ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0400.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: COVID 19; health personnel; Burnout, Psychological; COVID 19 stress syndrome
Online: 26 September 2022 (11:42:28 CEST)
Purpose: The healthcare pressure and emotional tension during the first year of the COVID 19 pandemic have been able to affect the health of healthcare personnel. Physical and psychological symptoms attributed to a work situation and or COVID 19 infection are describ ed in health professionals. Objective: to analyze the prevalence of physical and psychological symptoms directly or indirectly related to COVID 19 (occupational causes, illness or persistent COVID 19) after a 12 month pandemic. Methods: #COVID19PS is a cro ss sectional analytical study using an ad hoc questionnaire distributed through social media to record physical and psychological symptoms related to COVID 19 in health professionals. Variables: age, sex, geographical origin, profession, characteristics of the work environment, physical symptoms, Maslach test ( for health professionals. Univariate and bivariate statistical analysis using t distribution, Chi square, ANOVA using IBM SPSS v20®. Results: N=1.159 ( women, 21.8% men; 44.6% <35 years old, 23.9% between 35 45years); 96.5% Spaniards. Professions: 17.1% medicine, 12.7% nursing, 32% physiotherapy, 24.1% occupational therapy, 14.1% others; 47.5% belonged to direct care for COVID 19 patients. 28.2% had passed the disease and 3.7% had it acti ve. 61.6% had physical symptoms ( neurological, 31.7% musculoskeletal, 29.6% general, 20.9% gastrointestinal, 20.3% skin, 19.2% cardiovascular, 16% respiratory (p= 96.9% had a medium high Burnout index (p= 48.3% with high levels of Emot ional Exhaustion, 62.9% with medium high level of Depersonalization and 74% with medium low levels of Personal Accomplishment. Conclusion: all health professions present high rates of physical and burnout consequences of the first year of COVID 19 pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0559.v1
Online: 27 October 2020 (15:27:36 CET)
Introduction: COVID-19 pandemic has affected HCPs in multiple way. It has caused psychological impact in form of anxiety, depression, and insomnia. In this study, we aim to study and compare the stress level, anxiety and depression among HCPs who are posted in special COVID-19 units with the HCPs who are not posted in COVID-19 units.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in June 2020, at various hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan. All health care professionals (HCPs) were invited to participate. A total of 301 HCPs completed this study, who were divided into two groups; those who are posted in COVID-19 ward (Group A) and those who are not (Group B). Psychological Impact was English version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale - 21 (DASS-21).Results: In Group A, 70.5% had moderate, severe, or extremely severe depression compared to 49.2% in group B. In Group A, 75.4% had moderate, severe, or extremely severe anxiety compared to 44.7% in group B. In Group A, 80.3% had moderate, severe or extremely severe stress compared to 54.2% in group B. Anxiety, depression and stress were significantly higher in HCPs who were posted in COVID-19 ward compared to those who were not posted in COVID-19 wardConclusion: There was significantly higher anxiety, stress and depression in health care professionals posted in COVID-19 ward. Both the government and health care agencies should take responsibility for protecting the psychological well-being of health care communities all over the world and ensuring a healthy work environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0406.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Adapted COVID-Stress Scales; Stress in Academic Professionals; Resilience to COVID stress in Academia
Online: 20 January 2021 (16:37:25 CET)
To mitigate the COVID-19 infection, many world governments endorsed the cessation of non-essential activities, such as the school attendance. Thereby, forcing the evolution of the teaching model to the virtual classroom. In the present work we show the application of a modified version of the adapted COVID-19 stress scales (ACSS) which also included teaching anxiety and preparedness, and resilience for academic professionals in Mexico, during the unprecedented transformation of the education system undergone in the COVID-19 quarantine. Most of the studied variables: gender, age, academic degree, household occupants, having a disease, teaching level, teaching mode, work hours, resilience, teaching anxiety and preparedness, and fear of being an asymptomatic patient (FOBAP), showed significant statistical correlation between each other (p<0.050) and to the 6 areas of the ACSS (danger, contamination, social economical, xenophobia, traumatic stress and compulsive checking). Our results further showed that the perceived stress and anxiety, fell into the category of absent to mild with only the danger section of the ACSS falling into the moderate category. Finally, resilience generated throughout the quarantine, seems to be a predictor of the adaptation the academic professional has undergone to cope with stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0619.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: COVID-19 Mexico; stress in healthcare professionals; COVID-19 stress scale
Online: 26 September 2020 (08:07:00 CEST)
The world is currently, subjected to the worst health crisis documented in modern history; an epidemic led by the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). At the epicenter of this crisis, healthcare professionals continue working to safeguard our well-being. To the regular high levels of stress, COVID new heights even more to healthcare professionals so depending on the area, specialty, and type of work. Here we investigated what are the tendencies, or areas most affected. Through an adaptation of the original COVID-stress scale, we developed a remote, fast test designed for healthcare professionals of the Northeastern part of Mexico, an important part of the country with economic and cultural ties to the US. Our results showed 4 key correlations as highly dependent: Work area – Xenophobia (p < 0.045), Work with COVID patients - Traumatic stress (p < 0.001) and Total number of COVID patients per day – Traumatic stress (p < 0.027), and Total number of COVID patients - Compulsive checking and reassurance. Overall concluding that normal levels of stress have increased (mild – moderate). Additionally, we further determine that the fear of being an asymptomatic patient (potential to spread without knowing) continues being a concern.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0604.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: COVID-19; Mental Health; Prevalence; Depression; Anxiety; Insomnia; Stress; PTSD; Distress
Online: 25 May 2021 (10:29:20 CEST)
The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate the prevalence of depression, anxiety, insomnia, stress, PTSD, and distress in Chinese healthcare workers (HCWs) and the changes in prevalence before and after the peak incidence of COVID-19 in China. 20 cross-sectional studies assessing the aforementioned psychological outcomes were included. Eligible studies were searched from the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. Comparative analysis based on the time period of the included studies was conducted to assess changes in prevalence before and after peak incidence. Additionally, subgroup analyses based on study quality, province, survey tools, gender and healthcare profession, frontline or non-frontline working status, and severity of psychological outcomes were conducted to evaluate the prevalence of outcomes across various study methods, geographic regions, and professions. The findings of this study suggest that the overall prevalence of depression, anxiety, insomnia, stress, PTSD, and distress before peak incidence were 36.2%, 34.2%, 22.4%, 31.3%, 9.8%, and 56.7% as opposed to 31.8%, 24.1%, 34.4%, 59.0%, 20.9%, and 40.7% after the peak. The higher prevalence of depression, anxiety, and distress prior to the peak incidence of COVID-19 in China and of insomnia, stress, and PTSD thereafter serve as evidence that the mental health decline of HCWs is dynamic and should be addressed with adaptive approaches that provide tailored treatments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0422.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Depression; anxiety; stress; university healthcare workers; COVID-19; post–movement lockdown
Online: 16 November 2020 (13:46:33 CET)
This study investigated the prevalence and severity of depression, anxiety, and stress and determined the association between various factors, social support, and depression and anxiety among university healthcare workers in Malaysia after the government lifted the movement control order (MCO) put in place to curb the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This online, cross-sectional survey recruited 399 participants from two university hospitals, and they were administered a self-reported questionnaire on demographic, personal, and clinical characteristics; COVID-19-related stressors; and coping. In addition, they completed the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) to measure perceived social support, as well as the 21-item Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21) to assess depression, anxiety, and stress. We found that the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress were 21.8%, 31.6%, and 29.1%, respectively. Participants with moderate to extremely severe depression, anxiety, and stress made up 13.3%, 25.8%, and 8.1% of the sample, respectively. Being single or divorced, fear of frequent exposure to COVID-19 patients, those who agreed that their area of living had a high prevalence of COVID-19 cases, and uncertainty regarding the prevalence of COVID-19 cases in the area of living were associated with higher odds of depression and anxiety. Conversely, having more than three children and greater perceived friend support were associated with lower odds of depression and anxiety. The prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress remained elevated even after the MCO was lifted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0194.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: COVID-19; health care workers; Greece; mental health; depression; anxiety; traumatic stress; burnout
Online: 8 February 2021 (11:41:59 CET)
COVID-19 pandemic has the potential to adversely affect the mental health of healthcare workers (HCWs). The public healthcare system in Greece was already facing serious challenges at the outset of the outbreak following years of austerity and an escalating refugee crisis. The multi-center, cross-sectional study aims to assess the levels and associated risk factors of anxiety, depression, traumatic stress and burnout of frontline staff in Greece. A total of 464 HCWs in six reference hospitals completed a self-administered questionnaire comprising of sociodemographic and work-related information and psychometric scales. The proportion of HCWs with symptoms of moderate/severe depression, anxiety and traumatic stress were 30%, 25% and 33% respectively. Burnout levels were particularly high with 65% of respondents scoring moderate/severe in Emotional Exhaustion, 92% severe in Depersonalization and 51% low/moderate in Personal Accomplishment. Predictive factors of adverse psychological outcomes included fear, perceived stress, risk of infection, lack of protective equipment and low social support. The psychological burden associated with Covid-19 in healthcare professionals in Greece is considerable with more than half experiencing at least mild mental health difficulties. Findings signal the need for immediate organizational and individually tailored interventions to enhance resilience and support wellbeing under pandemic conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0194.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: Oenothera biennis; Evening primrose; Oxidative stress; Cell death; Nrf2/HO-1
Online: 9 September 2020 (03:29:52 CEST)
Background: Oenothera biennis (evening primrose) produces bioactive substances with a diverse range of pharmacological functions. However, it is currently unknown whether extract prepared from the aerial parts of O. biennis (APOB) can protect the skin against oxidative stress. To investigate the protective effects of APOB against oxidative stress-induced damage in human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT) and elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Methods: We pretreated HaCaT cells with various concentrations of APOB or the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine before applying H2O2. We then compared the cell viability, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and DNA and mitochondrial damage between pretreated and untreated control cells using a range of assays, flow cytometry, and Western blot analysis and also examined the reducing power and DPPH free radical-scavenging activity of APOB. Results: APOB pretreatment significantly increased cell viability, effectively attenuated H2O2-induced comet tail formation, and inhibited H2O2-induced phosphorylation of the histone γH2AX, as well as the number of apoptotic bodies and Annexin V-positive cells. APOB was found to have a high reducing power and DPPH radical-scavenging activity and also exhibited scavenging activity against intracellular ROS accumulation and restored the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential caused by H2O2. APOB pretreatment almost totally reversed the enhanced cleavage of caspase-3, the degradation of poly (ADP-ribose)-polymerase (PARP), DNA fragmentation that usually occurs in the presence of H2O2 and increased the levels of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a potent antioxidant enzyme that is associated with the induction of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Conclusions: APOB can protect HaCaT cells from H2O2-induced DNA damage and cell death by blocking cellular damage related to oxidative stress via a mechanism that affects ROS elimination and by activating the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: traditional korean medicine; hippocampus; neuronal cell death; oxidative stress; medicinal herbs
Online: 10 November 2019 (14:53:14 CET)
Incident rates of neurodegenerative diseases have steadily increased globally, but there is no therapeutic access available. We newly prescribed medicinal herbal remedy including five different herbal plants called, Chen-Ma-Dan-Sam-Ga-Mi-Bang (CMST), purposed to prove for pharmacological properties and corresponded actions on hippocampus neuronal cell injury by hypoxia-induced mice model. Mice were adapted to normoxia or hypoxia with or without CMST for 5 days. We gathered pharmacological effects of CMST on cell injury by enhancement of dihydroethidium and 4-hydroxynonenal signals which were correlated with abnormal redox status in the protein or gene expression levels (abnormal elevations of nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation and deteriorations of total glutathione, total antioxidant capacity, and activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase) due to hypoxia. CMST also notably exerted to attenuates molecules for neuronal cell injury markers such as p-tau, cleaved caspase-3 due to DNA oxidations (53bp1and phosphor-histone H2AX), inflammatory cytokines, and hemeoxigenase-1. We further figured out the underlying actions of CMST by in vitro experiment through inactivation of microglial cell which can mediate neuronal cell injury. Collectively, CMST prevented from hippocampal neuronal cells via inactivation of microglial cell with normalization of redox status on hypoxia-induced hippocampus neuronal cell injury.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0424.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: 4-Phenylbutyric acid; Colon-targeted drug delivery; Colitis; Prodrug; ER stress; Chemical chaperone
Online: 19 July 2020 (19:15:20 CEST)
An elevated level of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is considered an aggravating factor for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To develop an ER stress attenuator that is effective against colitis, 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA), a chemical chaperone that alleviates ER stress, was conjugated with acidic amino acids to yield a 4-PBA-glutamic acid conjugate (PBA-GA) and a 4-PBA-aspartic acid conjugate (PBA-AA). The PBA derivatives were converted to 4-PBA in the cecal contents, where the conversion was greater with PBA-GA. After oral administration of PBA-GA (oral PBA-GA), millimolar levels of PBA were accumulated in the cecum, whereas 4-PBA was not detected in the blood, indicating the targeting of PBA-GA to the large intestine. At concentrations in the cecum achievable by oral PBA-GA, 4-PBA effectively attenuated ER stress in human colon epithelial cells. In 2,4-dinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced colitis in rats, oral PBA-GA alleviated the damage and inflammation in the colon. Moreover, oral PBA-GA substantially reduced the elevated levels of ER stress marker proteins in the inflamed colon. Moreover, PBA-GA was as effective as the currently used anti-IBD drug, sulfasalazine. In conclusion, PBA-GA is a colon-targeted prodrug of 4-PBA and is effective against rat colitis probably through the attenuation of ER stress in the inflamed colon.
