Preprint Article Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Lipoprotein Cholesterols Are Stored in High-Resistant, Metastatic Cancer Cells and Released Upon Stress: Implication for a Mechanism Underlying Hypocholesterolemia in Cancer Patients

Version 1 : Received: 10 October 2018 / Approved: 10 October 2018 / Online: 10 October 2018 (09:44:17 CEST)

How to cite: Eguchi, T.; Sogawa, C.; Ono, K.; Itagaki, M.; Matsumoto, M. Lipoprotein Cholesterols Are Stored in High-Resistant, Metastatic Cancer Cells and Released Upon Stress: Implication for a Mechanism Underlying Hypocholesterolemia in Cancer Patients. Preprints 2018, 2018100211 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201810.0211.v1). Eguchi, T.; Sogawa, C.; Ono, K.; Itagaki, M.; Matsumoto, M. Lipoprotein Cholesterols Are Stored in High-Resistant, Metastatic Cancer Cells and Released Upon Stress: Implication for a Mechanism Underlying Hypocholesterolemia in Cancer Patients. Preprints 2018, 2018100211 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201810.0211.v1).

Abstract

Resistant cancer often shows a particular secretory trait such as heat shock proteins (HSPs) and extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and oncosomes surrounded by lipid bilayers. Lipoproteins are biochemical assemblies that transport hydrophobic lipid (a.k.a. fat) molecules in body fluid and are composed of a single-layer phospholipid and cholesterol outer shell, lipids molecules within the particles, and apolipoproteins embedded in the membrane. However, lipoprotein storage and secretion by cancer cells have not well-investigated yet. We found lipoproteins were stored and abundantly secreted by neuroendocrine, castration-resistant prostate cancer (NEPC / CRPC) cells but barely secreted by colon cancer cells and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells. In addition, large EVs (approx. 300 nm diameter) and potential oncosomes were released by CRPC and OSCC cells. Proteomics revealed that CRPC cells secreted EVs enriched with tetraspanins and extracellular matrices which were reduced upon heat shock stress and alternatively lipoproteins and HSPs were secreted upon stress. Heat shock stress triggered secretion of lipoprotein-EV complexes that contained apolipoprotein A, B, C and E. These data suggested that vesicular assembly composed of EVs and lipoproteins enriched with cholesterols and phospholipids may be stored in resistant cancer cells but released upon cell stress that is increased in cancer therapies.

Subject Areas

lipoprotein; extracellular vesicles; exosome; ectosome; stress response; resistant cancer; metastatic cancer; heat shock stress

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