REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0584.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Parkinson’s disease; parkinsonism; LRRK2; neuropathology; modifier; genetics; GWAS; environmental risk factors; polygenic risk score
Online: 23 December 2020 (10:49:22 CET)
Missense mutations in the LRRK2 gene were first identified as a pathogenic cause of Parkinson’s disease (PD) in 2004. Soon thereafter, a founder mutation in LRRK2, p.Gly2019Ser (rs34637584), was described, and it is now estimated that there are approximately 100,000 people worldwide that carry this risk variant. While the clinical presentation of LRRK2 parkinsonism has been largely indistinguishable from sporadic PD, disease penetrance and age at onset can be quite variable. In addition, its neuropathological features span a wide range from nigrostriatal loss with Lewy body pathology, lack thereof, or atypical neuropathology including a large proportion of cases with concomitant Alzheimer’s pathology, hailing LRRK2 parkinsonism as the "Rosetta stone" of parkinsonian disorders. These differences may result from interactions between LRRK2 mutant protein and other proteins or environmental factors that modify LRRK2 function, and thereby influence pathobiology. This review explores how potential genetic and biochemical modifiers of LRRK2 function may contribute to the onset and clinical presentation of LRRK2 parkinsonism. We review, which genetic modifiers of LRRK2 influence clinical symptoms, age at onset, and penetrance, what LRRK2 mutations are associated with pleomorphic LRRK2 neuropathology, and which environmental modifiers can augment LRRK2 mutant pathophysiology. Understanding how LRRK2 function is influenced and modulated by other interactors and environmental factors –either increasing toxicity or providing resilience- will inform targeted therapeutic development in the years to come. This will allow developing disease-modifying therapies for PD and LRRK2-related neurodegeneration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0005.v2
Online: 3 November 2016 (08:39:30 CET)
Severe early childhood caries remains the most common chronic disease affecting children. Its multifactorial etiology has established a controversy about which risk factors were more significant to its development. Therefore our study aimed through meticulous statistical analysis to arrange the “well agreed upon” common risk factors in order of significance, to aid the clinician in tailoring an adequate preventive program for this affected age group. The study reshuffled the risk factors contributing to severe early childhood caries and placed them in the order of their significance as follows: snacking of sugary food several times a day, increased number of siblings to 3 or more, night feeding, child self-employed brushing, mother caries experience, 2 siblings, on demand feeding, once/day sugary food, sharing utensils, 1 Sibling, male gender, father’s education, late first child dental visit, brushing time, mother’s education, no dental visit, decreased brushing frequency & no night brushing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0011.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: Global risk factors; Credit Default Swaps; Sovereign credit risk; Copulas approach
Online: 1 November 2021 (11:50:02 CET)
This study examined the tail dependency structure of sovereign credit risk and three global risk factors in BRICS countries using copulas approach, which is known for its ability to provide the “true” tail correlation based on the correct marginal distribution. The empirical results show that global market risk sentiment comoves with sovereign CDS spreads across BRICS countries under extreme market events, with Brazil having the highest co-dependency followed by China, Russia, and South Africa. Furthermore, oil price volatility is the second biggest risk factor correlated with sovereign CDS spreads for Brazil and South Africa while exchange rate risk exhibits very small co-dependence with sovereign CDS spreads under extreme market conditions dominated by tail events. On the contrary, exchange rate risk is the second largest risk factor co-moving with China and Russia’s sovereign CDS spreads while oil price volatility exhibits the lowest co-dependence to CDS in these countries. Between oil price and currency risk, evidence of single risk factor dominance is found for Russia where exchange rate risk is largely dominant. These results suggest that BRICS policymakers might consider financial sector regulations that mitigate risks spill-over such as targeted capital controls when markets are distressed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0371.v1
Online: 15 December 2020 (10:35:17 CET)
Abstract: The study aimed to determine the factors associated with the avoidance of dental preventive care in adolescents and their parents in the framework of The Youth and Parents Risk Factor Behavior Survey in Slovakia has been initiated during the years 2015/2016. The data were collected using two separate standardized questionnaires: (i) the questionnaire for adolescents (n=515) and (ii) the questionnaire for parents (n=681). The study group consisted of 57 adolescents (54.4% males) who did not visit the dentist for preventive care in the previous year. The control group consisted of 458 adolescents (35.8% males) who visited a dentist for preventive care at least once in the previous year. A significantly higher number of males (54.4%), older adolescents (21.4%) were not visiting dental preventive care regularly. Incomplete family (56.1%), stressful situations at home (17.5%), and feeling unwell were observed as the factors contributing to the avoidance of dental preventive care. More than 34.5% of adolescents were not visiting either dental preventive care but also pediatric preventive care (AOR=5.14; 95%CI=2.40, 10.99). Divorced mothers and mothers with household income lower than 900 € had significantly higher dental care avoidance in their children. A significantly higher percentage of fathers from the exposed group were not visiting dental preventive care regularly (47.8%; p< .05). The results of the study can be used as an educational intervention steps focusing on the influence of parental and adolescent behavior in dental preventive care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0305.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology Keywords: gestational diabetes; pregnancy; polygenic risk score; gwas; machine learning
Online: 20 July 2022 (12:09:41 CEST)
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a common complication of pregnancy that adversely affects maternal and offspring health. A variety of risk factors, such as BMI and age, have been associated with increased risks of gestational diabetes. However, in many cases gestational diabetes occurs in healthy nulliparous women with no obvious risk factors. Emerging data suggest that the tendency to develop gestational diabetes has genetic and environmental components. Here we develop a polygenic risk score for gestational diabetes. We further investigate relationships between the genetic architecture of GDM and genetically constructed risk factors and biomarkers. Our results show that genetics can be used as an early screening tool that identifies at-risk at higher risk of GDM before its onset to propose comprehensive monitoring and preventative programs to mitigate the risks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0022.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Tuberculosis; HIV; coinfection; Risk factors; Luanda; Angola
Online: 1 November 2022 (07:13:56 CET)
TB and HIV continue to increase and constitute major public health concerns worldwide, mainly in resource-limited countries, showing that we are not going to end HIV if we do not also end TB. Herein, we investigated the risk factors related to HIV infection among TB patients in Luanda, the capital city of Angola. This was a retrospective cohort study conducted on the medical records of 117 TB patients from January to September 2016. Overall, the HIV/TB co-infection rate was 12%. The mean age of coinfected patients was 37.7±10.1 years. No statistically significant relationship was observed between sociodemographic or clinical features with HIV/TB co-infection (p>0.05). TB patients aged 30 years or older (OR: 4.13, p=0.072), female (OR: 1.08, p=0.898), residing in urbanized areas (OR: 1.90, p=0.578), with a history of treatment abandonment (OR: 3.74, p=0.083), with polyresistance (OR: 1.62, p=0.603), and MDR-TB (OR: 2.00, p=0.454), were more likely to have HIV/TB co-infection, while latent TB infection (OR: 0.63, p=0.559) and treatment-susceptible TB patients (OR: 0.56, p=0.616), presented a lower chance of HIV/TB coinfection. Our finding showed a slightly high HIV/TB coinfected rate, which suggests that the dual HIV/TB epidemic keeps evolving and poses a huge concern to the public health in Angola. Further studies on features related to HIV/TB coinfection and its impact on disease progression and clinical outcome in adults from high-risk Angolan communities, should be carried out to intensify and strengthen collaborative activities between national TB and HIV programs in Angola.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0657.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: machine learning; drilling problems; artificial intelligence; risk factors evaluation; gradient boosting
Online: 27 May 2021 (08:04:06 CEST)
Drilling of wells for oil and gas production is a highly complex and expensive part of reservoir development. Thus, together with injury prevention, there is a goal to save cost expenditures on downtime and repair of drilling equipment. Nowadays companies have begun to look for ways to improve the efficiency of drilling and minimize non-production time with the help of new technologies. To support decisions in a narrow time frame, it is valuable to have an early warning system. Such a decision support system will help an engineer to intervene in the drilling process and prevent high expenses of unproductive time and equipment repair due to a problem. This work is describing a comparison of machine learning algorithms for anomaly detection during well drilling. Tested models classify drilling problems based on historical data from previously drilled wells. To validate anomaly detection algorithms, we use historical logs of drilling problems for 67 wells at a large brownfield in Siberia, Russia. Wells with problems were selected and analyzed. It should be noted that out of the 67 wells, 20 wells were drilled without expenses for unproductive time. Experiential results illustrated that a model based on gradient boosting can classify the complications in the drilling process best of all.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0194.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: aphthous stomatitis, risk factors, genetic polymorphisms, multivariate analysis, systematic review
Online: 10 May 2021 (13:55:48 CEST)
The cause and prevention of recurrent aphthous stomatitis (also called aphthous ulcers or canker sores) are still unknown. This may be due in part to ignorance of the risk factors present in susceptible people. In this systematic review (PROSPERO record #CRD42019122214), we show that most of the risk factors for the disease are single nucleotide genetic polymorphisms in genes related to the functioning of immune system (TLR4, MMP9, E-selectin, IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha). Single nucleotide genetic polymorphisms do not constitute a modifiable risk. This indicates that, at least in part, susceptibility to recurrent aphthous stomatitis is hereditary, and that these factors cannot be modified.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0455.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Prognosis; prosthodontics; dental implant; clinical performance; risk factor.
Online: 18 December 2020 (11:34:49 CET)
Background: The treatment plan of prosthetic restorations supported by dental implants require comprehensive scientific knowledge to deliver prostheses with good prognosis, even before the implant insertion. This review aims to analyze the main prosthetic determinants of the prognosis of implant-supported prostheses. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was conducted with a PICO question: "For partially or complete edentulous subjects treated with implant-supported prostheses, which prosthetic factors could affect clinical outcomes?". A literature search was performed electronically in PubMed (MEDLINE), Scopus and Cochrane Library with the following equation [PROGNOS* OR RISK] FACTOR IMPLANT DENTAL, and by hand search in relevant journals and throughout the selected papers. Results: This revision was carried out based on 50 papers focused on several prosthodontics-related risk factors that were grouped as follows: implant-connection, loading protocol, transmucosal abutments, prosthetic fit, provisionalization, type of retention, impression technique, fabrication technique, and occlusion. More than a half of the studies were systematic reviews (30%), meta-analysis (16%) or prospective evaluations of prosthesis with various kinds of events (18%). But also narrative reviews of literature (14%) and in vitro/animal studies (16%) were found. Conclusions: The current literature provides insufficient evidence for most of the investigated topics. However, based on the accumulated data, it seems reasonable to defend that the best treatment approach is the use of morse taper implants with transmucosal abutments, recorded by means of rigidly splinted copings through the pick-up technique, and screwed by milled prosthesis occlusally adjusted to minimize functional overloading.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0291.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: Hypertension; Risk; Factor; Ordinal; Odd ratio; Logistic; regession
Online: 24 January 2020 (16:08:38 CET)
There is high prevalence of hypertension and is rapidly increasing around the world, despite the intervention programme implemented, this study aimed at estimating the prevalence rate, test of association between hypertension and risk factors and model hypertension rate. Data used was obtained from the health record of Federal Medical Centre, Keffi from January 2016 – January 2019. Ordinal logistic regression model was used; Model Fitting Information, Goodness-of-Fit, Pseudo R-Square and Test of Parallel Lines are fitted to the data sets to test the accuracy and correctness of the model. The results indicated that the overall prevalence of hypertension rate is high at 36.4%, among the adult population, body mass index and gender are statistically significant, and Age is not significant in the study. Individuals that are overweight are more likely to be hypertensive compare to other weights. At age 40 – 49 years which have the highest rate of 26.5% and the odd ratio is 0.75 compared to others. One year increase in age 30 – 39, the cumulative odd of being hypertensive is 0.91 while other independent variables are held constant. The odd ratio of female being hypertensive is 0.85, therefore the females are more likely to be hypertensive with 54.4% compared to the males at 45.6% . There is no presence of multicolinearity among the variables and Logit models were formulated to calculate probabilities of the various possible outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0414.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: dogs; Colombia; leptospirosis; Leptospira santarosai; seroreactivity; risk factors
Online: 27 July 2022 (08:07:27 CEST)
Canine leptospirosis is a zoonosis of epidemiological importance. Dogs are recognized as primary reservoirs of Leptospira interrogans serogroup Canicola and a source of infection to the environment through urine. This study aimed to determine the presence of antibodies against Leptospira in canines from 49 municipalities in the Department of Antioquia, Colombia. We performed a cross-sectional study of dogs included in a neutering control program. We collected 1335 sera samples, assayed by a microagglutination test (MAT), and performed PCR detection in 21 urine samples. We also surveyed 903 dog owners. We found a seroreactivity of 11.2% (150/1335) in Antioquia with titers 1:50. Municipalities with the highest number of cases were Belmira (46.1%), Turbo (34.5%), and Concepción (31.0%). L. santarosai was identified by phylogenetic analysis in one urine sample from the municipality of Granada. The most important factor associated with a positive result was the lack of vaccination against leptospirosis (PR 3.3, p < 0.014). Environmental factors such as water presence and bare soil around the household were also associated with Leptospira seroreactivity in the Department of Antioquia. We reviewed a national epidemiological surveillance database for human cases in those municipalities. We found a correlation between the high number of cases in canines and humans, especially in the Uraba. Serological and molecular results showed the circulation of Leptospira. Future public health efforts in the municipalities with the highest numbers of seroreactivity should be directed towards vaccination to prevent animal disease and decrease the probability of transmission of Leptospira. Dogs actively participate in the Leptospira cycle in Antioquia and encourage the implementation of vaccination protocols and coverage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0205.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: diarrhoea; severity; severe dehydration; children; risk factors; Ujjain; India
Online: 16 January 2020 (03:21:03 CET)
Diarrhoea contributes significantly in the under-five childhood morality and mortality worldwide. This cross-sectional study was carried out in a tertiary care hospital in Ujjain, India from July 2015 to June 2016. Consecutive children aged 1 month to 12 years having “some dehydration” and “dehydration” according to World Health Organization classification were eligible to be included in the study. Other signs and symptoms used to assess severe dehydration were capillary refill time, urine output, and abnormal respiratory pattern. A questionnaire was administered to identify risk factors for severe dehydration, which was the primary outcome. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was used to detect independent risk factors for severe dehydration. The study included 332 children, with mean ± standard deviation age of 25.62 ± 31.85 months; out of which, 70%(95% confidence interval [CI] 65 to 75) were diagnosed to have severe dehydration. The independent risk factors for severe dehydration were: child not exclusive breast fed in the first six months of life (AOR 5.67, 95%CI 2.51 to 12.78; p<0.001), history of not receiving oral rehydration solution before hospitalization (AOR 1.34, 95%CI 1.01 to 1.78; p=0.038), history of not receiving oral zinc before hospitalization (AOR 2.66, 95%CI 1.68 to 4.21; p<0.001) and living in overcrowded conditions (AOR 5.52, 95%CI 2.19 to 13.93; p<0.001). The study identified many risk factors associated with severe childhood dehydration; many of them are modifiable though known and effective public health interventions.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0015.v1
Online: 1 September 2021 (12:18:07 CEST)
Several factors enhance the possibility of vertical HIV transmission in the pediatric population. Unfortunately, the data of the prevalence of HIV and associated risk factors in these populations remain limited in Rwanda. The study aimed to assess HIV prevalence and risk factors for infants born to mothers on ARV treatment at CHUB/Rwanda. MethodsA cross-sectional study was carried out on infants who were born to mothers under ARV treatment at CHUB. The associated risk factors were retrospectively assessed using prevention vertical HIV transmission records, and Dried Blood spots (DBS) were prospectively tested using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Data were analyzed by logistic regression. Ethical clearance (Ref: CMHS/IRB/198/2017) was issued by University of Rwanda to fulfill research ethical consideration.ResultsAmong 185(100%) infants born to HIV-positive mothers under ARV treatment, 5(2.7%) were HIV positive. The most associated risk factors were increased to over 1log copies/ml mother’s viral load (OR 9.3, 95% CI 1.01-85.45, P= 0.04) and mother’s CD4 count lower than 350 cells/µl (OR 6.4, 95% CI 1.03-40.06, P=0.04). The factors found to reduce the rate of vertical transmission of HIV were health facility as a delivery place (P=0.03), exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months (P= 0.006), and attending the antenatal care (P=0.01) while feeding children and vaginal delivery were associated risks but not statistically significant.ConclusionThe current study supports that the more mothers’ viral load and CD4 count decrease, so does the risk of HIV to their infants. A fact which indicates that both prevalence and risk factors remain an alarming issue. Much effort and multi-disciplinary approach are highly recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0539.v1
Online: 21 December 2020 (16:01:59 CET)
Starting from the importance of risk perception for taking certain preventive measures to protect people and their property from disasters, the subject of the research is to examine the factors influencing public perception of mythically-based human behavior in disaster conditions. Using the random sampling method, 250 adult respondents were surveyed in the city of Belgrade, using a specially created and adapted survey questionnaire. The results of the research show that there is no statistically significant influence of gender, age, educational and economic factors on the public perception of human behavior in disaster conditions. The results of the research can be used to improve strategies and campaigns based on risk assessment, aimed at improving the safety of people in disasters.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: COVID-19; machine learning; feature significance; feature correlation; risk factors