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: drought stress; osmotic stress; rice; transcription factors; stress signaling; qtl; breeding
Online: 24 December 2019 (11:39:50 CET)
Many studies were done in the development of drought stress-tolerant transgenic plants, including crop plants. Rice is considered to be a vital crop target for improving drought stress tolerance. Much transgenic rice showed improved drought stress tolerance was reported to date. They are genetically engineered plants that are developed by using genes that encode proteins involved in drought stress regulatory networks. These proteins include protein kinases, transcription factors, enzymes related to osmoprotectant or plant hormone synthesis, receptor-like kinase. Of the drought stress-tolerant transgenic rice plants described in this review, most of them display retarded plant growth. In crop crops, plant health is a fundamental agronomic trait that can directly affect yield. By understanding the regulatory mechanisms of retarded plant growth under drought stress, conditions are necessary precursors to developing genetically modified plants that result in high yields.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0359.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Abiotic stress; Melatonin; Water stress; Drought; Waterlogging; Antioxidants; Stress signalling, phytohormones
Online: 17 August 2020 (10:19:52 CEST)
Water stress (drought and waterlogging) is drastic abiotic stress to plant growth and development. Melatonin, bioactive plant hormone, has been widely tested in drought situations in diverse plant species, while a few studies on the role of melatonin in waterlogging stress conditions have been published. In the current review, we analyze the bio-stimulatory functions of melatonin on plants under both drought and waterlogging stress. Melatonin controls the levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and positively changes the molecular defense to improve plant tolerance against drought and waterlogging stress. Moreover, the crosstalk of melatonin and other phytohormones is a key element on plant survival under drought stress, while this relationship needs further investigation under waterlogging stress. In this review, we draw the complete story of water stress on both sides: drought and waterlogging through discussing the previous critical studies under both conditions. Moreover, we suggest several research directions, especially for waterlogging, which remains a big vague piece of melatonin and water stress puzzle.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0211.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: klotho; estrogen; hippocampus; chronic stress; sex difference; stress resilience
Online: 13 December 2022 (01:09:36 CET)
Klotho (KL) is a glycosyl hydrolase and aging-suppressor gene. Stress is a risk factor for depression and anxiety that are highly comorbid with each other. The aim of this study was to determine KL is regulated by estrogen and plays an important role in sex differences in stress resilience. Our results showed that KL was regulated by estrogen in rat hippocampal neurons in vivo and in vitro and was essential for estrogen-mediated increase in the number of presynaptic vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (Vglut1) positive clusters on the dendrites of hippocampal neurons. The role of KL in sex differences in stress responses was examined in rats using three-week chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). CUMS produced a deficit in spatial learning and memory, anhedonic-like and anxiety-like behaviors in male but not female rats, which was accompanied by a reduction in KL protein levels in the hippocampus of male, but not female rats. This demonstrated the resilience of female rats to CUMS. Interestingly, knockdown of KL protein levels in the rat hippocampus of both sexes caused a decrease in stress resilience in both sexes, especially in female rats. These results suggest that regulation of KL by estrogen plays an important role in estrogen-mediated synapse formation, and KL plays a critical role in the sex differences in cognitive deficit, anhedonic-like and anxiety-like behaviors induced by chronic stress in rats, highlighting an important role of KL in sex differences in stress resilience.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0307.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: antioxidant activity; cross-tolerance; glycine max; heat stress; proteomics; water stress
Online: 31 October 2019 (05:23:35 CET)
Water stress (WS) and heat stress (HS) have a negative effect on soybean plant growth and crop productivity. During WS, soybean plants opt for survival through ion homeostasis and the conformations of proteins are disconcerted as plant cells lose water while HS leads to difficulties in flowering and fruiting. Some of these changes include oxidative stress leading to the destruction of photosynthetic apparatus, macromolecules within cells and the onset of complex signaling cascades. Changes in the physiological characteristics, proteome, and certain metabolites investigated on molecular and cellular functions were studied in two soybean cultivars exposed to different heat and water stress conditions independently and in combination. Leaf protein composition was studied using 2-DE and complemented with MALDI TOF mass spectrometry. While two cultivars displayed genetic variation in response to water and heat stress, thirty-nine proteins were significantly altered in their relative abundance in response to WS, HS and combined WS+HS in both cultivars; a majority of them involved in metabolism, response to heat and photosynthesis showing significant cross-tolerance mechanisms. Functional analysis revealing a majority of heat responsive-proteins were more abundant during HS and combined stress (WS+HS) whereas these proteins were low to WS in cultivar PI 471938 and heat shock proteins were in low abundance to water, heat and combined stresses in cultivar R95-1705. Most protein abundances were not correlated with their expression at mRNA levels in PI cultivar, however, in cultivar R 95, the expression levels of transcript follow their relative abundance in proteins. Our systems bioinformatics analyses revealed that MED37C, a probable mediator of RNA polymerase transcription II protein showed potential interacting partners in Arabidopsis and our studies signifies the marked impact of this protein in PI cultivar. Elevated activities in antioxidant enzymes indicate that the PI-371938 cultivar has the ability to restore the oxidation levels and sustain the plant during the stress. Our study hypothesizes the plant’s development of cross-stress tolerance which will help foster the ongoing ventures in genetic modifications in stress tolerance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0041.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: PGPR; salt stress; salinity; abiotic stress; ACC deaminase; seed priming; IAA
Online: 1 March 2021 (18:27:16 CET)
To date, soil salinity becomes a huge obstacle for food production worldwide since salt stress in plants is one of the major factors limiting agricultural productivity. It is estimated that a significant loss of crops (20%–50%) would be due to drought and salinity. To embark upon this harsh situation, numerous strategies such as plant breeding, plant genetic engineering, and a large variety of agricultural practices including the applications of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and seed biopriming technique have been developed to improve plant defense system against salt stress, resulting in higher crop yields to meet human’s increasing food demand in the future. In the present review, we update and discuss the advantageous roles of beneficial PGPR as green bioinoculants in mitigating the burden of high saline conditions on morphological parameters and on physio-biochemical attributes of plant crops via diverse mechanisms. In addition, the applications of PGPR as a useful tool in seed biopriming technique are also updated and discussed since this approach exhibits promising potentials in improving seed vigor, rapid seed germination, and seedling growth uniformity, Furthermore, the controversial findings regarding the fluctuation of antioxidants and osmolytes in PGPR-treated plants are also pointed out and discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0016.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: abiotic stress; biotic stress; biofortification; breeding; French bean; QTLs
Online: 3 June 2020 (09:43:01 CEST)
French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) a member of family Leguminosae is a useful source of protein (∼22%), minerals (folate), vitamins and fibre. Abiotic and biotic stresses are the constraints to high yield and production of French bean. Varieties reluctant to diseases as well as abiotic stresses is among the top breeding objectives for the French bean. Mendelian ratios could know the genetically reliable forms of resistance, whereas it's more robust to understand the intricate kinds, often referred to as quantitative trait loci (QTL). Here, we review and compile the information from the studies related to the identification of QTLs for critical biofortification traits, biotic and abiotic stresses in French bean. Successful map-based cloning requires QTLs represent single genes which could be isolated in near-isogenic lines, and also the genotypes could be unambiguously inferred by progeny testing. Overall, this information will be useful for directing the French bean breeders to select a suitable method for the inheritance evaluation of quantitative traits and determining the novel genes in germplasm resources to ensure that much more potential of genetic information may be uncovered.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0283.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Metabolic Syndrome; Obesity; inflammation; Oxidative Stress; nitrosative stress; biomarkers
Online: 23 June 2020 (11:35:38 CEST)
Purpose: To investigate the alterations in nitro-oxidative stress (OS) and antioxidant status in adolescents with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and whether these alterations occur independently from effects of overweight or obesity.Methods: Blood was collected in 47 adolescents with MetS and 94 adolescents without MetS as assessed with the International Diabetes Federation criteria. The International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) criteria were used to classify the subjects into those with overweight or obesity. We measured nitro-oxidative biomarkers including nitric oxide metabolites (NOx), lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH), and malondialdehyde (MDA), and antioxidant biomarkers, i.e. total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP), paraoxonase (PON)-1 activity, thiol (SH-) groups, as well as tumor necrosis factor-α, glucose, insulin, triglycerides, uric acid and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C).Results: Logistic regression analysis showed that increased MDA and NOx and a lowered TRAP/uric acid ratio were associated with MetS. Machine learning including soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) showed that the top-3 most important features of MetS were increased glucose and MDA and lowered HDL-C. Support vector machine using MDA, glucose, insulin, HDL-C, triglycerides and body mass index as input variables yielded a 10-fold cross-validated accuracy of 89.8% when discriminating MetS from controls. The association between MetS and increased MDA was independent from the effects of overweight-obesity. glucose, insulin, triglycerides and HDL-C.Conclusion: In adolescents, increased MDA formation is a key component of MetS, indicating that increased production of reactive oxygen species with consequent lipid peroxidation and aldehyde formation participate in the development of MetS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0362.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: combined stresses; drought stress; heat stress; maize; root morphology; root types
Online: 15 December 2020 (09:39:56 CET)
Plants are continually exposed to multiple stresses, which co-occur in nature and the net effects are frequently more non-additive (i.e., synergistic or antagonistic) suggesting ‘unique’ responses respect to that of the individual stress. Further, plant stress responses are not uniforms showing a high spatial and temporal variability among and along the different organs. In this respect, the present work investigated the morphological responses of different root types (seminal, seminal lateral, primary, primary lateral) of maize plants exposed to single (drought and heat) and combined stress (drought + heat). Data were evaluated by a specific root image analysis system (WinRHIZO) and analyzed by uni- and multi-variate statistical analysis. The results indicated that primary root and their laterals were the types more sensitive to the single and combined stresses while the seminal laterals specifically responded to the combined only. Further, antagonistic and synergistic effects were observed for the specific traits in the primary and their laterals and in the seminal lateral roots in response to the combined stress. These results suggested that maize root system modified specific root types and traits to face with different stressful environmental conditions highlighting that the adaptation strategy to the combined stress may be different from that of the individual ones. The knowledge of “unique or shared” responses of plant to multiple stress can be utilized to develop varieties with broad spectrum stress tolerance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0268.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: residual stress prediction; maraging steel 350; experimental measurement of residual stress
Online: 23 January 2020 (16:12:51 CET)
Rapid and accurate prediction of residual stress in metal additive manufacturing processes is of great importance to guarantee the quality of the fabricated part to be used in a mission-critical application in the aerospace and automotive industries. Experimentation and numerical modeling are valuable tools for measuring and predicting the residual stress; however, to-date conducting experimentation and numerical modeling is expensive and time-consuming. Thus, herein, a physics-based thermomechanical analytical model is proposed to predict the residual stress of the additively manufactured part rapidly and accurately. A moving point heat source approach is used to predict the temperature field by considering the effects of scan strategies, heat loss, and energy needed for solid-state phase transformation. Due to the high temperature gradient in this process, part experiences a high amount of thermal stress following solidification which may exceed the yield strength of the material. The thermal stress is obtained using Green’s function of stresses due to the point body load. The Johnson-Cook flow stress model is used to predict the yield surface of the part under repeated heating and cooling. As a result of the cyclic heating and cooling and the fact that the material is yielded, the residual stress build-up is predicted based on incremental plasticity and kinematic hardening behavior of the metal according to the property of volume invariance in plastic deformation in coupling with the equilibrium and compatibility conditions. The computational methodology is realized with the laser powder fusion of maraging steel 350 as a material of example. The validation of the predictive models has been presented in terms of the comparison of predicted and measured scan-direction and build-direction residual stress distributions along depth of build under various process parameter combinations. Moreover, for the first time, the Jonson-Cook parameters of maraging steel 350 are predicted using analytical modeling of machining forces and non-linear optimization techniques.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0474.v1
Online: 22 February 2021 (13:26:18 CET)
Transposable elements (TE) function as one of the major effectors to respond to biological or environmental stress. The mobility of TEs, which is heavily controlled under normal conditions, may be activated by stress. LncRNAs are emerging as a crucial tool in the regulation of TEs. This study focuses on the gene expression of THAP9, a domesticated transposon and lncRNA THAP9-AS1 (THAP9-antisense1), which form a sense and antisense gene pair with a promoter overlap of approximately 350bp. Under basal conditions, THAP9 is preferentially transcribed while THAP9-AS1 is heavily down-regulated. In the S-phase of the cell cycle, THAP9 expression exhibits stress-specific effects ranging from moderate enhancement to no change. On the other hand, THAP9-AS1, which has previously been reported to be upregulated in several cancers, always demonstrates enhanced expression under stress. Moreover, THAP9-AS1 is transcriptionally favoured during stress since the stress-induced fold-increase of THAP-AS1 expression is always higher than THAP9. Interestingly, the expression of both THAP9 and THAP9-AS1 exhibit a striking periodicity throughout the S-phase, reminiscent of cell cycle regulated genes. Thus, this study sets the stage to further explore the relationship between THAP9 and THAP9-AS1 and investigate THAP9-AS1’s potential regulatory role during stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0361.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Transgenic rice; metacaspase; ER stress; salinity stress; programmed cell death
Online: 17 February 2021 (10:04:38 CET)
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an important organelle responsible as protein synthesis regulator in plant. High salinity can also lead to the activation of ER stress, caused by the accumulation of misfolded protein. This could lead to a stress response mechanism, unfolded protein response (UPR). Failure of UPR to reverse the effect of protein misfolding will activate Programmed Cell Death (PCD). Metacaspase genes regulate programmed cell death (PCD) in plants. The present study was focused on comprehensive gene analyses of the expression patterns of type II rice metacaspase (OsMC) genes in response to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and salinity stress in rice leaf and OsMC4 in callus. A strong evidence of unfolded protein response (UPR) during tolerance to both ER and salinity stress was found in the present study. Overexpression of OsMC4 in rice callus as a fusion protein with TagRFP and controlled by the CaMV35 promoter caused major changes in the expression of the stress ER-marker genes, protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) and Binding immunoglobulin Protein (BiP), and OsMC4 in overexpressing calli. These expression analyses of the OsMC family provide valuable information for further functional studies on the biological roles of OsMCs in PCD related to ER and salinity stress responses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0108.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: schizophrenia, inflammation, nitrosative stress, tryptophan catabolites, cytokines, oxidative stress
Online: 11 January 2019 (10:37:50 CET)
BACKGROUND: Stable-phase schizophrenia may comprise two distinct nosological entities namely Major Neuro-Cognitive Psychosis (MNP, largely overlapping with the deficit syndrome) and simple NP (SNP), which are defined by neuroimmune and neurocognitive abnormalities. Furthermore, cognitive impairments and PHEM (psychotic, hostility, excitation, mannerism) and negative symptoms load on the same dimension.METHODS: The current study aimed to investigate associations of psychomotor retardation (PMR) and clinical as well as biomarker characteristics of schizophrenia. We recruited 40 healthy controls and 79 schizophrenia patients and measured IgA responses to tryptophan catabolites (TRYCATs), IgM to malondialdehyde and nitroso (NO)-cysteinyl, macrophage inflammatory protein-1 (MIP-1), soluble interleukin (IL)-1 receptor antagonist (sIL-1RA), IL-10, CCL-11 as well as PMR items of different rating scales and motor screening task (MOT). RESULTS: PMR differentiated schizophrenia from controls and MNP from SNP. In addition, PMR was strongly associated with executive functions, deficits in episodic and semantic memory, PHEM and negative (PHEMN) symptoms. Around 50% of the variance in PMR was predicted by the cumulative effects of immune activation, CCL-11, TRYCATs and NO-Cysteinyl levels, and lowered natural IgM. PRM may be reliably combined with PHEMN symptoms and memory and executive impairments into one latent vector reflecting overall psychopathology.CONCLUSIONS: Current findings indicate that PMR may be a key psychopathological feature of schizophrenia and mainly MNP. In addition, PMR and associated impairments in memory and executive functions, and PHEMN symptoms may be driven by deficits in the compensatory immune regulatory system (natural IgM) combined with increased production of neurotoxic immune products, namely TRYCATs and IgM to NO-cysteinyl, and an endogenous cognition deteriorating chemokine, namely CCL-11.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0059.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: chagas disease; cardiomyopathy; mitochondrial stress; endoplasmic reticulum stress; 2-aminopurine
