomenon of fusing neutron to the nucleus of the base atom. Part of isotopic nuclear binding energy difference of final and base atomic nuclides can be seen in the form of safe thermal energy of the order of (1 to 3) MeV per atom against 200 MeV released in nuclear fission of one Uranium atom. Due to increased heaviness and weak interaction, sometimes fused neutron splits into proton and electron. Proton seems to be retained by the base atom’s nuclear core and electron seems to join with the electronic orbits of the base atom. In this way, increased mass of base atomic nuclide helps in eco friendly production of thermal energy in large quantity. For this purpose we consider Iron-56 as a fuel. In a simplified view, under strong nuclear attractive forces, Iron-56 absorbs hydrogen atom as a neutron and by emitting 1MeV equivalent thermal energy transforms to Iron-57. Thus, one gram of Iron-56 can generate 1000MJ of heat with 50% efficiency. In a shortcut approach, by bombarding powder and semi-liquid forms of Iron-56 with direct neutrons coming from neutron source, our proposal can be tried, understood and verified experimentally.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0419.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Urban Eco-Sustainable Index; Watershed Sustainability Index; Ecohydrology; River Basin Management; Water security; Participation
Online: 19 July 2021 (15:22:17 CEST)
The Urban Eco-Sustainable Index for Upscaling Water Security at Catchment Level in Langat River, Malaysia has developed by using the Modified Watershed Sustainability Index or MicroWSI (MWSI), which was based on the Participation, Design and Management Components. The study has successfully applied spatial and social dimensions on ecohydrology of the selected Langat River reach for stormwater management, natural ecosystems health and quality of life. The planning and public participation aspects of the study have evaluated the surrounding neighborhood area of Langat. The conceptual design of rehabilitation works implementation related to Urban Stormwater Management Manual for Malaysia (MSMA) Stormwater Management Ecohydrology (SME) within the study area has been developed with four components of MSMA-SME to be implemented in the study area i.e Bioretention System, Porous Pavement System, Constructed Wetland and Slope Protection Works. These components were proposed to be applied in the development of Langat Riverfront Community Park (LRCP) which has taken into account the components of Design, Management and Participation of Community and Stakeholders in Langat River Basin, Malaysia. This study analyzed the MWSI for the Upscaling of MSMA Ecohydrology at Catchment Level of Langat River and has found the medium level of sustainability for the level of participation, proposed design, and management. Thus, there is a need to increase the level of readiness in the community and stakeholder participation in the Langat River towards sustainability of river conservation and rehabilitation programmes in this basin.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0451.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: eco-evo-devo; evolution of multicellularity; fruiting body; life-history evolution; microbial evo-devo
Online: 19 May 2021 (14:37:11 CEST)
Microbes have evolved many fascinating and complex ways of interacting with conspecifics. Perhaps one of the most interesting is aggregative multicellularity, wherein independent cells come together and adhere to one another in order to form a larger entity. The fundamental benefits of active aggregation into multicellular groups generally remain unclear, and there are many open questions about what selective pressures led to the evolution of this behavior in various eukaryotic and prokaryotic taxa, most notably the dictyostelids and the myxobacteria. Aggregative multicellularity can be partitioned into three main phases: coming together, staying together as a group, and disaggregation. Different selective pressures may have led to adaptations unique to each phase. While aggregative microbial systems generally form elevated multicellular structures such as fruiting bodies, these can vary in complexity and morphology even among closely related species. What evolutionary forces shaped such morphological diversification remains unknown. Strains that are not genetically identical can coaggregate, which can impact group-level function either positively through functional synergy or negatively through harmful exploitation. Such chimerism within aggregates is likely to have played important roles in shaping the evolution of microbial multicellularity. Much further research is needed into the evolutionary forces and processes leading to and shaping the many forms of microbial aggregation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0431.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: agricultural eco-efficiency; DEA-SBM model; spatio-temporal evolution pattern; improvement potential; Jiangsu Province
Online: 16 April 2021 (10:34:15 CEST)