Online: 2 June 2021 (14:54:10 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic affected the whole world, but not all countries were impacted equally. This opens the question of what factors can explain the initial faster spread in some countries compared to others. Many such factors are overshadowed by the effect of the countermeasures, so we studied the early phases of the infection when countermeasures have not yet taken place. We collected the most diverse dataset of potentially relevant factors and infection metrics to date for this task. Using it, we show the importance of different factors and factor categories as determined by both statistical methods and machine learning (ML) feature selection (FS) approaches. Factors related to culture (e.g., individualism, openness), development, and travel proved the most important. A more thorough factor analysis was then made using a novel rule discovery algorithm. We also show how interconnected these factors are and caution against relying on ML analysis in isolation. Importantly, we explore potential pitfalls found in the methodology of similar work and demonstrate their impact on COVID-19 data analysis. Our best models using the decision tree classifier can predict the infection class with roughly 80% accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0621.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; mortality; epidemiology; risk factors; Nigeria; Africa
Online: 25 July 2020 (18:20:23 CEST)
Nigeria is the most populous country in the African continent. The aim of this study was to analyze risk factors for COVID-19 prevalence and deaths in all 6 geopolitical regions and 37 states in Nigeria. We analyzed the data retrieved from various sources, including Nigeria CDC, Nigeria National Bureau of Statistics, Unicef-Nigeria multiple indicator cluster survey and the Institute of Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington. We examined 4 clinical risk factors (prevalence of TB, HIV, smoking and BCG vaccination coverage) and 5 sociodemographic factors (age ≥65, population density, literacy rate, unemployment and GDP per capita). Multivariate modeling was conducted using generalized linear model. Our analysis showed that the incidence of confirmed COVID-19 cases differed widely across the 37 states, from 0.09 per 100,000 in Kogi to 83.7 in Lagos. However, more than 70% of confirmed cases were concentrated in just 7 states: Lagos, Abuja, Oyo, Kano, Edo, Rivers and Delta. Case mortality rate (CMR) per million population also varied considerably, with Lagos, Abuja and Edo having CMR above 9. On bivariate analysis, higher CMR correlated positively with GDP and to a lesser extent with TB and population density. On multivariate analysis, which is more definitive, states with higher HIV prevalence and BCG coverage had lower CMR, while high GDP states had a greater CMR. This study indicates that COVID-19 has disproportionately affected certain states in Nigeria. Population susceptibility factors include higher economic development but not literacy or unemployment. Death rates were mildly lower in states with higher HIV prevalence and BCG vaccination coverage.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0074.v1
Subject: Keywords: breast tumor; mammary neoplasm; breast carcinoma; meta-analysis; population at risk
Online: 7 April 2020 (01:22:38 CEST)
To systematically investigate the epidemiology of breast cancer risk factors in Iran, we performed a systematic search via PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Persian databases for identifying studies published on breast cancer risk factors up to March 2019. Meta-analyses were done for risk factors reported in more than one study. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using a fixed/random-effects models.Thirty-nine studies entered into the meta-analysis. Pooling of ORs showed a significant harmful effect for risk factors including family history (OR: 1.80, 95%CI 1.47-2.12), HRT (OR: 5.48, 95%CI 0.84-1.74), ER positive (OR: 1.87, 95%CI 1.41-2.33), PR positive (OR: 1.84, 95%CI 1.38-2.29), stress condition (OR: 2.67, 95%CI 1.84-3.50), passive smokers (OR: 1.68, 95%CI 1.34-2.03), full-term pregnancy at age 30 (OR: 3.41, 95%CI 1.19-5.63), abortion (OR: 1.84, 95%CI 1.35-2.33), sweets consumption (OR: 1.71, 95%CI 1.32-2.11) and genotype Arg/Arg (crude OR: 1.59, 95%CI 1.07-2.10), whereas a significant protective effect for late menarche (OR: 0.58, 95%CI 0.32-0.83), nulliparity (OR: 0.68, 95%CI 0.39-0.96), 13 to 24 months of breastfeeding (OR: 0.68, 95%CI 0.46-0.90), daily exercise (OR: 0.59, 95%CI 0.44-0.73) and vegetable consumption (crude OR: 0.28, 95%CI 0.10-0.46).This study suggest that factors such as family history, HRT, ER and PR positive status, stress condition, passive smokers, late full-term pregnancy, abortion, sweets consumption and genotype Arg/Arg might increase risk of breast cancer development, whereas late menarche, nulliparity, 13-24 months breastfeeding, daily exercise and vegetable consumption had an inverse association with breast cancer development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0276.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: risk perception; safety; construction; workers; working at height; manual handling; workload; Malawi
Online: 27 August 2019 (03:54:38 CEST)
This study employed a deductive research approach and a survey strategy to assess risk perception and its influencing factors among construction workers in Malawi. Three specific construction hazards and their associated risks were selected. The hazards were ‘working at height (WAH) ‘manual handling of loads (MHL)’ and ‘heavy workload or intense pressure to be more productive (HWP)’. The study engaged multistage sampling of 376 subjects. Univariate analysis, factor analysis and multiple linear regressions were performed in order to determine the main influencing factors among the independent variables. The study established that workers were aware of risks posed by their work. They perceived the risk associated with WAH, MHL and HWP as very high (62.7%, = 8.80 ± 1.95); (48.5%, = 8.10 ± 2.38); (57.9%, = 8.49 ± 2.22) respectively. The study identified six factors as variables that showed significant effect on workers’ perception of risk (p < 0.05). These factors were “dreaded factor”, “avoidability and controllability”, “expert knowledge”, “personal knowledge”, education level and age. It is concluded that contractors in the Malawian construction industry should integrate analysis of behaviors and risk perception of the workers and other players to guide the identification of better health and safety interventions at their worksites.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0779.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Social isolation; risk factors; older adults; long-term care
Online: 31 December 2020 (09:24:17 CET)
Objectives: A wealth of literature has established risk factors for social isolation among older people, however much of this research has focused on community-dwelling populations. Relatively little is known about how risk of social isolation is experienced among those living in long-term care (LTC) homes. We conducted a scoping review to identify possible risk factors for social isolation among older adults living in LTC homes. Methods: A systematic search of five online databases retrieved 1535 unique articles. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria. Results: Thematic analyses revealed that possible risk factors exist at three levels: individual (e.g., communication barriers), systems (e.g., location of LTC facility), and structural factors (e.g., discrimination). Discussion: Our review identified several risk factors for social isolation that have been previously documented in literature, in addition to several risks that may be unique to those living in LTC homes. Results highlight several scholarly and practical implications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0140.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: coronary heart disease risk factors; healthy lifestyle behaviors; physical fitness
Online: 11 April 2018 (07:40:50 CEST)
The purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between healthy lifestyle behaviors, physical fitness and coronary risk factors in university students. 320 male and female (nm:171; nf:149) students from a university participated in this study voluntarily. For the determination of body composition and Body Mass Indexes (BMI), subjects’ height, body weight, and skinfold thickness were taken and body fat percentage (%Fat) was determined. Healthy lifestyle behaviors were determined using the healthy lifestyle behaviors questionnaire. Indicators of physical fitness included flexibility (sit-up) (F), muscle strength and endurance (isometric knee (KS), back strength (BS) and a total of shuttle (TS), sprint performance, BMI, and body fat percentage (%fat). Coronary heart disease risk factors included mean arterial blood pressure (systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP)), fasting blood levels of triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), hematocrit (HT), and hemoglobin (HM). Results indicated subjects have normal body mass index, body fat percentage, SBP, DBP, TG, TCF, BS, KS. The results of the Pearson Product Moment Correlation Analysis, indicated that SBP, DBP, TG, TCF, BS, KS for male and female was significantly correlated with flexibility (sit-up) (F), muscle strength and endurance (isometric knee (KS), back strength (BS) and total of shuttle (TS)), sprint performance. (p<0.01; p<0.05), In conclusion, the findings of the present study indicated that physical fitness and healthy lifestyle behaviors play a determinant role in coronary heart disease risk factors for male and female students from a university.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0056.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Television viewing; sedentary behavior; Physical activity; cardiometabolic risk factors
Online: 3 December 2021 (14:01:39 CET)
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between television viewing/physical activity (TVV/PA) interactions and cardiometabolic risk in an adult European population. A total of 2,155 subjects (25-64 years) (45.2% males), a random population-based sample were evaluated in Brno, Czechia. TVV was classified as low (<2hours/day), moderate (2-4), and high (≥4). PA was classified as insufficient, moderate, and high. To assess the independent association of TVV/PA categories with cardiometabolic variables, multiple linear regression was used. After adjustments, significant associations were: high TVV/insufficient PA with body mass index (BMI) (β=2.61,SE=0.63), waist circumference (WC) (β=7.52,SE=1.58), body fat percent (%BF) (β=6.24,SE=1.02), glucose (β=0.25,SE=0.12), triglycerides (β=0.18,SE=0.05), and HDL-C (β=-0.10,SE=0.04); high TVV/moderate PA with BMI (β=1.98,SE=0.45), WC (β=5.43,SE=1.12), %BF (β =5.15,SE=0.72), triglycerides (β =0.08,SE=0.04), total cholesterol (β=0.21,SE=0.10), LDL-c (β=0.19,SE=0.08), and HDL-c (β=-0.07,SE=0.03); and moderate TVV/insufficient PA with WC (β=2.68,SE=1.25), %BF (β=3.80,SE=0.81), LDL-c (β=0.18,SE=0.09), and HDL-c (β=-0.07,SE=0.03). Independent of PA levels, higher TVV was associated with higher amounts of adipose tissue. Higher blood glucose and triglycerides were present in subjects with high TVV and insufficient PA, but not in those with high PA alone. These results affirm the independent cardiometabolic risk of sedentary routines even in subjects with high-levels of PA.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0636.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: abdominal aortic aneurysm, risk factors, observational studies, meta-analysis
Online: 26 October 2018 (15:28:44 CEST)
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) represents an important public health problem with a prevalence between 1.3% and 12.5%. Several population-based randomized trials have evaluated ultrasound screening for AAA providing evidence of a reduction in aneurysm-related mortality in the screened population. The aim of our study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the risk factors for AAA. We conducted a systematic review of observational studies and we performed a meta-analysis that evaluated the following risk factors: gender, smoking habits, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, Coronary Artery Disease and family history of AAA. Abdominal aortic aneurysm prevalence is higher in smokers and in males. It is important to underline that all countries, where AAA screening was set up, had high income level and the majority belong to Western Europe (United Kingdom, Sweden, Italy, Poland, Spain and Belgium). Abdominal aortic aneurysm screening is fundamental for public health. It would avoid deaths, ruptures, and emergency surgical interventions if abdominal aortic aneurysm was diagnosed early in the population target for screening.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0499.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: HAPE; risk factors; echocardiography; pulmonary pressure; workload
Online: 30 August 2022 (03:18:35 CEST)
Background: At altitudes beyond 2500 m the risk of developing high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) grows with the increases in pulmonary arterial pressure. HAPE is characterized by severe pulmonary hypertension, though the incidence and relevance of individual risk factors are not yet predictable. However, the systolic pulmonary pressure (SPAP) and peak in tricuspid regurgitation velocity (TVR) are crucial factors when diagnosing pulmonary hypertension by echocardiography. Methods: The SPAP and TVR of 27 trekkers aged 20-65 years en route in the Solu Khumbu region of Nepal was assessed. Echocardiograph measurements were performed at Lukla (2,860 m), Gorak Shep (5170 m), and the summit of Kala Patthar (5,675 m). The altitude profile and the participant’s characteristics were also compiled for correlation with the measured data. Results: The results showed a highly significant increase of SPAP and TVR after ascending Kala Patthar. The study revealed a lower increase of SPAP and TVR in the group of older participants, although the initial respective measurements in Gorak Shep were significantly higher for this group. A similar finding occurred in those using Diamox® as prophylaxis. There was an inverse relationship between TVR and SPAP, the peripheral capillary oxygen saturation and heart rate. Conclusions: The echocardiograph results indicate that older people are a risk group for developing a HAPE. The prophylactic use of acetazolamid led to higher initial SPAP values in Gorak Shep, and a lower increase of SPAP as well as TRV after ascending Kala Patthar. Arterial oxygen saturation measurements can provide an indicator for the self-assessment for the risk of developing HAPE and provide a rule of thumb for the altitude profile but does not replace a HAPE diagnosis. The collected data variables concerning backpack weight, sex, workload (actual ascent speed), and pre-existing diseases were not statistically significant factors related to SPAP and TVR (p=<0.05).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0342.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus; Chronic Kidney Diseases; Hypertension; Risk Factors; Bangladesh
Online: 19 November 2021 (09:26:12 CET)
Diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are a major public health burden in low-and-middle-income countries. This study aimed to explore factors associated with CKD in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Bangladesh. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 315 adults with T2D presenting at the outpatient department of Bangladesh Institute of Health Sciences (BIHS) hospital between July 2013 to December 2013. CKD was diagnosed based on estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate using the ‘Modification of Diet in Renal Disease’ equations and presence of albuminuria estimated by the albumin-to-creatinine ratio. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with CKD. The overall prevalence of CKD among patients with T2D was 21.3%. In the unadjusted model Factors associated with CKD were: aged 40-49 years (OR: 5.7, 95% CI: 1.3-25.4), age 50-59 years (7.0, 1.6-39), age ≥60 years (7.6, 1.7-34); being female (2.2, 1.2-3.8), hypertensive (1.9, 1.1-3.5) and household income between 128.2-256.4 US$ (2.9, 1.0-8.2) compared with income ≤128.2$. However, after adjustment of other covariates, only duration of hypertension and household income (128.2-256.4 US$) remained statistically significant. There is a need to implement policies and programs for early detection and management of hypertension and CKD in T2D patients in Bangladesh.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0145.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: multilevel analysis; periodontal disease; nonsurgical periodontal therapy; risk factor; modelling; periodontal healing
Online: 18 February 2019 (07:31:01 CET)
This retrospective study aimed to investigate the effect of known risk factors on nonsurgical periodontal treatment (NSPT) response using a pocket depth fine-tuning multilevel linear model (MLM). Thirty-seven patients (24 males and 13 females) with moderate to severe chronic periodontitis were treated with nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Follow-up visits at 3, 6, and 12 months included measurement of several clinical periodontal parameters. Data were extracted from a database system. Probing depth (PD) and Clinical Attachment Loss (CAL) reductions after NSPT in an overall of 1416 initially affected sites (baseline PD ≥ 4 mm), distributed on 536 teeth, were analyzed against known risk factors at three hierarchical levels (patient, tooth and site). The variance component models fitted to assess the three-level variance of PD and CAL decrease for each post-treatment follow-up showed that all levels contributed significantly to the overall variance (P < 0.001). Patients that underwent NSPT and were continually monitored had very curative results. All three hierarchical levels included risk factors who had impact on the to influence the magnitude of PD and CAL reduction. Specifically, the tooth’s type, surfaces involved and teeth mobility site-level risk factors showed the highest influence on these reductions, being highly relevant factors for the NSPT success.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0096.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Hepatitis E; Associated risk factors; Pregnant women; Environment; Prevention; Senegal
Online: 7 June 2022 (08:06:52 CEST)
In West Africa, research on the hepatitis E virus (HEV) is barely covered despite the recorded outbreaks. The still low level of access to safe water and adequate sanitation is one of the main factors of HEV spread in developing countries. HEV infection induces acute or sub-clinical liver diseases with a mortality rate ranging from 0.5 to 4%. The mortality rate is more alarming (15 to 25%) among pregnant women, especially in the last trimester of pregnancy. Here, we conducted a multicentric socio-demographic and seroepidemiological survey of HEV in Senegal among pregnant women. A total of 1,227 consenting participants attending antenatal clinics responded to our questionnaire. Plasma samples were collected and tested for anti-HEV IgM and IgG by using the WANTAI HEV-IgM and IgG ELISA assay. HEV global seroprevalence was 7.9% with 0.5% and 7.4% for HEV IgM and HEV IgG, respectively. One participant's sample was IgM/IgG positive, while four were declared indeterminate to anti-HEV IgM as per the manufacturer's instructions. From one locality to another, the seroprevalence of HEV antibodies varied from 0 to 1% for HEV IgM and from 1.5 to 10.5% for HEV IgG. The data also showed that seroprevalence varied significantly by marital status (p<0.0001), by the regularity of income (p=0.0043) and by access to sanitation services (p=0.0006). These data could serve as a basis to setup national prevention strategies focused on socio-cultural, environmental and behavioral aspects for a better management of HEV infection in Senegal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0338.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Non-typhoidal Salmonella; poultry; risk factor; Nigeria; fowl typhoid; pullorum disease
Online: 22 July 2022 (13:12:50 CEST)
Salmonellosis is a bacterial zoonosis with array of health conditions. Non-typhoidal salmonellosis (NTS) have a discrete adaptation to certain animals; in poultry, pullorum and fowl typhoid are its primary disease manifestations. The diseases are prevalent in the Nigerian poultry and have been well studied in Nigeria, but less so in the north central Nigeria (NCN). Using field sampling, laboratory methods and semi structured questionnaire in 1000 poultry farms from NCN, we explore the incidence and risk factors for the persistence of NTS infection in poultry. Approximately 41.6% of the farms have experienced NTS but only 6.3% have current infection with NTS. Farm experience of NTS moderately predicted awareness of salmonellosis. Increasing stock in smallholder farms, self-mixing of concentrate on the farm, usage of stream water, pen odour, non-adherence and partial adherence of farms to recommended poultry vaccination against pullorum and fowl typhoid, and lack of and non-adherence to biosecurity were identified risk factors that increased the odds of NTS infection in poultry. Antibiotic use practice may have reduced the isolation rate of NTS, yet NTS continues to challenge poultry farms in Nigeria. Identified risk practices must be mitigated intentionally and biosecurity and hygiene must improve to reduce the burden of NTS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0733.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: thoracic aorta; atherosclerosis; vascular calcification; risk factors
Online: 30 March 2021 (11:42:32 CEST)
