REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0584.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Parkinson’s disease; parkinsonism; LRRK2; neuropathology; modifier; genetics; GWAS; environmental risk factors; polygenic risk score
Online: 23 December 2020 (10:49:22 CET)
Missense mutations in the LRRK2 gene were first identified as a pathogenic cause of Parkinson’s disease (PD) in 2004. Soon thereafter, a founder mutation in LRRK2, p.Gly2019Ser (rs34637584), was described, and it is now estimated that there are approximately 100,000 people worldwide that carry this risk variant. While the clinical presentation of LRRK2 parkinsonism has been largely indistinguishable from sporadic PD, disease penetrance and age at onset can be quite variable. In addition, its neuropathological features span a wide range from nigrostriatal loss with Lewy body pathology, lack thereof, or atypical neuropathology including a large proportion of cases with concomitant Alzheimer’s pathology, hailing LRRK2 parkinsonism as the "Rosetta stone" of parkinsonian disorders. These differences may result from interactions between LRRK2 mutant protein and other proteins or environmental factors that modify LRRK2 function, and thereby influence pathobiology. This review explores how potential genetic and biochemical modifiers of LRRK2 function may contribute to the onset and clinical presentation of LRRK2 parkinsonism. We review, which genetic modifiers of LRRK2 influence clinical symptoms, age at onset, and penetrance, what LRRK2 mutations are associated with pleomorphic LRRK2 neuropathology, and which environmental modifiers can augment LRRK2 mutant pathophysiology. Understanding how LRRK2 function is influenced and modulated by other interactors and environmental factors –either increasing toxicity or providing resilience- will inform targeted therapeutic development in the years to come. This will allow developing disease-modifying therapies for PD and LRRK2-related neurodegeneration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1308.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Risk amplification effect; Risk preference; GM agricultural products; China
Online: 18 August 2023 (09:43:31 CEST)
Consumer preference for products made from transgenic technology has been widely studied, yet few studies exist exploring the factors influencing producers’ adoption of transgenic technology. Based on field surveys in Chinese provinces of Shanxi, Henan and Shandong, we employed a gambling experiment to capture producers’ risk preferences by estimating their risk aversion coefficients. We further estimated producers’ risk amplification and risk perception of GM technology. Using ordered logit model and Poisson model we identified the major factors influencing producers’ adoption of transgenic technology. We found the factors impacted the decision of producers from different regions in different ways. The results showed that over 60% of participants amplified the risk of transgenic crops. When there was potential risk, producers might not be rational even if they had high level of knowledge and cognition about the technology. Our results shed light on government policies aiming to increase the adoption of new technologies by producers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0005.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: severe early childhood caries; risk factors
Online: 3 November 2016 (08:39:30 CET)
Severe early childhood caries remains the most common chronic disease affecting children. Its multifactorial etiology has established a controversy about which risk factors were more significant to its development. Therefore our study aimed through meticulous statistical analysis to arrange the “well agreed upon” common risk factors in order of significance, to aid the clinician in tailoring an adequate preventive program for this affected age group. The study reshuffled the risk factors contributing to severe early childhood caries and placed them in the order of their significance as follows: snacking of sugary food several times a day, increased number of siblings to 3 or more, night feeding, child self-employed brushing, mother caries experience, 2 siblings, on demand feeding, once/day sugary food, sharing utensils, 1 Sibling, male gender, father’s education, late first child dental visit, brushing time, mother’s education, no dental visit, decreased brushing frequency & no night brushing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0011.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: Global risk factors; Credit Default Swaps; Sovereign credit risk; Copulas approach
Online: 1 November 2021 (11:50:02 CET)
This study examined the tail dependency structure of sovereign credit risk and three global risk factors in BRICS countries using copulas approach, which is known for its ability to provide the “true” tail correlation based on the correct marginal distribution. The empirical results show that global market risk sentiment comoves with sovereign CDS spreads across BRICS countries under extreme market events, with Brazil having the highest co-dependency followed by China, Russia, and South Africa. Furthermore, oil price volatility is the second biggest risk factor correlated with sovereign CDS spreads for Brazil and South Africa while exchange rate risk exhibits very small co-dependence with sovereign CDS spreads under extreme market conditions dominated by tail events. On the contrary, exchange rate risk is the second largest risk factor co-moving with China and Russia’s sovereign CDS spreads while oil price volatility exhibits the lowest co-dependence to CDS in these countries. Between oil price and currency risk, evidence of single risk factor dominance is found for Russia where exchange rate risk is largely dominant. These results suggest that BRICS policymakers might consider financial sector regulations that mitigate risks spill-over such as targeted capital controls when markets are distressed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1837.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: colorectal cancer; risk factors; oncogenesis; lifestyle; gut microbiota; prognosis
Online: 28 August 2023 (08:44:19 CEST)
Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Numerous pathophysiological mechanisms, such as abnormal cell proliferation, cell differentiation, resistance to apoptosis, invasion of structures adjacent to colorectal tumor cells, and distant metastasis, are involved in colorectal carcinogenesis. These processes are initiated by the complex interaction of a number of genetic and environmental factors, including sedentary lifestyle, obesity, alcohol consumption, smoking or gut microbiota. Despite the significant progress achieved in the diagnostic and therapeutic management of patients with colorectal cancer, there has been recently a noteworthy increase in the incidence of colorectal cancer in individuals below the age of 50 years. Early-onset colorectal cancer has a different frequency of oncogenic mutations, a higher prevalence of mucinous histology, a distinct deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation profile, a more distal location, and lower survival rates. A significant improvement in the prognosis of these patients can be achieved through the detection and removal of modifiable risk factors, along with the implementation of personalized screening strategies for individuals at high risk for this malignancy. Furthermore, gaining comprehension of the pathophysiological mechanisms by which these risk factors contribute to the process of oncogenesis may facilitate the discovery of novel therapeutic targets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0259.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: prediction; risk factors; falls risk; Muslim; community-dwelling; elders; Pakistan
Online: 4 May 2023 (10:38:49 CEST)
Falls are the third-leading cause of disabilities among the elderly population worldwide. In Pakistan, the prevalence is 44%; out of them, 8% develop injuries, placing them at high risk for hospitalization or even premature death. Interestingly, fall is multifactorial, and fall risk depends on individual characteristics (intrinsic factors) and environmental features (extrinsic factors), which can be different from context to context. Therefore, regular assessment of fall risk factors is required to develop a strategy for fall prevention. This study aimed to identify intrinsic risk factors for falls in Pakistani elders living in the communities, and provide evidence for preventive strategies of falls in elderlies. Data were collected from 140 Muslim elders from two residential areas of Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, from July 2022 to August 25, 2022, after taking permission from Zhengzhou University Ethical Review Board (ZUIRB #202254), and District Health Department Office (DHO #14207).Participants were informed and concern was taken before collect data. Data were collected using the Time Up and Go Test (TUGT), the Mini-Mental Status Examination, and interviews regarding the prayer practice. Factors associated with falls were; age, gender, education, cognitive status, TUGT level, incorrect prayer postures, poor vision, and history of falls with a significance of (P.<0.05). Poor cognition, low vision, poor walking speed, and prayers without body movements have good membership with falls risk prediction as (P<0.005) in Omnibus, Lemeshow score (0.77). Hence, our study provides a road map for future risk assessment for falls by adding the four mentioned risk factors as offered in the proposed model to facilitate taking timely action to prevent fall-related ailments in Pakistani elders.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0017.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: systematic review; aircrew; occupational risk factors
Online: 3 April 2023 (08:24:00 CEST)
The primary objective of this systematic review was to analyze the main physical agents representing risk factors for commercial aircrew, together with their consequences. The secondary objective was to identify the countries in which studies on the topic were conducted, as well as the quality of the publications available. Thirty-five articles, published between 1996 and 2020, were selected for the review, having met all inclusion criteria. The majority of studies were conducted in the United States, Germany and Finland and had moderate or low methodological quality of evidence. The main risk factors for aircrew identified in publications were exposure to abnormal air pressure, cosmic radiation, noise, and vibrations. Hypobaric pressure was explored in response to demands for studies on this agent, a factor which may lead to otic and ear barotraumas, as well as acceleration of atherosclerosis of the carotid artery. However, there is a dearth of research exploring this phenomenon.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0371.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: dental preventive care; adolescents; risk factors
Online: 15 December 2020 (10:35:17 CET)