Achieving eco-efficiency in agriculture production at low environmental costs is key to sustainable agriculture. Using the DEA-SBM model, this study evaluated the agricultural eco-efficiency of the 77 counties and districts in China’s Jiangsu province from 1999 to 2018 and analyzed its spatio-temporal evolution pattern and influencing factors. The mains conclusions were as follows: (1) The overall agricultural eco-efficiency and its decomposition terms, pure technology efficiency and scale efficiency, exhibited a fluctuating downward trend. The regional inequality in agricultural eco-efficiency had been widening and exhibited a strong positive spatial association. (2) The agricultural eco-efficiency in Jiangsu province presented a “high south and low north” spatial pattern. High-level agricultural eco-efficiency areas were in the Taihu Plain in Sunan, while low-level agricultural eco-efficiency zones are distributed across Subei City. The High-High-type spatial association pattern is concentrated in the Suzhou-Wuxi-Changzhou region, while the Low-Low areas are mainly in the coastal regions of Subei and Suzhong. (3) The spatial pattern of PTE and SE generally exhibited a “high south and low north” distribution. Areas with positive growth in agricultural eco-efficiency, PTE, and SE, were situated in Xuzhou, Nanjing city, and the bordering regions between Yangzhou and Huai’an, and Changzhou and Wuxi. (4) The excessive redundant use and application of pesticides, chemical fertilizer, agricultural diesel, labor, land, and agricultural carbon emission have been the primary factor affecting Jiangsu's agricultural eco-efficiency. Irrigation had also signficantly impacted agricultural eco-efficiency, while mechanical power and agricultural film had minimal effect. The majority of counties and districts in Subei, Suzhong, and Ningzhen Yang Hilly region have issues regarding their excessive usage of chemical fertilizer, pesticide, chemical fertilizer, agricultural diesel, labor, and land. The findings of this study can contribute towards a better understanding of agricultural eco-efficiency and spatial association effect and can help policymakers increase agricultural eco-efficiency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0065.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: virtual reality; immersive learning; haptics; chemistry education; organic chemistry; hydrocarbons; middle school science; introductory chemistry; hands-on learning; gamification
Online: 5 April 2018 (05:59:19 CEST)
Human-Computer Interaction, including technology-aided instruction, is beginning to focus on virtual reality (VR) technology due to its ability to support immersive learning, teaching through simulation, and gamification of learning. These systems can deliver high-level multisensory learning experiences that are important in the teaching of many subjects, especially those involving abstract concepts or requiring spatial skills, such as organic chemistry. Haptic experiences with VR, however, remain a challenge. In addition, development have focused on general entertainment/gaming; VR systems in chemistry implement simulations of the chemistry laboratory and other advanced systems whereas those that support safe, game-like, immersive and multisensory learning of organic chemistry with haptics at pre-university education levels are scarce. We developed the VR Multisensory Classroom (VRMC) as an immersive learning environment within a VR head-mounted display, where learners employ hand movements to build hydrocarbon molecules and experience haptic feedback through gloves with built-in sensors and hand-tracking with the Leap Motion system. We report here the evaluation of the first prototype by learners from diverse backgrounds who reported on the ability of the VRMC to support high engagement, motivation, interest and organic chemistry learning as well as diverse learning styles. The VRMC is a novel VR classroom that supports immersive learning in molecular organic chemistry with haptics for multisensory learning.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0179.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Human-powered energy generation; Eco-village system; Sustainable communities; The unified theory of complex systems
Online: 2 November 2023 (11:57:10 CET)
This comprehensive review explores the principles, applications, and future directions of human-powered energy generation technologies. It begins by providing a detailed examination of viable human energy sources, elucidating the physical principles behind various energy harvesting devices. The review then compiles and assesses existing products in the field of human power generation, while also outlining the opportunities and challenges it presents. Finally, an innovative concept of an eco-village system is introduced to demonstrate a future potential application scenario for human-generated electricity. It outlines two developmental stages for this system and underscores its significance in the construction of the harmonious and sustainable communities. This forward-thinking approach could pave the way for broader discussions on sustainable living and eco-friendly energy generation in a world increasingly focused on environmental concerns and social stability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1685.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Reverse logistic; Reverse Chain; WEEE; Industry 4.0 Technology; Simulation; Artificial intelligence; Eco-efficiency; Circular Economy
Online: 26 July 2023 (02:43:27 CEST)