Thoracic aortic calcium (TAC) appears to be a subclinical marker of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and to predict CV mortality. However, studies on TAC use tomographic scans obtained for coronary artery calcium (CAC) score, which does not include the aortic arch. This study evaluates TAC prevalence in aortic arch (AAC), ascending (ATAC) and descending thoracic aorta (DTAC) and verify whether they are associated with the same CV risk factors. Cross-sectional analysis, including 2,427 participants (mean age 55.6 ± 8.7; 54,1% women) of the ELSA-Brasil cohort. Nonenhanced ECG-gated tomographies were performed in 2015-2016. Multivariable logistic regression estimated the CV risk factors associated with calcium in each segment. Overall prevalence of ATAC, AAC and DTAC was, 23,1%, 62.1%, and 31.2%, respectively. About 90.4% of the individuals with TAC had AAC and only 19.5% had calcium in all segments. In the multivariable analysis, increasing age, lower levels of schooling, current smoking, higher body mass index, and hypertension remained associated with calcium in all segments. No sex or race/ethnicity differences were found in any aortic segment. Diabetes and Dyslipidemia were associated with ATAC and DTAC, but not with AAC, suggesting that AAC may reflect an overlap of mechanisms that impact vascular health, including atherosclerosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0084.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: Donkey; breeding; twinning; heritability; REML; risk factors
Online: 5 November 2018 (04:13:35 CET)
Multiple births or twinning in equids are dangerous, undesirable situations that compromise the life of the dam and resulting offspring. However, embryo vitrification and freezing techniques take advantage of individuals whose multiple ovulations allow flushing more fertilised embryos from the oviduct to be collected, increasing the productivity and profitability of such techniques. Embryo preservation is especially important in highly endangered populations such as certain donkey (Equus asinus) breeds; for which conventional reproductive techniques have previously failed. For instance, becoming an effective alternative to artificial insemination with frozen semen to preserve the individuals’ genetic material. The objective of this study was to examine the historical foaling records of Andalusian donkeys to estimate genetic parameters for multiple births, assessing the historical foal number born per animal, maximum foal number per birth and multiple birth number per animal. We designed an Animal Model with single records considering the fixed effects of birthyear, birth season, sex, farm, and husbandry system, and age as a linear and quadratic covariate. Restricted maximum likelihood reported heritability estimates ranging from 0.18±0.01 to 0.24±0.01. Genetic and phenotypic correlations ranged from 0.01±0.01 to 0.83±0.01 and 0.12±0.01 and 0.53±0.01, respectively. These estimates enable the potential for selection against/for these traits, offering a new perspective for donkey breeding and conservation.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0404.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Polypill; Cardiovascular Risk; Primary Prevention; Secondary Prevention; Adherence; Cost-effectivity
Online: 31 October 2022 (09:27:48 CET)
Primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention is less effective than expected due to the concern about polymedication by professionals and the lack of patient adherence to medications prescribed in the medium and long term. Polypills have been presented as a possible solution. A comprehensive bibliographic review is presented about polypills as mechanisms for facilitating adherence and a proposed guide for the use of polypills for the prevention of cardiovascular risk. 41 articles were included, showing options for the polypill as a method of primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention.The polypill increases therapeutic adherence in the medium and long term, also increasing the therapeutic results compared to the administration of the various drugs separately. Based on the evidence, a flow diagram is proposed for the prescription of a polypill.Polypills increase the effectiveness and adherence of patients to primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention programs, without increasing the cost of the intervention. The use of a polypill in cardiovascular prevention can be effective as a prescription tool.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0244.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; animals; dogs; epidemiology; risk factors; clinical picture; Croatia
Online: 9 June 2021 (07:40:55 CEST)
Over a year into the COVID-19 pandemic, there is growing evidence that SARS-CoV-2 infections among dogs are more common than previously thought. In this study, the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was investigated in two dog population. The first group was comprised of 1069 dogs admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital for any given reason. The second group included dogs that shared households with confirmed COVID-19 cases in humans. This study group numbered 78 dogs. In COVID-19 infected households, 43.9% tested ELISA positive, and neutralisation antibodies were detected in 25.64% of dogs. Those data are comparable with the secondary attack rate in the human population. With 14.69% of dogs in the general population testing ELISA positive, there was a surge of SARS-CoV-2 infections within the dog population amid the second wave of the pandemic. Noticeably seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in the dog and the human population did not differ at the end of the study period. Male sex, breed and age were identified as significant risk factors. This study gives strong evidence that while acute dog infections are mostly asymptomatic, they can pose a significant risk to dog health. Seropositive dogs had a 1.97 times greater risk for developing central nervous symptoms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0501.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: human arsenic exposure; water source; risk factors; Thailand
Online: 21 September 2020 (11:32:03 CEST)
Three decades ago, human arsenic (As) contamination has been recognized in Ron Phibun, a sub-district with tin mining activity in southern Thailand. Since then different government bodies have attempted to mitigate the As-contamination problem by providing safe water in households. The most recent study conducted during 2000-2002 reported only a small fraction of population still had high urinary As level. Less attention has been paid to this issue afterwards. The present study aimed to re-assess the current situation, including human As contamination, water use behavior as well as identify risk factors of elevated As concentration among residents of Ron Phibun. The survey of 560 participants living in Ron Phibun with urinary As assessment was conducted. The median urinary As concentration of study participants was higher than normal. Consumption of shallow well water, a source generally considered as As-contaminated, was higher than a previous survey. A significant association was observed between urinary As concentrations and water sources for drinking and cooking. Gender and educational level were found to be associated with urinary As concentration. Significant associations between urinary As concentration and certain diseases (respiratory diseases, dermatitis, and dyslipidemia) were observed. The findings suggested further investigation of all water sources in the area for As contamination.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0338.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: cumulative family risk; child maltreatment; early adversity; DNA methylation; SLC6A4
Online: 25 October 2021 (10:26:29 CEST)
Exploring the contribution of proximal family risk factors on SLC6A4 DNA methylation in children with a history of maltreatment
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0138.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: COVID-19; vaccination; government; cross-sectional survey; perceived risk
Online: 11 October 2022 (04:21:45 CEST)
Introduction: This study explores exposure to misinformation, COVID-19 risk perception, and confidence towards the government as predictors to negative attitudes toward the COVID-19 vaccine. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out from 30 June to 30 August 2021 involving 775 respondents. The survey instrument for the questionnaire is an adaptation from various different studies consisting of five main variables: 1) misinformation about vaccination; 2) risk perception toward COVID-19; 3) attitudes toward the vaccination programme; 4) intention to get vaccinated; and 5) public confidence in the government in executing the vaccination programme. Results: The results of this study indicate that higher exposure to misinformation led to higher levels of negative attitudes toward the COVID-19 vaccine. When the perceived risk of COVID-19 infection was high, mistrust of vaccine benefits was low but there were also higher worries about the future effects of the vaccine. Confidence in government was associated with lower negative attitudes toward the COVID-19 vaccine. Conclusion: The results of this study may help develop an understanding of negative attitudes toward vaccinations in Malaysia and its contributing factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0430.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: anterior cruciate ligament; gait disorder; gait analysis; risk factors
Online: 18 September 2020 (11:17:01 CEST)
Today, rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament is the most common heavy injury in athletes, but it can also occur in sedentary subjects. Its treatment, always adapted to the lifestyle, age and will of the patient, often remains surgical. However, despite its frequency and universality, there are still walking disorders following the operation. These disorders sometimes persist for several months, or even several years after surgery. The present study is therefore interested in determining the risk factors linked to walking disorders following reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament. The objective of this study is to determine what risk factors associated with walking disorders are after reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament by hamstring graft. This study focused on factors that may exist at 3 and 6 months postoperatively. Two populations participated in this study, a healthy population and a population having benefited from reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament. The operated test group is divided into two subgroups, one with a postoperative period of 3 months and the second at 6 months. All subjects were subjected to the same protocol, their gait on the treadmill was analyzed and evaluated with an Optogait® analysis system. A univariate analysis was carried out first. Then, a multivariate analysis by adjustment method was carried out in order to eliminate the potential confounding factors. The comparison of the results between the populations in the univariate analysis shows an absence of significant results however there are trends. The statistical results of the multivariate analysis showed interactions in the two subgroups of the operated population.In fact, it turns out that at 3 months there is a tendency to worse gait disorders in subjects with a high BMI reflecting overweight, when an associated surgical procedure has taken place on the meniscus, in subjects over 35 years of age and males. On the other hand, at 6 months, the tendency to worsening is visible only in the strata represented by subjects with a BMI corresponding to overweight, as well as in subjects having benefited from a meniscal suture associated with ACL reconstruction. .The results of the present study show that there are certain factors which tend to increase the risk of these walking disorders after reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament by hamstring graft, these factors are different depending on the time postoperative.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0423.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: community-dwelling older adults; physical frailty; prevalence; risk factors
Online: 18 September 2020 (08:57:56 CEST)
Frailty is defined as a state of increased vulnerability to stressors, and it predicts the disability and mortality in the older population. This study aimed to investigate standardized prevalence and multidimensional risk factors associated with frailty among the Korean community-dwelling older adults. We analyzed the baseline data of 2,907 adults aged 70–84 years (mean age 75.8±3.9 years, 57.8% women) in the Korean Frailty and Aging Cohort Study. The Fried frailty phenotype was used to define frailty. Analyzed data included sociodemographic, physical, physical function, biological, lifestyle, health condition, medical condition, psychological, and social domains. Data were standardized using the national standard population composition ratio based on the Korean Population and Housing Census. The standardized prevalence of frailty and pre-frailty was 7.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.8–8.9%) and 57.2% (95% CI 45.1–48.8%), respectively. The following 14 risk factors had a significant association with frailty: at risk of malnutrition, sarcopenia, severe mobility limitation, poor social capital, rural dwellers, depressive, poor self-perceived health, polypharmacy, elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, elevated glycosylated hemoglobin, low 25-hydroxy vitamin D level, longer timed up and go, and low short physical performance battery score (p<0.05). Physico-nutritional, psychological, sociodemographic, and medical factors are strongly associated with frailty.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: risk factors; second primary cancer (SPC); colorectal cancer; classification techniques; extreme gradient boosting
Online: 15 December 2019 (13:30:09 CET)
In Taiwan, colorectal cancer is ranked second and third in terms of mortality and cancer incidence, respectively. In addition, medical expenditures related to colorectal cancer are considered to be the third highest. While advances in treatment strategies have provided cancer patients with longer survival, potentially harmful second primary cancers can occur. Therefore, second primary colorectal cancer analysis is an important issue with regard to clinical management. In this study, a novel predictive scheme was developed for predicting the risk factors associated with second colorectal cancer in patients with colorectal cancer by integrating five data mining classification techniques, including support vector machine, random forest, multivariate adaptive regression splines, extreme learning machine, and extreme gradient boosting. In total, 4,287 patients in the datasets provided by three hospital tumor registries were used. Our empirical results revealed that this proposed predictive scheme provided promising classification results and the identification of important risk factors for predicting second colorectal cancer based on accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve metrics. Collectively, our clinical findings suggested that the most important risk factors were the combined stage, age at diagnosis, BMI, surgical margins of the primary site, tumor size, sex, regional lymph nodes positive, grade/differentiation, primary site, and drinking behavior. Accordingly, these risk factors should be monitored for the early detection of second primary tumors in order to improve treatment and intervention strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0062.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Chikungunya virus, Zika virus, spatial clustering, Bayesian Poisson models, conditional autoregressive models, socioeconomic risk factors, environmental risk factors
Online: 6 February 2019 (13:16:52 CET)
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) have recently emerged as global infections with consequential disability adjusted life years (DALYs) and economic burden. This study aimed to explore the spatiotemporal heterogeneity in the occurrence of CHIKV and ZIKV outbreaks throughout Barranquilla, Colombia during 2014 and 2016 and explored the potential for clustering. Incidence data were fitted using multiple Bayesian Poisson models based on a suite of explanatory variables as potential risk factors and multiple options for random effects. A best fit model was used to analyse the case incidence risk for both epidemics to identify any risk factors during their epidemics. Neighbourhoods in the northern region of Barranquilla were hotspots for the outbreaks of both CHIKV and ZIKV. Additional hotspots occurred in the south-western and central regions of the CHIKV and ZIKV outbreaks, respectively. Multivariate conditional autoregressive models strongly identified higher socioeconomic strata (SES) and residing in detached houses as risk factors for ZIKV case incidences. These novel findings challenge the belief that these infections are driven by social vulnerability and merits further study both in Barranquilla and throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0054.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Chikungunya virus, Zika virus, spatial clustering, Bayesian Poisson models, conditional autoregressive models, socioeconomic risk factors, environmental risk factors
Online: 5 February 2019 (14:25:34 CET)
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) have recently emerged as global infections with consequential disability adjusted life years (DALYs) and economic burden. This study aimed to explore the spatiotemporal heterogeneity in the occurrence of CHIKV and ZIKV outbreaks throughout Barranquilla, Colombia during 2014 and 2016 and explored the potential for clustering. Incidence data were fitted using multiple Bayesian Poisson models based on a suite of explanatory variables as potential risk factors and multiple options for random effects. A best fit model was used to analyse the case incidence risk for both epidemics to identify any risk factors during their epidemics. Neighbourhoods in the northern region of Barranquilla were hotspots for the outbreaks of both CHIKV and ZIKV. Additional hotspots occurred in the south-western and central regions of the CHIKV and ZIKV outbreaks, respectively. Multivariate conditional autoregressive models strongly identified higher socioeconomic strata (SES) and residing in detached houses as risk factors for ZIKV case incidences. These novel findings challenge the belief that these infections are driven by social vulnerability and merits further study both in Barranquilla and throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0123.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; COPD; fall risk factor; gait; balance; cognition; daily activity; muscle dysfunction
Online: 8 September 2022 (10:35:01 CEST)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is increasingly being recognized as a systemic disease rather than a mere disorder of the lungs. Central (respiratory) and peripheral (limb) muscle weakness are among the main pronounced systemic effects of COPD. While the disease primarily affects the lower limb muscles and contributes to gait impairment, COPD is also associated with an increasing risk of falls in patients (COPDp). Previous studies have reported higher rates of falls among COPDp (1.17 to 1.20 falls/person-year), amounting to four times higher than an age-matched healthy group. Potential fall risk factors include muscle weakness, impaired daily activities, cognitive dysfunction, and gait and balance impairment. Although COPDp often manifest many of these risk factors, there remains a gap in literature regarding falls during walking in this population. This study aimed to 1. analyze the literature to identify the risk factors of falling in COPDp, and 2. investigate the underlying mechanisms by which these risk factors can lead to increased prevalence of falling. The results suggest that in addition to the known risk factors of falling, low back pain and mental fatigue should also be considered as relevant risk factors in the treatment process of these patients. Moreover, respiratory problems, which are common in this population, have demonstrated pronounced effects on energy expenditure, gait, and other types of activities of daily living (ADLs), leading to reduced intensity, disrupted coordination of the trunk-pelvic structure with the lower limbs during gait, and altered motor control performance due to activation of muscles in an inefficient synergic manner. These problems potentially lead to the increased vulnerability of these patients to external disturbances and higher incidence risk of falls and injuries. Cognitive problems, which are typically due to reduced oxygen received by the brain, as well as general inflammation caused by COPD, also play a significant role in gait disruption and balance. Future research is warranted to determine the prevalence of falls in COPDp by examining the response of these patients to Medio-Lateral (ML) and Anterior-Posterior (AP) disturbances during gait in association with traditional and recommended fall risk factors.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0022.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: Alzheimer's disease; Corpus callosum; Dementia; Down syndrome; Hippocampus; Psychosocial Risk Factors
Online: 5 April 2022 (09:38:33 CEST)
Several recent epidemiological studies attempted to identify risk factors for Alzheimer's disease. Age, family history, genetic factors (APOE genotype, Down syndrome), physical activity, and a low level of schooling are significant risk factors. In this review, we summarize the known psychosocial risk factors for the development of Alzheimer's disease in Down syndrome patients and their association with neuroanatomical changes in the brains of people with Down syndrome. We completed a comprehensive review of the literature on PubMed, Google Scholar, and Web of Science about psychosocial risk factors for Alzheimer's disease, for Alzheimer's disease in Down syndrome, and Alzheimer's disease in Down syndrome and their association with neuroanatomical changes in the brains of people with Down syndrome. Alzheimer's disease causes early pathological changes in Down syndrome patients, especially in the hippocampus and corpus callosum. The field needs more data about the neuroanatomical changes during childhood, how they change with increasing age, and the presence or absence of psychosocial risk factors. Further neuroimaging and psychosocial assessment-focused research is needed to understand the mechanisms leading to Alzheimer's disease at an early age and create more sensitive and relevant clinical, memory, and reasoning assessments for people with Down syndrome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0237.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; risk factors; outcomes; cardiovascular; Latin America.
