Kim, S.; Lee, S.; Lee, H.; Ju, S.; Park, S.; Kwon, D.; Yoo, J.-W.; Yoon, I.-S.; Min, D.S.; Jung, Y.-S.; Jung, Y. A Colon-Targeted Prodrug, 4-Phenylbutyric Acid-Glutamic Acid Conjugate, Ameliorates 2,4-Dinitrobenzenesulfonic Acid-Induced Colitis in Rats. Pharmaceutics2020, 12, 843.
Kim, S.; Lee, S.; Lee, H.; Ju, S.; Park, S.; Kwon, D.; Yoo, J.-W.; Yoon, I.-S.; Min, D.S.; Jung, Y.-S.; Jung, Y. A Colon-Targeted Prodrug, 4-Phenylbutyric Acid-Glutamic Acid Conjugate, Ameliorates 2,4-Dinitrobenzenesulfonic Acid-Induced Colitis in Rats. Pharmaceutics 2020, 12, 843.
An elevated level of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is considered an aggravating factor for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To develop an ER stress attenuator that is effective against colitis, 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA), a chemical chaperone that alleviates ER stress, was conjugated with acidic amino acids to yield a 4-PBA-glutamic acid conjugate (PBA-GA) and a 4-PBA-aspartic acid conjugate (PBA-AA). The PBA derivatives were converted to 4-PBA in the cecal contents, where the conversion was greater with PBA-GA. After oral administration of PBA-GA (oral PBA-GA), millimolar levels of PBA were accumulated in the cecum, whereas 4-PBA was not detected in the blood, indicating the targeting of PBA-GA to the large intestine. At concentrations in the cecum achievable by oral PBA-GA, 4-PBA effectively attenuated ER stress in human colon epithelial cells. In 2,4-dinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced colitis in rats, oral PBA-GA alleviated the damage and inflammation in the colon. Moreover, oral PBA-GA substantially reduced the elevated levels of ER stress marker proteins in the inflamed colon. Moreover, PBA-GA was as effective as the currently used anti-IBD drug, sulfasalazine. In conclusion, PBA-GA is a colon-targeted prodrug of 4-PBA and is effective against rat colitis probably through the attenuation of ER stress in the inflamed colon.
4-Phenylbutyric acid; Colon-targeted drug delivery; Colitis; Prodrug; ER stress; Chemical chaperone
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