The objective of this study was to apply simulation and computational intelligence techniques using artificial intelligence and genetic algorithm for economic and environmental optimization of the reverse network (manufacturers, waste managers and recyclers in São Paulo, Brazil) of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) to promote circular economy. For the economic evaluation, the reduction of: fuel, drivers, insurance, depreciation, maintenance and charges was considered and for the environmental evaluation, the environmental impact was measured in the abiotic, biotic, water, land, air and greenhouse gases compartments. It is concluded that the optimized structure of the WEEE reverse chain for São Paulo, Brazil reduced the number of collections, making the most of the cubage. It also generated economic and environmental gains, contributing to the strategic actions of the circular economy. Thus, the proposed simulation allows replication in organizational practice, mainly to meet the 2030 agenda on reducing the carbon footprint generated in transport in large cities. Thus, this study can guide companies on structuring the reverse WEEE chain in São Paulo, Brazil for economic and environmental optimization, a relevant aspect considering the exponential generation of WEEE, requiring the implementation of the national solid waste policy, and subsequently the signature of the electronics sector agreement in São Paulo.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1216.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: Multi-level labels; Eco-labels; Sustainability; Willingness to pay; Choice Experiment; Meat attachment; Hierarchical Bayes
Online: 16 June 2023 (10:25:29 CEST)
Eco-labels are an instrument for enabling informed food choices and supporting a demand-sided change towards a more and urgently needed sustainable food system. Lately, novel eco-labels that depict a product’s environmental life-cycle assessment on a multi-level scale are being tested across Europe’s retailers. This study elicits consumers preferences and willingness to pay (WTP) for a multi-level eco-label. A Discrete Choice Experiment was conducted in Austria. Individual partworth utilities were estimated by means of Hierarchical Bayes. Results show higher WTP for a positive evaluated multi-level label, revealing consumers’ perceived benefits of colorful multi-level labels over binary black-and-white designs. Even a negative evaluated multi-level label showed higher WTP compared to no label, pointing towards limited effectiveness of eco-labels. Respondents’ preferences for eco-labels were independent from their subjective eco-label knowledge, health consciousness, and environmental concern. The attribute “protein source” was most important, and preferences for animal-based protein source (beef) was strongly correlated with consumers’ meat attachment, implying that a shift towards more sustainable protein sources is challenging and sustainability labels have only a small impact on the meat product choice of average consumers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0468.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: C-V2X; Eco-routing; ITS; CAV; VANET; Smart cities; environmental applications; vehicular networks; V2V; V2I
Online: 26 January 2023 (04:11:31 CET)
Cellular Vehicle-to-Everything (C-V2X) is a communication technology that supports various safety, mobility, and environmental applications given its higher reliability properties compared to other communication technologies. The performance of these C-V2X-enabled Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) applications is affected by the performance of the C-V2X communication technology (mainly packet loss). Similarly, the performance of the C-V2X communication is dependent on the vehicular traffic density which is affected by the traffic mobility patterns, and vehicle routing strategies. Consequently, it is critical to develop a tool that can simulate, analyze, and evaluate the mutual interactions of the transportation and communication systems at the application level and to the evaluate the benefits of the C-V2X enabled ITS applications. In this paper, we demonstrate the benefits gained when using C-V2X Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) communication technology in an energy-efficient dynamic routing application. Specifically, we develop a Connected Energy-Efficient Dynamic Routing (C-EEDR) application using C-V2X as a communication medium in an integrated vehicular traffic and communication simulator (INTEGRATION). The results demonstrate that the C-EEDR application achieves fuel savings of up to 16.6% and 14.7% in the IDEAL and C-V2X communication cases, respectively for a peak hour demand on the downtown Los Angeles network considering a 50% level of market penetration of connected vehicles. The results demonstrate that the fuel savings increase with increasing levels of market penetration at lower traffic demand levels (25% and 50% the peak demand). At higher traffic demand levels (75% and 100%) the fuel savings increase with increasing levels of market penetration with maximum benefits at a 50% market penetration rate. Although the communication system is affected by the high density of vehicles at the high traffic demand levels (75% and 100% the peak demand), the C-EEDR application manages to perform reliably producing system-wide fuel consumption savings.The C-EEDR application achieves fuel savings of 15.2% and 11.7% for the IDEAL communication and 14% and 9% for the C-V2X communication at the 75% and 100% market penetration rates, respectively. Finally, the paper demonstrates that the C-V2X communication constraints only affect the performance of the C-EEDR application at the full demand level when the market penetration of connected vehicles exceeds 25%. This degradation, however is minimal (less than a 2.5% reduction in fuel savings).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1328.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: community-based conservation; conservation; Madagascar; resource management; wildlife eco-nomics; wildlife trade; wildlife tourism; wildlife valorisation.