Online: 3 August 2018 (04:36:58 CEST)
Trypanosoma cruzi infection results in debilitating cardiomyopathy, which is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in the endemic regions of Chagas disease (CD). The pathogenesis of Chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCM) has been intensely studied as a chronic inflammatory disease until recent observations reporting the role of cardio-metabolic dysfunctions. In particular, we demonstrated accumulation of lipid droplets and impaired cardiac lipid metabolism in the hearts of cardiomyopathic mice and patients, and their association with impaired mitochondrial functions and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in CD mice. In the present study, we examined whether treating infected mice with an ER stress inhibitor can modify the pathogenesis of cardiomyopathy during chronic stages of infection. T. cruzi infected mice were treated with an ER stress inhibitor 2-Aminopurine (2AP) during the indeterminate stage and evaluated for cardiac pathophysiology during the subsequent chronic stage. Our study demonstrates that inhibition of ER stress improves cardiac pathology caused by T. cruzi infection by reducing ER stress and downstream signaling of phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor (P-elF2α) in the hearts of chronically infected mice. Importantly, cardiac ultrasound imaging showed amelioration of ventricular enlargement, suggesting that inhibition of ER stress may be a valuable strategy to combat the progression of cardiomyopathy in Chagas patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0061.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Work-related stress; occupational stress; coping profile; garment workers; textile workers
Online: 7 February 2018 (10:26:49 CET)
Garment sector has crucial working field in Turkey.It has also very high risky occupational health conditions and safety.The objective of this study is to define level of job level, work-related stress’ symptoms, social support and coping mechanisms of garment workers and to determine any related factors.This study is descriptive and cross-sectional. The study population comprised garment workers in the 16-65 age range. The data was collected by Assessment Form, The Brief Stress Coping Profile and Brief Job Stress Questionnaire. The level of work-related stress was statistically higher among the workers who had chronic disease, low economic, education status and poor quality of sleep. Psychological and physical physiological reactions to stress were found higher among women workers and those with chronic disease.It also was seen that job stress scores had a meaningful relationship with “emotional expression involving others” (r =.20) and “Avoidance and suppression” coping profile (r =.16; p <.01).Psychological symptom scores were found to have a low level of meaningful relationship with “Seeking help for solution” (r =-.08), “changing point of view” (r=.13) and “emotional expression involving others” coping profiles (r=.21). Work-related stress causes many health and behavioral problems. Work related reasons and coping profiles have powerful effects on stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0289.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: hypotrochoidal profile shafts; DIN3689 H-profiles; bending stress; rotating bending loads; flexure; torsional stress in profiled shafts; stress factor
Online: 16 December 2022 (02:40:22 CET)
Hypotrochoidal profile contours have been produced in industrial applications in recent years using twin-spindle processes, and they are considered effective high-quality solutions for positive shaft–hub connections. This study mainly concerns analytical approaches to determine the bending stresses in hypotrochoidal profile shafts. The formulation was developed according to bending principles using the mathematical theory of elasticity and conformal mappings. The loading was further used to investigate the rotating bending behaviour. The stress factors for the classical calculation of maximum bending stresses were also determined for all those profiles presented and compiled in the German standard DIN3689-1 for practical applications. The results were also compared with the corresponding numerical and experimental results, and very good agreement was observed. Additionally, based on previous work, the stress factor was determined for the case of torsional loading to calculate the maximum torsional stresses in the standardised profiles, and the results are listed in a table. This study contributes to the further refinement of the current DIN3689 standard.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0153.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: antioxidant system; chilling stress; mineral homeostasis; nitric oxide; oxidative stress; rice
Online: 15 January 2020 (12:32:41 CET)
Being a chilling-sensitive staple crop, rice (Oryza sativa L.) is vulnerable to climate change. The competence of rice to withstand chilling stress should, therefore, be enhanced through technological tools. The present study employed chemical intervention like application of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) as nitric oxide (NO) donor and elucidated the underlying molecular mechanisms of NO-mediated chilling tolerance in rice. At germination stage, germination indicators were interrupted by chilling stress (5.0 ± 1.0°C for 8 h day‒1), while pretreatment with 100 μM SNP markedly improved the indicators. At seedling stage (14-day-old), chilling stress caused stunted growth with visible toxicity along with alteration of biochemical markers, for example, increase in oxidative stress markers (superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and malondialdehyde) and osmolytes (total soluble sugar; proline and soluble protein content, SPC), and decrease in chlorophyll (Chl), relative water content (RWC), and antioxidants. However, NO application attenuated toxicity symptoms with improving growth performance which might be attributed to enhanced activities of antioxidants, mineral contents, Chl, RWC and SPC. Furthermore, principal component analysis indicated that water imbalance and increased oxidative damage were the main contributors to chilling injury, whereas NO-mediated mineral homeostasis and antioxidant defense were the critical determinants for chilling tolerance in rice. Collectively, our findings revealed that NO protects against chilling stress through valorizing cellular defense mechanisms, suggesting that exogenous application of NO could be a potential tool to evolve cold tolerance as well as climate resilience in rice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0185.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Abiotic stress; Antioxidant defense; Glyoxalase; Ion homeostasis; Organic acid; Osmotic stress
Online: 17 January 2020 (10:02:34 CET)
Salinity is a serious environmental hazard which limits world agricultural production by adversely affects plant physiology and biochemistry. Hence increase tolerance against salt stress is very important. In this study, we explored the function of β-aminobutyric acid (BABA) in enhancing salt stress tolerance in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). After pretreatment with BABA, seedlings were exposed to NaCl (100 mM and 150 mM) for 2 days. Salt stress increased Na content and decreased K content in shoot and root. It disrupted the antioxidant defense system by producing reactive oxygen species (ROS; H2O2 and O2•−), methylglyoxal (MG) content and causing oxidative stress. It also reduced the growth and photosynthetic pigments of seedlings but increased proline (Pro) content. However, BABA pretreatment in salt-stressed seedlings increased ascorbate (AsA) and glutathione (GSH) contents; GSH/GSSG ratio; and the activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glyoxalase I (Gly I), and glyoxalase II (Gly II) as well as growth and photosynthetic pigments of plants. In addition, compared to salt stress alone BABA increased Pro content, reduced the H2O2, MDA and MG contents and decreased Na content in root and increased K content in shoot and root of rapeseed seedlings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0280.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: cold stress; heat stress; stress recovery; mitochondria; proteomics; respiration; Brassica; angiosperms
Online: 30 January 2018 (10:31:07 CET)
Complex proteomic and physiological approaches to study cold and heat stress responses in plant mitochondria are still limited. Variations in the mitochondrial proteome of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) curds after cold and heat and after stress recovery were assayed by 2D PAGE in relation to respiratory parameters. Quantitative analysis of the mitochondrial proteome revealed numerous stress-affected protein spots. In cold alternative oxidase isoforms were extensively upregulated; major downregulations in the level of photorespiratory enzymes, porine isoforms, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and some low-abundant proteins were observed. On the contrary, distinct proteins, including carbohydrate metabolism enzymes, heat-shock proteins, translation, protein import, and OXPHOS components were involved in heat response and recovery. Few metabolic regulations were suggested. Cauliflower plants appeared less susceptible to heat; closed stomata in heat stress resulted in moderate photosynthetic, but only minor respiratory impairments, however photosystem II performance was unaffected. Decreased photorespiration corresponded with proteomic alterations in cold. Our results show that cold and heat stress not only operate in diverse mode (exemplified by cold-specific accumulation of some heat shock proteins), but exert some associations on molecular and physiological levels. This implies more complex model of action of investigated stresses on plant mitochondria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0211.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: lipoprotein; extracellular vesicles; exosome; ectosome; stress response; resistant cancer; metastatic cancer; heat shock stress
Online: 10 October 2018 (09:44:17 CEST)
Resistant cancer often shows a particular secretory trait such as heat shock proteins (HSPs) and extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and oncosomes surrounded by lipid bilayers. Lipoproteins are biochemical assemblies that transport hydrophobic lipid (a.k.a. fat) molecules in body fluid and are composed of a single-layer phospholipid and cholesterol outer shell, lipids molecules within the particles, and apolipoproteins embedded in the membrane. However, lipoprotein storage and secretion by cancer cells have not well-investigated yet. We found lipoproteins were stored and abundantly secreted by neuroendocrine, castration-resistant prostate cancer (NEPC / CRPC) cells but barely secreted by colon cancer cells and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells. In addition, large EVs (approx. 300 nm diameter) and potential oncosomes were released by CRPC and OSCC cells. Proteomics revealed that CRPC cells secreted EVs enriched with tetraspanins and extracellular matrices which were reduced upon heat shock stress and alternatively lipoproteins and HSPs were secreted upon stress. Heat shock stress triggered secretion of lipoprotein-EV complexes that contained apolipoprotein A, B, C and E. These data suggested that vesicular assembly composed of EVs and lipoproteins enriched with cholesterols and phospholipids may be stored in resistant cancer cells but released upon cell stress that is increased in cancer therapies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0022.v1
Online: 2 May 2017 (04:58:58 CEST)
Transposable elements (TEs) are highly abundant in plant genomes. Environmental stress is one of the critical stimuli that activate TEs. We analyzed a heat-activated retrotransposon named ONSEN in cruciferous vegetables. The multiple copies of ONSEN-like elements (OLEs) were found in all the cruciferous vegetables that were analyzed. The copy number of OLE was abundant in Brassica oleracea, which includes cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussels sprout, and kale. Phylogenic analysis demonstrated that some OLEs transposed after the allopolyploidization of parental Brassica species. Furthermore, we found that the increasing number of OLEs in B. oleracea appeared to be induced transpositional silencing by epigenetic regulation, including DNA methylation. The results of this study would be relevant to the understanding of evolutionary adaptations to thermal environmental stress in different species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0642.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: copper; mercury; cadmium; oxidative stress; protein carbonylation; translation factors; oxidative stress biomarkers
Online: 26 September 2020 (14:46:39 CEST)
The impact of metals bioaccumulation on marine organisms is under investigation. This study was designed to determine the association of oxidative stress in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis induced by seawater enriched with trace metals with protein synthesis. Mussels were exposed to 40 μg/L Cu, 30 μg/L Hg, or 100 μg/L Cd for 5 and 15 days, and the pollution effect was evaluated by measuring established oxidative biomarkers. The results showed damage on the protein synthesis machine integrity and specifically, on translation factors and ribosomal proteins expression and modifications. Exposure of mussels to all metals caused oxidative damage that was milder in the cases of Cu and Hg, and more pronounced for Cd. However, after prolonged exposure of mussels to Cd (15 days), the effects receded. These changes that perturb protein biosynthesis can serve as a great tool for elucidating the mechanisms of toxicity and could be integrated in biomonitoring programs.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0446.v1
Online: 27 May 2020 (08:29:53 CEST)
Why animals sleep is an outstanding open question. Information about the toxic byproducts of aerobic cellular respiration along with the analysis of patterns in animal size, sleep needs, dietary-type, metabolism, number of heart beats, transportation-network design, and transportation energetics/dynamics suggest that the function of sleep is to maximize the time an animal has to perform its life functions given the finite and constant number of lifetime heart beats it has. Sleep slows down metabolism, and the heart rate, thereby decreasing the load of toxic reactive oxygen species in the cell and extending the cell’s lifetime/proper-functioning. I argue that this is used to maximize the time an animal spends in its ‘effective environment’, which is defined as the period in the light cycle (day or night) where the essential life-functions of that animal (like finding resources, finding sex, hunting) are better achieved. Larger, slow-metabolizing animals need less sleep because their large-bodily-networks and slow metabolisms keep their heart rates relatively low, resulting in a lower rate of oxidative damage, and more relative time in the ‘effective environment’ to get their essential life-functions accomplished.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0225.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: LMO7, secretome, FAK. hypertonicity, osmotic stress, epithelial integrity, epithelial barrier, cortical stress fiber
Online: 14 November 2022 (01:16:06 CET)
In kidney, epithelial barrier has diverse functions in body fluid and electrolyte homeostasis, and urine production. Maintaining epithelial integrity fundamentally builds up physiological functionality of the renal epithelial barrier (REB). Specially, the REB) states regularly in osmotic dynamics. The osmotic dynamics gives rise of osmotic pressure that is a physical force. Overloading of osmotic pressure can crack epithelial integrity and damage REB. How REB endures the osmotic pressure force yet remains enigmatic. LMO7 (LIM domain only 7) is a protein associated with cell-cell junctional complex and cortical F-actin. LMO7 upregulation was observed in cells cultured in hypertonic condition. In kidney, LMO7 predominantly distributes in epithelial cells in renal tubules. Hypertonic stimulation leads to assembly of LMO7 and F-actin in cortical stress fibers in renal epithelial cells. Hypertonic-isotonic alternation as pressure force pushing plasma membrane inward/outward was set as osmotic disturbance and was applied to test FAK signaling and LMO7 functioning in maintaining junctional integrity. Along with junctional integrity, LMO7 depleted cells resulted in loss of junctional integrity in the epithelial sheet cultured hypertonic medium or hypertonic-isotonic alternation. On the other hand, FAK inhibited by PF-573228 leads to failure in robust cortical F-actin assembly and association of LMO7 with cortical F-actin in epithelial cells responding upon hypertonic stress. Epithelial integrity in context of osmotic stress, LMO7 and FAK signaling both involves in assembling robust cortical F-actin and maintaining junctional integrity. The LMO7 elaborately manages FAK activation in renal epithelial cells, which was evidently demonstrated in NRK-52E cells who have excessive FAK activation and lost epithelial integrity when cells with LMO7 depletion exposed to hypertonic environment. Our data suggests that LOM7 manages FAK activation and is responsible for maintaining REB under osmotic disturbance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0322.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Parentalstress; Maternal stress; Heart rate variability as an index of parental stress; Socio-economic; demographic; environmental and gender factors associated with maternal stress
Online: 28 October 2019 (12:06:26 CET)
Parental stresses are normal responses to raising children. They are affected by stresses parents and children accumulate and bring to their interrelations. Background factors like economic difficulties or the relations between the parents may affect parental stresses as well as demographic and environmental factors like noise and access to urban parks. Most studies on parental stress are based on a verified psychological questionnaire. We suggest using frequency domain heart rate variability index (HRV) to measure parental stress enabling, by thus, the measurement of physiological aspects of stress and risk to health. Parental stress is measured as the difference between HRV accumulated at home while staying with the children and without the husband and HRV measured in the neighborhood while staying without the children and the husband. We use the index to compare differences among Muslim and Jewish mothers in exposure to maternal stress at their homes and to expose the factors that predict differences in maternal stress. We found that Muslim mothers suffer from home-related maternal stress while Jewish mother do not. Number of children and ethnically related environmental aspects predict differences in maternal stress between Muslim and Jewish mothers. Muslims' lower access to parks stems from lack of home garden and parks in their neighborhoods in the Arab towns but mainly by restrictions on Muslim women's' freedom of movement to parks. Despite differences in levels of noise at home and in the status of the mother in the household, these factors did not predict differences in parental stress. Instead, the study highlights the crucial role of greenery and freedom of movement to parks in moderating home-related maternal stress.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0144.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Protein Kinase C; PKCeta; autophagy; senescence; chemoresistance; oxidative stress; ER stress; 3MA; chloroquine
Online: 10 July 2022 (06:42:23 CEST)
The emergence of chemoresistance in neoplastic cells is one of the major obstacles in cancer therapy. Autophagy was recently reported as one of the mechanisms that promote chemoresistance in cancer cells by protecting from apoptosis and driving senescence. Thus, understanding the role of autophagy and its underlying signaling pathways is crucial for the development of new therapeutic strategies to overcome chemoresistance. We have previously reported that PKCη is a stress-induced kinase that confers resistance in breast cancer cells against chemotherapy by inducing senescence. Here we show that PKCη promotes autophagy induced by ER and oxidative stress and facilitates the transition from autophagy to senescence. We demonstrate that PKCη knockdown reduces both the autophagic flux and markers of senescence. Additionally, using autophagy inhibitors, such as chloroquine and 3-methyladenine, we show that PKCη and autophagy are required for establishing senescence in MCF-7 in response to oxidative stress. Different drugs used in the clinic are known to induce autophagy and senescence in breast cancer cells. Our study proposes PKCη as a target for therapeutic intervention, acting in synergy with autophagy-inducing drugs, to overcome resistance and enhance cell death in breast cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0130.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: Keywords: mitochondria; stress resilience; plasticity; stress; kynurenine; Alzheimer’s disease; neurodegenerative; depression; anxiety; psychiatric