Online: 19 June 2020 (10:22:50 CEST)
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) fatal outcomes have been associated with multiple cardiovascular risk factors. In new epidemic areas, such as Latin America, there is a lack of studies about this. Here, we evaluated those factors in a retrospective cohort of patients in a national reference hospital of Lima, Peru. Design. A retrospective cohort observational study was done. For this study, information was obtained from clinical records of the hospital for the cases that were laboratory-diagnosed and related, during March 6th and April 30th, 2020. rRT-PCR was used for the detection of the RNA of SARS-CoV-2 following the protocol Charité, Berlin, Germany, from nasopharyngeal swabs at the National Institute of Health. Calculation of the odds ratio (OR) with the respective 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was done, also logistic regression for adjusted OR (multivariate) was done. Values of p < 0.05 were considered significant for all analyses. Results. One hundred six hospitalized patients were evaluated. The mean age of patients was 61.58 years (SD 16.81). Cardiovascular risk factors among them were hypertension (46.2%), diabetes (28.3%), and obesity (28.3%), among others. Fifty-six patients died (52.8%). Mortality associated factors at the multivariate analysis were arterial hypertension (OR=1.343, 95% 1.089-1.667), myocardial injury (OR=1.303, 95% 1.031-1.642), and mechanical ventilation (OR 1.262, 95% 1.034-1.665), as associated factors. Conclusion. As observed in other regions of the world, cardiovascular risk factors represent a significant and independent threat to be considered in patients with COVID-19. Further studies and interventions in Peru and Latin America are expected.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0334.v2
Online: 5 May 2021 (12:04:56 CEST)
In this study, we described the most critical risk factors for different malignancies including: breast, prostate, lung, and colorectal carcinoma among others, with an emphasis on modifiable risk factors. We revised the literature review about risk factors involved in the genesis of cancer in various databases, including articles indexed in PUBMED, SCOPUS, PMC, and Google Scholar. Awareness of risk factors enables conscious decisions to be made in an effort to combat malignancies. Knowing risk factors is a mode of fighting malignancy. Diet, lifestyle, practises, and laboratory/clinical interventions were among risk factors of diverse malignancy. Diet, lifestyle, laboratory/clinical interventions all contribute to the genesis and prognosis in a variety of malignancies. We concluded that abstaining from risk factors can prevent the development of many malignancies in a century where this conundrum is raising disproportionately. By informing the public about modifiable risk factors cancer mortality rates can be reduced. It is treated here is to make the public aware of the modifiable risks of cancers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0113.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: entrepreneurship; organizational entrepreneurship; organization performance; risk-taking; innovation; environmental factors
Online: 13 June 2019 (08:01:52 CEST)
Nowadays, environmental circumstances and business rules of organizations are complicate, active and uncertain, so, they cannot assurance their long- term survival through some actions such as, structural changes and methods or relying on creativity of some people in organization. Companies and organizations should prepare conditions to institutionalize entrepreneurial culture in their organization. Corporate entrepreneurship can improve the value of the organization. The entrepreneurial oriented organizations are more responsive for environment and market changes. Opportunity recognition is the base of being successful. The research is applied and in terms of method is descriptive. Data were analyzed, using Linear Regression and Multiple Moderated Regression (MMR) and SPSS software. In this research the effects of organizational entrepreneurship (innovation, proactiveness and risk-taking) on performance of the centers influenced by environmental factors (government’s strategies, competitiveness and technology) as moderating variables, were studied. Furthermore, the study presents that there is a significant positive relationship between organizational entrepreneurship and performance. Although the study does not show any significant moderating effect of environmental factors (Government’s strategies, competitiveness and technology) on the relationship between organizational entrepreneurship and performance, however, the result of the study manifests direct relationship between environmental factors and performance of such centers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0237.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Colorectal cancer; Cerebrovascular-specific mortality; Cerebrovascular-specific diseases; Incidence; Risk factors
Online: 12 November 2021 (16:47:45 CET)
Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most prevalent diseases and the second leading cause of death worldwide. However, the relationship between CRC and cerebrovascular-specific mortality (CVSM) remains elusive and less is known about the influencing factors associated with CVSM in CRC. Here, we aimed to analyze the incidence as well as the risk factors of CVSM in CRC. Methods: Patients with a primary CRC diagnosed between 1973 and 2015 were identified from Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database with follow-up data available until 31 December 2016. Conditional standardized mortality ratios were calculated to compare the incidence of CVSM between CRC patients and the general US population. Univariate and multivariate survival analyses with a competing risk model were used to interrogate the risk factors for CVSM. Results: A total of 563298 CRC individuals were included. The CVSM in CRC patients was significantly higher than the general population in all age subgroups. Among competing causes of death in patients, the cumulative mortality caused by cerebrovascular-specific diseases steadily increased during study period. While age and surgery positively influenced CVSM on both univariate and multivariate analyses, male patients and those who had radiotherapy, chemotherapy, more recent year (2001-2015) of diagnosis as well as multiple primary or distant tumors experienced a lower risk of CVSM. Interpretation: Our data suggest a potential role for CRC in the incidence of CVSM and also identify several significant predictors of CVSM, which may be helpful for risk stratification and therapeutic optimization of cerebrovascular-specific diseases in CRC patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0168.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: malaria; fever; Plasmodium falciparum; Falciparum vivax; under-five; determinants; risk factors
Online: 6 August 2021 (14:09:07 CEST)
Background/Purpose: Over the last two decades, malaria has remained a major worldwide public health concern, especially in the developing countries leading to high morbidity and mortality among children. Nigeria is the world most burdened malaria endemic nation, contributing more than a quarter of global malaria cases. This study determined the prevalence of malaria among children 6-59 months in Nigeria, and the effects of individual and contextual factors. Methods: The study utilized data from 2018 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) involving a weighted sample size of 10,185 children who were tested for malaria using rapid diagnostic test (RDT). Given the hierarchical structure of the data set, such that children at level-1 are nested in community at level-2, and nested in states and Federal Capital Territory (FCT) at level-3, multilevel mixed effect logistic regression models were used for the analysis. Results: The proportion of children 6-59 months of age in Nigeria that had malaria fever positive as assessed by RDTs was 35.5% (3,418/10185), (CI: 33.9-37.1). Kebbi State had the highest proportion of children 6-59 months who were malaria positive, 77.6%, (CI: 70.2-83.5), followed by Katsina State, 55.5%, (CI: 47.7-63.1). The Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja had the proportion of 29.6%, (CI: 21.6-39.0), malaria positive children of 6-59 months of age. Children between the age of 48 and 59 months were 2.68 times more likely to have malaria fever than children 6-11 months of age (AOR=2.68, 95% CI: 2.03-3.54). Also, children from the rural area (AOR= 2.12, 95% CI: 1.75-2.57), were more likely to suffer from malaria infection compare with children from urban area. Conclusion: The study identified some individual and contextual predictors of malaria among children in Nigeria. These factors are areas that need to be considered for policy designs and implementations toward control and total elimination of malaria-related morbidity and mortality among children in Nigeria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0759.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: adolescents; cardiometabolic risk factors; insulin resistance; abdominal obesity; lifestyle; nutritional habits
Online: 30 December 2020 (15:16:17 CET)
The prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors has increased in Slovakian adolescents as a result of serious lifestyle changes. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the prevalence of insulin resistance (IR) and the associations with cardiometabolic and selected lifestyle risk factors in a sample of Slovak adolescents. In total, 2,629 adolescents (45.8% males) aged between 14 and 18 years were examined in the study. Anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, and resting heart rate were measured, fasting venous blood samples were analysed, and HOMA-IR was calculated. The mean HOMA-IR was 2.45±1.91 without a significant intersexual difference. IR (cut-off point for HOMA-IR=3.16) was detected in 18.6% of adolescents (19.8% males, 17.6% females). IR was strongly associated with overweight/obesity (especially central) and with almost all monitored cardiometabolic factors, except for TC and systolic BP in females. The multivariate model selected variables such as low level of physical fitness, insufficient physical activity, breakfast skipping, a small number of daily meals, frequent consumption of sweetened beverages, and low educational level of fathers as the significant risk factors of IR in adolescents. Recognizing the main lifestyle risk factors and early IR identification is important in terms of the performance of preventive strategies. Weight reduction, regular physical activity, and healthy eating habits can improve insulin sensitivity and decrease the incidence of metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and CVD in adulthood.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0394.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; physician trainee; resident; fellow; risk factors
Online: 14 April 2021 (17:42:02 CEST)
Risk factors for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection are not well-defined in resident physicians and fellows (trainees). We aimed to identify sociodemographic, occupational and community factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection among trainees during the first wave of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in New York City (NYC). In this retrospective cohort study, we administered an electronic survey between June 26 and August 31, 2020 to trainees at the Mount Sinai Health System in NYC to assess risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection between February 1 and June 30, 2020. We used Bayesian generalized linear mixed effect regression and structural equation models to examine associations. SAR-CoV-2 infection was determined by self-reported IgG antibody and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction results and confirmed with laboratory results. Among 2354 trainees invited to participate, 328 (14%) completed the survey and reported test results. The cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection was 20.1%. Assignment to medical-surgical units (odds ratio [OR], 2.51; 95% CI, 1.18-5.34), and training in emergency medicine, critical care and anesthesiology (OR, 2.93; 95% CI, 1.24-6.92) were independently associated with infection. Deployment to care for unfamiliar patient populations was protective against infection (OR, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.03-0.73). Community factors were not significantly associated with infection after adjustment for occupational factors. Our findings may inform tailored infection prevention strategies for trainees responding to the COVID-19 pandemic.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0726.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: mental health; risk factor; protective factor; refugee; asylum-seeker; sustainable intervention
Online: 27 April 2021 (14:24:31 CEST)
This systematic review followed the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement to synthesizes the existing literature with a goal to review current conceptual frameworks of mental health of forced migrants for further practice research priorities in social work. The search was done between January 2015 to January 2021. As a result, 29 studies met inclusion criteria. Medicalizing mental health issues by relying solely on the effectiveness of medicine was a controversial risk factor that negatively affected the daily life activities of refugees and reduced their willingness for seeking professional mental health services. Empowering vulnerable minorities by giving them back their power and agency to be able to speak for themselves and raise voices of trauma and recovery was the missing protective factor for sustainable mental health practice. The benefits of group-based interventions are highlighted in which communities and individuals address mental health issues as well as isolation through building collective identities and support networks. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) can add more strength to any kind of mental health intervention. Finally, the benefits of applying ecological perspective for the mental health of refugees, and its implications for a sustainable intercultural practice are discussed. Social workers in this model are the representatives of at-risk groups, thus need more agency and creativity in reflecting client’s concrete needs.