Online: 18 August 2023 (07:26:26 CEST)
Wildlife tourism and wildlife trade may appear juxtaposed, but are two, potentially aligning, in-come generators that could benefit conservation in developing countries. Utilising data sets collated from Madagascar’s Ministère du Tourisme and CITES respectively for the period 2007 to 2018, this study estimated levels of income from wildlife tourism and wildlife trade for Madagascar. Between 2007-2018, tourism reported yearly incomes ranging from a low of US \$1.4 million up to a high of US \$15.7 million. However, it was unclear what percentage of this figure flowed to benefit local communities. Alternatively, using reported networks for the live wildlife trade, the estimated eco-nomic value reaching collectors and/or intermediaries on Madagascar was US $72,299.80 for the period 2007 to 2018. Both revenue generators operated within different geographical areas, with tourism opportunities presenting themselves to communities adjacent NPs, while wildlife trade networks were not restricted to National Parks and operated sporadically across Madagascar. Hence, the economic benefits reached different Malagasy participants across the country. The management of both activities needs great care to ensure that environmental impacts and sus-tainability are core measures on any such activities. Whilst this study shines light on economic values and novel perspectives regarding these two trade types, it also highlighted knowledge gaps. Thus, indicating where much greater research attentions was required to allow better understanding of the specific benefits and risks from engaging with both trade types for local Malagasy people and their environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0004.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Fluids And Plasmas Physics Keywords: Shear thickening fluids; Viscosity; Shear rate; Impact resistance; Lightweight armour; Crashworthiness; Sustainability; Cork; Composites; Eco-friendly
Online: 3 April 2023 (03:42:35 CEST)
Shear thickening fluids (STF) are a class of fluids whose viscosity significantly rises under external loads. The research on these fluids has been advancing in recent years regarding prospective practical applications, including developing impact-absorbing composites. Following the green agendas governments and legislators advocate, this study investigates the combination of STF and other sustainable materials. Cork is a naturally occurring cellular material with a negative carbon footprint and superior energy absorption properties. With varying concentrations of STF material, cork agglomerates were formed. Notably, the analysed blends are homogeneous, contrasting with previous literary works. A series of experiments were conducted in quasi-static and dynamic conditions to determine the various mechanical responses. STF appears to influence the mechanical behaviour of cork agglomerates by providing softer deceleration rates and dispersing more energy through disaggregation mechanisms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0266.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: eco-friendly sound-absorbing material; corrugated cardboard; perforated corrugated cardboard; sound absorption coefficient; sound transmission loss
Online: 9 April 2021 (14:46:49 CEST)
The continuing development of industrialization and increasing population density has led to the emergence of noise as an increasingly common problem, requiring various types of sound absorption and insulation methods to address it. Meanwhile, the recycling of resources to ensure a sustainable future for the planet and mankind is also required. Therefore, this study investigates the potential of corrugated cardboard as a resource for noise reduction. The sound absorption and insulation performance of non-perforated corrugated cardboard (NPCC) were measured, and modified corrugated boards were fabricated by drilling holes either through the surface of the corrugated board alone or through the corrugated board in its entirety. The sound absorption/insulation performance both of perforated corrugated cardboard (PCC), and perforated corrugated cardboard with multi frequency resonators (PCCM) were measured using the transfer function method and the transmission matrix method. To determine the effectiveness of NPCC, PCC, and PCCM in noise reduction, the sound pressure level was analyzed by applying it to a home blender. The results showed PCCM’s sound absorption and insulation performance to be excellent. On the basis of these findings, we propose the use of PMMC as an eco-friendly noise reduction material.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0967.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: climate grief; solastalgia; bereavement; eco-anxiety; chronic sorrow; nonfinite loss; sadness; disenfranchised grief; anticipatory mourning; ambiguous loss
Online: 15 November 2023 (16:34:05 CET)
Ecological changes evoke many felt losses and types of grief. These affect sustainability efforts in profound ways. Scholarship on the topic is growing, but the relationship between general grief research and ecological grief has received surprisingly little attention. This interdisciplinary article applies theories of grief, loss, and bereavement to ecological grief. Special attention is given to research about “non-death loss” and other broad frameworks about grief. Dynamics related to both local and global ecological grief are discussed. Kinds of potential losses arising out of ecological issues are clarified with the frameworks of tangible/intangible loss, ambiguous loss, nonfinite loss, and shattered assumptions. Various possible types of ecological grief are illuminated by discussing the frameworks of chronic sorrow and anticipatory grief/mourning. Earlier scholarship about disenfranchised ecological grief is augmented by further distinctions about various forms it may take. The difficulties in defining complicated or prolonged grief in ecological context are discussed, and four types of “complicated ecological grief” are explored. Based on the findings, three special forms of ecological loss and grief are named and discussed: transitional loss and grief, lifeworld loss, and shattered dreams. The implications of the results for ecological grief scholarship, counselling and coping are briefly discussed. The results can be used by psychological and healthcare professionals and researchers, but also by members of the public who wish to reflect on their eco-emotions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0974.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Ecology Keywords: Eco-efficiency of cultivated land use; Super-EBM model; Spatial-temporal evolution; The region around Beijing-Tianjin