Online: 8 July 2022 (03:56:36 CEST)
Nearly half a century has passed since the discovery of cytoplasmic inheritance of human chloramphenicol resistance. The inheritance was then revealed to take place maternally by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Later, a number of mutations in mtDNA were identified as a cause of severe inheritable metabolic diseases with neurological manifestation, and the impairment of mitochondrial functions has been probed in the pathogenesis of a wide range of illnesses including neurodegenerative diseases. Recently growing number of preclinical studies has revealed that animal behaviors are influenced by the impairment of mitochondrial functions and possibly by the loss of mitochondrial stress resilience. Indeed, as high as 54% of patients with one of the most common primary mitochondrial diseases, mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome, present psychiatric symptoms including cognitive impairment, mood disorder, anxiety, and psychosis. Mitochondria are multifunctional organelles which produce cellular energy and play a major role in other cellular functions including homeostasis, cellular signaling, and gene expression, among other. Mitochondrial functions are observed to be compromised and to become less resilient under continuous stress. Meanwhile, stress and inflammation have been linked to the activation of the tryptophan (Trp)-kynurenine (KYN) metabolic system, which observably contributes to development of pathological conditions including neurological and psychiatric disorders. This narrative review discusses the functions of mitochondria and the Trp-KYN system, the interaction of the Trp-KYN system with mitochondria, and the current understanding of the involvement of mitochondria and the Trp-KYN system in preclinical and clinical studies of major neurological and psychiatric diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0384.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: flavonoids; cellular stress response; neurodegenerative disorders; ER stress proteotoxicity; oxidative stress; neuroinflammation
Online: 19 January 2021 (14:02:03 CET)
Neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease (PD), Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Amyloidal lateral sclerosis (ALS), and Huntington disease (HD) are the most concerned disorders due to the lack of effective therapeutics and dramatic rise in affected cases. Although these disorders have diverse clinical manifestations, yet they all share a common cellular stress response. These cellular stress responses including neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, proteotoxicity, and ER-stress, which combats with stress conditions, but the overwhelming cellular stress response induces cell damage. Small molecules such as flavonoids could reduce cellular stress and have gained much attention in recent years. Evidence has shown the potential use of flavonoids in several ways such as antioxidants, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic, yet their mechanism is still elusive. This review provides an insight into the mechanistic ways of flavonoids against cellular stress response that prevent the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0532.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Biotic stress; Abiotic stress; climate change; Plant Transcription Factors; Food Security; Crop Improvement
Online: 26 October 2020 (14:26:31 CET)
Crop plants should be resilient to climatic factors in order to feed ever-increasing populations. Plants have developed stress-responsive mechanisms by changing their metabolic pathways and switching the stress-responsive genes. The discovery of plant transcriptional factors (TFs) as key regulators of different biotic and abiotic stresses have opened up new horizons for plant scientists. TFs perceive the signal and switch certain stress-responsive genes on and off by binding to different cis-regulatory elements. The above 50 species of plant TFs have been reported in nature. DREB, bZIP, MYB, NAC, Zinc-finger, HSF, Dof, WRKY, and NF-Y are important with respect to biotic and abiotic stresses whereas the role of many TFs is yet to explore. In this review, we summarize the role of different stress-responsive TFs with respect to biotic and abiotic stresses. Further, challenges and future opportunities linked with TFs for developing climate-resilient crops are also elaborated.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Cyanobacteria; Gene expression; Regulation; Signalling; Stress
Online: 23 October 2020 (12:26:14 CEST)
Cyanobacteria are highly diverse, widely distributed photosynthetic bacteria inhabiting various environments ranging from deserts to the cryosphere. Throughout this range of niches, they have to cope with various stresses and kinds of deprivation which threaten their growth and viability. In order to adapt to these stresses and survive, they have developed several global adaptive responses which modulate the patterns of gene expression and the cellular functions at work. Sigma factors, two-component systems, transcriptional regulators and small regulatory RNAs acting either separately or collectively, for example, induce appropriate cyanobacterial stress responses. The aim of this review is to summarize our current knowledge about the diversity of the sensors and regulators involved in the perception and transduction of light, oxidative and thermal stresses and nutrient starvation responses. The studies discussed here point to the fact that various stresses affecting the photosynthetic capacity are transduced by common mechanisms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0116.v2
Online: 6 April 2021 (14:57:54 CEST)
While sex ratios at birth (SRB) have been shown to vary within and across populations, after over a century of research, explanations have remained elusive. A variety of ecological, demographic, economic, and social variables have been evaluated, yet their association with SRB has been equivocal. Here, in an attempt to shed light on this unresolved topic within the literature, we approach the question of what drives variation in SRB using detailed longitudinal data spanning the frontier-era to the early 20th century in a US population. Using several measures of environmental harshness, we find that fewer boys are born during challenging times. However, these results hold only for the frontier-era and not into a period of rapid industrialization. We argue that the mixed state of the literature may result from the impact and frequency of exogenous stressors being dampened in post-industrial societies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0219.v3
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: Nitric oxide; Oxidative stress; Ethanol withdrawal; Anxiety
Online: 2 April 2020 (11:01:26 CEST)
Nitric oxide has been implicated in symptoms of ethanol withdrawal in animal models. Zebrafish have been used as models to study neurobehavioral effects of ethanol (EtOH) withdrawal, but the mechanisms associated with these effects are not yet clear. Adult zebrafish were treated with 1% EtOH for 20 min per day for 8 days, injected with the nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS-2) inhibitor aminoguanidine (50 mg/kg), and allowed to experience withdrawal (WD) in their hometanks for 7 days. EtOH WD increased anxiety-like behavior in the novel tank test, an effect that was blocked by aminoguanidine. EtOH WD also increased brain levels of nitrite, an effect that was partially blocked by aminoguanidine. These results underline a novel mechanism by which NOS-2 controls anxiety-like responses to ethanol withdrawal, with implications for the mechanistic study of symptoms associated with chronic ethanol abuse.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0132.v1
Online: 8 March 2020 (04:40:36 CET)
Body temperature responses were recorded during phases of work (waiting to work in close proximity to search site, active work in a search site, and post-work recovery crated in vehicle) in human remains detection dogs during search training. State or federally certified human remains detection dogs (n = 8) completed eight iterations of searching, rotating through six different types of search environments to detect numerous scent sources including partial and complete, buried, hidden, or fully visible human remains. Internal temperature (Tgi) of the body was measured continuously using an ingestible thermistor in the gastrointestinal tract. Mean total phase times were: waiting to work: 9.17 minutes (± 2.27); active work: 8:58 minutes (± 2:49); and post work recovery: 24:04 minutes (± 10.59). Tgi was impacted by phase of work (P < 0.001) with a small increase during active work, with mean peak temperature 39.4 °C (± 0.34 ºC) during that period. Tgi continued to increase for a mean of 7:37 (± 6:04) minutes into the post-work recovery phase in the handler’s vehicle with a mean peak Tgi of 39.66 °C (± 0.41 ºC). No significant increase in temperature was measured during the waiting to work phase, suggesting anticipation of work did not appear to contribute to overall body temperature increase during the waiting to work recovery cycle. Continued increase of gastrointestinal body temperature several minutes after cessation of exercise indicates that risk of heat injury does not immediately stop when the dog stops exercising, although none of the dogs in this study reached clinically concerning body temperatures or displayed any behavioral signs suggestive of pending heat injury. More work is needed to better understand the impact of vehicle crating on post-work recovery temperatures in dogs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0287.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Excretory-secretory products; Angiostrongylus cantonensis; Astrocytes; Benzaldehydes; endoplasmic reticulum stress; oxidative stress
Online: 16 November 2021 (11:34:13 CET)
Excretory-secretory products (ESPs) are the main research targets for investigating the hosts and helminths interaction. Parasitic worms can migrate to parasitic sites and avoid the host immune response by secreting this product. Angiostrongylus cantonensisis an important food-borne zoonotic parasite that causes severe neuropathological damage and symptoms, including eosinophilic meningitis or meningoencephalitis in humans. Benzaldehydes are organic compounds composed of a benzene ring and formyl substituents. This compound has anti-inflammatory and antioxidation properties. Previous studies showed that 3-hydroxybenzaldehyde (3-HBA) and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (4-HBA) can reduce apoptosis in A. cantonensis ESPs treated astrocytes. These results on the protective effect underlying benzaldehyde have primarily focused on cell survival. The study was designed to investigate the molecular mechanisms of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) and oxidative stress in astrocytes in A. cantonensis ESPs treated astrocytes and to evaluate the therapeutic consequent of 3-HBA and 4-HBA. First, we initially established the RNA-seq dataset in each group, including Normal, ESPs, ESPs+3-HBA, and ESPs+4-HBA. We also found that benzaldehyde (3-HBA and 4-HBA) can stimulate astrocytes to express ER stress-related molecules after ESP treatment. The level of oxidative stress could also be decreased in astrocytes by elevating antioxidant activity and reducing ROS generation. These results suggested that benzaldehyde may be a potential therapeutic compound for human angiostrongyliasis to support brain cell survival by inducing the expression levels of ER stress- and oxidative stress-related pathway.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0087.v1
Online: 17 November 2016 (10:40:58 CET)
Oxidative stress occurs when cells are exposed to elevated levels of reactive oxygen species that could damage biological molecules. One bacterial response to oxidative stress involves disulfide bond formation either between protein thiols or between protein thiols and low-molecular-weight thiols. Bacillithiol was recently identified as a major low-molecular-weight thiol in Bacillus subtilis and related Firmicutes. Four genes (bshA, bshB1, bshB2 and bshC) are involved in bacillithiol biosynthesis. The bshA and bshB1 genes are part of a seven-gene operon (ypjD), which includes the essential gene cca, encoding CCA-tRNA nucleotidyltransferase. The inclusion of cca in the operon containing bacillithiol biosynthetic genes suggests that the integrity of the 3’ terminus of tRNAs may also be important in oxidative stress. Addition of the 3´ terminal CCA sequence by CCA-tRNA nucleotidyltransferase to give a mature tRNA and functional molecules ready for aminoacylation plays an essential role during translation and expression of the genetic code. Any defects in these processes, for example, the accumulation of shorter and defective tRNAs under oxidative stress, could exert a deleterious effect on cells. This review summarizes the physiological link between tRNACys regulation and oxidative stress in Bacillus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0136.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: thioredoxin reductase; oxidative stress; nitrosative stress; theta burst stimulation; experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis; rats
Online: 7 July 2020 (17:30:22 CEST)
Cortical theta burst stimulation (TBS) structured as intermittent (iTBS) and continuous (cTBS) could prevent the progression of the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The interplay of brain antioxidant defense systems against overproduction of reactive oxygen, nitrogen, and thiol species induced by EAE has not been entirely investigated, just as the effect of iTBS or cTBS on oxidative-nitrogen stress (ONS) in EAE rats. Dark Agouti strain female rats were tested for the effects of EAE and TBS. The rats were randomly divided into the following groups: C - control, EAE - rats immunized for EAE, CFA - rats immunized with Complete Freund's adjuvant; iTBS and cTBS groups, and EAE+iTBS and EAE+cTBS - health and EAE rats exposed to iTBS and cTBS, respectively; EAE+iTBSsh and EAE+cTBSsh - sham stimulated EAE rats with the same noise artifacts of iTBS and cTBS, respectively. Superoxide dismutase activity, levels of superoxide anion (O2•-), lipid peroxidation, glutathione (GSH), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) activity were analyzed in rat spinal cords homogenates. The severity of EAE clinical coincided with the climax of ONS, based on the increase of superoxide anion and lipid peroxidation; depletion of total thiols, GSH and NADPH; and decrease of SOD activity. The TrxR imposed the most sensitive response against the applied central nervous system (CNS) stressors to rats. We concluded that the TrxR upregulation meritoriously compensates decreased ROS sequestrating and GSH systems in EAE. Both iTBS and cTBS modulate the biochemical environment at a distance from the area of stimulation against ONS, accomplish a similar effect on TrxR activity to EAE and healthy rats, and alleviate symptoms of EAE.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0574.v1
Online: 31 January 2023 (06:21:55 CET)
Melatonin (MT) controls various physiological functions and enhances plant drought tolerance in response to environmental stressors, including water deficit. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of exogenous MT on the morphophysiological attributes of Ranunculus asiaticus under normal and drought conditions. R. asiaticus seedlings were divided into drought-stress and control groups and subjected to foliar application of MT at various concentrations (0, 50, 100, and 200 μM) four times during the study. The drought-stress group exhibited considerably decreased shoot length, leaf number, leaf area, fresh and dry vegetative weights, total chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, and relative water content; delayed emergence of flower stalks; and increased relative electrolyte leakage compared with well-watered plants. Conversely, foliar application of MT notably increased growth parameters compared with their no-treatment counterparts. Foliar treatment with 200 µM MT resulted in the most significant growth response in R. asiaticus under normal or drought-stress conditions. Moreover, compared with no treatment, exogenously applied MT induced the appearance of flower buds and increased relative water and proline contents as well as peroxidase activity while reducing electrolyte leakage. Regarding tolerance index percentages, higher peroxidase and proline contents indicated their suitability for use as markers for drought tolerance, supporting the effective role of exogenous MT in enhancing the adaptability of Ranunculus to drought stress.
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Stress; fear; anxiety; aggression; veterinary visit; low-stress handling; counterconditioning; behaviour modification; anxiolytic medication; psychoactive drugs; dogs; cats
Online: 8 January 2021 (14:37:01 CET)
A high proportion of dogs and cats are fearful during veterinary visits, which in some cases may escalate into aggression. Here, we discuss factors that contribute to negative emotions in a veterinary setting and how these can be addressed. The set-up of the waiting area (e.g. spatial dividers; elevated places for cat carriers), tailoring the examination and the treatment to the individual, considerate handling (minimal restraint when possible, avoiding leaning over or cornering animals) and offering high-value food or toys throughout the visit can promote security and, ideally, positive associations. Desensitisation and counterconditioning are highly recommended both to prevent and address existing negative emotions. Some negative experiences such as short-term pain from injections can be minimised by using tactile and cognitive distractions. Preemptive analgesia is recommended for known painful procedures. Recommendations for handling fearful animals to minimise aggressive responses are discussed. However, anxiolytics or sedation should be used whenever there is a risk of traumatising an animal or for safety reasons. Stress-reducing measures can decrease stress and fear in patients and consequently their owners – thus strengthening the relationship with the clients as well as increasing the professional satisfaction of veterinary staff.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0497.v1
Online: 19 April 2021 (14:30:34 CEST)
In recent years cultivated soils have been increasingly supplemented with nutrients that at low doses are necessary for proper plant functioning but become toxic at high doses. New methods are needed to prevent these destructive actions, and for this reason we studied the effects of two elements – Mn treated as a stressor and Se treated as a potential defense in two wheat cultivars. The intensity of stress was manifested in tissue browning and weight reduction and was determined by an increase in lipid peroxidation and quantitative analysis of hydrogen peroxide levels. It was found that the excess of Mn in the substrate caused more intense changes in these indicators in the root system than in the leaves, and that Se presence partly eliminated the stress evoked effects. Moreover, Mn-treatment was accompanied by a greater absorption of this element by the roots, and a reduced uptake of other elements (K, Fe, S, P), with the exception of Ca, an increase in which was observed especially in the additional presence of Se. It was suggested that the rise in Ca level can lead to modification of cell differentiations and may be one of the steps in defense mechanisms. The change in the direction of cell differentiation in the apical part of the root was observed microscopically under Mn stress and was accompanied by a quantitative increase in 5-met C. Based on DNA methylation profiles detected by MSAP we concluded that various types of methylation sites may be activated under Mn treatment in roots.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0005.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: stress perceived; self-efficacy; engagement; work; nursing
Online: 3 December 2018 (04:10:41 CET)
Positive Occupational Health Psychology (POHP) examines the mechanisms that promote workers’ health and wellbeing, in addition to risk factors arising from work activity. The aim of this study was to analyze the mediating role of perceived stress in the effect that self-efficacy has on engagement in nurses. The sample comprised 1777 currently working nurses. We administered the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES), the Perceived Stress Questionnaire and the General Self-Efficacy Scale. Following bivariate correlational analysis, multiple linear regression analysis, and simple and multiple mediation analysis the results showed Self-efficacy to be a powerful personal resource that positively predicts employees’ engagement, although the effect diminishes when there are mediating variables of stress. We found differences in the way the different aspects of stress mediated the relationship between Self-efficacy and the engagement dimensions. “Energy–joy” was the strongest mediating variable for all of the engagement dimensions, and this, together with “harassment–social acceptance” dampened the effect of Self-efficacy on vigor and dedication, whereas “Overload” was only a mediator for dedication. Because nurses work in a stressful environment, risk factor arising from work activity, hospital management should design interventions to enhance their workers’ personal resources and improve personal and organizational wellbeing.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0013.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: selenium; oxidative stress; serotonin; glutamate; anxiety disorders; obsessive-compulsive disorders; post-traumatic stress disorder