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: body shape index; body roundness index; metabolic risk factors; Southern China adults
Online: 24 May 2020 (16:44:12 CEST)
This purpose was to compare the ability of body shape index (ABSI) and body roundness index (BRI) with waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and body adiposity index (BAI) to predict metabolic risk. The cross-sectional study was conducted in 17,360 Chinese subjects (were aged 18-95 years old) who escaped cardiovascular disease (CVD) or diabetes. Biochemical and anthropometric variables were measured by trained staff. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) and optimal cutoff values of obesity indices were recruited to compare the predictive ability for metabolic risk factors. The mean age of subjects was 53.7(13.1) years, 41.6 % were males. Within young group (<60 years), the areas under the curve (AUC) demonstrated that WC, BMI, WHR, WHtR and BRI were able to similarly predict high metabolic risk in males (0.74 vs. 0.74 vs. 0.73 vs. 0.73 vs. 0.73) and in females (0.73 vs. 0.73 vs. 0.71 vs. 0.73 vs. 0.73), while the approximate predictive ability were only acquired in males (0.73 vs. 0.73 vs. 0.70 vs. 0.73 vs. 0.73) within elder group (≥60 years). The optimal cut-off values of BRI for high metabolic risk were calculated in males (<60 y: 3.49 vs. ≥60 y: 3.46) and females (<60 y: 3.47 vs. ≥60 y: 3.60). Meanwhile, BRI displayed a strong prediction to elevated BP and elevated TG in males (AUC = 0.64; AUC = 0.70) and to elevated BP, elevated TG and elevated SUA in females (AUC = 0.67; AUC = 0.69; AUC =0.70). BRI was able to similarly predict high metabolic risk compared to WC, BMI, WHR, WHtR and BAI, while ABSI was not. Moreover, BRI revealed specific predictive ability for elevated BP, elevated TG and elevated SUA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0450.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: adolescent idiopathic scoliosis; proximal junctional kyphosis; complication; risk factor; spinous process; sagittal alignment; rod contouring
Online: 26 August 2022 (05:10:17 CEST)
Proximal Junctional Kyphosis (PJK) as one of the most discussed problems after corrective surgery in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), is still not fully clarified and seems to be multifactorial. Biome-chanical and few clinical studies have shown the influence of destruction of posterior ligaments by re-section of spinous processes and some parameters concerning rod contouring as risk factors for PJK. To verify these results 192 patients with AIS and corrective surgery via posterior approach between 2009 and 2017 were included. Radiographic parameters were analyzed preoperatively (preOP), postoperatively (postOP), and with a mean follow up (FU) of 27 months. The participants were divided into two groups (PJK group and non-PJK group). The incidence of PJK was 15.6%. Contrary to the results of biomechanical studies, we could not find any significant influence of the spinous process resection. However, the PJK group had significantly larger preOP T4-T12 kyphosis (31.1°±13.93° vs. 23.3°±14.93°, p=.016). Furthermore, the PJK group showed a significantly larger rod contour angle (RCA) (8.0°±4.44° vs. 5.9°±3.28°, p=.003) and mismatch of postOP proximal junctional angle (PJA) and RCA (3.5°±5.72° vs. 0.9°±4.86°, p=.010) compared to the non-PJK group. An increase of the mismatch of postOP PJA and RCA (OR=1.14, p=.008) and a high RCA are risk factors for PJK and need to be focused on by surgeons.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0447.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Malaria, Fever, Plasmodium falciparum, falciparum vivax, under-five, determinants, risk factors, review
Online: 22 January 2021 (13:08:29 CET)
Background/Purpose: In recent times, Sub-Sahara Africa (SSA) had been rated by the World Health Organization, (WHO), as the most malaria endemic region in the world. Evidence synthesis of the risk factors associated with malaria among children aged under-five in SSA is urgently needed. This would help to inform decisions that policy makers and executors in the region need to make for the effective distribution of scare palliative resources to curb the spread of the illness. This scoping review is aimed to identify studies that have used multivariate classical regression analysis to determine risk factors associated with malaria among children under-five years old in SSA. Methods/Design: The search terms followed PICOTS, (Population, Intervention, Comparator, Outcome, Timing, Setting), and were used in searching through the following databases: PubMed, MEDLINE, Web of Science, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Scopus, and MeasureDHS. The databases were searched for published articles from January 1990 to December 2020. Results: Among the 1154 studies identified, only thirteen (13) studies met the study’s inclusion/exclusion criteria. Narrative syntheses were performed on the selected papers to synchronise the various risk factors identified. Factors ranging from child-related, (age, birth order and use of bed net), parental/household-related, (maternal age and education status, household wealth index) and community-related variables, (community wealth status, free bed net distribution), were some of the identified significant risk factors. Conclusion: It is timely to have a synthesis of risk factors that influence the malaria status of children under-five in SSA. The outcome of the review will increase the knowledge of the epidemiology of morbidity that will form the basis for designing efficient and cost-effective distribution of palliatives and controls of malaria in SSA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0054.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: COVID-19; Knowledge; Perception of Risk; Pandemic Outbreak; Disease Control; Cross-sectional Study
Online: 5 July 2020 (08:10:36 CEST)
COVID-19 is an infectious disease spreading through human touch. This study explored the risk perception and knowledge towards COVID-19 infection among Bangladeshi adult participants. Two self-administered online surveys were administered at two different time points from 26-31 March 2020 (Early lockdown) and 11-16 May 2020 (Late lockdown) through social media on 1005 respondents (322 and 683 participants, respectively) during COVID-19 lockdown period in Bangladesh. Univariate and multiple linear regression models were used to examine factors associated with risk perception and knowledge towards COVID-19. The mean knowledge (8.4 vs. 8.1, P=0.022) and risk perception (11.2 vs. 10.6, P < 0.001) scores differ significantly between early and late lockdown. Compared to the early lockdown period, the scores for perceived risk of contracting COVID-19 decreased significantly while public knowledge about COVID-19 was lower but not statistically significant. Female participants who practiced high quarantine particularly those who did so at the public health order during the lockdown reported increased knowledge towards the spread of COVID-19 and perceived high risk of contracting COVID-19. Education intervention using awareness to increase public knowledge and perception towards COVID-19 in Bangladesh should target male participants who practiced low quarantine and are less worried about the spread of such novel coronavirus even as the physical distancing persists.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0206.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: COVID-19; multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C); risk classification; prognosis
Online: 14 June 2022 (11:12:22 CEST)
Background: Two years after the first cases, critical gaps remain in identifying prognostic factors in multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). Methods: This retrospective study included 99 patients with MIS-C hospitalized between August 2020 and March 2022 in a pediatric tertiary center. The patients were divided into two groups according to clinical severity (low and high-risk). Prognostic values of baseline clinical and laboratory characteristics were evaluated with advanced statistical analysis, including machine learning. Results: Sixty-three patients were male, and the median age was 83 (3–205) months. Fifty-nine patients (%59.6) were low-risk cases. Patients aged six years and over tended to be at higher risk. Involvement of aortic or tricuspid valve or >1 valve was more frequent in the high-risk group. Mortality in previously healthy children was 3.2%. Intensive care unit admission and mortality rate in the high-risk group were 37.5% and 7.5%, respectively. At admission, high-risk patients were more likely to have reduced lymphocyte count and total protein level and increased brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), ferritin, D-dimer, and troponin concentrations. The multiple logistic regression model showed that BNP, total protein, and troponin were associated with higher risk. When the laboratory parameters were used together, BNP, total protein, ferritin, and D-dimer provided the highest contribution to the discrimination of the risk groups (100%, 89.6%, 85.6%, and 55.8%, respectively). Conclusions: Our study widely evaluates and points to some clinical and laboratory parameters that, at admission, may indicate a more severe course. Modeling studies with larger sample groups are strongly needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0354.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: heart failure; mid-range ejection fraction; atrial fibrillation; cardiac inflammation; cardiac fibrosis; risk factors.
Online: 15 July 2021 (10:18:01 CEST)
Aims: Heart failure (HF) is frequently accompanied by atrial fibrillation (AF), a combination that worsens the outcomes of both diseases. Despite advances in the treatment of AF, it remains a serious and unsolved problem for clinicians and researchers. The aim of this study was to examine risk factors for incidents of paroxysmal and persistent AF in patients having heart failure with mid-range ejection fraction (HFmrEF). Methods. Overall, 71 patients with HFmrEF and non-valvular AF, including paroxysmal and persistent types, were enrolled in this study. As a control group, 42 HFmrEF patients without AF were also enrolled. All patients underwent detailed physical examination, including resting electrocardiography, echocardiography, and 24-hour ambulatory Holter monitoring. Levels of the inflammation markers high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and the fibrotic marker transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) were measured by ELISA and expressed as odds ratios. Results: We show that paroxysmal AF was associated with higher diastolic blood pressure, whereas both paroxysmal and persistent forms of AF were associated with more frequent occurrence of hypertensive crisis episodes and greater body mass index. Progression from paroxysmal to persistent AF was associated with significant ventricular remodeling. Persistent and paroxysmal AF were associated with higher levels of inflammatory markers when compared to HFmrEF patients having no AF. In addition, TGF-1 was significantly increased in HFmrEF patients having persistent but not paroxysmal AF. Conclusions: Occurrence of AF, first paroxysmal and then persistent, in HFmrEF patients is associated with left ventricular remodeling and the appearance of systemic inflammatory and fibrotic markers. Changes in those parameters may be indicators by which to identify patients at increased risk of atrial fibrillation. Further studies are needed to determine the prognostic validity of these markers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0201.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: Indian ocean; livestock; Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae; risk factors; CTX-M; enzymes
Online: 22 January 2018 (12:02:53 CET)
In South Western Indian ocean (IO), Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL) are a main public health issue. In livestock, ESBL burden was unknown. The aim of this study was estimating the prevalence of ESBL on commercial farms in Reunion, Mayotte and Madagascar and genes involved. Secondly, risk factors of ESBL occurrence in broiler, beef cattle and pig farms were explored. In 2016-2017, commercial farms were sampled using boot swabs and samples stored at 4°C before microbiological analysis for phenotypical ESBL and gene characterization. A semi-directive questionnaire was performed. Prevalences observed in all production types and territories were elevated, except for beef cattle in Reunion which differed significantly. The most common ESBL gene was the CTX-M-1 subtype. Generalized linear models explaining ESBL occurrence varied between livestock production sectors and allowed identifying main protective (e.g., water quality control and detergent use for cleaning) and risk factors (e.g., recent antibiotic use, other farmers visiting the exploitation, pet presence). This study is the first to explore tools for antibiotic resistance management in IO farms. It provides interesting hypothesis to explore about antibiotic use in IO and ESBL transmission between pig, beef cattle and humans in Madagascar.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0162.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Econometrics & Statistics Keywords: cardiovascular disease (CVD); Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs); cost of admission; risk factors
Online: 16 January 2020 (09:05:32 CET)
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is considered to be one of the leading health issues in Thailand. CVD not only contributes to an increase in the number of hospital admissions year on year but also impacts on the rising health care expenditure for the treatment and long-term care of CVD patients. Therefore, this study is aimed at examining the impacts of risk reduction strategies on the number of CVD hospital admissions, Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) and the costs of hospitalisation. To estimate such impacts a CVD cost-offset model wasapplied using a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. The number of the mid-year population was classified by age, gender and the CVD risk factor profiles from the recent Thai National Health Examination Survey (NHES) IV. This survey was chosen as the baseline population. The CVD risk factor profiles included age, gender, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and smoking status. The Asia-Pacific Collaborative Cohort Study (APCCS) equation was applied to predict the probability of developing CVD over the next eight-year period. Estimates on the following were obtained from the model: (1.) the CVD events both fatal and non-fatal; (2.) the difference between the projected number of deaths and the actual number of deaths in that population; (3.) the number of patients who are expected to live with CVD; (4.) the DALYs from the estimated number of fatal and non-fatal events; (5.) the cost of hospital admissions. Four CVD risk strategy scenarios were investigated as follows: (1.) the do nothing scenario; (2.) the optimistic scenario; (3.) achieve the UN millennium development goal; and (4.) the worst-case scenario. The findings showed that over the next eight years there are likely to be 3,297,428 recorded cases of CVD; 5,870,049 cases of DALYs; and, approximately ฿57,000 million, ($1.9 billion), is projected as the total cost of hospital admissions. However, if the current health policy can reduce the levels of risk factors as defined in the optimistic scenario or such policy meets the specifications of the UN millennium development goal,there would be a significant reduction in the number of hospital admissions. These are estimated to be a reduction of 522,179 male and 515,416 female cases. With these results it is expected that health care costs would save approximately ฿9,000 million, ($298.3 million), for CVD and 900,000 million of DALYs over the next eight years. However, if there is an upward trend in the risk factors as predicted in the worst-case scenario, then there will be an increase of 428,220 CVD cases; consequently, DALYs cases may rise by 766,029 while the hospitalisation costs may increase by approximately ฿7,000 million, ($232.1 million). Based on our findings, reducing the levels of CVD risk factors in the population will drastically reduce: (1.) the number of CVD cases; (2.) DALYs cases; and (3.) health care costs. Therefore it is recommended that the health policy should enhance the primary prevention programs which would be targeted at reducing the CVD risk factors in the population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0620.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: risk factors; longevity, death; euthanasia; retirement; longitudinal; TeamMate; working dogs; herding dogs; working farm dogs
Online: 25 March 2021 (14:24:34 CET)
Working farm dogs are essential to many livestock farmers. Little is known about factors that influence dogs’ risk of being lost from work. This paper explores risk factors for farm dogs being lost through death, euthanasia and retirement. All enrolled dogs were working and minimum 18 months old. Five data collection rounds were done over four years. Data about dogs were collected from owners and dogs were given physical examinations by veterinarians. Dogs that were lost from work were counted and owner-reported reasons for loss were recorded. Multivariable logistic regression modelling was used to investigate risk factors for loss. Of 589 dogs, 81 were lost from work. Of these, 59 dogs died or were euthanized and 22 were retired. Farm dogs tended to reach high ages, with 38% being 10 years or older when last examined. Acute injury or illness was the most commonly owner-reported reason for loss. Age group (P < 0.0001) and lameness (P = 0.04, OR = 1.8) significantly affected dogs’ risk being lost. These results expand our knowledge about factors that affect health, welfare and work in farm dogs. Further investigation into reasons for lameness may help improve health and welfare in working farm dogs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0236.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: Blood Pressure; Rope Exercise; physical activity; Lifestyle Modification; Adolescents; BMI; Hypertension; Cardiovascular risk factors; Academic Performance
Online: 18 October 2021 (10:21:34 CEST)
There are evidences of shared biological mechanisms between obesity and hypertension during childhood in the adulthood, and loads of research literatures have proven that, it will cost the economies and health of nations profoundly if neglected. The Prevention and early diagnosis of cardiovascular risk factors such as overweight and hypertension is an essential strategy for control, effective treatment and prevention of its’ complications. The aim of the study is to assess the effect of school based Exercise and Life style Motivation Intervention (SEAL-MI) on adolescent's cardiovascular risk factors and academic performance. An experimental study was conducted among 1005 adolescents - 520 and 485 adolescents were randomly selected for control and study group, respectively. Demographic details and the data related to dietary habits, physical activity and sleep quality were collected by a structured interview questionnaire. The study group adolescents were given the SEAL-MI for six months which includes a school based rope exercise for 45 minutes per day for 5 days a week and a motivation intervention related to dietary habits, physical activity and sleep. Post-test 1 and 2 were done after 3 and 6 months of intervention. The prevalence of overweight among adolescents was 28.73% and prehypertension was 9.26%. Among overweight adolescents, the prevalence of prehypertension was found to be very high (32.25%). In post intervention, there was a significant reduction in weight, BP (p=0.000) and improvement in dietary habits, physical activity, sleep (p=0.000) and academic performance. A significant positive correlation was found between BMI and SBP (p=0.000) and BMI and academic performance (p=0.003). The linear regression analyses revealed that the gender (ß: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.39, 0.81), age (ß: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.17, 0.46), family income (ß: 0.2, 95% CI: 0.41, 0.5), residence (ß: 0.19, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.27) and type of family (ß: 0.25, 95% CI: 0.39, 0.02) had the strongest correlate with the BMI of the adolescents. Also, Mother’s education Mother’s education (ß: 0.35, 95% CI: 0.18, 0.59) had the strongest correlate with the SBP of the adolescents. In contrast, the DBP was negatively persuaded by age (ß: -0.36, 95% CI: 1.54, 0.29) and gender (ß: -0.26, 95% CI: 1.34, 0.12) of the adolescents. Regular practice of rope exercise and lifestyle modification such as diet, physical activity and sleep quality among adolescents prevent and control childhood CVD risk factors like overweight, hypertension. The SEAL-MI may lead to age appropriate development of adolescents and improves their academic performance and quality of life. Giving importance to the adolescents from urban habitat, from affluent nuclear family and catching them young will bring significant change in the disease burden.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0381.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: continuous quality improvement; healthcare sector; biology risk control; patient safety; research to practice
Online: 18 August 2020 (10:57:11 CEST)