Online: 14 September 2023 (09:12:32 CEST)
The eco-efficiency of cultivated land use (ECLU) is an important indicator for the construction of ecological civilization in China. Exploring the spatiotemporal dynamic evolution of the ECLU is helpful for sustainable use of arable land, ensuring food security and ecological security. However, previous studies have mostly focused on the use of a slacks-based measure (SBM) model for ECLU measurement, ignoring the more accurate epsilon-based measure (EBM) model. Therefore, in this study, firstly, we explored the conceptual framework of ECLU, and then, based on the panel data of the counties in the region around Beijing and Tianjin from 2005 to 2020, we investigated the spatial and temporal evolution of ECLU by using the Super-EBM model, kernel density estimation method, and spatial Markov chain model. Results displayed: (1) From 2005 to 2020, the ECLU in the region around Beijing and Tianjin displayed an increasing state, but the average value was only 0.55. (2) The time evolution of the ECLU has gradually polarized, the internal gap has widened, but it tends to stabilize. (3) The ECLU in the region around Beijing-Tianjin was more inclined to keep it the same and there was a "club convergence" phenomenon, which was meaningfully affected by the background of neighboring areas. In the light of local conditions, the government should reasonably formulate the path to optimize the ECLU, strengthen the linkage with the surrounding cities, and bring into play the positive spillover effect.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0099.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: New Ecological Paradigm; Ethical Orientation Scale; ethical decision making; Values driven leadership; eco consciousness; deontological; teleological; anthropocentrism; ecocentrism
Online: 5 April 2021 (11:24:06 CEST)
Business school curriculums are designed to improve business skills and a student’s eventual workplace performance. In addition to these business skill sets the emerging business environment demands softer skills associated with ethical decision-making and sustainable business practices. Understanding the key influencers of ethical orientation and attitudes towards the environment is the first critical step for curriculum planning designed to develop both ethical decision-making and environmental sensibilities of students in business schools. Using a bivariate regression analysis (OLS) that compared the established New Ecological Paradigm (NEP) scale and the newly introduced Ethical Orientation Scale (EOS), this study assesses environmental eco-consciousness and ethical orientation over time and across varying socio-demographic variables. The study shows first, that in addition to socio-cultural variables, situational factors influence ethical decision-making. Secondly, it illuminates that ethical orientations as measured by the EOS predicts beliefs about the environment as measured by the NEP scale. It further provides evidence of the ethical underpinnings of the New Ecological Paradigm as well as provides initial validation for the new EOS. These outcomes provide additional levers to assist business educators in the creation of high impact teaching strategies to measure and encourage ethical decision-making and sustainable business practices that protect the environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0926.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: eco-friendly behavior; sustainability; systems dynamic; systemic model; dental environmentalism; green dentistry; sustainable dentistry; holistic approach; pro-environmental behavior
Online: 14 September 2023 (03:35:33 CEST)
Climate changes challenges people’s life and sustainability. Environmental problems seem to derive from human behavior. Dentistry has a high environmental footprint that needs to be controlled worldwide. Thus, the change of behavior of dentists is a necessary condition to improve the environmental situation. In this study we use a system dynamics approach to analyze pro-environmental behavior in dentists. Systemic modelling in this case, allow us to make a clear prediction of how the population of non-eco dentists will change in the future if certain factors will be affected and how much time will be needed by the system of a group of dental professionals to become eco- dentists. The ECODENT model was designed with Vensim software. It was based on the influence of WOM (word of mouth) spread of information among colleagues and stakeholders (e.g. patients, auxiliary staff and community) and other factors such as dental income, state support, CaPex and OpEx, education hours, level of urbanization and time to react. By changing each one of them we can observe the changes in the groups of non-eco and eco dentists as well as the flow of the phenomenon. It is tested that by augmenting WOM parameter, state economic support or education hours, while diminishing CaPex and OpEx, changes in pro-environmental behaviors of dentist will be reported in a shorter time. The ECODENT model can be used to further study pro-environmentalism in different dental groups and associations and design relevant eco-friendly educational programs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0271.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: sustainable developments goals; cultural heritage; eco-design; climate education; COPERNICUS CDS; climate change impact; regenerative design; renewable energy resources
Online: 3 August 2023 (05:21:39 CEST)