Abstract: The study aimed to determine the factors associated with the avoidance of dental preventive care in adolescents and their parents in the framework of The Youth and Parents Risk Factor Behavior Survey in Slovakia has been initiated during the years 2015/2016. The data were collected using two separate standardized questionnaires: (i) the questionnaire for adolescents (n=515) and (ii) the questionnaire for parents (n=681). The study group consisted of 57 adolescents (54.4% males) who did not visit the dentist for preventive care in the previous year. The control group consisted of 458 adolescents (35.8% males) who visited a dentist for preventive care at least once in the previous year. A significantly higher number of males (54.4%), older adolescents (21.4%) were not visiting dental preventive care regularly. Incomplete family (56.1%), stressful situations at home (17.5%), and feeling unwell were observed as the factors contributing to the avoidance of dental preventive care. More than 34.5% of adolescents were not visiting either dental preventive care but also pediatric preventive care (AOR=5.14; 95%CI=2.40, 10.99). Divorced mothers and mothers with household income lower than 900 € had significantly higher dental care avoidance in their children. A significantly higher percentage of fathers from the exposed group were not visiting dental preventive care regularly (47.8%; p< .05). The results of the study can be used as an educational intervention steps focusing on the influence of parental and adolescent behavior in dental preventive care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0305.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: gestational diabetes; pregnancy; polygenic risk score; gwas; machine learning
Online: 20 July 2022 (12:09:41 CEST)
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a common complication of pregnancy that adversely affects maternal and offspring health. A variety of risk factors, such as BMI and age, have been associated with increased risks of gestational diabetes. However, in many cases gestational diabetes occurs in healthy nulliparous women with no obvious risk factors. Emerging data suggest that the tendency to develop gestational diabetes has genetic and environmental components. Here we develop a polygenic risk score for gestational diabetes. We further investigate relationships between the genetic architecture of GDM and genetically constructed risk factors and biomarkers. Our results show that genetics can be used as an early screening tool that identifies at-risk at higher risk of GDM before its onset to propose comprehensive monitoring and preventative programs to mitigate the risks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0022.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Tuberculosis; HIV; coinfection; Risk factors; Luanda; Angola
Online: 1 November 2022 (07:13:56 CET)
TB and HIV continue to increase and constitute major public health concerns worldwide, mainly in resource-limited countries, showing that we are not going to end HIV if we do not also end TB. Herein, we investigated the risk factors related to HIV infection among TB patients in Luanda, the capital city of Angola. This was a retrospective cohort study conducted on the medical records of 117 TB patients from January to September 2016. Overall, the HIV/TB co-infection rate was 12%. The mean age of coinfected patients was 37.7±10.1 years. No statistically significant relationship was observed between sociodemographic or clinical features with HIV/TB co-infection (p>0.05). TB patients aged 30 years or older (OR: 4.13, p=0.072), female (OR: 1.08, p=0.898), residing in urbanized areas (OR: 1.90, p=0.578), with a history of treatment abandonment (OR: 3.74, p=0.083), with polyresistance (OR: 1.62, p=0.603), and MDR-TB (OR: 2.00, p=0.454), were more likely to have HIV/TB co-infection, while latent TB infection (OR: 0.63, p=0.559) and treatment-susceptible TB patients (OR: 0.56, p=0.616), presented a lower chance of HIV/TB coinfection. Our finding showed a slightly high HIV/TB coinfected rate, which suggests that the dual HIV/TB epidemic keeps evolving and poses a huge concern to the public health in Angola. Further studies on features related to HIV/TB coinfection and its impact on disease progression and clinical outcome in adults from high-risk Angolan communities, should be carried out to intensify and strengthen collaborative activities between national TB and HIV programs in Angola.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0218.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: children; risk factors; vitamin B12; homocysteine; folic acid; ferritin
Online: 5 September 2023 (03:41:36 CEST)
Background: Vitamin B12 is a water-soluble vitamin with important cellular functions and is an essential vitamin. The aim of this study is to determine the B12 levels of children in the period from the 6th month when they start taking additional foods to the age of 7 and the risk factors affecting them. Methods: One hundred pediatric patients aged 6-72 months who were diagnosed with vitamin B12 deficiency and their parents who agreed to participate in Istanbul Atlas University, Medical Faculty, “Medicine Hospital” Pediatric Clinic between September 2022 and June 2023 were prospectively included in this study. Results: B12 deficiency was significantly higher in the 6-11 (25%) month group than those in the 12-23 (5.8%) and 24-47 (2.8%) month groups. Homocysteine levels were highest in those with insufficient B12 levels compared to the other groups. There was no statistically significant difference in weekly dairy and meat consumption levels between age groups. B12 levels were lower in the 6-11-month group than in the other groups. Homocysteine levels were highest in those with insufficient B12 levels [<200 pg/mL (148 pmol/L)]. Folic acid levels were lower in the 24-47 month and 48-72 month groups than in the 6-11 month and 12-23 month groups. Conclusions: The results obtained in this study showed that low vitamin B12 and increased homocysteine levels seem to be important risk factors in children, especially from the 6th month when they start taking additional foods. The diagnosis of B12 deficiency can be confirmed by elevated serum total homocysteine levels, which are evidence of functional cobalamin deficiency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0657.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: machine learning; drilling problems; artificial intelligence; risk factors evaluation; gradient boosting
Online: 27 May 2021 (08:04:06 CEST)
Drilling of wells for oil and gas production is a highly complex and expensive part of reservoir development. Thus, together with injury prevention, there is a goal to save cost expenditures on downtime and repair of drilling equipment. Nowadays companies have begun to look for ways to improve the efficiency of drilling and minimize non-production time with the help of new technologies. To support decisions in a narrow time frame, it is valuable to have an early warning system. Such a decision support system will help an engineer to intervene in the drilling process and prevent high expenses of unproductive time and equipment repair due to a problem. This work is describing a comparison of machine learning algorithms for anomaly detection during well drilling. Tested models classify drilling problems based on historical data from previously drilled wells. To validate anomaly detection algorithms, we use historical logs of drilling problems for 67 wells at a large brownfield in Siberia, Russia. Wells with problems were selected and analyzed. It should be noted that out of the 67 wells, 20 wells were drilled without expenses for unproductive time. Experiential results illustrated that a model based on gradient boosting can classify the complications in the drilling process best of all.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0194.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: aphthous stomatitis, risk factors, genetic polymorphisms, multivariate analysis, systematic review
Online: 10 May 2021 (13:55:48 CEST)
The cause and prevention of recurrent aphthous stomatitis (also called aphthous ulcers or canker sores) are still unknown. This may be due in part to ignorance of the risk factors present in susceptible people. In this systematic review (PROSPERO record #CRD42019122214), we show that most of the risk factors for the disease are single nucleotide genetic polymorphisms in genes related to the functioning of immune system (TLR4, MMP9, E-selectin, IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha). Single nucleotide genetic polymorphisms do not constitute a modifiable risk. This indicates that, at least in part, susceptibility to recurrent aphthous stomatitis is hereditary, and that these factors cannot be modified.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0455.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Prognosis; prosthodontics; dental implant; clinical performance; risk factor.
Online: 18 December 2020 (11:34:49 CET)
Background: The treatment plan of prosthetic restorations supported by dental implants require comprehensive scientific knowledge to deliver prostheses with good prognosis, even before the implant insertion. This review aims to analyze the main prosthetic determinants of the prognosis of implant-supported prostheses. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was conducted with a PICO question: "For partially or complete edentulous subjects treated with implant-supported prostheses, which prosthetic factors could affect clinical outcomes?". A literature search was performed electronically in PubMed (MEDLINE), Scopus and Cochrane Library with the following equation [PROGNOS* OR RISK] FACTOR IMPLANT DENTAL, and by hand search in relevant journals and throughout the selected papers. Results: This revision was carried out based on 50 papers focused on several prosthodontics-related risk factors that were grouped as follows: implant-connection, loading protocol, transmucosal abutments, prosthetic fit, provisionalization, type of retention, impression technique, fabrication technique, and occlusion. More than a half of the studies were systematic reviews (30%), meta-analysis (16%) or prospective evaluations of prosthesis with various kinds of events (18%). But also narrative reviews of literature (14%) and in vitro/animal studies (16%) were found. Conclusions: The current literature provides insufficient evidence for most of the investigated topics. However, based on the accumulated data, it seems reasonable to defend that the best treatment approach is the use of morse taper implants with transmucosal abutments, recorded by means of rigidly splinted copings through the pick-up technique, and screwed by milled prosthesis occlusally adjusted to minimize functional overloading.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0291.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Probability And Statistics Keywords: Hypertension; Risk; Factor; Ordinal; Odd ratio; Logistic; regession
Online: 24 January 2020 (16:08:38 CET)
There is high prevalence of hypertension and is rapidly increasing around the world, despite the intervention programme implemented, this study aimed at estimating the prevalence rate, test of association between hypertension and risk factors and model hypertension rate. Data used was obtained from the health record of Federal Medical Centre, Keffi from January 2016 – January 2019. Ordinal logistic regression model was used; Model Fitting Information, Goodness-of-Fit, Pseudo R-Square and Test of Parallel Lines are fitted to the data sets to test the accuracy and correctness of the model. The results indicated that the overall prevalence of hypertension rate is high at 36.4%, among the adult population, body mass index and gender are statistically significant, and Age is not significant in the study. Individuals that are overweight are more likely to be hypertensive compare to other weights. At age 40 – 49 years which have the highest rate of 26.5% and the odd ratio is 0.75 compared to others. One year increase in age 30 – 39, the cumulative odd of being hypertensive is 0.91 while other independent variables are held constant. The odd ratio of female being hypertensive is 0.85, therefore the females are more likely to be hypertensive with 54.4% compared to the males at 45.6% . There is no presence of multicolinearity among the variables and Logit models were formulated to calculate probabilities of the various possible outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1359.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: atrial fibrillation; risk factors; thromboembolic events; novel oral anticoagulants; complications; hospitalization; medication monitoring