Online: 3 October 2022 (15:17:24 CEST)
Anxiety disorders are among the most common mental disorders worldwide, and often respond incompletely to existing treatments. Selenium, a micronutrient that is a component of several biologically active selenoproteins, is also involved in several aspects of brain functioning, and may exert antidepressant and anxiolytic effects through multiple pathways. The current paper is a scoping review of translational, observational and interventional evidence on the potential role of selenium and its compounds in the management of anxiety and related disorders. Evidence from animal models suggests that this approach may be promising. Though evidence from observational studies in humans is inconsistent and affected by several confounding factors, the available evidence from randomized controlled trials suggests that selenium supplementation may be beneficial in the management of certain anxiety-related conditions, such as anxiety in medically ill patients, prevention of anxiety following exposure to traumatic stress, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. This paper provides a critical evaluation of the existing evidence base, including unanswered questions that could serve as the focus of further research, and outlines the potential benefits and risks associated with the use of selenium in anxiety disorders.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0145.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: drought stress; drought models; drought tolerance; oxidative stress; phytohormones; polyethylene glycol (PEG); stress markers
Online: 12 December 2018 (12:19:35 CET)
Drought is one of the major stress factors affecting growth and development of plants. In this context, drought-related losses of crop plant productivity impede sustainable agriculture all over the world. In general, plants responses to water deficit by multiple physiological and metabolic adaptations at the molecular, cellular and organism levels. To understand the underlying mechanisms of drought tolerance, adequate stress models and arrays of reliable stress markers are required. Therefore, in this review we comprehensively address currently available models of drought stress, based on culturing plants in soil, hydroponic or agar culture. These experimental setups give access to different aspects of plant response to drought, like decrease of tissue water potential, reduction of stomata conductance and photosynthesis efficiency, accumulation of low-molecular weight solutes (metabolic adjustment) and drought protective proteins. Till now, this pattern of markers was successfully extended to the methods of enzyme chemistry, molecular biology and omics techniques. Thus, conventional tests can be efficiently complemented by determination of phytohormone and reactive oxygen species (ROS) contents, activities of antioxidant enzymes, as well as comprehensive profiling of transcriptome, proteome and metabolome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0251.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: fiber metal laminate; hybrid laminate; residual stress; asymmetric laminate; process monitoring; curvature analysis; stress-free temperature
Online: 19 September 2022 (02:03:21 CEST)
Residual stresses in fiber metal laminates (FML) inevitably develop during the manufacturing process. The main contributor to these stresses is the difference in the coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) between fibers and metal in combination with high process temperatures. To quantify these stresses, the use of specimens with an asymmetric layup is an easily adaptable method. The curvature that develops after the manufacturing of flat laminates with an asymmetrical layer stack is a measure of the level of residual stresses evolving during cure. However, the accuracy of the curvature evaluation is highly dependent on specimen design and other influencing parameters. In this work a large set of FML specimens is investigated to identify relevant influencing parameters and derive conclusions about specimen design and evaluation techniques. For certain layups and process parameters, there is a good correlation between the curvature and the stress-free temperature, which is further covered by analytical solutions for bimetals. This correlation is the basis to transfer curvature into a stress-free temperature that can consequently be used for the quantification of residual stress levels in more complex FMLs. The transfer is validated by in-situ strain measurements during cure using a strain gage technique. Based on the results, the application of asymmetric specimens for residual stress characterization in more complex laminates is presented in the form of a workflow.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0448.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: Stress; Hypertension; Microglia; Neuroinflammation; Sympathetic overactivation
Online: 28 February 2020 (16:30:19 CET)
Background: Hypertension is a cardiovascular syndrome with the highest morbidity and mortality worldwide. Hypertension caused by various stress factors is called stress-induced hypertension (SIH). The rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) "neuroinflammatory-sympathetic overactivation" is involved in SIH formation. Melatonin has anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and blood pressure lowering effects. The present study is to explore the antihypertensive effects and mechanism of central melatonin which based on microglia derived neuroinflammation. Methods: Stress-induced hypertension (SIH) was induced by electric foot-shock stressors with noise interventions in rats. Melatonin (0.01，0.1，1 mmol/L) was administered to RVLM and then blood pressure (BP) and serum norepinephrine (NE) were monitored to reflect sympathetic vasomotor activity in SIH rats. Excitatory neurotransmitter (Glutamate) and inhibitory neurotransmitter [γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)] were measured using ELISA kits. Markers of microglia M1 polarization (CD86) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs (IL-1β, TNF-α)) expression in the RVLM were measured by RT-qPCR. Results: (1) Stress-induced increase in blood pressure and serum NE concentration; RVLM microinjection melatonin attenuated the elevation of blood pressure and increase of plasma NE in SIH rats in a dose-dependent manner. (2) The expression of CD86, PICs (IL-1β, TNF-α) and c-fos were increased in SIH rats; RVLM injection melatonin attenuated RVLM neuroinflammation and its effect is concentration-dependent. (3). Stress-induced increase in glutamate concentration in RVLM; RVLM injection melatonin reduced glutamate level and increased GABA level in SIH rats in a concentration-dependent manner. Conclusion: RVLM injection of melatonin inhibits M1 polarization and has anti-hypertensive effects. Melatonin reduces M1 polarization in microglia might be a novel target and a new strategy for anti-stress induced-hypertension.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0515.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: inositol; inositol transporters; vacuole; stress tolerance
Online: 21 June 2021 (14:12:29 CEST)
Inositol transporter (INT) is reputed as the pivotal transporter for vital metabolites like lipids, minerals, and sugars particularly. These transporters play important role in transitional metabolism and various signaling pathways in plants through regulating the transduction of messages from hormones, neurotransmitters, and immunologic and growth factors. Extensive studies have been conducted on animal INT with promising outcomes. However, few recent studies have highlighted the importance and the complexity of INT genes in the regulation of plant physiology stages including growth and tolerance to stress conditions. The present review sum-up the most recent findings on the role of INT or inositol genes in plant metabolisms and the responsive mechanisms that cope with external stressors. Moreover, we highlighted the emerging role of vacuoles and vacuolar inositol transporters in plant molecular transition and their related roles in plant growth and development. Inositol transporters are the essential mediator for the inositol uptake and its intracellular broadcasting for various metabolic pathways where they play crucial roles. Also, so far characterized only in animals, we reported evidence on Na+/inositol transporters H+/inositol symporters and suggested their roles and operating mode in plants. Thus, understanding the INT functioning system, the coordinated movement of inositol, and the relation between inositol generation and other important plant signaling pathways would be an excellent asset for advancement in researches on plant stress adaptation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0694.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Causes, post traumatic stress disorder,refugees
Online: 26 April 2021 (20:51:27 CEST)
Abstract Objectives To assess the causes and risk factors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adult asylum seekers and refugees. To explore whether the causes and risk factors of PTSD, between male and female adult refugees/ asylum seekers is different. Study design Systematic review of current literature. Data Sources PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus and Google Scholar up until February 2019 Method A structured systematic search was conducted in the relevant databases. Papers were excluded, if they failed to meet the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Afterwards, a qualitative assessment was performed on the selected papers. Results 12 Studies were included for the final analysis. All papers were either case studies/report or cross sectional studies. The number of traumatic events experienced by refugees/asylum seekers, is the most frequently reported pre-migration causes for PTSD development. Whilst acculturative stress, is the most common post migration stressor. There were mixed reports, regarding the causes of PTSD between both genders of refugees/asylum seekers. Conclusion This reviews’ findings, have potential clinical application into helping clinicians, to risk stratify refugees/asylum seekers for PTSD development and thus aid in embarking on earlier intervention measures. However, more rigorous research similar to this one, is needed for it to be implemented into clinical practice.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0180.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: oxidative stress; nitrative stress; reactive oxygen species; reactive nitrogen species; nitric oxide inflammation; obesity; peroxynitrite; adipose tissue
Online: 30 September 2022 (11:10:38 CEST)
It is now well accepted that most chronic diseases have a common feature which is “low-grade” inflammation. Whether inflammation is causal or rather consequent to these diseases is still a matter of debate. A key factor of inflammation is considered to be “oxidative stress”, which is the result of an alteration of redox homeostasis which is critical for the regulation of physiological cell and organ metabolism and proliferation. The term “oxidative stress” is how-ever often used in an inappropriate manner as the primary target of the initial oxidative radical, superoxide ion, is nitric oxide which, being in large excess, acts as a “buffer”, yielding reactive nitrogen species. It is only once the superoxide fluxes exceed the nitric oxide fluxes that true “oxidative stress” occurs. Nitro-oxidative stress is a more appropriate term which takes into account the evolving generation of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species and their effects on cell and organ pathophysiology. The molecular bases of redox homeostasis and nitro-oxidative stress will be presented and discussed using obesity-linked inflammation as a path-ophysiological example.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0066.v2
Online: 14 November 2016 (04:05:38 CET)
Aquaporin-11 (AQP11) is an intracellular water channel expressed at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of the kidney proximal tubule. Its gene disruption in mice leads to intracellular vacuole formation at one week old and the subsequent development of polycystic kidneys at three week old. As the damaged proximal tubular cells with intracellular vacuoles later form cysts, autophagy may play a role in their survival. We examined the autophagy activity before and after the development of cysts in AQP11(-/-) kidneys. We first observed an enhanced expression of LC3 gene (Map1lc3b) as well as other autophagy-related genes in AQP11(-/-) mice by quantitative PCR analysis. We then examined the formation of autophagosomes visualized by a green fluorescent fusion protein, GFP–LC3 in its transgenic mice. The expression of GFP-LC3 puncta was increased in the proximal tubule of AQP11(-/-) mice before the cyst formation. Interestingly, they were also observed in the cyst-lining epithelial cell. Further PCR analyses revealed the enhanced expression of apoptosis- and ER stress-related caspase genes before and after the cyst formation suggesting that ER stress may have enhanced autophagy. We conclude that autophagy will play an important role in the development and the survival of the kidney cysts in AQP11(-/-) mice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0356.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: anxiety; depression; stress; coronavirus; Dilla; Ethiopia
Online: 30 June 2020 (08:00:58 CEST)
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic is the global public health emergency concern and had an impact on the day to day life of individuals. Its effect on an individual’s mental health is significant to the extent of suicide. Objective: This study aimed to assess the magnitude of psychological problems and their associated factor among communities living in Dilla town in response to the pandemic. Methods: From Apr 1- Apr 15, 2020, a community-based cross-sectional study was conducted using multi-stage sampling techniques. Self-administered the questioner, Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21), and logistic regression analysis (95% CI, p-value <0.05) was used. Results: This study included 445 respondents with a 94% non- response rate who was living in Dilla town. In total, 34.4% of respondents had a psychological problem (11.4 % mild and 23% moderate level of the psychological problem). Female, Greater secondary level of education, monthly income below 500 ETB, more than three family size, and wearing face mask were variables associated with the outcome variable (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Nearly one-third of the respondents had mild to moderate psychological among communities living in Dilla town. There is a need for mental health support on those identified groups of peoples to enhance their resilience in response to the pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0344.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Lysine; Rice; Amino Acids; Saline Stress; Abiotic Stress; Gene Regulatory Network; Bayesian Network; Parameter Estimation; Inference; RNA Seq
Online: 13 April 2021 (10:52:26 CEST)
Lysine is the first limiting essential amino acid in rice because it is present in the lowest quantity compared to all the other amino acids. Amino acids are the building block of proteins and play an essential role in maintaining the human body’s healthy functioning. Rice is a staple food for large proportion of the global population, thus increasing the lysine content in rice will improve its nutritional value. In this paper, we studied the lysine biosynthesis pathway in rice (Oryza Sativa) to identify the regulators of the lysine reporter gene LYSA (LOC_Os02g24354). Genetically intervening at the regulators has the potential to increase the overall lysine content in rice. We modeled the lysine biosynthesis pathway in rice seedlings under normal and saline (NaCl) stress conditions using Bayesian networks. We estimated the model parameters using experimental data and identified the gene DAPF(LOC_Os12g37960) as a positive regulator of the lysine reporter gene LYSA under both normal and saline stress conditions. Based on this analysis, we conclude that the gene DAPF is a potent candidate for genetic intervention. Upregulating DAPF using methods such as CRISPR-Cas9 has the potential to upregulate the lysine reporter gene LYSA and increase the overall lysine content in rice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0244.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: Stress; epigenetics; senescence; cognition; age-related cognitive decline; Alzheimer’s disease; SAMP8; SAMR1; oxidative stress; inflammation; autophagy
Online: 21 January 2020 (11:44:35 CET)
Cognitive and behavioural disturbances are growing public healthcare issue for the modern society, as stressful lifestyle is becoming more and more common. Besides, several pieces of evidence state that environment is crucial in the development of several diseases as well as compromising healthy aging. Therefore, it is important to study the effects of stress on cognition and its relationship with aging. To address these queries, Chronic Mild Stress (CMS) paradigm was used in the senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) and resistant 1 (SAMR1). On one hand, we determined the changes produced in the three main epigenetic marks after 4 weeks of CMS treatment, such as a reduction in histone posttranslational modifications and DNA methylation, and up-regulation or down-regulation of several miRNA involved in different cellular processes in mice. In addition, CMS treatment induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and loss of antioxidant defence mechanisms, as well as inflammatory signalling activation through NF-κB pathway and astrogliosis markers, like Gfap. Remarkably, CMS altered mTORC1 signalling in both strains, decreasing autophagy only in SAMR1 mice. We found a decrease in glycogen synthase kinase 3 β (GSK-3β) inactivation, hyperphosphorylation of Tau and an increase in sAPPβ protein levels in mice under CMS. Moreover, reduction in the non-amyloidogenic secretase ADAM10 protein levels was found in SAMR1 CMS group. Consequently, detrimental effects on behaviour and cognitive performance were detected in CMS treated mice, affecting mainly SAMR1 mice, promoting a turning to SAMP8 phenotype. In conclusion, CMS is a feasible intervention to understand the influence of stress on epigenetic mechanisms underlying cognition and accelerating senescence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0180.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: oxidative stress; nitrosative stress; immune response; inflammation; antioxidants; LPS
Online: 10 May 2021 (11:43:52 CEST)
An immune-inflammatory response is accompanied by increased nitro-oxidative stress. The aims of this mechanistic review are to review: a) the role of redox sensitive transcription factors and enzymes, ROS/RNS production and the activity of cellular antioxidants on the activation and performance of macrophages, dendritic cells, neutrophils, T cells, B cells and natural killer cells; b) the involvement of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), apolipoprotein (Apo)A1, paraoxonase (PON)-1, and oxidized phospholipids in the regulation of the immune response; and c) the detrimental effects of hypernitrosylation and chronic nitro-oxidative stress on the immune response. The redox changes during immune-inflammatory responses are orchestrated by the actions of nuclear factor (NF)-κB, HIF1alpha, the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTor), the phosphatidylinositol 3‑kinase (PI3K) / protein kinase B (AKT) signalling pathway, mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR). The performance and survival of individual immune cells is under redox control and sensitive to intracellular and extracellular levels of ROS/RNS and is heavily influenced by cellular anti-oxidants including the glutathione and thioredoxin systems, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2), and the HDL complex. Chronic nitro-oxidative stress and hypernitrosylation inhibit the activity of those antioxidant systems, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, mitochondrial functions, and the metabolism of immune cells. In conclusion, those redox-associated mechanisms modulate metabolic reprogramming of immune cells, macrophage and T helper cell polarization, phagocytosis, production of pro- versus anti-inflammatory cytokines, immune training and tolerance, chemotaxis, pathogen sensing, antiviral and antibacterial effects, Toll-like receptor activity, and endotoxin tolerance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0358.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: abiotic stress; oxidative stress; salinity; nutrient deficiency; osmolytes; methylglyoxal