Stakeholder input into the decision-making process when developing public health programs and policies is crucial. This article presents an innovative approach, involving online participation with a wide group of stakeholders located in different geographic locations, for policy consensus by research methodology. The results of the project have been used to propose assumptions regarding a strategy for preventing blood-borne diseases in Poland. The research was conducted iteratively using a multi-stage qualitative methodology to explore risk assessment involving blood-borne infections. The final output of the entire project is a list of key problems/challenges and solutions associated with medical and nonmedical services that are connected to the breakage of tissue continuity. Qualitative research is rare in risk assessment as priority is usually given to statistical data and end-points (quantitative studies ). Statistical data on health risk allows to assess the health implications, while the methodology applied also allowed diagnosis of the processes leading to these effects. In addition to policy preparation for blood-borne illnesses, the methodology employed in the study can also be used to successfully explore other areas of public health policy decisions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0598.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Zambezi; Health Care Workers; cigarette smoking; Cigarettes; Gender differences; Prevalence; Tobacco use; Vulnerable populations; Risk factors
Online: 23 December 2020 (16:28:15 CET)
Smoking is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases and remains a significant public health challenge in many lower- and middle-income countries (LMIC) including Namibia. The purpose of the study was to estimate the prevalence of smoking and its associated risk factors among HCWs and non-HCWs in Zambezi region. An exploratory cross-sectional survey was conducted between March and October 2020 among residents of the eight (8) constituencies of Zambezi region. Four hundred and sixty-one (461) respondents who had been residents of the selected constituencies for over five years and aged between 17-60 years were selected for the study. The main outcome measure was current cigarette smoking status. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents. We stratified data analysis by individual being health workers or non-health workers. A bivariate Pearson Chi-square test was used to determine the association between socio-demographic characteristics and the smoking status. Statistically significant variables in the bivariate analysis were used as predictors in the univariate and multivariate models. The response rate of potential participants was 95% (n=434). The mean (±SD) age of participant’s was 32.5 (± 11.34 years). Significant relationships were observed between smoking status and area of residency (constituency), gender, age category, level of education, age of onset of smoking and the daily smoking frequency. The majority of smokers (n=108) were none-HCWs with males being the majority (n=62). Age (p=0.001), education levels (p=0.001) and area of residency (p=0.022) were highly associated with smoking among none-HCW while marital status was associated with smoking among HCWs (p=0.013). In the final multivariate model, the odds of smoking among female non-HCWs were significantly lower (OR: 0.386; 95% CI: 0.228 – 0.655). Furthermore, the odds of smoking among this same group were lower among those who had secondary level education (OR: 0.178; 95% CI: 0.0659 – 0.483), post-secondary (OR: 0.117, 95% CI: 0.0412 – 0.330) and first stage tertiary (OR: 0.306: 95% CI: 0.106 – 0.881) compared to those who had primary school education. In conclusion, smoking prevalence among none HCWs and HCWs working in Zambezi included in the study was similar to that of the general Namibian population but higher than other neighboring countries within SADC. The results showed a need for the establishment of specific smoking related strategies that target HCWs to address smoking use parallel to the running of none HCWs which would ultimately decrease the smoking prevalence and improve health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0588.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: retrospective cohort study; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; health care workers; risk of infection
Online: 27 August 2020 (03:25:18 CEST)
Purpose: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the health care workers (HCWs) at the frontline have been largely exposed to infected patients, running an high risk of being infected by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. This study investigates the epidemiological, clinical and lifestyles characteristics that might play roles in the susceptibility of HCWs to COVID-19 in a hit Italian hospital. Methods:Demographic, lifestyle, work-related and comorbidities data of 1447 HCWs which underwent a nasopharyngeal swab for SARS-CoV-2 were retrospectively collected. For the 164 HCWs positive for SARS-CoV-2, data about safety in the workplace, symptoms and clinical course of COVID-19 were also collected. Cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection was estimated. Risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection were assessed using a multivariable Poisson regression. Results: The cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among the screened HCWs was 11.33 (9.72-13.21). Working in a COVID-19 ward, being a former smoker (vs being a person who never smoked) and BMI were positively associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, whereas being a current smoker was negatively associated with this variable. Conclusions: Assuming an equal accessibility and proper use of PPE of all the HCWs of our Hospital, the great and more prolonged contact with COVID-19 patients remains the crucial risk factor for SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, increased and particular care needs to be focused specifically on the most exposed HCWs groups, which should be safeguarded. Furthermore, in order to limit the risk of asymptomatic spread of SARS-CoV-2 infection, the HCWs mild symptoms of COVID-19 should be considered when evaluating the potential benefits of universal staff testing
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0410.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: social representations; natural hazard risk; Alpine hazards; risk communication; risk management; qualitative risk research;
Online: 16 November 2018 (13:35:01 CET)
The term “risk” is connoted with divergent meanings in natural hazard risk research and the practice of risk management. Whilst the technical definition is accurately defined, in practice, the term “risk” is often synonymously used with “danger”. Considering this divergence as a deficiency, risk communication often aims to correct laypersons’ understanding. We suggest in reference to Breakwell (2001) to treat the variety of meanings as a resource for risk communication strategies instead. However, there is no investigation so far, of what laypersons’ meanings of risk actually comprise. To address this gap, we examine the meanings of risk applying a social representations approach (Moscovici, 2001) in a qualitative case study design. Results of the study among inhabitants of Swiss mountain villages show that differences in meanings were found according to hazard experience and community size. We found commonly shared core representations, and single peripheral ones. We conclude with suggestions on how to make usage of the knowledge on SR in risk communication.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0128.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: large scale systems; risk assessment; risk management techniques; risk mitigation
Online: 10 December 2019 (07:14:12 CET)
Risk assessment management have been a hot topic for the researchers since a very long time. Software risk management is an important part of project management as it contains the identification, analysis, estimation and monitoring of different risks present in the system. This helps developers in decision making while assessing the problems that could arise in the software systems. Risk management is very complex in large scale system as these systems have very complex development. The paper describes risk management techniques for large scale system. Furthermore we have provided a detailed comparative analysis of these techniques with commonly identified risks in software systems and have provided a systematic order for risk management process to ensure risk mitigation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0551.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: Risk analysis, risk assessment, biological invasions, regulations, policy, risk management
Online: 22 November 2018 (14:44:57 CET)
This report presents a framework for analysing the risk of alien taxa under South Africa's National Environmental Management: Biodiversity Act of 2004, and the Alien and Invasive Species Regulations of 2014. While the report was initially designed to meet a specific South Africa need, the risk analysis processes developed can, we believe, be transferred to any specified geographic region. In outlining a series of questions related to a taxon’s likelihood of invasion and the consequences thereof, i.e. the potential impacts, the report provides a structure for collating data relevant to the process of listing taxa as well as a process for developing recommendations that is both mathematically sound, transparent, and that explicitly takes uncertainty into account. The framework is based on collating information according to international standards in biological invasions (specifically the IUCN Environmental Impact Classification of Alien Taxa Scheme, the CBD's scheme for classifying invasion pathways, and the Unified Framework for Biological Invasions proposed by Blackburn et al. 2011). The risk analysis framework is currently being implemented in South Africa in an effort to underpin national regulatory lists of invasive species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0030.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: green building; risk management; risk factors, risk mitigation measures; architect
Online: 2 May 2018 (16:55:58 CEST)
The number of green buildings has increased to address the global environmental crisis. However, green buildings face risks resulting from new materials and methods. In addition, these buildings are expected to perform at higher levels than traditional ones. The objectives of this study are to identify the possible risk factors for architects developing green building projects in South Korea and to assess risk mitigation measures. To attain this goal, fourteen risk factors and twelve mitigation measures were identified from a comprehensive literature review. A questionnaire survey was administered to architects practicing green building design. Findings revealed the ‘adoption of new technology and processes’ was the largest difference between green and traditional building projects. This study identified ‘financial risk,’ ‘design changes,’ and ‘client’s goal uncertainty’ as the top three risk factors in green building design. Additionally, the survey proposed the four most effective risk mitigation measures for green building projects: (1) ‘contract indicating each party’s roles, liabilities and limitations clearly’; (2) ‘utilizing integrated design process’; (3) ‘understanding client’s goal in green building projects’; and (4) ‘improving communication and coordination among stakeholders.’ There are a few studies focusing on the architects’ perceived risk concerning green building projects; however, this study expands the knowledge and fills the literature gap. Additionally, this study provides a comprehensive understanding of critical risks and mitigation measures that can benefit South Korea’s green building design practice through better risk management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0104.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: cyber risk; Internet of Things; cyber risk impact assessment; cyber risk estimation; cyber risk insurance
Online: 8 March 2019 (08:50:49 CET)
In this paper we present an understanding of cyber risks in the Internet of Things (IoT), we explain why it is important to understand what IoT cyber risks are and how we can use risk assessment and risk management approaches to deal with these challenges. We introduce the most effective ways of doing Risk assessment and Risk Management of IoT risk. As part of our research, we also developed methodologies to assess and manage risk in this emerging environment. This paper will take you through our research and we will explain: what we mean by the IoT; what we mean by risk and risk in the IoT; why risk assessment and risk management are important; the IoT risk management for incident response and recovery; what open questions on IoT risk assessment and risk management remain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0283.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: chronic inflammation; biomarker panels; leukocyte count; C-reactive protein; related syndromes and pathologies; risk assessment; screening programmes; ageing; elderly's health
Online: 25 October 2019 (04:16:43 CEST)
C-reactive protein (CRP) and leukocytes are blood biomarkers involved in "Inflamm-Aging", which is a risk factor for the onset and progression of age-related diseases. Studies show that higher serum concentrations of these biomarkers are associated with functional disability, increased risk of low muscle strength, decreased muscle mass and mortality in the elderly. The objective was to estimate the predictive power and discriminating criteria of C-reactive protein and leukocyte concentrations for the risk of adverse health factors in the elderly within 30 days after hospital discharge (HD). Prospective cohort study using exploratory methods and blood biomarkers with 135 older adults admitted to medical and surgical clinics at a government hospital. The elderly were monitored at home after 30 days of HD for adverse health factors (rehospitalization, falls, amount of medication consumed, disability in basic and instrumental activities of daily living and mortality). CRP> 2.4; ≥ 0.7 and> 24.7 mg / dL and leukocytes ≥ 6.410; ≥ 8.690 and> 8.310 mm³ were discriminant for rehospitalization, falls and mortality within 30 days after HD, respectively. The cut-off points described may be used as a reference in the screening of hospitalized elderly vulnerable to adverse health events after hospital discharge.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0119.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: Stress Testing; Credit Risk; Credit Risk Testing; Evaluation of Credit Risk; Credit Risk Management; Organizational Management
Online: 7 October 2021 (13:44:12 CEST)
The stress testing methodology should be implemented and applied to the entity's overall financial system at least annually, and if the organization operates in a volatile economy, it should be performed at least twice a year. Finally, managers should include regular training and development sessions for relevant employees of their organization to be fully informed and more informed and informed, considering the evolving science, theory and practicality of a discrete range of stress testing mechanisms that can be appropriately applied to overall financial framework and system of multiple financial institutions and banks. In addition, stress testing is essentially a methodology that collects and analyzes certain future macro-prudential and micro-prudential economic drivers and indicators, the primary purpose of which is to assess the future financial and economic well-being, level of growth and status quo of a financial institution, bank, organization, credit institution or economy or the nation as a whole. In addition, several of these reviews were specifically focused and incorporated into the paper, which substantially and broadly discussed and summarized the importance, feasibility and implementation and conclusions of different stress testing approaches for financial institutions and banks, especially in European and Chinese countries. region. with the primary intention of assessing the future financial and economic well-being, level of growth and status quo of a group of financial institutions, banks, organizations, credit institutions or the economy or the nation as a whole. In addition, several of these reviews were specifically targeted and incorporated into a paper that substantially and broadly discussed and summarized the importance of the feasibility and implementation and conclusions of different stress testing approaches for financial institutions and banks, especially in European and Chinese countries. region. with the primary intention of assessing the future financial and economic well-being, level of growth and status quo of a group of financial institutions, banks, organizations, credit institutions or the economy or the nation as a whole. In addition, several of these reviews were specifically focused and incorporated into the paper, which substantially and broadly discussed and summarized the importance, feasibility and implementation and conclusions of different stress testing approaches for financial institutions and banks, especially in European and Chinese countries. region. the level of growth and status quo of the financial institutions, banks, organizations, credit institutions or the economy or the nation as a whole. In addition, several of these reviews were specifically focused and incorporated into the paper, which substantially and broadly discussed and summarized the importance, feasibility and implementation and conclusions of different stress testing approaches for financial institutions and banks, especially in European and Chinese countries. region. the level of growth and status quo of the financial institutions, banks, organizations, credit institutions or the economy or the nation as a whole. In addition, several of these reviews were specifically focused and incorporated into the paper, which substantially and broadly discussed and summarized the importance, feasibility and implementation and conclusions of different stress testing approaches for financial institutions and banks, especially in European and Chinese countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0346.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: environmental health; risk communication; risk management; particulate matter; risk analysis; mass event
Online: 27 April 2018 (05:15:54 CEST)
Atmospheric pollution arising from diesel-powered engines can result in acute and chronic diseases of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. The annual carnival festival that takes place in the city of Salvador, Bahia-Brazil, is a large-scale event that gathers approximately 2 m revelers and 170,000 workers who accompany dozens of sound-trucks, or trios elétricos, for a period of seven days. These slow-moving sound-trucks run on diesel fuel, constantly exposing those around them to exhaust fumes. The present study aimed to evaluate air quality along the approximately 10km-long carnival parade circuit and determine possible impacts on human health. We applied a three-phase risk analysis strategy from 2007–2009: 1) hazard identification, 2) risk characterization and 3) risk management. Our quantification of atmospheric particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations revealed variable levels of PM2.5 ranging from 19 µg/m3 to 580 µg/m3, with peaks of up to 800 μg/m3 at sound-truck concentration areas. We then assessed the effects of air pollution on human health using ophthalmologic parameters obtained from 28 carnival volunteers, who often presented symptoms of eye irritation. Finally, we established strategies to communicate the study’s objectives and obtained results to the population through media outlets and open discussions with government agencies. According to our risk analysis, carnival sound-trucks represent the main source of atmospheric PM2.5 and NO2 pollution during the annual 7-day carnival festival. As a consequence of our research, the municipal government of Salvador issued an addendum to its carnival legislation mandating organizers to monitor atmospheric pollution, and, subsequently, all large-scale public events. Municipal government authorities have also promoted a shift from petroleum-based diesel fuel to biodiesel, a less-polluting fuel, for all adapted carnival sound-trucks. Our approach, which employed easily accessible and inexpensive methodology, provided substantial scientific evidence to support improvements in the regulation of air quality during large-scale public events held in the city of Salvador.Keywords: environmental
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0041.v3
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: uncertainty management; risk management; safety; ISO 31000:2009; ISO 31010:2009; risk management framework; risk-sentience; safety culture; risk culture; enterprise risk management
Online: 19 June 2018 (12:58:28 CEST)
The aim of this study was to develop, implement, and evaluate a new auxiliary enterprise risk management framework and process to serve as an enabler to the global ISO 31000 risk framework and ISO 31010 processes. This framework has been designed particularly for use within high-risk environments and those characterized by volatility, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity (VUCA). This paper proposes a methodology for optimization of structured sharing and grass-roots management of all available risk-sentience information with the assessed potential to develop into an identifiable risk in the future. The author introduces new risk terminology including risk-sentience, risk-sentience information, and risk-sentience management. The process involved the development of the Theory of Risk-Sentience (ToRS), Risk-Sentience Auxiliary Framework (RSAF) and a risk-sentience management process referred to as LUOMEAR (Learning from Uncertainties, Others Mistakes, Experiences and Anecdotal Reporting). Manchester Patient Safety Framework (MaPSaF), SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis, and a newly developed Risk-Sentience Fertility Checklist were used to conduct pre and post-trial evaluations. The findings include positive adjustments in safety culture, components of commitment to quality, communication and team-working around safety issues, access to evolving risk-information, and efficient sharing and management of recorded risk-information. Recommendations are made for more extensive application of both the proposed auxiliary risk framework and process within high-risk sectors to further explore its effectiveness and scope.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0134.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: risk; resilience; pandemic; prioritization; risk management; Arctic