The A.C.Q.U.A. (Advisable Conscious Quality Use from Assisi) project, promoted by the Climate and Energy and Heritage Design courses of the Planet Life Design Master Program, addresses the theme of the recovery and regeneration of ancient wash-houses in the context of energy, environmental sustainability and innovation, a way of understanding cultural heritage in the wider sense of heritage community through the active participation of all the actors involved: universities, institutions, businesses, students and citizens. The proposal, tested in the municipalities of Assisi and Ruviano (ITALY), involves the creation of a "Community Wash House", a new way of carrying out the usual domestic act of washing clothes in the open air, next to the places where this rite was traditionally performed, in technologically innovative constructions that use renewable energy sources and encourage a reduction in household consumption of water and energy. This project is part of the training of professionals in the new inter-university course that combines knowledge of the tools of technical and scientific design with historical and cultural perspectives in a perspective of sustainable redevelopment of existing structures in the area and the use of alternative energy sources with low climate impact, calculated using the statistics of the Copernicus CDS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0239.v5
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: epidemic; caseload management; partial unlock; social distancing; overshoot; COVID-19; coronavirus; eco-nomic impact; ventilator utilization; SARS-CoV-2
Online: 21 May 2020 (04:13:13 CEST)
Objectives: We study partial unlock or reopening interaction with seasonal effects in a managed epidemic to quantify overshoot effects on small and large unlock steps and discover robust strategies for reducing overshoot. Methods: We simulate partial unlock of social distancing for epidemics over a range of replication factor, immunity duration and seasonality factor for strategies targeting immunity thresholds using overshoot optimization. Results: Seasonality change must be taken into account as one of the steps in an easing sequence, and a two step unlock, including seasonal effects, minimizes overshoot and deaths. It may cause undershoot, which causes rebounds and assists survival of the pathogen. Conclusions: Partial easing levels, even low levels for economic relief while waiting on a vaccine, have population immunity thresholds based on the reduced replication rates and may experience overshoot as well. We further find a two step strategy remains highly sensitive to variations in case ratio, replication factor, seasonality and timing. We demonstrate a three or more step strategy is more robust, and conclude that the best possible approach minimizes deaths under a range of likely actual conditions which include public response.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0218.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: eco-innovation; anticipated regulation; self-regulation; industry-specific characteristics; information sourcing openness; multivariate probit model; zero inflated negative binomial model
Online: 19 April 2019 (11:25:06 CEST)
The move to a low carbon economy is very important for enhancing international competitiveness. The eco-innovation is the critical factor of the green paradigm. This study is designed to investigate deeply the determinants of eco-innovation of manufacturing firms in Korea by suggesting anticipated regulations, self-regulations, and industry-specific characteristics as external factors and open information sources as internal factors. The data used in the analysis is 1946 sample firms from Korean Innovation Survey 2010 based on the Oslo Manual. Using the multi-variate probit analysis and the zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) regression analysis, we have found out that the anticipated regulations and self-regulations have significant influences both on eco-process innovation and eco-product innovation, while industrial characteristics have no effects. The empirical results also show that the breadth of information sources has a positive effect on businesses in implementing eco-innovations. Our findings show that the Korean government should provide a good platform where firms can better understand the future trends of environmental policies, particularly policies on anticipated and self-regulations. At the same time, Korean firms should establish a voluntary system to control environmental activities so that they can improve eco-innovations through integrating external information.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0954.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Material Design-for-eXcellence; Material Design-for-X; M-DfX; Advanced Materials; Material Performance Assessment; Eco-efficiency; Sustainability; Material Life Cycle
Online: 14 September 2023 (07:14:40 CEST)
Advanced composite materials have drawn significant interest in the last years as an alternative to traditional materials due to their higher performance. However, industry struggle to provide low-cost, higher occupational safety, lower footprint with composites, making them suitable for holistic analyses. Therefore, the material design becomes an essential element that can impact the competitiveness, particularly in terms of productivity, circularity, safety, sustainability, and quality of the value chain. The Material Design-for-eXcellence is a state-of-art methodology for material performance multi-dimensional assessment along its life cycle phases, either useful to support ma-terial selection for new products or also to new material design support optimizing resource effi-ciency. In this methodology, the material behaviour and its multiple characteristics assessment, and the manufacturing processes efficiency are evaluated. The framework considers the analogy of product design holistic approaches, as Lean Design-for-X, to organize and assess the mul-ti-dimensional performance for each “X” Material Property. In this work, it was possible to observe that the bio-based composites solutions could be a good sustainable alternative for several sectors. Every day researchers are creating more new materials, having a diversity of properties at different scales, Material Design-for-eXcellence must also in the near future consider other factors. Hence, additional studies are thus foreseen to explore and develop this new tool.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2146.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: Cu-(In,Ga)-S2 (CIGS2) solar cells; Three-stage co-evaporation technique; CGI-ratio stoichiometry; Opto-electric sensing performance; Eco-friendly community