Online: 23 August 2023 (07:49:13 CEST)
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common arrhythmia associated with various risk factors and significant morbidity and mortality. This article presents findings from a study involving 115 patients with permanent AF. The study examined demographics, risk factors, associated pathologies, complications, and anticoagulant therapy. The results showed a slight predominance of AF in males, with the highest incidence in individuals aged 75 and above. Common risk factors included arterial hypertension, dyslipidaemia, diabetes mellitus type 2, and obesity. Comorbidities such as congestive heart failure, mitral valve regurgitation, and pulmonary disorders were prevalent among the patients. Major complications included congestive heart failure, stroke, and myocardial infarction. Thromboembolic and bleeding risk assessment using CHAD2DS2-VASc and HAS-BLED scores demonstrated a high thromboembolic risk in all patients. The majority of patients were receiving novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) before admission, while NOACs were also the most prescribed antithrombotic therapy at discharge. The study highlights the importance of risk factor management and appropriate anticoagulant therapy in AF patients to reduce complications and improve outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0414.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: dogs; Colombia; leptospirosis; Leptospira santarosai; seroreactivity; risk factors
Online: 27 July 2022 (08:07:27 CEST)
Canine leptospirosis is a zoonosis of epidemiological importance. Dogs are recognized as primary reservoirs of Leptospira interrogans serogroup Canicola and a source of infection to the environment through urine. This study aimed to determine the presence of antibodies against Leptospira in canines from 49 municipalities in the Department of Antioquia, Colombia. We performed a cross-sectional study of dogs included in a neutering control program. We collected 1335 sera samples, assayed by a microagglutination test (MAT), and performed PCR detection in 21 urine samples. We also surveyed 903 dog owners. We found a seroreactivity of 11.2% (150/1335) in Antioquia with titers 1:50. Municipalities with the highest number of cases were Belmira (46.1%), Turbo (34.5%), and Concepción (31.0%). L. santarosai was identified by phylogenetic analysis in one urine sample from the municipality of Granada. The most important factor associated with a positive result was the lack of vaccination against leptospirosis (PR 3.3, p < 0.014). Environmental factors such as water presence and bare soil around the household were also associated with Leptospira seroreactivity in the Department of Antioquia. We reviewed a national epidemiological surveillance database for human cases in those municipalities. We found a correlation between the high number of cases in canines and humans, especially in the Uraba. Serological and molecular results showed the circulation of Leptospira. Future public health efforts in the municipalities with the highest numbers of seroreactivity should be directed towards vaccination to prevent animal disease and decrease the probability of transmission of Leptospira. Dogs actively participate in the Leptospira cycle in Antioquia and encourage the implementation of vaccination protocols and coverage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1942.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: sheep; goat; lentiviruses; SRLV; seroprevalence; risk factors
Online: 26 May 2023 (14:49:11 CEST)
Small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) are infected and transmitted among ovine and caprine species. This disease is a severe problem for small ruminant production, not only for animals’ wellbeing but also for the herd’s efficiency. The main aim of this research was to quantify the seroprevalence and associated risk factors for SRLV infection in the north region of Portugal. Collected samples from a total of 150 herds, of which 129 (86.0%; 95% CI: 80.67% - 91.33%) had at least one seropositive animal. Out of 2607 individual blood samples, 1074 (41.2%) were positive for SRLV. The risk factors associated with SRLV infection were: specie (caprine), age (> 2 years old), herd size (> 100 animals), production system (intensive), production aptitude (milk), type of activity (professional), participation in livestock competitions (yes), buy replacement young ewe (yes) and rearing (natural). This knowledge empowers the implementation of effective preventive measures. Overall, biosecurity measures should be promoted and implemented to aim reducing viral transmission, with the main goal of reducing the prevalence of this disease. Completely, we understand that government authorities should promote and audit voluntary control and eradication programs in small ruminant herds in the region studied.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0205.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: diarrhoea; severity; severe dehydration; children; risk factors; Ujjain; India
Online: 16 January 2020 (03:21:03 CET)
Diarrhoea contributes significantly in the under-five childhood morality and mortality worldwide. This cross-sectional study was carried out in a tertiary care hospital in Ujjain, India from July 2015 to June 2016. Consecutive children aged 1 month to 12 years having “some dehydration” and “dehydration” according to World Health Organization classification were eligible to be included in the study. Other signs and symptoms used to assess severe dehydration were capillary refill time, urine output, and abnormal respiratory pattern. A questionnaire was administered to identify risk factors for severe dehydration, which was the primary outcome. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was used to detect independent risk factors for severe dehydration. The study included 332 children, with mean ± standard deviation age of 25.62 ± 31.85 months; out of which, 70%(95% confidence interval [CI] 65 to 75) were diagnosed to have severe dehydration. The independent risk factors for severe dehydration were: child not exclusive breast fed in the first six months of life (AOR 5.67, 95%CI 2.51 to 12.78; p<0.001), history of not receiving oral rehydration solution before hospitalization (AOR 1.34, 95%CI 1.01 to 1.78; p=0.038), history of not receiving oral zinc before hospitalization (AOR 2.66, 95%CI 1.68 to 4.21; p<0.001) and living in overcrowded conditions (AOR 5.52, 95%CI 2.19 to 13.93; p<0.001). The study identified many risk factors associated with severe childhood dehydration; many of them are modifiable though known and effective public health interventions.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0015.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Rwanda; Risk associated MTCT; HIV-exposed infants
Online: 1 September 2021 (12:18:07 CEST)
Several factors enhance the possibility of vertical HIV transmission in the pediatric population. Unfortunately, the data of the prevalence of HIV and associated risk factors in these populations remain limited in Rwanda. The study aimed to assess HIV prevalence and risk factors for infants born to mothers on ARV treatment at CHUB/Rwanda. MethodsA cross-sectional study was carried out on infants who were born to mothers under ARV treatment at CHUB. The associated risk factors were retrospectively assessed using prevention vertical HIV transmission records, and Dried Blood spots (DBS) were prospectively tested using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Data were analyzed by logistic regression. Ethical clearance (Ref: CMHS/IRB/198/2017) was issued by University of Rwanda to fulfill research ethical consideration.ResultsAmong 185(100%) infants born to HIV-positive mothers under ARV treatment, 5(2.7%) were HIV positive. The most associated risk factors were increased to over 1log copies/ml mother’s viral load (OR 9.3, 95% CI 1.01-85.45, P= 0.04) and mother’s CD4 count lower than 350 cells/µl (OR 6.4, 95% CI 1.03-40.06, P=0.04). The factors found to reduce the rate of vertical transmission of HIV were health facility as a delivery place (P=0.03), exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months (P= 0.006), and attending the antenatal care (P=0.01) while feeding children and vaginal delivery were associated risks but not statistically significant.ConclusionThe current study supports that the more mothers’ viral load and CD4 count decrease, so does the risk of HIV to their infants. A fact which indicates that both prevalence and risk factors remain an alarming issue. Much effort and multi-disciplinary approach are highly recommended.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0234.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: Irish dance; injuries; risk factors; injury prevention; epidemiology; prevalence; incidence; surveillance system
Online: 12 April 2023 (03:35:52 CEST)
Background: Irish dance is growing in popularity, evolving to a more athletic and demanding dance style. Aims: To conduct a systematic review, previously registered with PROSPERO, to identify prevalence, incidence, and injury pattern among Irish dancers and analyse associated risk factors. Methods: Six online databases, plus two dance-specific science publications were searched systematically. Studies were included if the pattern of injuries among Irish dancers were evaluated or the factors associated with injury were analysed, published in English or Portuguese, in peer-reviewed scientific journals. Four reviewers assessed the quality and level of evidence using the Downs and Black criteria and a modified Oxford Centre of Evidence-Based Medicine 2009 model, respectively. Results: Eleven articles were included, 8 level 3c (cross-sectional) and 3 level 3b (prospective). Mean DB percentage score was 63% ± 7,2%. Prevalence ranged from 72,2% to 92,6%, affecting mostly the foot/ankle complex. Only 2 articles reported incidence, which ranged from 3,4–10,6 injuries/1000 hours danced depending on injury definition. Psychological factors, elite level, and insufficient/poor sleep were associated with musculoskeletal injury. Conclusions: Injury prevalence and incidence is high in Irish dancers, with the foot and ankle more affected. Due to heterogeneity in injury definitions, methods, and populations, along with the need for improvement in studies quality, recommendations were made for future research.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1238.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Peyronie's disease; pathogenesis; risk factors; molecular mechanisms, transforming growth factor-β1
Online: 30 April 2023 (02:21:49 CEST)
Peyronie's disease (PD) is a benign condition caused by plaque formation on the tunica albuginea of the penis. It is associated with penile pain, curvature, and shortening, and contributes to erectile dysfunction, which worsens patient quality of life. In recent years, understanding of the detailed mechanisms and risk factors involved in development of PD has been increasing. In this review, the pathological mechanisms and several closely related signaling pathways, including TGF-β, WNT/β-catenin, Hedgehog, YAP/TAZ, MAPK, ROCK, and PI3K/AKT, are described. Findings regarding cross-talk among these pathways are then discussed to elucidate the complicated cascade behind tunica albuginea fibrosis. Finally, various risk factors including genetic involved in the development of PD are presented and their association with the disease summarized. The purpose of this review is to provide better understanding regarding involvement of risk factors in the molecular mechanisms associated with PD pathogenesis, as well as provide insight into disease prevention and novel therapeutic interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0539.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: disasters; risk; public perception; mythically-based human behavior