Online: 28 November 2019 (09:49:35 CET)
This study was undertaken to elucidate the role of trehalose (Tre) in mitigating oxidative stress under salinity and low P in maize. Eight-day-old maize seedlings of two maize varieties, BARI Hybrid Maize-7 and BARI Hybrid Maize-9 were subjected to salinity (150 mM NaCl), low P (5 µM KH2PO4) and their combined stress with or without 10 mM Tre for 15-d.Salinity and combined stress significantly inhibited the shoot length, root length, and root volume, whereas, low P increased the root length and volume in both genotypes. Exogenous Tre in the stress treatments increased all of the growth parameters as well as decreased the salinity, low P and combined stress-mediated Na+/K+, ROS, MDA, LOX activity and MG in both genotypes. Under salinity and low P stress, the SOD activity increased in both genotypes, but the activity decreased in combined stress. POD activity increased in all stress treatments. Interestingly, Tre application enhanced the SOD activity in all the stress treatments but inhibited the POD activity. Both CAT and GPX activity were increased by saline and low P stress while the activities inhibited in combined stress. Similar results were found for APX, GR, and DHAR activities in both genotypes. However, MDHAR activity was inhibited in all the stresses. Interestingly, Tre enhanced CAT APX, GPX, GR, MDHAR and DHAR activities suggesting the amelioration of ROS scavenging in maize under all the stresses. Increased GST activity in presence or absence of Tre might involve in detoxification of hydroperoxides as well as leaf senescence. On the other hand, increased glyoxalase activities in saline and low P stress in BHM-9 suggested better MG detoxification system because of down-regulation of Gly-I activity in BHM-7 in those stresses. Tre also increased the glyoxalase activities in both genotypes under all the stresses. Tre improved the growth in maize seedlings by decreasing Na+/K+, ROS, MDA, and MG through regulating antioxidant and glyoxalase systems.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0302.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: stroke; liposome; cerebrovascular disease; oxidative stress; dementia
Online: 13 August 2021 (15:37:59 CEST)
Neuroprotective strategies for stroke remain inadequate. Nanoliposomes comprised of phos-phatidylcholine, cholesterol and monosialogangliosides (NL) induced an antioxidant protective response in endothelial cells exposed to amyloid insults. We tested the hypotheses that NL will preserve SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell viability following hypoxic injury and will reduce injury in mice following middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Neuroblastoma were exposed to 20-hour physoxic (5% oxygen) or hypoxic (1% oxygen) condition without or with NL (100 or 300 µg/mL). Viability was measured using calcein-AM fluorescence and SH-SY5Y gene expression of antioxidant proteins heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1 (NQO1) and superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) were measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. C57BL/6J mice were treated with saline (N=8) or NL (10000 ug/mL, N=7) while undergoing 60-minute MCAO followed by reperfusion. Day 2 post-injury neurologic impairment score and infarction size were compared. Neuroblastoma showed reduced viability following hypoxia that was reversed by NL. NL increased gene expression of HO-1, NQO1 and SOD1 versus controls. NL-treated mice showed reduced neurologic impairment and brain infarct size (18.8±2% versus 27.3±2.3%, p=0.017) versus controls. NL reduced stroke injury in mice subjected to MCAO likely through induction of an antioxidant stress response. NL is a candidate novel agent for stroke.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0222.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: astaxanthin; muscle atrophy; mitochondria; oxidative stress
Online: 17 June 2020 (13:29:15 CEST)
Astaxanthin (AX) is a carotenoid that exerts potent antioxidant activity and acts in the lipid bilayer. This study aimed to investigate the effects of AX on muscle atrophy-mediated disturbance of mitochondria that have a lipid bilayer. Tail suspension was used to establish muscle- atrophied mouse models. AX diet fed to tail-suspension mice prevented loss of muscle weight and decreased myofiber size in the soleus muscle. Additionally, AX improved down-regulation of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes II and III in the soleus muscle after tail suspension. To confirm the AX phenotype in the soleus muscle, we examined its effects on mitochondria using Sol8 myotubes derived from the soleus muscle. We found that AX was preferentially detected in the mitochondrial fraction; it significantly suppressed mitochondrial complex III-driven production of reactive oxygen species in Sol8 myotubes. Moreover, AX inhibited the activation of caspase 3 via inhibiting the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol in antimycin A-treated Sol8 myotubes. These results suggested that AX inhibited mitochondrial oxidative stress through a mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway and thus prevented muscle atrophy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0311.v1
Online: 13 July 2021 (15:11:54 CEST)
The SnRK gene family is a key regulator playing an important role in plant stress response by phosphorylating the target protein to regulate the signalling pathways. The function of SnRK gene family has been reported in many species but is limited to Triticum asetivum. In this study, SnRK gene family in the wheat genome was identified and its structural characteristics were described. One hundred forty-seven SnRK genes distributed across 21 chromosomes were identified in the Triticum aestivum genome and categorised into three subgroups (SnRK1/2/3) based on phylogenetic analyses and domain types. The gene intron-exon structure and protein-motif composition of SnRKs were similar within each subgroup but different amongst the groups. Gene duplication between the wheat, Arabidopsis, rice and barley genomes was also investigated in order to get insight into the evolutionary aspects of the TaSnRK family genes. SnRK genes showed differential expression patterns in leaves, roots, spike, and grains. Redundant stress-related cis-elements were also found in the promoters of 129 SnRK genes and their expression levels varied widely following drought, ABA and light regulated elements. In particular, TaSnRK2.11 had higher and increased expression under the abiotic stresses and can be a candidate gene for the abiotc stress tolerance. The findings will aid in the functional characterization of TaSnRK genes for further research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0075.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: pediatric oncology; cancer; social worker; burn out; stress
Online: 26 July 2017 (08:41:09 CEST)
As professionals, social workers have a special position in relation to considering the needs of children with cancer and their families. Hence, it is important to recognize the experiences and challenges of social workers to improve care of their clients. This study was a qualitative content analysis that aimed to determine a comprehensive understanding of 19 pediatric oncology social workers’ experiences in Iran. Data were collected using semi structured interviews and field observations, analyzed through face content analysis. Concepts extracted from social workers’ experiences consisted of the nature of oncology work, lack of professional competence, low organizational support and professional inferiority that were related to main concept of "exhausting and stressful service". The results indicated that social workers' involvement in stressful and emotionally demanding situations and professional and organizational challenges caused personal exhaustion. In addition to explaining the social workers’ experiences and related factors, the results emphasize the importance of taking care of service providers to prevent them becoming stressed and exhausted. It is also important to protect patients from the consequences of stressed and exhausted care providers so further research is recommended to develop specific intervention.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0051.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: melatonin; ROS; NO; posttranslational modifications (PMTs); abiotic stress; drought; salinity; high temperature; high light; waterlogging; abiotic stress combination
Online: 5 October 2020 (07:48:29 CEST)
Abiotic stress in plants is an increasingly common problem in agriculture, and thus, studies on plant treatments with specific certain compounds that may help to mitigate these effects have increased in recent years Melatonin (MET) application and its role in mitigating the negative effects of abiotic stress in plants have become important in the last few years. MET, a derivative of tryptophan, is an important plant-related response molecule involved in the growth, development, and reproduction of plants, and the induction of different stress factors. In addition, MET plays a protective role against different abiotic stresses such as salinity, high/low temperature, high light, waterlogging, nutrient deficiency and stress combination by regulating both the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defense systems. Also, MET interacts with many signaling molecules, among these, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO), and participates in a wide variety of physiological reactions. It is well known that NO produces S-nitrosylation and NO2-Tyr of important antioxidant-related proteins, being this an important mechanism for maintaining the antioxidant capacity of the AsA/GSH cycle under nitro-oxidative conditions, being extensively reviewed here under different abiotic stress conditions. Lastly, in this review, we show the coordination between NO and MET as a long-range signaling molecule, regulating many responses in plants, including plant growth and abiotic stress tolerance. Despite all the knowledge acquired over the years, there is still more to know about how MET and NO act on tolerance to abiotic stresses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0003.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: Scatterometer; wind stress; surface currents; Indian Ocean
Online: 31 December 2021 (14:50:47 CET)
This study examines the effect of surface currents on the bulk algorithm calculation of wind stress estimated using the scatterometer data during 2007-2020 in the Indian Ocean. In the study region as a whole the wind stress decreased by 5.4% by including currents into the wind stress equation. The most significant reduction in the wind stress is found along the most energetic regions with strong currents such as Somali Current, Equatorial Jets and Aghulhas retroflection. A highest reduction of 11.5% is observed along the equator where the Equatorial Jets prevail. A sensitivity analysis has been carried out for the study region and for different seasons to assess the relative impact of winds and currents in the estimation of wind stress by changing the winds while keeping the currents constants and vice versa. The inclusion of currents decreased the wind stress and this decrease is prominent when the currents are stronger. This study showed that equatorial Indian Ocean is the most sensitive region where the current can impact on wind stress estimation. The results showed that uncertainties in the wind stress estimations are quite large at regional levels and hence better representation of wind stress incorporating ocean currents should be considered in the ocean/climatic models for accurate air-sea interaction studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0042.v1
Online: 2 July 2021 (09:05:08 CEST)
Introduction:In this study we evaluated the connivance of oxidative and antioxidative parameters in the pathogenesis of spinal cord injury (SCI). Although the etiology and pathogenesis of SCI remain to be fully understood, it has been suggested that reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress may play a significant role in the pathophysiology of SCI. Furthermore, there is little information available in scientific literature about oxidative and antioxidative parameters in SCI patients. Methods:Oxidative stress was determined by measuring the levels of Lipid Peroxides (LPO) and Protein carbonyl in plasma and antioxidative parameters like Glutathione Reductase (GR), catalase and Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in lysate in 40 SCI patients and 40 healthy subjects without SCI. However, pain was measured by McGill pain questionnaire. Results: Concentrations of catalase (p<0.01), GR (p<0.01) and GPx (p<0.01) were significantly lower in patients with SCI than in controls, and levels of oxidative stress parameters, LPO (p<0.01), Protein carbonyl (p<0.01) were significantly higher in patients than in controls. A significant positive correlation was found between LPO and pain score among SCI patients group. Furthermore, a significant positive correlation was also found between Protein carbonyl and pain score among SCI patients group than in control group. Conclusion: The present results indicate that SCI patients are exposed to oxidative stress and this escalated oxidative stress may play a role in the etiopathogenesis of the disease. Moreover, our results also show that increased oxidative stress parameters are more strongly amalgamated with pain in SCI patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0550.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Metals; Isoprostane; Biomarkers; Oxidative stress; Puerto Rico.
Online: 22 December 2020 (10:33:04 CET)
Metal exposure has been associated with a wide range of adverse birth outcomes and oxidative stress is a leading hypothesis of the mechanism of action of metal toxicity. We assessed the relationship between maternal exposure to essential and non-essential metals and metalloids in pregnancy and oxidative stress markers, and sought to identify windows of vulnerability and effect modification by fetal sex. In our analysis of 215 women from the PROTECT birth cohort study, we measured 14 essential and non-essential metals in urine samples at three time points during pregnancy. The oxidative stress marker 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α) and its metabolite 2,3-dinor-5,6-dihydro-15-15-F2t-IsoP, as well as prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α), were also measured in the same urine samples. Using linear mixed models, we examined the main effects of metals on markers of oxidative stress as well as the visit-specific and fetal sex-specific effects. After adjustment for covariates, we found that a few urinary metal concentrations, most notably cesium (Cs) and copper (Cu), were associated with higher 8-iso-PGF2α with effect estimates ranging from 7.3 to 14.9 % for each interquartile range, increase in the metal concentration. The effect estimates were generally in the same direction at the three visits and a few were significant only among women carrying a male fetus. Our data show that higher urinary metal concentrations were associated with elevated biomarkers of oxidative stress. Our results also indicate a potential vulnerability of women carrying a male fetus.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0472.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: vitamin D; oxidative stress; kidney disease, disparities
Online: 22 October 2018 (05:42:44 CEST)
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major non-communicable disease associated with high rates of premature morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of hypovitaminosis D (deficiency of 25(OH)D or 25D) is greater in racial/ethnic minorities and in patients with CKD than the general population. Low 25D is associated with bone and mineral disorders as well as immune, cardiometabolic and cardiovascular (CV) diseases. Thus, it has been suggested low 25D contributes to the poor outcomes in patients with CKD. The prevalence of hypovitaminosis D rises progressively with advancing severity of kidney disease with over 30% of patients with CKD stage 3 and 70% patients with CKD stage 5 estimated to have low levels of 25D. This report describes several of the abnormal physiologic and counter-regulatory actions related to low 25D in CKD such as those in oxidative stress and inflammatory systems, and some of the preclinical and clinical evidence or lack of thereof of normalizing serum 25D levels to improve outcomes in patients with CKD, and especially for the high risk subset of racial/ethnic minorities who suffer from higher rates of advanced CKD and hypovitaminosis D.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0059.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: Oxidative stress, MFN2, mitochondria, fusion/fission
Online: 9 September 2019 (11:46:36 CEST)
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease is a hereditary polyneuropathy caused by mutations in Mitofusin-2 (MFN2), a GTPase in the outer mitochondrial membrane involved in the regulation of mitochondrial fusion and bioenergetics. Autosomal-dominant inheritance of a R94Q mutation in MFN2 causes the axonal subtype 2A2A which is characterized by early onset and progressive atrophy of distal muscles caused by motoneuronal degeneration. Here, we studied mitochondrial shape, respiration, cytosolic and mitochondrial ATP content as well as mitochondrial quality control in MFN2-deficient fibroblasts stably expressing wildtype or R94Q MFN2. Under normal culture conditions, R94Q cells had slightly more fragmented mitochondria but a similar mitochondrial oxygen consumption, membrane potential and ATP production as wildtype cells. However, when inducing mild oxidative stress 24 h before analysis using 100 µM hydrogen peroxide, R94Q cells exhibited significantly increased respiration but decreased mitochondrial ATP production. This was accompanied by increased glucose uptake and an upregulation of hexokinase 1 and pyruvate kinase M2 suggesting increased pyruvate shuttling into mitochondria. As these changes coincided with decreased levels of PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy in R94Q cells, we conclude that the disease-causing R94Q mutation in MFN2 causes uncoupling of mitochondrial respiration from ATP production by a less efficient mitochondrial quality control triggered by oxidative stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0274.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: chrysoeriol; embryo development; porcine; oxidative stress; autophagy
Online: 16 January 2023 (07:54:26 CET)
Chrysoeriol (CHE) is a flavonoid substance that exists in many plants and has various physiological and pharmacological effects, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-tumor, and protective activity, especially for the cardiovascular system and liver. This study aimed to analyze the results and possible mechanisms of CHE on early porcine embryo development. Adding CHE to the culture media can improve the development quality of early porcine embryos. CHE significantly increased the blastocyst rate and total cell number of embryos in vitro. The apoptosis of blastocyst in CHE-treated culture also decreased significantly compared with untreated culture. Furthermore, CHE downregulated intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased glutathione (GSH) in embryos. CHE was also shown to improve the activity of mitochondria and inhibit the occurrence of autophagy. In addition, antioxidant-related genes (SOD1, SOD2, and CAT) and cell pluripotency-related genes (SOX2, OCT4, and NANOG) were upregulated, while those related to apoptosis (Caspase 3) and autophagy (LC3B) showed a downward trend after supplementation with CHE. These results indicated that CHE improved the development of porcine embryos in vitro by reducing oxidative stress and autophagy levels.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0044.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: drill; gorilla; mandrill; nonhuman primates; papio; stress
Online: 3 June 2022 (10:22:01 CEST)
The aim of this study was to compare left and right osseous orbit forms in two different Catarrhini primate genera using geometric morphometric techniques. The analysis was carried out on 20 well-preserved skulls from gorilla (Gorilla gorilla, n=10) and papios (drill [Mandrillus leucophaeus, n=3] and mandrill [M. sphinx, n=7]) from animals kept in zoo, which were photographed in their frontal norm. A set of 4 sagittal landmarks on the face and 23 semilandmarks on each orbita contour were used. According to results, right and left orbitas were similar in size but not in shape, appearing to be significative for individual-by-side interaction (fluctuating asymmetry). It is supposed this due to a developmental instability due to captivity life. Fluctuating asymmetry was clearly higher among gorillas, seeming logical that hominoidea primates suffering in captivity is higher than among cercopithecids (papios and mandrills). Side directional differences were significative only for papios. We supposed it to be due to a stronger stroke of lateralized mastication as, compared to gorillas, mandibles in papios are longer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0014.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: delirium; inflammation; neuro-immune; biomarkers; oxidative stress