Online: 4 June 2021 (10:40:38 CEST)
The Arctic is a remote region that has become increasingly globalised yet remains extremely vulnerable to many risks. The COVID-19 pandemic presented new challenges to the region. Using the Search, Appraisal, Synthesis and Analysis (SALSA) approach to conduct a meta-synthesis of the academic and grey literature on the impacts of the pandemic, an assessment is conducted of the types of risks that have been presented by the COVID-19 pandemic, the scales, and the national response strategies for mitigating the risks. Two case studies are explored, Iceland and Greenland, island nations that exemplify the extremes of the Arctic and reliance on tourism, a sector that was nearly entirely suspended by the pandemic. An evaluative matrix is employed which combines five different scales of risk – nano, micro, meso, macro and cosmic – with a sustainability categorisation of impacts. The risks of the pandemic cut across the respective scale and categories, with the potential for macro-scale events (systemic risk) to unfold linked to economic spillover effects driven by the curtailment of tourism and various supply chain delays. Both Iceland and Greenland have exemplified risk mitigation strategies which prioritise health over wealth, very strictly in the case of the latter. Strict border controls and domestic restrictions have enabled Iceland and Greenland to have much lower case and death numbers than most nations. In addition, Iceland has led the way, globally, in terms of testing and accumulating scientific knowledge concerning the genetic sequencing of the virus. The academic contribution of the paper concerns its broadening of understanding concerning systemic risk, which extends beyond financial implications to includes sustainability dimensions. For policymakers and practitioners, the paper highlights successful risk mitigation and science-based measures that will be useful for any nation tackling a future pandemic, regardless of whether they are island states, Arctic nations or another country.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0422.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: transformation; flood risk reduction; Jakarta; risk governance
Online: 29 May 2018 (09:32:27 CEST)
Jakarta belongs to the cities with the highest flood risk in the world. Its flood hazard is driven by land subsidence, soil sealing, changes in river discharge and increasingly sea level rise. As all of these trends are set to continue, Jakarta’s flood hazard is expected to intensify in the future. Designing and implementing risk reduction and adaption measures is therefore of utmost importance. Against the background, the paper draws on a discourse analysis and original empirical household survey data to review and evaluate current adaptation measures and to analyze in how far they describe a path that is transformative from previous risk reduction approaches. The results show that the focus is clearly on engineering solutions, foremost in the Giant Sea Wall project. The project is likely to transform the city’s flood hydrology. However, it cements rather than transforms the current risk management paradigm which gravitates around the goal of controlling flood symptoms, rather than addressing their anthropogenic root causes. The results also show that the planned measures are heavily contested due to concerns about ecological impacts, social costs, distributional justice, public participation and long-term effectiveness. On the outlook, the results therefore suggest that the more the flood hazard will intensify in the future, the deeper a societal debate will be needed about the desired pathway in flood risk reduction and overall development planning – particularly with regards to the accepted level of transformation, such as partial retreat from the most flood-affected areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0436.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Uncertainty; Climate risk assessment; Impact chain; Climate change; Risk; Tourism risk; Heat index
Online: 28 September 2022 (09:23:03 CEST)
The Impact Chain framework for risk assessment has proven to be a robust and effective It is very useful to set up the conceptual framework associated to a given risk and allows accommodating naturally the different components that shape that However, the operationalization of the impact chain may not be straightforward, in particular due to the inherent uncertainties associated to the selected indicators and the assigned In this paper, we introduce an extension to the Impact Chain framework that allows to consider uncertainties in the different components of the risk In the framework of the UNCHAIN project, a web-based tool has been developed to ease the task of implementing that The tool has been applied to a case study on the loss of tourist attractiveness due to heat stress conditions on the Balearic island, Spain, to illustrate how uncertainties in different components of the impact chain can affect the robustness of the final risk Also, the tool provides an estimate of the sensitivity of the final risk to each component, which can be used to guide risk mitigation Finally, a proposal for the validation of the risk assessment is presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0109.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: Information Technology, Risk Primary Market, Secondary Market Risk, Non-Financial Risks, Risk Management
Online: 11 January 2019 (10:45:25 CET)
The aim of this study was to determine the impact of information technology in management of risks in the capital market-listed company is in Tehran Stock Exchange. The purpose of the present study is an applied descriptive approach. The target population for the survey, companies that from 2009 to the first half of 2015 have been a member of the Tehran Stock Exchange, through Cochranʼs sample size of 140 companies, respectively. We used cluster sampling method. In order to collect data from two questionnaires: risk management questionnaire Foakeh (2013) has 38 items and a standard questionnaire Chanvyas (2006) has 40 items, the whole five-item Likert scale questionnaire is above has been used. Data gathered through the questionnaire, sign the application was 21spss. For inferential analysis of the variables and to analyze the data from different statistical tests and regression was used Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The results showed that information technology on risk management and its dimensions (primary market risk, market risk and the risk of secondary non-financial) impact.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0332.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: social risk; risk management; urban renewal; collectivism; China
Online: 18 August 2022 (07:41:22 CEST)
Social sustainability is the major concern of planners and local officials when urban renewal projects are being conducted. Extreme individualism can potentially cause conflicts of interest, making urban renewal in Western cities fraught with various types of social risks. As a country with deep-rooted socialist tradition, urban renewal projects in China are influenced by collectivist culture and show different features from those of the West. The objective of this research is to investigate how different stakeholders in urban redevelopment projects, including local residents, social organizations, the local state, and developers, interact with each other and how the associated social risks are hedged against. Using a recent well-known project in the city of Guangzhou, the authors attempt to present the latest progress in social risk management in China. With the support from a government-sponsored project, the authors have conducted a questionnaire-based survey and year-long follow-up fieldwork. Using ATLAS.ti software, we found that that “residents’ demand”, “status of collaboration”, and “degree of trust” are the keys to risk management. The results of an ordered probit model show that residents are worried about the overall planning, the relocation timetable, and whether their personal needs are taken into account. It is also indicated that the timely disclosure of project information, high-quality public participation, and a reasonable compensation plan can possibly boost the support rate. The authors suggest that utilizing China’s collectivist culture could be an effective way to mitigate social risks, and residents’ personal interests should also be respected.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0202.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Seismic vulnerability; Urban areas; Objective risk; Perceived risk
Online: 14 July 2022 (03:25:12 CEST)
The assessment of seismic risk in urban areas with high seismicity is certainly one of the most important problems that territorial managers have to face. A reliable evaluation of this risk is the basis for the design of both specific seismic improvement interventions and emergency management plans. Unappropriate seismic risk assessments may provide misleading results and induce bad decisions with relevant economic and social impact.The seismic risk in urban areas is mainly linked to three factors, namely, “hazard”, “exposure” and “vulnerability”. Hazard measures the potential of an earthquake to produce harm; exposure evaluates the amount of population exposed to harm; vulnerability represents the proneness of considered buildings to suffer damages in case of an earthquake. Estimates of such factors may not always coincide with the perceived risk of the resident population. The propensity to implement structural seismic improvement interventions aimed at reducing the vulnerability of buildings depends significantly on the perceived risk.This paper investigates on the difference between objective and perceived risk and highlights some critical issues. The aim of this study is to calibrate opportune policies, which allow addressing the most appropriate seismic risk mitigation options with reference to current levels of perceived risk. We propose the introduction of a Seismic Policy Prevention index (SPPi). This methodology is applied to a case-study focused on a densely populated district of the city of Catania (Italy).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0169.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: asset allocation; risk factor; risk exposure; macro-factor
Online: 12 May 2022 (10:44:13 CEST)
Since financial institutions faced to fatal scenario like subprime mortgage crisis and COVID-19, the factor-based asset allocation methodology is noticed. Asset-only approach which make to consider restrictive risk volatility as individual assets had limitation of macro factor risk. For instance, an institution which allocated assets by asset-only approach cannot deal with the inflation crisis. We review the problem of the traditional modern portfolio approach that is used by Korean financial institutions. For reasonable investment of institution, we notice improved factor-based allocation approach. The first result of this paper is that Mean-variance approach as considered only return of asset recorded lower performance than multi factor-based portfolio in macro factor crisis. Second, we notice allocation model which can minimize probability passing the liability risk exposed macro factors to investment risk exposed macro factors. There are three steps in multi-macro factor-based asset allocation approach: discovering macro factors and mapping asset classes to individual macro factor. Second, define liability account and mapping as considering income and pay out of institution. Third, minimize correlation of fac-tor-based asset risk with liability volatility. Furthermore, using covariance return of assets to allocate makes Pareto improvement and supports to break Home-bias problems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0218.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: risk perception; geo-hydrological risk; education; Southern Italy
Online: 26 March 2018 (14:17:57 CEST)
Climate change is increasing the occurrence of disastrous events in the world, but several disparities in population vulnerability are being registered. One of the causes of these variances is different public risk perception also due to the degree of education and knowledge of the population. In this study, some of the results obtained in a risk perception survey are presented. The survey was carried out in an area of Calabria (Southern Italy) hit by geo-hydrological events that have occurred in recent years with damage to roads, tourism facilities and private houses. A statistical interpretation of the results highlights the importance of education and knowledge to risk perception on the part of the population investigated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0047.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: cancer risk; risk assessment; volcanic soils; Santiago Island
Online: 14 August 2017 (09:11:20 CEST)
The hazard and the carcinogenic risks due to the exposure to some potentially toxic elements by the Santiago Island (Cape Verde) population where calculated, considering soil ingestion, inhalation and dermal contact as exposure pathways. The topsoil of Santiago Island is enriched in Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, V, Zn, Mn and Cd to upper crust values. Hazard indices (HI) were calculated for these metals and As exposures, of Santiago Island population and the calculations were performed for children and adults. For children HI are higher than 1 for Co, Cr and Mn. So there is indication of potential non-carcinogenic risk for children, due to the high Co (HI=2.995), Cr (HI=1.329) and Mn (HI=1.126), values in soils. For the other elements and for adults there is no potential non-carcinogenic risk. Cancer risk was calculated for As, Cd, Cr and Ni exposures, for adults and children and the results are always lower than the carcinogenic target risk of 1x10-6, for As, Cd, and Ni. However, cancer risk are higher than the carcinogenic target risk for Cr, for adults. Regarding As, for children the fraction due to Riskingestion represents 51.6%, while Riskinhalation represents 48.0% and Riskdermalcontact represents only 0.4% of total risk. For adults Riskinhalation represents 81.3%, Riskingestion represents 16.6% and Riskdermal contact represents 2.1%. These results reflect the higher daily ingestion dose for children and the higher inhalation rate and higher dermal contact surface for adults. For the other elements and for adults the cancer risk due to Cr, Ni and Cd inhalation is always higher than for children, reflecting the higher inhalation rate for adults.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0109.v2
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: Cyber risk; Internet of Things cyber risk; Digital Economy Risk Assessment; Economic Impact Assessment.
Online: 9 April 2019 (12:26:13 CEST)
We present an updated design process for adapting and integrating existing cyber risk assessment approaches for impact assessment for the risk from IoT to the digital economy. The new design process includes a set of changes to the original standards (e.g. NIST) that are adapted for the IoT cyber risk in this paper. This paper also presents a new framework for impact assessment of IoT cyber risk, specific for the digital economy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0135.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: cardiovascular risk assessment; postmenopausal women; cardiovascular risk factors; emerging risk factors; hormone replacement therapy
Online: 8 June 2018 (12:46:31 CEST)
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are rising rapidly among the postmenopausal woman but they are less likely to identify their risk by an appropriate risk assessment tool. This review evaluates available literature on cardiovascular risk assessment among postmenopausal women to provide a concise view of risk factors and disease burden among them, present risk assessment systems including their drawbacks, emergence of new risk factors and their role in risk prediction, and finally use of hormone replacement therapy during menopause. Results demonstrate that menopause is a transition point for developing CVD not due to physiological changes only but psychosocial factors like depression and marital stress are also responsible. Both conventional and emerging risk factors burden are high among postmenopausal women. Though data regarding CVD risk assessment among postmenopausal population is lacking but existing evidences claimed underestimation or overestimation of risk among women. Moreover application of different tools on same population has revealed significant variation in result. In this regard, recalibration of conventional tools with local data and new risk factors has showed improvement of risk prediction. Hormone replacement therapy during early menopause has reported beneficial to prevent CVD but in secondary prevention it has no role. All of these findings demand further studies on cardiovascular risk assessment, especially in developing countries where women after menopause are not in consideration of health strategy makers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0110.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: IoT Cyber Risk, IoT risk analysis, IoT cyber insurance, IoT MicroMort, Cyber Value-at-Risk
Online: 8 March 2019 (15:24:59 CET)
This paper is focused on mapping the current evolution of Internet of Things (IoT) and its associated cyber risks for the Industry 4.0 (I4.0) sector. We report the results of a qualitative empirical study that correlates academic literature with 14 - I4.0 frameworks and initiatives. We apply the grounded theory approach to synthesise the findings from our literature review, to compare the cyber security frameworks and cyber security quantitative impact assessment models, with the world leading I4.0 technological trends. From the findings, we build a new impact assessment model of IoT cyber risk in Industry 4.0. We therefore advance the efforts of integrating standards and governance into Industry 4.0 and offer a better understanding of economics impact assessment models for I4.0.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0091.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: risk prediction; prediction models; risk of bias; PROBAST; melanoma
Online: 7 May 2022 (03:50:41 CEST)
Rising incidences of cutaneous melanoma have fueled the development of statistical models that predict the individual melanoma risk. Our aim was to assess the validity of published prediction models for incident cutaneous melanoma using a standardized procedure based on PROBAST (Prediction model Risk Of Bias ASsessment Tool). We included studies that were identified by a recent systematic review and updated the literature search to ensure that our PROBAST rating included all relevant studies. Six reviewers assessed the risk of bias (ROB) for each study using the published “PROBAST Assessment Form” that consists of four domains and an overall rating of ROB. We further examined a temporal effect regarding changes in overall and domain-specific ROB rating distributions. Altogether 42 studies were assessed, of which a vast majority (n=34; 81%) was rated as having high ROB. Only one study was judged as having low ROB. The main reasons for high ROB ratings were the use of hospital controls in case-control studies and the omission of any validation of prediction models. However, our results of the temporal analysis showed a significant reduction in the number of studies with high ROB for the domain analysis. Nevertheless, the evidence base of high-quality studies that can be used to draw conclusions on the prediction of incident cutaneous melanoma is currently much weaker than the high number of studies on this topic would suggest.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0132.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: risk perception; coronavirus; covid-19; risk communication; global health
Online: 7 May 2020 (15:12:32 CEST)
The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is shaking the foundations of public health governance all over the world. Researchers are challenged by informing and supporting authorities on acquired knowledge and practical implications. This commentary applies established theories of risk perception research to COVID-19 and reflects on the role of risk perceptions in these unprecedented times. Moreover, it calls for utilizing the knowledge on risk perception to improve health risk communication, build trust and contribute to a collaborating governance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0020.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: longevity risk; s-forwards; pricing; risk margin; solvency II
Online: 1 May 2017 (11:39:12 CEST)
Longevity risk constitutes an important risk factor for life insurance companies and it can be managed through longevity-linked securities. The market of longevity-linked securities is at present far from being complete and does not allow to find a unique pricing measure. We propose a method to estimate the maximum market price of longevity risk depending on the risk margin implicit within the calculation of the technical provisions as defined by Solvency II. The maximum price of longevity risk is determined for a survivor forward (S-forward), an agreement between two counterparties to exchange at maturity a fixed survival-dependent payment for a payment depending on the realized survival of a given cohort of individuals. The maximum prices determined for the S-forwards can be used to price other longevity-linked securities, such as q-forwards. The Cairns-Blake-Dowd model is used to represent the evolution of mortality over time, that combined with the information on the risk margin, enables us to calculate upper limits for the risk-adjusted survival probabilities, the market price of longevity risk and the S-forward prices. Numerical results can be extended for the pricing of other longevity-linked securities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0132.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: fall risk assessment; risk of falling; force platforms; inertial sensors.