Online: 21 December 2020 (16:01:59 CET)
Starting from the importance of risk perception for taking certain preventive measures to protect people and their property from disasters, the subject of the research is to examine the factors influencing public perception of mythically-based human behavior in disaster conditions. Using the random sampling method, 250 adult respondents were surveyed in the city of Belgrade, using a specially created and adapted survey questionnaire. The results of the research show that there is no statistically significant influence of gender, age, educational and economic factors on the public perception of human behavior in disaster conditions. The results of the research can be used to improve strategies and campaigns based on risk assessment, aimed at improving the safety of people in disasters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0443.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Rabies; dogs; Tunisia; risk factors; odds ratio; case-control study
Online: 27 March 2023 (04:06:12 CEST)
Since 2012, the northeast of Tunisia has been experiencing an emergence of dog rabies. Published data revealed that the disease is widespread in the north of Tunisia. Even with studies on rabies, lacking knowledge on the associated risk factors was highlighted. Therefore, we conducted a case-control study on dog rabies in northeast Tunisia to identify potential risk factors for dog rabies occurrence. The cases group (n=77) included positive dog rabies confirmed at the referral laboratory using Fluorescent Antibody Test (FAT) in 2014 and 2018. The controls group (n=77) involved all negative cases received at the laboratory and 15-days quarantine dogs that received a certificate of absence of rabies after the observation period. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was conducted to explore the risk factors (age, sex, breed, confinement, vaccination status, presence of bites, owned or not and origin of dogs, sector, presence of rabies cases, and slaughterhouses, etc.…) related to the occurrence of rabies. The final logistic regression model revealed that unconfined dogs were almost twice as likely to be affected as confined dogs (OR=1.9; 95% CI: 1.17 to 3.27). The odds of rabies occurrence were 25 times higher in areas where rabies cases have been reported between 3 months and 1 year compared to the uninfected areas (25.7; 95% CI: 3.02-219.14). Similarly, the risk of rabies is significantly higher in dogs born in the home to the owner bitch (OR=2.41; 95% CI: 1.14-5.13). Living in areas with rabies cases in the last three months increases by 2.8 times the risk of getting rabies (2.8; 95% CI: 1.16-6.77). However, vaccination reduces by 1.6 times the risk of contracting rabies (0.6; 95% CI: 0.38-0.97). Our findings provide reliable data on dog rabies that will be very useful for decision-makers and could contribute to improving the ongoing national control program of rabies.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: COVID-19; machine learning; feature significance; feature correlation; risk factors
Online: 2 June 2021 (14:54:10 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic affected the whole world, but not all countries were impacted equally. This opens the question of what factors can explain the initial faster spread in some countries compared to others. Many such factors are overshadowed by the effect of the countermeasures, so we studied the early phases of the infection when countermeasures have not yet taken place. We collected the most diverse dataset of potentially relevant factors and infection metrics to date for this task. Using it, we show the importance of different factors and factor categories as determined by both statistical methods and machine learning (ML) feature selection (FS) approaches. Factors related to culture (e.g., individualism, openness), development, and travel proved the most important. A more thorough factor analysis was then made using a novel rule discovery algorithm. We also show how interconnected these factors are and caution against relying on ML analysis in isolation. Importantly, we explore potential pitfalls found in the methodology of similar work and demonstrate their impact on COVID-19 data analysis. Our best models using the decision tree classifier can predict the infection class with roughly 80% accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0621.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; mortality; epidemiology; risk factors; Nigeria; Africa
Online: 25 July 2020 (18:20:23 CEST)
Nigeria is the most populous country in the African continent. The aim of this study was to analyze risk factors for COVID-19 prevalence and deaths in all 6 geopolitical regions and 37 states in Nigeria. We analyzed the data retrieved from various sources, including Nigeria CDC, Nigeria National Bureau of Statistics, Unicef-Nigeria multiple indicator cluster survey and the Institute of Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington. We examined 4 clinical risk factors (prevalence of TB, HIV, smoking and BCG vaccination coverage) and 5 sociodemographic factors (age ≥65, population density, literacy rate, unemployment and GDP per capita). Multivariate modeling was conducted using generalized linear model. Our analysis showed that the incidence of confirmed COVID-19 cases differed widely across the 37 states, from 0.09 per 100,000 in Kogi to 83.7 in Lagos. However, more than 70% of confirmed cases were concentrated in just 7 states: Lagos, Abuja, Oyo, Kano, Edo, Rivers and Delta. Case mortality rate (CMR) per million population also varied considerably, with Lagos, Abuja and Edo having CMR above 9. On bivariate analysis, higher CMR correlated positively with GDP and to a lesser extent with TB and population density. On multivariate analysis, which is more definitive, states with higher HIV prevalence and BCG coverage had lower CMR, while high GDP states had a greater CMR. This study indicates that COVID-19 has disproportionately affected certain states in Nigeria. Population susceptibility factors include higher economic development but not literacy or unemployment. Death rates were mildly lower in states with higher HIV prevalence and BCG vaccination coverage.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0074.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: breast tumor; mammary neoplasm; breast carcinoma; meta-analysis; population at risk
Online: 7 April 2020 (01:22:38 CEST)
To systematically investigate the epidemiology of breast cancer risk factors in Iran, we performed a systematic search via PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Persian databases for identifying studies published on breast cancer risk factors up to March 2019. Meta-analyses were done for risk factors reported in more than one study. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using a fixed/random-effects models.Thirty-nine studies entered into the meta-analysis. Pooling of ORs showed a significant harmful effect for risk factors including family history (OR: 1.80, 95%CI 1.47-2.12), HRT (OR: 5.48, 95%CI 0.84-1.74), ER positive (OR: 1.87, 95%CI 1.41-2.33), PR positive (OR: 1.84, 95%CI 1.38-2.29), stress condition (OR: 2.67, 95%CI 1.84-3.50), passive smokers (OR: 1.68, 95%CI 1.34-2.03), full-term pregnancy at age 30 (OR: 3.41, 95%CI 1.19-5.63), abortion (OR: 1.84, 95%CI 1.35-2.33), sweets consumption (OR: 1.71, 95%CI 1.32-2.11) and genotype Arg/Arg (crude OR: 1.59, 95%CI 1.07-2.10), whereas a significant protective effect for late menarche (OR: 0.58, 95%CI 0.32-0.83), nulliparity (OR: 0.68, 95%CI 0.39-0.96), 13 to 24 months of breastfeeding (OR: 0.68, 95%CI 0.46-0.90), daily exercise (OR: 0.59, 95%CI 0.44-0.73) and vegetable consumption (crude OR: 0.28, 95%CI 0.10-0.46).This study suggest that factors such as family history, HRT, ER and PR positive status, stress condition, passive smokers, late full-term pregnancy, abortion, sweets consumption and genotype Arg/Arg might increase risk of breast cancer development, whereas late menarche, nulliparity, 13-24 months breastfeeding, daily exercise and vegetable consumption had an inverse association with breast cancer development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0276.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: risk perception; safety; construction; workers; working at height; manual handling; workload; Malawi
Online: 27 August 2019 (03:54:38 CEST)
This study employed a deductive research approach and a survey strategy to assess risk perception and its influencing factors among construction workers in Malawi. Three specific construction hazards and their associated risks were selected. The hazards were ‘working at height (WAH) ‘manual handling of loads (MHL)’ and ‘heavy workload or intense pressure to be more productive (HWP)’. The study engaged multistage sampling of 376 subjects. Univariate analysis, factor analysis and multiple linear regressions were performed in order to determine the main influencing factors among the independent variables. The study established that workers were aware of risks posed by their work. They perceived the risk associated with WAH, MHL and HWP as very high (62.7%, = 8.80 ± 1.95); (48.5%, = 8.10 ± 2.38); (57.9%, = 8.49 ± 2.22) respectively. The study identified six factors as variables that showed significant effect on workers’ perception of risk (p < 0.05). These factors were “dreaded factor”, “avoidability and controllability”, “expert knowledge”, “personal knowledge”, education level and age. It is concluded that contractors in the Malawian construction industry should integrate analysis of behaviors and risk perception of the workers and other players to guide the identification of better health and safety interventions at their worksites.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0779.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Social isolation; risk factors; older adults; long-term care
Online: 31 December 2020 (09:24:17 CET)
Objectives: A wealth of literature has established risk factors for social isolation among older people, however much of this research has focused on community-dwelling populations. Relatively little is known about how risk of social isolation is experienced among those living in long-term care (LTC) homes. We conducted a scoping review to identify possible risk factors for social isolation among older adults living in LTC homes. Methods: A systematic search of five online databases retrieved 1535 unique articles. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria. Results: Thematic analyses revealed that possible risk factors exist at three levels: individual (e.g., communication barriers), systems (e.g., location of LTC facility), and structural factors (e.g., discrimination). Discussion: Our review identified several risk factors for social isolation that have been previously documented in literature, in addition to several risks that may be unique to those living in LTC homes. Results highlight several scholarly and practical implications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1924.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: construction production; construction companies; sustainable functioning; risk factors; uncertainty; TOPSIS
Online: 28 July 2023 (10:02:59 CEST)