Online: 1 August 2023 (02:58:12 CEST)
In this paper, the performance of Cu-(In,Ga)-S2 (CIGS2) solar cells with adjusting composite CGI-ratio absorber is explored and compared through an improved three-stage co-evaporation technique. For co-evaporating CIGS2 absorber as a less toxic alternative to Cd-containing film, we analyse the effect of the CGI-ratio stoichiometry and crystallinity, and explore its opto-electric sensing characteristic of individual solar cell. The results of this research signify the potential of high-performance CIGS2-absorption solar cells for photovoltaic (PV)-module industrial applications. For the optimal CIGS2-absorption film (CGI=0.95), the Raman main-phase signal (A1) falls at 291 cm-1, which is excited by the 532-nm line of Ar+-laser. Using photo-luminescence (PL) spectroscopy, the corresponding main-peak bandgaps measured is 1.59 eV at the same CGI-ratio film. Meanwhile, the best conversion efficiency (=3.212%) and the average external quantum efficiency (EQE=51.1% in the visible-wavelength region) of photo-electric properties were achieved for the developed CIGS2-solar cells (CGI=0.95). The discoveries of this CIGS2-absorption PV research provide a new scientific understanding of solar cells. Moreover, this research undeniably contributes to a major advancement towards practical PV-module applications and can help more to build an eco-friendly community.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0388.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: phenotypic polymorphism; structural genomics; chromosomal inversion; supergene; functional genomics; hormonal plasticity; frequency-dependent selection; cryptic female choice of sperm; sexual selection; eco-evolutionary dynamics
Online: 30 March 2022 (10:15:55 CEST)
A few empirical examples document fixed alternative male mating strategies in animals. Here we focus on the polymorphism of male mating strategies in the ruff (Calidris pugnax, Aves Charadriiformes). In ruffs, three fixed alternative male mating strategies coexist and are signaled by extreme plumage polymorphism. We first present relevant data on the biology of the species. Then we review the available knowledge of the behavioral ecology of ruffs during the breeding season and we detail the characteristics of each of the three known fixed male mating strategies. We next turn to the exceptional quality results accumulated on both the structural and functional genomics of the ruff over the past few years. We show how much these genomic data can shed a new, mechanistic light on the evolution and maintenance of the three fixed alternative male mating strategies. We then look if there are sufficient indication to support frequency-dependent selection as key mechanism in maintaining these three strategies. Specifically, we search for evidences of equal fitness among individuals using each of the three strategies. Finally, we propose three lines of research avenues that will help to understand the eco-evolutionary dynamics of phenotypic differences within natural populations of this iconic model species.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1540.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: Built environment; Climate adaptation and mitigation; Carbon footprint; Eco-design; Nature-based solutions; Resilient living spaces; Solar energy technologies; Sustainable urban developments; Urban heat island; Urban planning
Online: 21 June 2023 (11:30:47 CEST)
The need to address climate change and establish sustainable urban environments has driven increased efforts in Europe to develop climate-neutral cities. This study highlights the importance of integrating solar energy technologies and nature-based solutions as key strategies to achieve climate neutrality. By examining current practices, emerging trends, and case examples, it explores the benefits, challenges, and prospects associated with the integration of solar energy and nature-based solutions in urban contexts. The study presents a pioneering approach to assess the urban heat and climate change mitigation benefits of combining building-integrated photovoltaics and nature-based solutions specifically within the European context. The results emphasize the synergistic relationship between nature-based components and solar conversion technology, identifying effective combinations for different climatic zones. In warmer regions of Southern Europe, strategies like rooftop photovoltaics on cool roofs, photovoltaics shadings, green walls, and urban trees have demonstrated effectiveness. Conversely, mid- and high-latitude European cities have seen positive impacts through the integration of rooftop photovoltaics and photovoltaics facades with green roofs and green spaces. As solar cell conversion efficiency improves, the environmental impact of photovoltaics is expected to decrease, facilitating their integration into urban environments. The study emphasizes the importance of incorporating water bodies, cool pavements, spaces with high sky-view factors, and effective planning in urban design to maximize resilience benefits. It also highlights the significance of prioritizing mitigation actions in low-income regions and engaging citizens in the development of social photovoltaics positive energy houses, resilient neighbourhoods, and green spaces. By adopting these recommendations, European cities can lead the way in creating climate-neutral urban environments that prioritize clean energy, nature-based solutions, and the overall well-being of residents. The findings underscore the need for a multidisciplinary approach that combines technological innovation, urban planning strategies, and policy frameworks to effectively achieve climate neutrality in European cities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1694.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Cu-(In,Ga)-Se2 (CIGSe) solar cells; Two-segment process; Metal-alloy compositions; Internal/External quantum efficiencies (IQE/EQE); Sustainable development goal; Eco-friendly community
Online: 27 November 2023 (11:51:53 CET)