Online: 4 January 2021 (11:26:34 CET)
Background: Post-operative delirium in elderly with hip fracture is associated with various adverse clinical outcomes. Nevertheless, the pathophysiological processes underpinning delirium have remained elusive. The aim of this study is to explore the associations between delirium and its features and immune-inflammatory and blood gas biomarkers.Methods: In this prospective study we examined 65 patients who underwent a hip fracture surgery and assessed the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU), Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale (RASS), and Delirium Rating Scale Revised-98 (DRS-R-98) before and during 4 days after the surgery. Complete Blood Count (CBC) and venous blood gas markers were obtained at the same time points.Results: Delirium was observed in 19 patients and was accompanied by significantly increased pO2, number of white blood cells, neutrophil percentage, and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, and lower mean platelet volume (MPV) (after adjusting for age, central nervous system (CNS) disease, blood loss during surgery, sleep disorders, and body mass index. The severity of delirium was associated with lowered number of platelets and MPV. Psychomotor disorders were associated with lower bicarbonate levels. The requirement of physical restraint of the patients was predicted by increased percentages of neutrophils and lymphocytes. Prior CNS disease was together with these biomarkers a significant predictor of delirium and severity of delirium. Conclusion: Delirium and psychomotor disorders following hip fracture and surgery may be caused by immune-inflammatory and oxidative stress pathways probably attributable to an aseptic inflammatory process. Oxygen administration may aggravate these pathways.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0154.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: antioxidant enzymes; freshwater fish; oxidative stress; PFAS; Veneto region
Online: 12 May 2022 (02:47:28 CEST)
In recent decades, the interest in PFAS has grown exponentially around the world, due to the toxic effects induced by these chemical compounds in humans, as well as in other animals and in plants. However, current knowledge related to the antistress responses that organisms can express when exposed to these substances is still insufficient and therefore it requires further investigation. The present study focuses on antioxidant responses in Squalius cephalus and Padogobius bonelli, exposed to significant levels of PFAS in an area of the Veneto region subjected to a recent relevant pollution case. These two ubiquitous freshwater species were sampled in three rivers characterized by different concentrations of PFAS. Several biomarkers of oxidative stress have been evaluated and the results suggest that PFAS chronic exposure induces some physiological responses in the target species, at both cellular and tissue scales. The risk of oxidative stress seems to be kept under control by the antioxidant system by means of gene activation at the mitochondrial level. Moreover, the histological analysis suggests an interesting protective mechanism against damage to the protein component based on lipid vacuolization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0449.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: redox system; cryptococcal meningitis; oxidative stress; ergosterol; resistance
Online: 23 December 2022 (07:56:36 CET)
Cryptococcus neoformans threaten the health, causing cryptococcal meningitis and pneumonia, especially in immunosuppressed patients, which can be fatal. Recently, our research group evaluated and studied the mechanisms of action of four synthetic peptides (SP) against C. neoformans. Here, in silico and in vitro analyses help deepen understanding of peptides' mechanisms of action. The interaction of the peptides with a membrane receptor was analyzed by docking analysis, in addition to ROS overproduction and the modulation of redox metabolism, inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis, and release of cytochrome c. Out of four, three peptides interacted with membrane receptor PHO36 altering its structure and function and leading to a higher accumulation of O₂- and H2O2. C. neoformans cells treated with SP presented a reduction in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, corroborating ROS accumulation. However, in the presence of the antioxidant ascorbic acid, some peptides could not induce this oxidative stress and have the activity against C. neoformans affected. Curiously, two of these SPs still maintained the activity against C. neoformans and even induced the membrane pore formation as revealed by propidium iodide uptake assay, revealing their mechanism of action is ROS-independent. Additionally, SPs inhibited the biosynthesis of ergosterol, which corroborates the pore formation on the membrane of C. neoformans cells, inhibited the lactate dehydrogenase activity affecting the cell metabolism, and induced the release of Cyt c from the mitochondria inducing death by apoptosis in the cryptococcal cells. Our findings strongly suggest that SPs act by multiple mechanisms, making it difficult for C. neoformans to acquire resistance highlighting the potential of SPs as alternative molecules in treating infections caused by C. neoformans.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0094.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: Sparus aurata; social stress; hierarchy; cortisol; phagocytosis
Online: 4 November 2021 (08:44:54 CET)
Abstract: Social stress can affect the ability of the fish to respond to various stressors, such as pathogens or environmental variations. In this paper, the effects of social stress on gilt-head bream (Sparus aurata) were investigated. To study the effects of physiological stress, we evaluated biochemical and cellular parameters as cortisol, glucose, lactate, osmolarity and phagocytosis 24 hours after the establishment of social hierarchy. Social hierarchy was determined and characterised by behavioural observation (aggressive acts and feeding order) of the specimens (dominant “α”, subordinate “β” and “γ”). After the establishment of the social hierarchy, we observed that the levels of plasma cortisol and other biochemical stress markers (glucose and lactate) were higher in subordinate individuals than in dominant ones. In addition, the modulation of phagocytic activity of the peritoneal cavity cells (PEC) demonstrated that social stress appeared to affect the immune response. At last, principal component analysis clearly separated the subordinate fish groups from the dominant groups based on stress markers and phagocytic activity of the peritoneal exudates cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0434.v1
Online: 19 July 2020 (20:24:54 CEST)
This article shows the alternative learning methodology to stimulate the holistic side of students’ minds to achieve the increment of the innovation skill, managing the creative competencies and level of stress. The present research study is pre-experimental research designed with prior and posterior measurement, longitudinal, explanatory, and co-relational, with the main objective to demonstrate the effect of the holistic innovation coefficient of the beneficiaries of the program “Impulsa Peru”. Program Results: It has been concluded that the experimental group is significant over the control group. Therefore, the holistic innovation methodology had an impact on the experimental group. Conclusions: Hypothesis 1 is fulfilled in which it is affirmed that the holistic innovation methodology has a positive impact on the level of coefficient of holistic innovation of the student mentors of the women recyclers of the program Impulsa Peru with a significance level of 0.05%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0526.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: hyperglycemia; dyslipidemia; oxidative stress; Gymnema Sylvestre
Online: 28 December 2022 (03:31:07 CET)
The effect of Gymnema Sylvestre supplementation on beta cell and hepatic activity was explored in an alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rat model. Adult rats were made hyperglycemic via a single inj. (i.p) of Alloxan (120mg/kg b.w). Gymnema Sylvestre was supplemented @250mg/kg and 500mg/kg b.w. Blood glucose levels were constantly monitored. After 21 days, rats were euthanized, and blood and tissues (pancreas and liver) were collected for biochemical, expression, and histological analysis. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the means of different treatment groups. Gymnema Sylvestre significantly reduced blood glucose levels with a subsequent increase in plasma insulin levels in a dosage-dependent manner. Total oxidant status (TOS), malondialdehyde, LDL, VLDL, ALT, AST, triglyceride, total cholesterol, total protein, C-reactive protein, and cortisol levels were reduced significantly in alloxan-treated hyperglycemic rats supplemented with Gymnema Sylvestre as compared to control. Significantly raised paraoxonase, arylesterase, albumin, and HDL levels were also observed in Gymnema Sylvestre supplemented hyperglycemic rats. Increased mRNA expression of Ins-1, Ins-2, Gck, Pdx1, Mafa, and Pax6 were observed, while decreased expression of Cat, Sod1, Nrf2, and NF-kB was observed in the pancreas. Whereas increased mRNA expression of Gck, Irs1, SREBP1c, and Foxk1 and decreased expression of Irs2, ChREBP, Foxo1, and FoxA2 were observed in the liver. The current study indicates the potent effect of Gymnema Sylvestre on the transcription modulation of the insulin gene in the alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rat model. Enhanced plasma insulin levels further help to improve hyperglycemia-induced dyslipidemia through transcriptional modulation of hepatocytes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0136.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: CDAHFD; NASH; Mitochondrial dysfunction; Liver; Oxidative stress
Online: 7 May 2021 (09:47:44 CEST)
The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been rapidly increasing worldwide. A choline-deficient L-amino acid-defined high fat diet (CDHFD) has been used to create a mouse model of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). There are some reports about the effects on mice of being fed CDAHFD for a long time, 1 to 3 months. However, the effect of this diet over a short period has been unknown. Therefore, we examined the effect of one week of feeding CDAHFD on the mouse liver. Feeding this diet for only one week induced lipid droplet deposition in the liver with increasing activity of liver-derived enzymes in the plasma. On the other hand, it did not induce fibrosis and cirrhosis. Additionally, it was demonstrated that mitochondrial respiration is significantly impaired with severe oxidative stress in the liver by CDAHFD, associated with a decreasing mitochondrial DNA copy number and complexes-proteins. In the gene expression analysis of the liver, inflammatory and oxidative stress markers were significantly increased by CDAHFD. These results demonstrated that one week of feeding CDAHFD to mice induces steatohepatitis with mitochondrial dysfunction and severe oxidative stress, without fibrosis, which can partially mimic the early stage of the NASH in humans.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0184.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: colorectal cancer cells; metformin; apoptosis; oxidative stress
Online: 21 March 2018 (03:30:49 CET)
Accumulating evidence suggests that metformin, used as an antidiabetic drug, possesses anticancer properties. Metformin reduced the incidence and growth of experimental tumors in vivo. In a randomized clinical trial among nondiabetic patients, metformin treatment significantly decreased the number of aberrant crypt foci compared to the untreated group with a follow-up of 1 month. In our study, HT29 cells were treated with graded concentrations of metformin, 10 mM/25 mM/50 mM, for 24/48 hours. We performed immunofluorescence experiments by means of confocal microscopy and Western blot analysis to evaluate a panel of factors involved in apoptotic/autophagic processes and oxidative stress response. Moreover, HT29 cells treated with metformin were analyzed by flow cytometry assay to detect the cell apoptosis rate. The results demonstrate that metformin exerts growth inhibitory effects on cultured HT29 cells by increasing both apoptosis and autophagy; moreover, it affects the survival of cultured cells inhibiting the transcriptional activation of nuclear factor E2–related factor 2 (NRF-2) and nuclear factor–kappa B (NF-κB). The effects of metformin on HT29 cells were dose- and time-dependent. These results are very intriguing, since metformin is emerging as a multifaceted drug: it has a good safety profile and is associated with low cost, and it might be a promising candidate for the prevention or treatment of colorectal cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0309.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: ubiquitin; E3 ligase; chloroplast; stress; photosynthesis; homeostasis; enzymes
Online: 21 July 2022 (03:20:20 CEST)
Chloroplasts are ancient organelles responsible for photosynthesis and various biosynthetic functions essential to most life on Earth. Many of these functions require tightly controlled regulatory processes to maintain homeostasis at the protein level. One such regulatory mechanism is the ubiquitin-proteasome system whose fundamental role is increasingly emerging in chloroplasts. In particular, the role of E3 ubiquitin ligases as determinants in the ubiquitination and degradation of specific intra-chloroplast proteins. Here, we highlight recent advances in understanding the roles of plant E3 ubiquitin ligases in chloroplast function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0300.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: Nrf2; Oxidative stress; Antioxidants; Pentylenetetrazol; Epilepsy; Seizure
Online: 20 October 2022 (08:29:58 CEST)
The modulation of Nrf2 activity has been reported to be implicated in the pathology of various neurological disorders, including epilepsy. Previous studies have demonstrated that Nrf2 is activated in the post-status epilepticus rat model, however, the spatio-temporal, as well as cell type-specific expression of Nrf2 following brief epileptic seizures remains unclear. Here, we evaluated how an acute epileptic seizure affected the expression of Nrf2 and its downstream genes in the cortex and the hippocampus up to 1-week following the induced seizure. We found that after a pentylenetetrazol-induced seizure, Nrf2 significantly increased at 24 h at the mRNA level and 3 to 6 h at the protein level in the cortex. In the hippocampus, the Nrf2 mRNA level peaked at 3 h after the seizure, and no significant changes were observed in the protein level. Interestingly, the mRNA level of Nrf2 downstream genes peaked at 3-6 h after seizure in both the cortex and the hippocampus. A significant increase in the expression of Nrf2 was observed in the neuronal population of CA1 and CA3 regions of the hippocampus, as well as in the cortex. Moreover, we observed no change in the co-localization of Nrf2 with astrocytes neither in the cortex nor in CA1 and CA3. Our results revealed that following a brief acute epileptic seizure, the expression of Nrf2 and its downstream genes is transiently increased and peaked at early timepoints after seizure predominantly in the hippocampus, and this expression is restricted to the neuronal population.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: ER stress; GPCR; EMT; cancer progression; migration; cancer
Online: 8 October 2020 (13:06:04 CEST)
The majority of cellular responses to external stimuli are mediated by receptors such as G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and systems including endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress). Since GPCR signalling is pivotal in numerous malignancies, they are widely targeted by a number of clinical drugs. Cancer cells often negatively modulate GPCRs in order to survive, proliferate and to disseminate. Similarly, numerous branches of the unfolded protein response (UPR) act as pro-survival mediators and are involved in promoting cancer progression via mechanisms such as epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, there are a few proteins among these groups which impede deleterious effects by orchestrating the pro-apoptotic phenomenon and paving a therapeutic pathway. The present review exposes and discusses such critical mechanisms and some of the key processes involved in carcinogenesis.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0407.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: Hair; HPA-axis; Koalas; Rehabilitation Sanctuary; Stress; Faeces; Glucocorticoids
Online: 20 August 2021 (08:52:07 CEST)
Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) are one of Australia's most charismatic native small marsupial species. Unfortunately, populations of koalas are rapidly declining throughout Australia and they continue to face increasing pressure from a changing ecosystem. Negative stimulants in the environment can elicit stress responses through activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Depending on the duration of the negative stimulant, the stress response can lead to either acute or chronic side effects, and is shown through the activation of the neuroendocrine stress system and the release of glucocorticoids (e.g., cortisol). Wild koalas entering clinical care face novel stressors that can be out of a wildlife carer's control. In this pilot study, we monitored physiological stress in three wild koalas at a wildlife rehabilitation centre in New South Wales, Australia. Acute and chronic stress was indexed non-invasively, with faecal samples taken to evaluate acute stress, and fur samples taken to evaluate chronic stress. Sampling occurred sporadically over four months, from the start of September 2018 to the end of December 2018. Results attempt to understand the stress response of koalas to negative stimulants in the environment by comparing faecal glucocorticoids on days where a known stressor was recorded with days where no known stressor was recorded. Furthermore, variations in faecal and fur glucocorticoids were compared between the three koalas in this study. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of stress tracking of wild rescued koalas in a sanctuary. We suggest that further monitoring of baseline, acute and chronic stress will be needed to better understand how koalas respond to negative stimulants associated with clinical care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0156.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Mindfulness; Autism Spectrum Disorders; Parental Stress; Parent Anxiety
Online: 4 March 2021 (12:26:04 CET)
This study aims to develop a clinical trial to test the efficacy of a Mindfulness Based Stress Re-duction (MBSR) and Self Compassion (SC) Program on self-reported values of anxiety, depres-sion, and stress in parents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in primary school, in order to assess their integration into the framework of community intervention programs in Spain. Methods: A brief 8-week training program using Mindfulness based intervention (MBSR) and self-compassion (SC) has been applied to ten parents from the Valencian ASD parents’. Partici-pants were assigned to two groups, both groups received the same treatment but at two different measurement moments. Depression, Anxiety, Stress, Satisfaction with Life and Mindful Atten-tion Awareness measurements were assessed, in all participants, in three testing moments. Results: Analysis of Variance results suggested that MBSR and SC training reduces stress and anxiety and increases Mindful Attention Awareness. No significant changes were found in Life Satisfaction measurements. Conclusions: The small number of participants prevents us from generalising the results found. More MBSR and SC clinical trials are needed in parents of ASD with results on anxiety, depression and stress in order to demonstrate the relevance of the inclusion of these programmes in community-based early intervention services.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0066.v1
Online: 5 September 2022 (13:44:44 CEST)