Sustainability is a characteristic manifested in the ability to maintain the necessary level of performance for construction companies when risk factors arise during the implementation of investment and construction projects. The risk factors that arise during the implementation of in-vestment and construction projects differ in nature, degree of influence, and other characteristics. Ignoring these factors and measures to manage them often leads to critical consequences in the form of disruptions in the timing of work. Risk is a combination of the probability and consequences of the occurrence of adverse events. The article considers the concept of risk as a potential possibility of occurrence of adverse situations and related consequences when exposed to these factors. Risk factors are characterized by surprise, discreteness of changes, the presence of threshold values, upon reaching which a transition to a different mode of operation is required. The article discusses the risk factors arising at the construction stage, their classification. A methodology has been developed that includes conducting a survey in the form of a questionnaire in order to collect information about risk factors that affect the implementation of investment and construction projects. Experts with experience in the construction sector were involved in the survey. The processing of the survey results made it possible to assess the significance of various risk factors in investment and construction projects. Thus, statistical and expert methods were used in the study. The results showed that financial, technical, legal, economic, managerial and natural factors have the greatest impact on investment and construction projects. It is recommended to pay special attention to the listed factors when developing measures aimed at preventing risks and their consequences. The methodology described in the study can be used by construction companies in strategic planning. The analysis of the stability of construction companies, depending on their use of various ways to counteract risk factors, allowed us to develop a number of practical recommendations to reduce the impact of the studied factors on achieving the goals of investment and construction projects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0140.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: coronary heart disease risk factors; healthy lifestyle behaviors; physical fitness
Online: 11 April 2018 (07:40:50 CEST)
The purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between healthy lifestyle behaviors, physical fitness and coronary risk factors in university students. 320 male and female (nm:171; nf:149) students from a university participated in this study voluntarily. For the determination of body composition and Body Mass Indexes (BMI), subjects’ height, body weight, and skinfold thickness were taken and body fat percentage (%Fat) was determined. Healthy lifestyle behaviors were determined using the healthy lifestyle behaviors questionnaire. Indicators of physical fitness included flexibility (sit-up) (F), muscle strength and endurance (isometric knee (KS), back strength (BS) and a total of shuttle (TS), sprint performance, BMI, and body fat percentage (%fat). Coronary heart disease risk factors included mean arterial blood pressure (systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP)), fasting blood levels of triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), hematocrit (HT), and hemoglobin (HM). Results indicated subjects have normal body mass index, body fat percentage, SBP, DBP, TG, TCF, BS, KS. The results of the Pearson Product Moment Correlation Analysis, indicated that SBP, DBP, TG, TCF, BS, KS for male and female was significantly correlated with flexibility (sit-up) (F), muscle strength and endurance (isometric knee (KS), back strength (BS) and total of shuttle (TS)), sprint performance. (p<0.01; p<0.05), In conclusion, the findings of the present study indicated that physical fitness and healthy lifestyle behaviors play a determinant role in coronary heart disease risk factors for male and female students from a university.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0335.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma; Aggressive; Malignant; Prognosis; Risk stratification; Lymph node
Online: 5 June 2023 (14:26:22 CEST)
Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE) is an extremely rare vascular sarcoma with variable aggressive clinical behavior. In this retrospective study we aimed to investigate prognostic factors based on clinicopathologic findings in a molecular/immunohistochemical confirmed nationwide multicenter cohort of 57 EHE. Patients had unifocal disease (n=29), multifocal disease (n=5), lymph node metastasis (n=8) and/or distant metastasis (n=15) at the time of diagnosis. The overall survival rate was 69.6% at 1 year and 50.5% at 5 years. Survival did not correlate with sex, age or histo-pathological parameters. No survival differences were observed between multifocal and metastatic disease suggesting that multifocality represents early metastases and treatment options are limited in comparison to unifocal disease. In unifocal tumors, survival could be predicted using the risk stratification model of Shibayama et al. dividing the cases into low (n=4), intermediate (n=15) and high (n=3) risk-groups. Larger tumor size (>3cm) and higher mitotic count (>1/10HPF) was asso-ciated with progressive unifocal disease course. Lymph node metastases at time of diagnosis oc-curred in 14.0% of the cases and was mainly associated with tumor localization in the head and neck area proposing lymph node dissection. In conclusion, our results demonstrate the aggressive behavior of EHE, emphasize the prognostic value of a previous described risk stratification model and may provide new insights regarding tumor focality, therapeutic strategies and prognosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0056.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Television viewing; sedentary behavior; Physical activity; cardiometabolic risk factors
Online: 3 December 2021 (14:01:39 CET)
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between television viewing/physical activity (TVV/PA) interactions and cardiometabolic risk in an adult European population. A total of 2,155 subjects (25-64 years) (45.2% males), a random population-based sample were evaluated in Brno, Czechia. TVV was classified as low (<2hours/day), moderate (2-4), and high (≥4). PA was classified as insufficient, moderate, and high. To assess the independent association of TVV/PA categories with cardiometabolic variables, multiple linear regression was used. After adjustments, significant associations were: high TVV/insufficient PA with body mass index (BMI) (β=2.61,SE=0.63), waist circumference (WC) (β=7.52,SE=1.58), body fat percent (%BF) (β=6.24,SE=1.02), glucose (β=0.25,SE=0.12), triglycerides (β=0.18,SE=0.05), and HDL-C (β=-0.10,SE=0.04); high TVV/moderate PA with BMI (β=1.98,SE=0.45), WC (β=5.43,SE=1.12), %BF (β =5.15,SE=0.72), triglycerides (β =0.08,SE=0.04), total cholesterol (β=0.21,SE=0.10), LDL-c (β=0.19,SE=0.08), and HDL-c (β=-0.07,SE=0.03); and moderate TVV/insufficient PA with WC (β=2.68,SE=1.25), %BF (β=3.80,SE=0.81), LDL-c (β=0.18,SE=0.09), and HDL-c (β=-0.07,SE=0.03). Independent of PA levels, higher TVV was associated with higher amounts of adipose tissue. Higher blood glucose and triglycerides were present in subjects with high TVV and insufficient PA, but not in those with high PA alone. These results affirm the independent cardiometabolic risk of sedentary routines even in subjects with high-levels of PA.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0636.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: abdominal aortic aneurysm, risk factors, observational studies, meta-analysis
Online: 26 October 2018 (15:28:44 CEST)
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) represents an important public health problem with a prevalence between 1.3% and 12.5%. Several population-based randomized trials have evaluated ultrasound screening for AAA providing evidence of a reduction in aneurysm-related mortality in the screened population. The aim of our study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the risk factors for AAA. We conducted a systematic review of observational studies and we performed a meta-analysis that evaluated the following risk factors: gender, smoking habits, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, Coronary Artery Disease and family history of AAA. Abdominal aortic aneurysm prevalence is higher in smokers and in males. It is important to underline that all countries, where AAA screening was set up, had high income level and the majority belong to Western Europe (United Kingdom, Sweden, Italy, Poland, Spain and Belgium). Abdominal aortic aneurysm screening is fundamental for public health. It would avoid deaths, ruptures, and emergency surgical interventions if abdominal aortic aneurysm was diagnosed early in the population target for screening.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0499.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: HAPE; risk factors; echocardiography; pulmonary pressure; workload
Online: 30 August 2022 (03:18:35 CEST)
Background: At altitudes beyond 2500 m the risk of developing high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) grows with the increases in pulmonary arterial pressure. HAPE is characterized by severe pulmonary hypertension, though the incidence and relevance of individual risk factors are not yet predictable. However, the systolic pulmonary pressure (SPAP) and peak in tricuspid regurgitation velocity (TVR) are crucial factors when diagnosing pulmonary hypertension by echocardiography. Methods: The SPAP and TVR of 27 trekkers aged 20-65 years en route in the Solu Khumbu region of Nepal was assessed. Echocardiograph measurements were performed at Lukla (2,860 m), Gorak Shep (5170 m), and the summit of Kala Patthar (5,675 m). The altitude profile and the participant’s characteristics were also compiled for correlation with the measured data. Results: The results showed a highly significant increase of SPAP and TVR after ascending Kala Patthar. The study revealed a lower increase of SPAP and TVR in the group of older participants, although the initial respective measurements in Gorak Shep were significantly higher for this group. A similar finding occurred in those using Diamox® as prophylaxis. There was an inverse relationship between TVR and SPAP, the peripheral capillary oxygen saturation and heart rate. Conclusions: The echocardiograph results indicate that older people are a risk group for developing a HAPE. The prophylactic use of acetazolamid led to higher initial SPAP values in Gorak Shep, and a lower increase of SPAP as well as TRV after ascending Kala Patthar. Arterial oxygen saturation measurements can provide an indicator for the self-assessment for the risk of developing HAPE and provide a rule of thumb for the altitude profile but does not replace a HAPE diagnosis. The collected data variables concerning backpack weight, sex, workload (actual ascent speed), and pre-existing diseases were not statistically significant factors related to SPAP and TVR (p=<0.05).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0194.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: tsunami; risk communication; risk perception; local knowledge; media; scientific communication; 1908 Reggio Calabria - Messina Earthquake and tsunami
Online: 11 January 2023 (03:41:55 CET)
In the Mediterranean, the probability of tsunamis is lower than in other coastal areas such as the Pacific Ring, where tsunamis are more familiar and memory of past events and anticipatory signals and protective measures is preserved by local culture, along with media and scientific sources, therefore tsunami risk is more likely to be downplayed or neglected. Past research identified socio-demographic and spatial factors that may affect tsunami risk perception. This research is based on a sample of 5842 CATI interviews to investigate whether and how risk perception and risk knowledge were affected by a major event such as the 1908 Reggio Calabria Messina tsunami, by making a comparison between areas hit by that event and unaffected areas, also providing some explanatory hypotheses. Despite differences between Calabria and Sicily, data anyway show higher levels of tsunami risk perception in the area affected by the 1908 event, along with a major role of interpersonal sources, playing a relevant role in information gathering and understanding. Research also suggests the need to better integrate different sources of knowledge to improve people’s understanding as to effectively cope with tsunami risk.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2064.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: Trends; diversity; cardiovascular disease (CVD); mortality; risk factors; Asian countries