In this paper, the overall performance of Cu-(In,Ga)-Se2 (CIGSe) solar cells was improved in the ultraviolet (UV)–visible wavelength region by two-segment process. In which, adjusting DC sputtering powers (20–40 W) for absorbers (segment I), and metal-alloy compositions (CdS, ZnO/CdS, ZnMgO/CdS and ZnMgO) for buffers (segment II) were explored and characterized. Upon choosing the optimal-30-W CIGSe-absorber (with 0.95-CGI ratio) sputtered by the segment-I process, the Cu-rich film can distinctly boost grain growth, thus reducing the trap state density. After segment-II process as the toxic-CdS alternative, the optimal Zn0.9Mg0.1O-alloy buffer can reach the best conversion efficiency (η = 8.70%) was attained for the environmental protection. Meanwhile, and the overall internal/external quantum efficiencies (IQE/EQE) were improved by 13.15%, respectively for the 2.48–3.62-eV bandgap (short wavelength) range. The developed photovoltaic (PV) module (with 9 optimum-CIGSe cells) exhibits acceptable stability with a variance within ±5% over the 60-day experiment. This discovery in PV-device research contributes to a new scientific understanding of renewable energy. Furthermore, this study undeniably enhances the progress of practical applications for PV-modules in alignment with sustainable development goals. It also actively supports the development of eco-friendly communities.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: environment; virus; pollutant; evolution; exaptation; stem cells; transposons; APOBEC; ADAR,; ORF2p; cancer; Eco-Evo-Devo; symbiosis; ecological genomics; environmental stress; genetic recombination; biological plasticity; hypermutation; epigenetics; fractal systems; natural selection
Online: 19 July 2020 (19:35:46 CEST)
This article challenges the notion of the randomness of mutations in eukaryotic cells by unveiling stress-induced human non-random genome editing mechanisms. To account for the existence of such mechanisms, I have developed molecular concepts of the cell environment and cell environmental stressors and, making use of a large quantity of published data, hypothesized the origin of some crucial biological leaps along the evolutionary path of life on Earth under the pressure of natural selection, in particular, 1) virus-cell mating as a primordial form of sexual recombination and symbiosis; 2) Lamarckian CRISPR-Cas systems; 3) eukaryotic gene development; 4) antiviral activity of retrotransposon-guided mutagenic enzymes and finally; 5) the exaptation of antiviral mutagenic mechanisms to stress-induced genome editing mechanisms directed at “hypertranscribed” endogenous genes. Genes transcribed at their maximum rate (hypertranscribed), yet still unable to meet new chronic environmental demands generated by “pollution”, are inadequate and generate more and more intronic retrotransposon transcripts. In this scenario, RNA-guided mutagenic enzymes (e.g. AID/APOBECs), which have been shown to bind to retrotransposon RNA-repetitive sequences, would be surgically targeted by intronic retrotransposons on opened chromatin regions of the same “hypertranscribed” genes. RNA-guided mutagenic enzymes may therefore “Lamarkianly” generate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and copy number variations (CNV), as well as transposon transposition and chromosomal translocations in the restricted areas of hyperfunctional and inadequate genes, leaving intact the rest of the genome. CNV and SNP of hypertranscribed genes may allow cells to surgically explore a new fitness scenario, which increases their adaptability to stressful environmental conditions. Like the mechanisms of immunoglobulin somatic hypermutation, non-random genome editing mechanisms may generate several cell mutants, and those codifying for the most environmentally-adequate proteins would have a survival advantage and would therefore be Darwinianly selected. Non-random genome editing mechanisms represent a link between environmental changes and biological novelty and plasticity, and provide a molecular basis to reconcile gene-centered and “ecological” views of evolution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1539.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: Transformation Flower Approach; Transformative Governance; Co-evolutionary Governance; Power; Values; Multiple Value Creation; Institutional Change; Stakeholder Analysis; Power Mapping; Leverage points; Justice; Equity; Sustainability; IPBES Transformative Change Assessment; Natural Social Contract, Eco-Social Contract; Food System Transitions
Online: 27 November 2023 (11:25:18 CET)
We introduce the Transformation Flower Approach (TFA), a Theory of Change that attends to multiple value creation and institutional change as a dual design challenge. We highlight how the TFA integrates social scientific theories and models relevant for transformative change (in particular focusing on pathways, leverage points, governance, power, and values) and demonstrate its practical value by an application to the ongoing transformation of the Dutch food system. By providing a holistic, transdisciplinary and practically relevant approach that aims to support new social contract formation, the TFA goes beyond other transformative change approaches. Based on the notion of pathways, it offers a toolbox that aids in working towards desired futures, involving both incumbents and challengers in an effort to harness untapped yet proximal potentials in a forward-looking way. By embracing an innovation approach, it not only promises to circumvent resistance to change, but also serves as a step-by-step approach to identify options for multiple value creation and effective cooperation. We demonstrate the analytical and practical value of the TFA by discussing action perspectives at various levels and scales in the context of the Dutch food system transition, including (1) area-oriented approaches, (2) acceleration agendas for specific transformation pathways, and (3) actor-specific transformation flowers. In developing these, we emphasize the importance of interdependencies between leverage points. Our approach helps to identify opportunities to link transformative options (the what), actors (the who) and levers (the how) in dynamic interaction to embark on transformative pathways.