Online: 12 August 2016 (09:32:28 CEST)
Purpose: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) has recently published quality standards for assessment of fall risk and preventing further falls. According to the standards, multifactorial fall risk assessments should include: identification of falls history; analysis of gait, balance, mobility and muscle strength, among other factors. Despite being based on subjective analysis or simple timing and not being multifactorial, physiotherapists and physicians quite often use these tests as reference scales to differentiate between lower and higher risk of falling. Instrumented TUG has been recently reported to provide important additional information to the overall score. Objective: To explore a case-based approach of fall risk assessment to identify the most relevant and informative risk factors that in combination could better define a person risk profile. Materials and Methods: A multifactorial assessment of fall risk through questionnaires, standard functional tests, tests instrumented with inertial sensors, and force platforms has been studied within a group aged 55-80 years old. Different fall risk factors and fall risk assessment methods were analyzed in a case-based descriptive study. Results & Discussion: Subjects at higher risk of falling were identified based on their detailed profiles. A set of features were obtained from the instrumented standard tests differing significantly between subjects presenting higher or lower fall risk. Therefore, instrumenting conventional tests with wearables containing inertial sensors and force platforms gives more detailed and quantitative insights. This information can be used to better define and tailor fall prevention exercises and to improve the follow-up of the evolution of the subject.
Subject: Keywords: Mitigation; Risk Reduction; Global Catastrophic Biological Risk; Epidemics; Disease X; Literature Review; Pandemics; Value of Information; Existential Risk
Online: 28 February 2020 (12:32:33 CET)
There are potentially promising mitigation activities for epidemic and pandemic scenarios that are not currently the subject of significant research effort. Large epidemics and pandemics pose risks that are important to mitigate, even if the likelihood of the events is low and uncertain. While some efforts are the subject of extensive funding and consideration, other approaches are neglected. Here, we consider such neglected interventions which could significantly reduce the impact of such an epidemic or large-scale pandemic. These are identified via a narrative literature review of extant literature reviews and overviews of mitigations in epidemic and pandemic situations, followed by consideration of the economic value of information of further study of heretofore neglected interventions and approaches.Based on that analysis, we considered several classes of mitigations, and conducted more exploratory reviews of each. Those discussed include mitigations for (1) reducing transmission, such as personal protective equipment and encouraging improved hygiene, (2) reducing exposure by changing norms and targeted changes for high-risk or critical professions and activities, (3) reducing impact for those infected, and (4) increasing large scale resilience using disaster and infrastructure continuity planning.Some proposed mitigations are found to be of low marginal value. Other mitigations are likely to be valuable, but the concepts or applications are underdeveloped. In those cases, further research, resources, or preparation are valuable for mitigating both routine and extreme disease outbreak events. Still more areas of research are identified as having uncertain value based on specific but resolvable uncertainties. In both of the latter cases, there is no guarantee that mitigations identified as worthy of further consideration will be valuable, but the argument for further research is clear.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0066.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: cyber physical systems; cybercrime; risk mitigation; risk management; industrial control systems
Online: 5 April 2018 (06:10:06 CEST)
Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) is the integration of computation and physical process that makes a complete system such as the physical components, networked systems, embedded computers and software and linking together of devices and sensors for information sharing. Cyber Physical Systems are Smart Systems that comprises of the merging and integration of Industry Control Systems, Critical Infrastructures, Internet of Things (IoT) and Embedded Systems. Major industries such as the Chemical and Industrial Plants, Aviation Systems, National Grid, the Stock Exchange, Military Systems, and others depends heavily on these Cyber Physical Systems for financial and economic growth. The benefits of CPS nationally and globally are in the areas of Manufacturing, Energy, Transport, Healthcare and Communication. Cyber Physical Systems incorporates Physical systems, Digital systems and Human elements on network infrastructures to provide interactive systems. However, these three key components the Physical systems, Digital systems and Human elements may have inherent threats and vulnerabilities on them that may run the risk of being compromise, exploited, attacked or hacked. Cybercriminals in their quest to bring down these systems and may cause disruption of services either for fame, revenge, political motive, economic war, cyber terrorism and cyber war. The study seeks to review the risks that are associated with these three key components Physical systems, Digital systems and Human elements. The study considered four main risk mitigation goals for this purpose, and these are Business Value, Organizational Requirements, Threat Agent and Impact based on the review results. We used Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) to determine the relative importance of these goals that contributes to developing cybercrime and rich in CPS. For the results, the prioritized goals are then used to assess the risks using a semi-quantitative approach to determine the net threat level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0035.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: inflation risk; investment returns; life annuity; longevity risk; post-retirement benefits
Online: 7 December 2016 (10:27:23 CET)
Building a social security system to ensure Singapore residents have peace of mind in funding for retirement has been at the top of Singapore Government’s policy agenda over the last decade. Implementation of the Lifelong Income For the Elderly (LIFE) scheme in 2009 clearly shows that the government spares no effort in improving its pension scheme to boost its residents’ income after retirement. Despite the recent modifications to the LIFE scheme, Singapore residents must still choose between two plans: the Standard and Basic plans. To enhance the flexibility of the LIFE scheme while maintaining its simplicity, we propose some plan modifications such that scheme members do not face a dichotomy of plan choices. Instead, they select two age parameters: the Payout Age and the Life-annuity Age. This paper provides an actuarial framework for determining members’ payouts and bequests based on the proposed age parameters. We analyze the net cash receipts and internal rate of return (IRR) for various plan-parameter configurations. This information helps members make their plan choices. To address cost-of-living increases we propose to extend the plan to accommodate an annual step-up of monthly payouts. By deferring the Payout Age from 65 to 68, members can enjoy an annual increase of about 2% of the payouts for the same first-year monthly benefits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0028.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: VOC; technological risk; exposure to risks; DRI; risk mapping; SIG; BTEX
Online: 13 September 2016 (03:42:52 CEST)
The population’s mobility in urban areas is a necessary variable in the modeling of risk scenarios caused by atmospheric contamination. The inclusion of this concept makes static models more dynamic while considering people within a city to be an entity with complex mobility processes. We propose a conceptual and methodological tool to make the representation of the social, economic and territorial components, as well as the patterns in the population´s mobility to delimitate risk areas for human health by exposure of contaminants. In the volatile organic compounds (VOC), benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene and xylene (BTEX) are amongst the most dominant substances in fugitive vapor emissions in gas stations (GS). In urban areas, the exposure to BTEX by residential proximity and proximity to other facilities, which cause intra-urban agglomeration, can impact and affect human health. This model seeks to facilitate the focalization, identification and prioritization of risk areas by BTEX environmental contamination. This article goes beyond de conceptual framework. It suggests methodological and instrumental aspects to be applied in other cities. The government agencies must consider these results when establishing rules, permissions and procedures to reduce environmental pollution for managing the risk in a complex urban environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0197.v1
Subject: Engineering, Construction Keywords: construction; safety; risk; hazard; critical control risk management; critical control; fatality prevention
Online: 13 July 2022 (09:18:21 CEST)
Across the global construction industry, fatalities continue to occur from high-risk activities where the risk controls have been defined, however were unreliable. In the mining industry, Critical Control Risk Management has provided positive results in reducing major accidents, which raises the question, could the Critical Control approach reduce the fatality rate in the construction industry? This study analysed 10 years of serious and fatal incident investigation reports from four international construction companies to i) assess the reliability of their Critical Controls (CCs) and ii) assess the factors which affect the reliability of CCs. The results show the reliability of CCs, measured by implementation and effectiveness, averaged just 42%. Human performance factors including risk identification, decision-making and competency together with supervision, job planning, communication organisational factors were identified as affecting the reliability of CCs. The study used bow-tie diagrams with real event data to find the actual CC effectiveness. This gave actionable findings directly related to individual CCs enabling the participating organization to focus resources on improving specific verification processes. The results confirm the applicability of CCs for the Major Accident Event hazards analyzed and highlights further review is required of the factors which need to be considered when implementing a CC program. This paper details our methodology and results, to assist others apply CCs as a risk management tool.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0023.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: perturbation expansion; Green’s function; model risk; model uncertainty; credit derivatives; CVA; correlation risk
Online: 4 January 2018 (03:24:24 CET)
We propose a methodology for the quantification of model risk in the context of credit derivatives pricing and CVA, where the uncertain or unmodelled parameter is often the correlation between rates and credit. We take the rates model to be Hull-White (normal) and the credit model to be Black-Karasinski (lognormal). We show how highly accurate analytic pricing formulae, hitherto unpublished, can be derived for CDS and extended to address instruments with defaultable Libor flows which may in addition be capped and/or floored. We also consider the pricing of a contingent CDS with an interest rate swap underlying. We derive explicit expressions showing how to good accuracy the dependence of model prices on the uncertain parameter(s) can be captured in analytic formulae which are readily amenable to computation without recourse to Monte Carlo or lattice-based computation. In so doing, we take into account the impact on model calibration of the uncertain (or unmodelled) parameter.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0071.v1
Online: 6 January 2022 (10:35:42 CET)
The paper is an investigation on the impact of financial markets on the volatility of green bonds credit risk component, measured by the option-adjusted spread/swap curve (OAS) of the Global Bloomberg Barclays MSCI Green Bond Index, for both the non and pandemic periods. For these purpose, after observing the dynamic joint correlations between all the variables through a DCC-GARCH, we adopt GARCH(1,1) and EGARCH(1,1) models, putting the OAS as dependent variable. Our main results show that the conditional variance parameters are significant and persistent in both times, testifying the overall impact of the other markets on the OAS. In more detail, we highlight that the gamma in the two EGARCH models is positive: so the “green” credit risk volatility is more sensitive to positive shocks than negative ones. With reference to the conditional mean, we note that if during the non pandemic time only the stock market is significant, during the pandemic also conventional bonds and gold are impacting. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study that analyzes the specific credit risk component of green bond yields: we deem our findings useful to observe the change of green bonds creditworthiness in a complex market context.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0713.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: combinatorics, risk analysis, decision analysis.
Online: 27 April 2021 (12:33:23 CEST)
Let us assume that defence mechanisms are so strong that the average outcome of a hacking attack is unsuccessful. How to calculate the costs arising from false positives and false negatives in intruder detection? Is it better for the hacker to make fewer but more effective attacks rather than several but less effective attacks? How to calculate the difference between these alternative strategies?
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0410.v1
Online: 31 December 2019 (11:14:44 CET)
In the Republic of Serbia, no comprehensive scientific multimethod research has been conducted to identify weaknesses and opportunities for improving the disaster risk management system. Regarding that, in the paper, author presents project description ,,Strengthening Integrated Disaster Risk Management System in Serbia - DISARIMES” which shall enable strengthening the disaster risk management system through research, development and innovative solutions implementation in the preparation, mitigation, response, remediation and post-disaster phases. The scientific importance of the projected research is reflected in the creation of assumptions for the advancement of theoretical and empirical knowledge in the scientific field of disaster risk management, bearing in mind that it is a relatively young scientific discipline in Serbia. The results of the project research will make it easier for decision makers in Serbia to understand the shortcomings of the system, but also provide innovative opportunities to improve their functioning in conditions of increasingly frequent and serious disasters. Establishing a scientific and professional society in the field of disaster risk management will create sustainable and necessary conditions for the transfer and improvement of knowledge and experience of importance for raising the level of operability of the system of protection and rescue of the Republic of Serbia in the event of disasters. A key contribution of the research findings will be to create a sustainable knowledge base that will be supported by the relevant amount of information regarding innovative capabilities and solutions identified as necessary to raise social resilience to a much higher level. In order to achieve the set goals, DISARIMES makes it possible, through a large number of SWOT analyses and other multimethod studies, to clearly identify and systematize the objective deficiencies and barriers encountered by the disaster risk management system in Serbia in all its stages before, during and after disasters, to identify and implement the appropriate solutions based on this. The objectives of the project are: to assess and identify strengths (advantages), weaknesses (disadvantages), opportunities (innovation potential) and threats for the disaster risk management system in Serbia; to develop and update RDI (research, development, innovation) Roadmap – knowledge databases with innovative solutions and other relevant information for improvement of the disaster risk management system; to fully deploy the DISARIMES scientific-professional network involving a broad range of the disaster risk management scientists and civil protection professions and organisations; to prepare the ground for the disaster risk management policy innovations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0224.v1
Online: 17 April 2018 (11:17:49 CEST)
In the wake of the 2008 financial crisis, the Financial Stability Board (FSB) and the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) created a list of Systemically Important Financial Institutions (SIFIs) with the intention of determining which financial institutions were important enough to the global market that their failure would result in systemic collapse. In this work we create a model that modifies the BCBS's five indicators of size, interconnectedness, cross-jurisdictional activities, complexity, and substitutability and applies these measures of systemic stress to governments. The original application of the model is to track the systemic interdependence of the Eurozone, with particular emphasis on the case of Greece. We anticipate this model can be used in regional fiscal situations beyond the Eurozone.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0263.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: utility; uncertainty; risk averse; wellness output; treatment inputs; coronavirus; psychological risk attitude; dynamic interactions
Online: 16 May 2020 (15:42:42 CEST)
A micro decision-making utility model under uncertainty is presented as a complementary foundation for macro coronavirus models. The micro model consists of two functions, a risk averse utility function depending on wellness and a wellness random output which is a function of the input variable called “treatment” consisting of such elements as social distance, washing hands, wearing a face mask, and others. The decision maker selects a level of treatment that maximizes her/his expected utility, given the probabilities of the respective outputs. The focus is on how changes in a person’s psychological attitude towards the macro determined (announced) probabilities affects the optimum results of the model. Such changes create a micro-macro dynamic interaction which is briefly outlined. A short discussion of the model’s behavioral implications for health policy is also given.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0038.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: asset pricing; credit risk modeling; unilateral; bilateral; multilateral credit risk; collateralization; comvariance; comrelation; correlation
Online: 3 October 2019 (04:49:57 CEST)
This article presents a comprehensive framework for valuing financial instruments subject to credit risk. In particular, we focus on the impact of default dependence on asset pricing, as correlated default risk is one of the most pervasive threats in financial markets. We analyze how swap rates are affected by bilateral counterparty credit risk, and how CDS spreads depend on the trilateral credit risk of the buyer, seller, and reference entity in a contract. Moreover, we study the effect of collateralization on valuation, since the majority of OTC derivatives are collateralized. The model shows that a fully collateralized swap is risk-free, whereas a fully collateralized CDS is not equivalent to a risk-free one.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: risk measure; value at risk; tail conditional expectation; expected shortfall; bank capital; Basel accords
Online: 16 April 2019 (10:48:48 CEST)
The use of risk measures such as the Value at Risk (VaR) or Tail Conditional Expectation (TCE) is required by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision in determining a bank’s risk profile. However, both measures can be shown to have shortcomings in the information that they provide to regulators and investors. In this paper we present an introduction to risk measure calculations before demonstrating the weaknesses of these measures. Through the exploration of specific cases we show how familiar yet differing risk profiles have identical values for combinations of these measures. From this evidence we recommend that a sequence of several risk measures should be used to give a more accurate representation of the risk contained on banking balance sheet.