Online: 29 June 2023 (05:17:21 CEST)
We explored the trends and the diversity of the mortality and risk factors of age-standardized cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and cerebrovascular disease (CBD) from 2000 to 2020 in five advanced Asian countries, including China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan. Data were obtained from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) report. Overall, the CVD mortality rates decreased gradually in all five Asian countries. Singapore had the highest rates before 2011, but Taiwan replaced Singapore as the nation of the highest mortality rates after 2012. Additionally, South Korea had the highest CBD mortality rates before 2016, while Taiwan experienced a peak in 2011 and remained high thereafter. The absolute difference (AD) and relative difference (RD) for CVD mortality rates showed clear declining trends in all five countries, with South Korea and China displaying the highest reductions, respectively. It is noteworthy that overweight and obesity exhibited an increasing trend in all these five Asian countries, with China demonstrating the highest AD and RD. Except for Taiwan, where a negative association of r=-0.732 was observed, CVD mortality was positively associated with CBD, hypertension, and DM mortality in all other four countries, therefore, further investigation into these relationships are needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1809.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: mobile banking; COVID-19; usefulness; ease of use; risk and trust
Online: 26 September 2023 (16:10:20 CEST)
The current global financial sector is dedicated to providing customers with more advanced and strategic services. With channels like internet banking, mobile phone banking, and telephone banking, the industry delivers multi-channel banking services to satisfy its clients. The COVID-19 pandemic has directly impacted the global economy, as well as the financial sector, with the banking sector facing lockdown initiatives to curb the virus's spread. As a result, mobile payment methods have been favored by people over physical money for transactions. This study analyzes the factors that influenced mobile banking usage during the pandemic in Sri Lanka.. Convenience sampling was used, comprising of 200 online questionnaires conducted among customers in Sri Lanka. The collected data was analyzed using descriptive analysis, exploratory factor analysis, and multiple linear regression through IBM SPSS 25. Research findings revealed that trust and risk were significant factors affecting mobile banking usage in Sri Lanka. Trust had a positive effect while Risk negatively effects to the mobile banking usage. Ease of use and Usefulness were irrelevant factors during the COVID-19 pandemic in Sri Lanka.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0342.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus; Chronic Kidney Diseases; Hypertension; Risk Factors; Bangladesh
Online: 19 November 2021 (09:26:12 CET)
Diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are a major public health burden in low-and-middle-income countries. This study aimed to explore factors associated with CKD in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Bangladesh. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 315 adults with T2D presenting at the outpatient department of Bangladesh Institute of Health Sciences (BIHS) hospital between July 2013 to December 2013. CKD was diagnosed based on estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate using the ‘Modification of Diet in Renal Disease’ equations and presence of albuminuria estimated by the albumin-to-creatinine ratio. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with CKD. The overall prevalence of CKD among patients with T2D was 21.3%. In the unadjusted model Factors associated with CKD were: aged 40-49 years (OR: 5.7, 95% CI: 1.3-25.4), age 50-59 years (7.0, 1.6-39), age ≥60 years (7.6, 1.7-34); being female (2.2, 1.2-3.8), hypertensive (1.9, 1.1-3.5) and household income between 128.2-256.4 US$ (2.9, 1.0-8.2) compared with income ≤128.2$. However, after adjustment of other covariates, only duration of hypertension and household income (128.2-256.4 US$) remained statistically significant. There is a need to implement policies and programs for early detection and management of hypertension and CKD in T2D patients in Bangladesh.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0145.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: multilevel analysis; periodontal disease; nonsurgical periodontal therapy; risk factor; modelling; periodontal healing
Online: 18 February 2019 (07:31:01 CET)
This retrospective study aimed to investigate the effect of known risk factors on nonsurgical periodontal treatment (NSPT) response using a pocket depth fine-tuning multilevel linear model (MLM). Thirty-seven patients (24 males and 13 females) with moderate to severe chronic periodontitis were treated with nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Follow-up visits at 3, 6, and 12 months included measurement of several clinical periodontal parameters. Data were extracted from a database system. Probing depth (PD) and Clinical Attachment Loss (CAL) reductions after NSPT in an overall of 1416 initially affected sites (baseline PD ≥ 4 mm), distributed on 536 teeth, were analyzed against known risk factors at three hierarchical levels (patient, tooth and site). The variance component models fitted to assess the three-level variance of PD and CAL decrease for each post-treatment follow-up showed that all levels contributed significantly to the overall variance (P < 0.001). Patients that underwent NSPT and were continually monitored had very curative results. All three hierarchical levels included risk factors who had impact on the to influence the magnitude of PD and CAL reduction. Specifically, the tooth’s type, surfaces involved and teeth mobility site-level risk factors showed the highest influence on these reductions, being highly relevant factors for the NSPT success.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0096.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Hepatitis E; Associated risk factors; Pregnant women; Environment; Prevention; Senegal
Online: 7 June 2022 (08:06:52 CEST)
In West Africa, research on the hepatitis E virus (HEV) is barely covered despite the recorded outbreaks. The still low level of access to safe water and adequate sanitation is one of the main factors of HEV spread in developing countries. HEV infection induces acute or sub-clinical liver diseases with a mortality rate ranging from 0.5 to 4%. The mortality rate is more alarming (15 to 25%) among pregnant women, especially in the last trimester of pregnancy. Here, we conducted a multicentric socio-demographic and seroepidemiological survey of HEV in Senegal among pregnant women. A total of 1,227 consenting participants attending antenatal clinics responded to our questionnaire. Plasma samples were collected and tested for anti-HEV IgM and IgG by using the WANTAI HEV-IgM and IgG ELISA assay. HEV global seroprevalence was 7.9% with 0.5% and 7.4% for HEV IgM and HEV IgG, respectively. One participant's sample was IgM/IgG positive, while four were declared indeterminate to anti-HEV IgM as per the manufacturer's instructions. From one locality to another, the seroprevalence of HEV antibodies varied from 0 to 1% for HEV IgM and from 1.5 to 10.5% for HEV IgG. The data also showed that seroprevalence varied significantly by marital status (p<0.0001), by the regularity of income (p=0.0043) and by access to sanitation services (p=0.0006). These data could serve as a basis to setup national prevention strategies focused on socio-cultural, environmental and behavioral aspects for a better management of HEV infection in Senegal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1690.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: hepatitis B; anti HBcore; risk factors; blood donors
Online: 24 May 2023 (04:37:56 CEST)
Background and Aim. Recently made analysis for anti-HBcor prevalence within Kazakhstan blood donors population concluded 17.2% rate. Considering these data are among the highest of infectivity results worldwide, an objective of this study was to define an association of positive Hepatitis B serology markers with risk and behavior factors. Methods. The blood donors’ samples were tested for anti-HBcore total (IgG/IgM) and anti-HBs, by CLIA on the Architect i2000SR platform (Abbott). Surrogate alanine transferase (ALT) markers for all blood donors were tested by kinetic method on the Biosystems A25 analyzer. A questionnaire was developed for socio-demographic characteristics, donors’ nutrition habits, cholesterol levels and history of smoking, alcohol consumption. Informed consent was obtained from all study participants. Statistics was calculated using the R software program (version 4.1.1, USA, 2021). Results. A group of 5709 blood donors participated in the study. Participants with positive anti-HBcore scores were on average older (41.8 vs 34.4 years, p<0.001), Kazakh (88.7% vs 83.0%, p<0.001), married (74.0% vs 55.6%, p<0.001), had a secondary education (70.1% vs. 59.4%, p=0.03), smoked (27.9% vs. 24.3%, p=0.05), had a longer smoking history (13.6±9.5 years vs. 9.8±8.5 years, p<0.001), and various hypercholestesterolaemia (6.2% vs 3.9%, p=0.02). Predominantly their main meal was dinner (17.0% vs 14.2%, p=0.03). Analysis for associations of socio-demographics characteristics, risk factors, nutrition with anti-HBs, showed that those who have secondary education level (70.1%) were more likely to be anti-HBs-positive (p=0.03). No other significant correlations for anti-HBs were observed. Conclusions. The risk factors and behavior analysis highlighted the blood donors’ overall health status. Positive Hepatitis B markers associated with statistically significant characteristics from socio-demography, nutrition habits or risk factors could support further pathogenesis studies looking for HBV treatment guides fulfilling the existing gaps.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0338.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Non-typhoidal Salmonella; poultry; risk factor; Nigeria; fowl typhoid; pullorum disease
Online: 22 July 2022 (13:12:50 CEST)
Salmonellosis is a bacterial zoonosis with array of health conditions. Non-typhoidal salmonellosis (NTS) have a discrete adaptation to certain animals; in poultry, pullorum and fowl typhoid are its primary disease manifestations. The diseases are prevalent in the Nigerian poultry and have been well studied in Nigeria, but less so in the north central Nigeria (NCN). Using field sampling, laboratory methods and semi structured questionnaire in 1000 poultry farms from NCN, we explore the incidence and risk factors for the persistence of NTS infection in poultry. Approximately 41.6% of the farms have experienced NTS but only 6.3% have current infection with NTS. Farm experience of NTS moderately predicted awareness of salmonellosis. Increasing stock in smallholder farms, self-mixing of concentrate on the farm, usage of stream water, pen odour, non-adherence and partial adherence of farms to recommended poultry vaccination against pullorum and fowl typhoid, and lack of and non-adherence to biosecurity were identified risk factors that increased the odds of NTS infection in poultry. Antibiotic use practice may have reduced the isolation rate of NTS, yet NTS continues to challenge poultry farms in Nigeria. Identified risk practices must be mitigated intentionally and biosecurity and hygiene must improve to reduce the burden of NTS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1292.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Carotid atherosclerosis [C10,228,140,300,200]; cardiovascular risk factors [E05,318,740,600,800,725,500,500]; carotid intima-media thickness [E01,370,350,850,150]