Silicon is an essential trace nutrient for plant growth and is frequently employed to remediate soils contaminated with heavy metals in agriculture. However, silicon’s role and mechanism in reducing heavy metal toxicity have not been well understood, especially for multi-heavy metals. In this study, the effects of silicon-rich materials (silicate, rice husk biochar (RHB), and bentonite) on growth trait, antioxidant response, and heavy metal accumulation and distribution of wheat grown in two soils polluted by multiple heavy metals (Cd, Zn, Pb, and As) were investigated. The results revealed that the addition of silicon-rich materials enhanced plant growth, improved the photosynthetic attributes in leaf tissues, and decreased the contents of Cd, Zn, Pb, and As in wheat shoots and grains. The examination of the subcellular distribution of heavy metals in plants implied that silicon-rich materials transferred heavy metals as intracellular soluble fractions to the cell walls, indicating the reduction of mobility and toxicity of heavy metals in the plants. In addition, the application of the silicon-rich materials reduced oxidative damage in plants by downregulating plant antioxidant response systems and decreasing the production of malondialdehyde (MDA), ascorbic acid (AsA), and glutathione (GSH). Moreover, fractionation analysis of soil heavy metals showed that silicon-rich amendments could convert bioavailable heavy metals into immobilized forms. The results indicated that silicon-rich materials could remediate multi-heavy metal-polluted soils and promote wheat production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0485.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: Arsenic; global warming; invertebrates; behavior; oxidative stress
Online: 29 August 2022 (10:43:42 CEST)
Contamination with Arsenic, a toxic metalloid, is increasing in the marine environment. Additionally, global warming can alter metalloids toxicity. Polychaetes are key species in marine environments. By mobilizing sediments, they play vital roles in nutrient and element (including contaminants) cycles. Most studies with marine invertebrates focused on the effects of metalloids on either adults or larvae. Here we bring information on the effects of temperature increase and arsenic contamination on the polychaete Hediste diversicolor in different growth stages and water temperatures. Feeding activity and biochemical responses – neurotransmission, indicators of cell damage, antioxidant and biotransformation enzymes and metabolic capacity - were evaluated. Temperature rise combined with As imposed alterations on feeding activity and biochemical endpoints at different growth stages. Small organisms have their antioxidant enzymes increased, avoiding lipid damage. However, larger organisms are the most affected class due to inhibition of superoxide dismutase, which resulted in protein damage. Oxidative damage was observed on smaller and larger organisms exposed to As and 21 °C, demonstrating higher sensibility to the combination of temperature rise and As. The observed alterations may have ecological consequences, affecting the cycle of nutrients, sediment oxygenation and the food chain that depend on the bioturbation of this polychaete.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0174.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: halophyte; rhizobacteria; PGPR; root inoculation; osmotic stress
Online: 14 March 2022 (06:53:44 CET)
Rhizosphere bacteria have a decisive influence on plant ionic adjustment, as well as in ameliorating plant growth under an array of stress situations. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) colonize the rhizosphere of plants and promote plant growth through mechanisms such as solubilization of mineral phosphates, biological N2 fixation, production of siderophores and phytohormones, and can induce systemic resistance in the plant. This can be of extreme importance when considering the restoration of salinized grounds by halophytic species. This present work aims to evaluate the physiological fitness and phytoprotection improvement by salt marsh PGPR in Halimione portulacoides under mild and severe salt stress. Plants inoculated with PGPR-consortium showed higher photochemical performances, improved antioxidant response, and promotion of osmotic balance traits, that boosted the individual’s ability to cope with mild salt stress. All these changes are also in line with the differential elemental profiles (Na, K, and Ca) observed in the different plant tissues. Even under severe salt stress, some physiological traits were improved when compared to the non-inoculated individuals. The results developed under this work, point out an important role of bioaugmentation in promoting plant fitness and improving salt tolerance, with a great potential for applications in seawater agriculture, restoration, and bio-reclamation of salinized soils.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0077.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Cuticular wax; dehydration; low temperature; freezing, stress avoidance; alkane
Online: 3 December 2020 (09:54:39 CET)
Cuticular waxes are a mixture of hydrophobic very-long-chain fatty acids and their derivatives accumulated in the plant cuticle. Most studies define the role of cuticular wax largely based on reducing non-stomatal water loss. The present study investigated the role of cuticular wax in reducing both low-temperature and dehydration stress in plants using Arabidopsis thaliana mutants and transgenic genotypes altered in the formation of cuticular wax. cer3-6, a known Arabidopsis wax-deficient mutant (with distinct reduction in aldehydes, n-alkanes, secondary n-alcohols, and ketones compared to wild type (WT)), was most sensitive to water loss; while dewax, a known wax overproducer (greater alkanes and ketones compared to WT), was more resistant to dehydration compared to WT. Furthermore, cold-acclimated cer3-6 froze at warmer temperatures, while cold-acclimated dewax displayed freezing exotherms at colder temperatures compared to WT. GC-MS analysis identified a characteristic decrease in the accumulation of certain waxes (e.g. alkanes, alcohols) in Arabidopsis cuticles under cold acclimation, which was additionally reduced in cer3-6. Conversely, the dewax mutant showed a greater ability to accumulate waxes under cold acclimation. FTIR spectroscopy also supported observations in cuticular wax deposition under cold acclimation. Our data indicate cuticular alkane waxes along with alcohols and fatty acids can facilitate avoidance of both ice formation and leaf water loss under dehydration stress, and are promising genetic targets of interest.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0330.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: fibrillin; cucumber; genome-wide; gene expression; high light stress
Online: 24 May 2018 (05:24:00 CEST)
Fibrillin (FBN) is a plastid lipid-associated protein found in photosynthetic organisms from cyanobacteria to plants. In this study, 10 CsaFBN genes were identified in genomic DNA sequences of cucumber (Chinese long and Gy14) through database searches using the conserved domain of FBN and the 14 FBN genes of Arabidopsis. Phylogenetic analysis of CsaFBN protein sequences showed that there was no counterpart of Arabidopsis and rice FBN5 in the cucumber genome. FBN5 is essential for growth in Arabidopsis and rice; its absence in cucumber may be because of incomplete genome sequences or that another FBN carries out its functions. Among the 10 CsaFBN genes, CsaFBN1 and CsaFBN9 were the most divergent in terms of nucleotide sequences. Most of the CsaFBN genes were expressed in the leaf, stem, and fruit. CsaFBN4 showed the highest mRNA expression levels in various tissues, followed by CsaFBN6, CsaFBN1, and CsaFBN9. High-light stress combined with low temperature decreased photosynthetic efficiency and highly induced transcript levels of CsaFBN1, CsaFBN6, and CsaFBN11, which decreased after 24 h treatment. Transcript levels of the other seven genes were changed only slightly. This result suggests that CsaFBN1, CsaFBN6, and CsaFBN11 may be involved in photoprotection under high-light conditions at low temperature.
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: untargeted approach; metabolites; drought stress; mulberry, LC-MS
Online: 6 July 2021 (17:23:32 CEST)
Mulberry is an economically significant crop for the sericulture industry worldwide. Stresses such as drought exposure have a significant influence on plant survival. Metabolome directly reflects plant physiological status; thus, a way to assess this impact is to perform a global metabolomic analysis. This study investigated the effect of drought stress on mulberry Yu-711 metabolic balance using a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based on an untargeted metabolomic approach. For this objective, Yu-711 leaves were subjected to two weeks of drought stress treatment and control without drought stress. Multivariate and univariate statistical analyses highlighted numerous differentially-accumulated metabolic elements as a function of time and treatment. Drought stress led to a more differentiated metabolites response than the control. We found that the levels of total lipids and galactolipids, and phospholipids (PC, PA, PE) were significantly altered, producing 48% of the total differentially expressed metabolites. Fatty acyls were the most abundant lipids expressed and decreased considerably by 73.6%. Prenol lipids class of lipids increased in drought leaves. Other classes of metabolites, including polyphenols( flavonoids and cinnamic acid), organic acid (amino acids), carbohydrates, benzenoids, and organoheterocyclic, all had a dynamic trend in response to the drought stress. However, their levels under drought stress generally decreased significantly compared to the control. These results provide an overview of the metabolic profile of the mulberry plant through differentially-accumulated compounds and provide a better understanding of global plant metabolic changes in defense mechanisms.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0084.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: depression; leaky gut; microbiota; cytokines; neuroimmunomodulation; oxidative stress
Online: 6 February 2020 (10:30:36 CET)
There is robust evidence that major depression (MDD) is accompanied by a low-grade activation of the immune-inflammatory response system, which is involved in the pathophysiology of this disorder. It is also becoming apparent that glia cells are in reciprocal communication with neurons and orchestrate various neuromodulatory, homeostatic, metabolic, and immune mechanisms and have a crucial role in neuroinflammatory mechanisms in MDD. Those cells mediate the central nervous system (CNS) response to systemic inflammation and psychological stress, but at the same time, they may be an origin of the inflammatory response in the CNS. The sources of activation of the inflammatory response in MDD are immense, however, in recent years, it is becoming increasingly evident that the gastrointestinal tract with gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) and increased intestinal permeability to bacterial LPS and food-derived antigens contribute to activation of low-grade inflammatory response with subsequent psychiatric manifestations. Furthermore, an excessive permeability to gut-derived antigenic material may lead to subsequent autoimmunities which are also known to be comorbid with MDD. In this chapter, we discuss fascinating interactions between the gastrointestinal tract, increased intestinal permeability, intestinal microbiota, and glia-neuron crosstalk, and their roles in the pathogenesis of the inflammatory hypothesis of MDD. To emphasize those crucial intercommunications for the brain functions, we propose the term of microbiota-gut-immune-glia (MGIG) axis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0103.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: chalcone synthase; drought stress; flavonoids; transgenic tobacco; overexpression
Online: 12 June 2019 (05:39:29 CEST)
Flavonoids are major secondary metabolites in plants, which play important roles in maintaining the cellular redox balance in cells. Chalcone synthase (CHS) is the key enzyme in the flavonoids biosynthesis pathway, and has been proved to monitor the changes to drought stress tolerance. In this work, we overexpressed a CHS gene in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). The transgenic tobacco plants were more tolerant than the control plants to drought stress. The transcription levels of the key genes involved in the flavonoids pathway and the contents of seven flavonoids were also significantly raised in the transgenic tobacco plants. In addition, overexpression of the CHS gene lead to a lower concentration of the oxidative stress product malondialdehyde. Overall, the NtCHS gene studied in this work was considered as a candidate gene for genetic engineering to enhance drought tolerance of plants and improve response to oxidative stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0392.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: stress-strain model; size effect; fracture energy; softening
Online: 22 August 2018 (09:34:23 CEST)
In this study, the model proposed by Yang et al. to generalize the stress–strain model for unconfined concrete with consideration of the size effect is expanded. Sim et al.’s compressive strength model that is based on the function of specimen width and aspect ratio was used for the maximum stress. In addition, a strain at the maximum stress was formulated as a function of compressive strength by considering the size effect using the regression analysis of datasets compiled from a wide variety of specimens. The descending branch after the peak stress was formulated with consideration of less dissipated area of fracture energy with the increase in specimen width and aspect ratio in the compression damage zone (CDZ) model. The key parameter for the slope of the descending branch was formulated as a function of specimen width and aspect ratio, concrete density, and compressive strength of concrete considering the size effect. Consequently, a rational stress–strain model for unconfined concrete was proposed. This model explains the trends of the peak stress and strain at the peak stress to decrease and the slope of the descending branch to increase, as the specimen width and aspect ratio increase. The proposed model agrees well with the test results, irrespective of the compressive strength of concrete, concrete type, specimen width and aspect ratio. In particular, the proposed model for the stress–strain curve rationally considered the effect of decreasing peak stress and increasing the descending branch slope, with the increase in specimen width and aspect ratio.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0412.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Carbohydrate; heat stress; hydrogen sulphide; hypotaurine; melatonin
Online: 15 June 2021 (15:21:54 CEST)
Photosynthesis is a pivotal process that determines the synthesis of carbohydrates required for sustaining growth under normal or stress situation. Stress exposure reduces the photosynthetic potential owing to the excess synthesis of reactive oxygen species that disturb the proper functioning of photosynthetic apparatus. This decreased photosynthesis is associated with disturbances in carbohydrate metabolism resulting in reduced growth under stress. We evaluated the importance of melatonin in reducing heat stress-induced severity in wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L.). The plants were subjected to 25 ˚C (optimum temperature) or 40 ˚C (heat stress) for 15 days at 6 hours time duration and then developed the plants for 30 days. Heat stress led to oxidative stress with increased production of TBARS and H2O2 content and reduced accrual of total soluble sugars, starch and carbohydrate metabolism enzymes which are reflected in reduced photosynthesis. Application of melatonin not only reduced oxidative stress through lowering TBARS and H2O2 content, through augmenting the activity of antioxidative enzymes but also increased the photosynthesis in plant and carbohydrate metabolism that is needed to provide energy and carbon skeleton to the developing plant under stress. However, the increase in these parameters with melatonin was mediated via hydrogen sulfide (H2S), as the inhibition of H2S by hypotaurine (HT; H2S inhibitor) reversed the ameliorative effect of melatonin. This suggests a crosstalk of melatonin and H2S in protecting heat stress-induced photosynthetic inhibition via regulation of carbohydrate metabolism.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0429.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: mechanical stress; vicious cycle; midkine; ARDS; GTEx
Online: 26 May 2020 (11:26:52 CEST)
The SARS-Cov-2 virus, which causes COVID 19, uses the cell surface protein ACE2 as receptor for entry into cells. Critically ill COVID-19 patients often require prolonged mechanical ventilation which can cause mechanical stress to lung tissue. In vitro studies have shown that expression of ACE2 in alveolar cells is increased following mechanical stretch and inflammation. Therefore, we analyzed transcriptome datasets of 480 (non-COVID-19) lung tissues in the GTex tissue gene expression database. We found that mechanical ventilation of the tissue donors increased the expression of ACE2 by more than two-fold (p<10-6). Analyses of transcriptomes of mechanically ventilated mice in the GEO database indicate that this alveolar cell response to stretch and inflammation is mediated by the chemokine midkine. Using a novel big knowledge network approach (SPOKE) we also found in transcriptomes of pharmacological perturbations (LINCS) that corticosteroids down-regulate midkine in pulmonal cells, and confirmed this in GEO transcriptomes of animal studies. Thus, mechanical ventilation of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia may eo ipso facilitate viral propagation in the lung, further accelerating the pulmonal pathology that has necessitated mechanical ventilation in the first place. This vicious cycle presents a rationale for the temporary treatment with corticosteroids to modulate the midkine-ACE2 axis in ventilated COVID19 patients and for gentler ventilation protocols.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0339.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: abiotic stress; proteomic; rehabilitating minelands; rhizosphere; symbiosis
Online: 24 January 2022 (10:07:29 CET)
Dioclea apurensis Kunth is native to ferruginous rocky outcrops (known as canga) in the eastern Amazon. Native cangas are considered hotspots of biological diversity and have one of the largest iron ore deposits in the world. There, D. apurensis can grow in post-mining areas where molecular mechanisms and rhizospheric interactions with soil microorganisms are expected to contribute to their establishment in rehabilitating minelands. In this study, we compare the root proteomic profile and rhizosphere-associated bacterial and fungal communities of D. apurensis growing in canga and a rehabilitating mineland to characterize the main mechanisms that allow the growth and establishment in post-mining areas. The results showed that proteins involved in response to oxidative stress, drought, excess of iron, and phosphorus deficiency were more accumulated in canga and, therefore, helped explain its high establishment rates in rehabilitating minelands. Rhizospheric selectivity of microorganisms was more evident in canga. The microbial community structure was mostly different between the two habitats, denoting that despite having its preferences, D. apurensis can associate with beneficial soil microorganisms without specificity. Therefore, its good performance in rehabilitating minelands can also be improved or attributed to its ability to cope with beneficial soil-borne microorganisms. Native plants with such adaptations must be used to enhance the rehabilitation process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0105.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: osteoarthritis; carnosine; hyaluronic acid; inflammation; oxidative stress
Online: 11 January 2020 (11:17:18 CET)
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a disease that currently has no cure. There are numerous studies showing that carnosine and hyaluronic acid (HA) have a positive pharmacological action during joint inflammation. For this reason, the goal of this research was to discover the protective effect of a new HA+Carnosine formulation (FidHycarn) on the inflammatory response and on the cartilage degradation in in vivo experimental model of OA. This model was induced by a single intra-articular (i.ar.) injection of 25µl normal saline having 1mg of monosodium iodoacetate solution (MIA) in the knee joint. MIA injection caused histological alterations and degradation of cartilage as well as behavioral changes. Oral treatment with FidHycarn ameliorated the macroscopic signs, improved thermal hyperalgesia and weight distribution of hind paw as well as decreased histological and radiographic alterations. The oxidative damage was analyzed by evaluating the levels of nitrotyrosine and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) that were significantly reduced in FidHycarn rats. Moreover, the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines were also significantly reduced by FidHycarn. However, interestingly, in more cases, the effects of FidHycarn were not statistically different to Naproxen used as positive control. Thus, the new formulation containing Carnosine and HA could represent an interesting therapeutic strategy to combat osteoarthritis.