Online: 18 May 2023 (07:52:00 CEST)
Introdução: Os fatores de risco vasculares são decisivos na evolução da doença aterosclerótica e a ecografia Doppler carotídea e vertebral permite acompanhar o seu aparecimento e evolução. A medida do espessamento da parede arterial permite o diagnóstico precoce da doença potencializando seu tratamento e controle dos fatores de risco vasculares. Objetivo: Analisar a presença de doença ateromatosa em indivíduos com idade > 65 anos e compreender sua transformação com fatores de risco vascular. Materiais e Métodos: Estudo observacional transversal, em indivíduos com idade > 65 anos manifestados ao ecoDoppler carotídeo entre 1º de janeiro de 2012 e 31 de dezembro de 2021. Foi calculado o índice médio-intimal, a presença de placas ateromatosas, sua repercussão hemodinâmica e fatores de risco vascular foram registrados. Resultados: Obteve-se uma amostra de 5885 indivíduos, sendo 41,8% do sexo feminino e 58,2% do sexo masculino. A média de idade foi de 76,59 anos, variando entre 65 e 98 anos (+6,69). A hipertensão arterial foi a mais prevalente 81,3%. Houve relação positiva significativa entre índice médio-intimal, idade e história pessoal de doenças cardiovasculares e cerebrovasculares (p=0,001). Na presença de placas, sexo masculino, hipertensão arterial, diabetes, dislipidemia, tabagismo e história pessoal de doenças cardiovasculares e cerebrovasculares apresentadas de forma positiva. Conclusões: Nesta amostra, fatores de risco vascular não modificáveis parecem ser determinantes na presença de aumento da espessura da parede arterial. Na presença de sinais de um estágio mais avançado da doença aterosclerótica, os fatores de risco vascular modificáveis são decisivos,
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0733.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: thoracic aorta; atherosclerosis; vascular calcification; risk factors
Online: 30 March 2021 (11:42:32 CEST)
Thoracic aortic calcium (TAC) appears to be a subclinical marker of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and to predict CV mortality. However, studies on TAC use tomographic scans obtained for coronary artery calcium (CAC) score, which does not include the aortic arch. This study evaluates TAC prevalence in aortic arch (AAC), ascending (ATAC) and descending thoracic aorta (DTAC) and verify whether they are associated with the same CV risk factors. Cross-sectional analysis, including 2,427 participants (mean age 55.6 ± 8.7; 54,1% women) of the ELSA-Brasil cohort. Nonenhanced ECG-gated tomographies were performed in 2015-2016. Multivariable logistic regression estimated the CV risk factors associated with calcium in each segment. Overall prevalence of ATAC, AAC and DTAC was, 23,1%, 62.1%, and 31.2%, respectively. About 90.4% of the individuals with TAC had AAC and only 19.5% had calcium in all segments. In the multivariable analysis, increasing age, lower levels of schooling, current smoking, higher body mass index, and hypertension remained associated with calcium in all segments. No sex or race/ethnicity differences were found in any aortic segment. Diabetes and Dyslipidemia were associated with ATAC and DTAC, but not with AAC, suggesting that AAC may reflect an overlap of mechanisms that impact vascular health, including atherosclerosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0084.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Donkey; breeding; twinning; heritability; REML; risk factors
Online: 5 November 2018 (04:13:35 CET)
Multiple births or twinning in equids are dangerous, undesirable situations that compromise the life of the dam and resulting offspring. However, embryo vitrification and freezing techniques take advantage of individuals whose multiple ovulations allow flushing more fertilised embryos from the oviduct to be collected, increasing the productivity and profitability of such techniques. Embryo preservation is especially important in highly endangered populations such as certain donkey (Equus asinus) breeds; for which conventional reproductive techniques have previously failed. For instance, becoming an effective alternative to artificial insemination with frozen semen to preserve the individuals’ genetic material. The objective of this study was to examine the historical foaling records of Andalusian donkeys to estimate genetic parameters for multiple births, assessing the historical foal number born per animal, maximum foal number per birth and multiple birth number per animal. We designed an Animal Model with single records considering the fixed effects of birthyear, birth season, sex, farm, and husbandry system, and age as a linear and quadratic covariate. Restricted maximum likelihood reported heritability estimates ranging from 0.18±0.01 to 0.24±0.01. Genetic and phenotypic correlations ranged from 0.01±0.01 to 0.83±0.01 and 0.12±0.01 and 0.53±0.01, respectively. These estimates enable the potential for selection against/for these traits, offering a new perspective for donkey breeding and conservation.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0404.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Polypill; Cardiovascular Risk; Primary Prevention; Secondary Prevention; Adherence; Cost-effectivity
Online: 31 October 2022 (09:27:48 CET)
Primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention is less effective than expected due to the concern about polymedication by professionals and the lack of patient adherence to medications prescribed in the medium and long term. Polypills have been presented as a possible solution. A comprehensive bibliographic review is presented about polypills as mechanisms for facilitating adherence and a proposed guide for the use of polypills for the prevention of cardiovascular risk. 41 articles were included, showing options for the polypill as a method of primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention.The polypill increases therapeutic adherence in the medium and long term, also increasing the therapeutic results compared to the administration of the various drugs separately. Based on the evidence, a flow diagram is proposed for the prescription of a polypill.Polypills increase the effectiveness and adherence of patients to primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention programs, without increasing the cost of the intervention. The use of a polypill in cardiovascular prevention can be effective as a prescription tool.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0244.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; animals; dogs; epidemiology; risk factors; clinical picture; Croatia
Online: 9 June 2021 (07:40:55 CEST)
Over a year into the COVID-19 pandemic, there is growing evidence that SARS-CoV-2 infections among dogs are more common than previously thought. In this study, the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was investigated in two dog population. The first group was comprised of 1069 dogs admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital for any given reason. The second group included dogs that shared households with confirmed COVID-19 cases in humans. This study group numbered 78 dogs. In COVID-19 infected households, 43.9% tested ELISA positive, and neutralisation antibodies were detected in 25.64% of dogs. Those data are comparable with the secondary attack rate in the human population. With 14.69% of dogs in the general population testing ELISA positive, there was a surge of SARS-CoV-2 infections within the dog population amid the second wave of the pandemic. Noticeably seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in the dog and the human population did not differ at the end of the study period. Male sex, breed and age were identified as significant risk factors. This study gives strong evidence that while acute dog infections are mostly asymptomatic, they can pose a significant risk to dog health. Seropositive dogs had a 1.97 times greater risk for developing central nervous symptoms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0501.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: human arsenic exposure; water source; risk factors; Thailand
Online: 21 September 2020 (11:32:03 CEST)
Three decades ago, human arsenic (As) contamination has been recognized in Ron Phibun, a sub-district with tin mining activity in southern Thailand. Since then different government bodies have attempted to mitigate the As-contamination problem by providing safe water in households. The most recent study conducted during 2000-2002 reported only a small fraction of population still had high urinary As level. Less attention has been paid to this issue afterwards. The present study aimed to re-assess the current situation, including human As contamination, water use behavior as well as identify risk factors of elevated As concentration among residents of Ron Phibun. The survey of 560 participants living in Ron Phibun with urinary As assessment was conducted. The median urinary As concentration of study participants was higher than normal. Consumption of shallow well water, a source generally considered as As-contaminated, was higher than a previous survey. A significant association was observed between urinary As concentrations and water sources for drinking and cooking. Gender and educational level were found to be associated with urinary As concentration. Significant associations between urinary As concentration and certain diseases (respiratory diseases, dermatitis, and dyslipidemia) were observed. The findings suggested further investigation of all water sources in the area for As contamination.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0736.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Caribbean; Hispanic; West Indians; hypothesis; biostatistics; immigrants; cancer risk factors
Online: 12 September 2023 (08:53:01 CEST)
: Aim: The aim in this study was to conduct a prospective survey regarding the sociodemographics and lifestyle risk factors for cancer of a population of Caribbean immigrants living in the U.S. Materials and Methods: The data were processed and analysed using SPSS software 27 and Excel. Crosstabulations were performed. The chi-square test was used to evaluate different hypotheses. Statistical significance was defined as p < 0.05. Results: Statistically significant differences in the country of birth of the Caribbean immigrants were found for sex (p = 0.038) and the cleanness of their neighbourhoods (p = 0.045). We found differences in occupations between men and women (p = 0.001). Men were less unemployed than women (p = 0.011). Sex also showed statistically significant differences in how easily the immigrants balanced their work and personal life (p = 0.044). Age groups depicted differences in the physical health of the immigrants (p = 0.001). The use of alcohol and tobacco was not an important risk factor among participants (p = 0.529). Conclusions: These findings suggest that the sociodemographics risk factors for cancer among a population of Caribbean immigrants were significantly different between the sexes. However, the use of tobacco and alcohol showed insignificant differences among the immigrants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0492.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Tropical Medicine Keywords: Malaria parasitaemia; Risk factors; Malaria Diagnosis; infectious mode in children
Online: 28 March 2023 (14:58:24 CEST)
Background: Malaria remains a serious public health concern worldwide, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions, and the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in children especially among those aged under five in developing countries. Malaria can be fatal if not promptly and accurately diagnosed, especially in children.This study was carried out to determine the level of malaria infection and its associated risk factors among febrile children.Methods: Blood samples were collected and analyzed from two- hundred (200) systematically selected febrile children aged 1-10 years old. assay of samples collected were carried out using standard methods.data were collected using a pretested structured questionnaire. Results: Results obtained from study subjects shows that, of the eighty-seven (87) infected subjects, 34 (39.1%) were aged 1-5 years, while 52 (59.8%) were within the range of 6 years and above.severity of infection showed 48 (55.2%) with scanty parasitic infection while 25 (28.7%) showed moderate infection, and 13 (14.9%) showed heavy infection.The association of age and level of parasitemia showed that 34 (58.8% ) subjects below 5 years, recorded scanty malaria compared to 14.7% with severe malaria within the age range.Considering gender, of the 33 infected female subjects, 45.5% had scanty malaria, 36.4% showed moderate malaria, while 18.2% had severe malaria, compared to the males subjects.Conclusion: This study reveals the prevalence of malaria infection with some level of severity among children at our study location.The need for prompt diagnosis and improved access to all malaria interventions becomes relevant,with a special focus on the high risk group.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0338.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: cumulative family risk; child maltreatment; early adversity; DNA methylation; SLC6A4
Online: 25 October 2021 (10:26:29 CEST)
Exploring the contribution of proximal family risk factors on SLC6A4 DNA methylation in children with a history of maltreatment
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0138.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Government Keywords: COVID-19; vaccination; government; cross-sectional survey; perceived risk
Online: 11 October 2022 (04:21:45 CEST)
Introduction: This study explores exposure to misinformation, COVID-19 risk perception, and confidence towards the government as predictors to negative attitudes toward the COVID-19 vaccine. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out from 30 June to 30 August 2021 involving 775 respondents. The survey instrument for the questionnaire is an adaptation from various different studies consisting of five main variables: 1) misinformation about vaccination; 2) risk perception toward COVID-19; 3) attitudes toward the vaccination programme; 4) intention to get vaccinated; and 5) public confidence in the government in executing the vaccination programme. Results: The results of this study indicate that higher exposure to misinformation led to higher levels of negative attitudes toward the COVID-19 vaccine. When the perceived risk of COVID-19 infection was high, mistrust of vaccine benefits was low but there were also higher worries about the future effects of the vaccine. Confidence in government was associated with lower negative attitudes toward the COVID-19 vaccine. Conclusion: The results of this study may help develop an understanding of negative attitudes toward vaccinations in Malaysia and its contributing factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0501.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Breast Neoplasm; Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy (NAC); pathologic Complete Response (pCR); Risk Factor; recurrence
Online: 29 March 2023 (03:52:14 CEST)
Background: Pathologic complete response (pCR) of breast cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is highly related to molecular subtypes. Patients who achieved tumor pCR after NAC have a better prognosis. However, despite of better prognosis, pCR patients have a potential for recurrence. There is little evidence of risk factors of recurrence in patients with pCR. We aim to analyze factors associated with tumor recurrence in patients who achieved pCR. Methods: This study retrospectively reviewed the data of patients diagnosed with breast cancer who achieved pCR after receiving NAC between January 2009 and December 2018 in Samsung Medical Center. pCR was defined as no residual invasive cancer in the breast and axillary nodes even if there is residual ductal carcinoma in situ (ypT0 or ypTis with ypN0). Breast cancers are classified into 4 subtypes based on hormone receptors (HR) and human epithelial growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status. Patients who had bilateral breast cancer, inflammatory breast cancer, distant metastasis, unknown subtype, and histologically unique case were excluded from the study. Results: In total 483 patients were included in this study except for patients who corresponded to the exclusion criteria. The median follow-up duration was 59.0 months (range, 0.5-153.3 months). Breast cancer recurred in 4.1% of patients (20 of 483). There was a significant difference in clinical T (p = .004) and clinical N (p = .034) stage in the Kaplan-Meier curve for disease-free survival. Molecular subtypes (p = .573), Ki67 (p = 1.000), and breast surgery type (p = .574) were not associated with tumor recurrence in patients who achieved pCR after NAC. In the clinical T stage and clinical N stage, there was a significant difference between recurrence and no-recurrence groups (clinical T stage; p = .045, clinical N stage; p = .002). Univariable Cox regression revealed statistical significance in the clinical T stage (p = .049) and clinical N stage (p = .010), while multivariable Cox regression demonstrated non-significance in the clinical T stage (p = .320) and clinical N stage (p = .073). Conclusion: Results in this study showed that clinical T, clinical N stage, and molecular subtypes were not statistically significant predictors of recurrence in patients who achieved pCR after NAC. It is hypothesized that a multicenter-based study would lead to the identification of factors as predictors of recurrence after achieving pCR.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2203.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: arrhythmic sudden cardiac death; risk stratification; non-invasive risk factors; NIRFs; electrophysiology study; two-step approach; cardiomyopathy
Online: 1 September 2023 (03:36:09 CEST)
Arrhythmic sudden cardiac death (SCD) has an annual prevalence of 1 per 1000 while 75% of the victims suffer from ischemic and 10% from non-ischemic or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Altogether, these three entities account for more than 80% of the total SCD victims. Guidelines for implantable cardiac defibrillators are still dominated by LVEF<30% from the MADIT II study. In terms of arrhythmic risk stratification, the PRESERVE-EF study restored in clinical practice the two-step arrhythmic risk stratification approach based on Electrocardiographic non-invasive risk factors (NIRFs) guiding to electrophysiological study. In our times with the multiple cardiac imaging methods and artificial intelligence applications availability, this two-step approach based on integrated arrhythmia mechanisms detection, emerges as an efficient SCD risk stratification paradigm for these three entities but also for the patients with congenital heart disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0430.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: anterior cruciate ligament; gait disorder; gait analysis; risk factors
Online: 18 September 2020 (11:17:01 CEST)
Today, rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament is the most common heavy injury in athletes, but it can also occur in sedentary subjects. Its treatment, always adapted to the lifestyle, age and will of the patient, often remains surgical. However, despite its frequency and universality, there are still walking disorders following the operation. These disorders sometimes persist for several months, or even several years after surgery. The present study is therefore interested in determining the risk factors linked to walking disorders following reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament. The objective of this study is to determine what risk factors associated with walking disorders are after reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament by hamstring graft. This study focused on factors that may exist at 3 and 6 months postoperatively. Two populations participated in this study, a healthy population and a population having benefited from reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament. The operated test group is divided into two subgroups, one with a postoperative period of 3 months and the second at 6 months. All subjects were subjected to the same protocol, their gait on the treadmill was analyzed and evaluated with an Optogait® analysis system. A univariate analysis was carried out first. Then, a multivariate analysis by adjustment method was carried out in order to eliminate the potential confounding factors. The comparison of the results between the populations in the univariate analysis shows an absence of significant results however there are trends. The statistical results of the multivariate analysis showed interactions in the two subgroups of the operated population.In fact, it turns out that at 3 months there is a tendency to worse gait disorders in subjects with a high BMI reflecting overweight, when an associated surgical procedure has taken place on the meniscus, in subjects over 35 years of age and males. On the other hand, at 6 months, the tendency to worsening is visible only in the strata represented by subjects with a BMI corresponding to overweight, as well as in subjects having benefited from a meniscal suture associated with ACL reconstruction. .The results of the present study show that there are certain factors which tend to increase the risk of these walking disorders after reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament by hamstring graft, these factors are different depending on the time postoperative.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0423.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: community-dwelling older adults; physical frailty; prevalence; risk factors
Online: 18 September 2020 (08:57:56 CEST)
Frailty is defined as a state of increased vulnerability to stressors, and it predicts the disability and mortality in the older population. This study aimed to investigate standardized prevalence and multidimensional risk factors associated with frailty among the Korean community-dwelling older adults. We analyzed the baseline data of 2,907 adults aged 70–84 years (mean age 75.8±3.9 years, 57.8% women) in the Korean Frailty and Aging Cohort Study. The Fried frailty phenotype was used to define frailty. Analyzed data included sociodemographic, physical, physical function, biological, lifestyle, health condition, medical condition, psychological, and social domains. Data were standardized using the national standard population composition ratio based on the Korean Population and Housing Census. The standardized prevalence of frailty and pre-frailty was 7.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.8–8.9%) and 57.2% (95% CI 45.1–48.8%), respectively. The following 14 risk factors had a significant association with frailty: at risk of malnutrition, sarcopenia, severe mobility limitation, poor social capital, rural dwellers, depressive, poor self-perceived health, polypharmacy, elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, elevated glycosylated hemoglobin, low 25-hydroxy vitamin D level, longer timed up and go, and low short physical performance battery score (p<0.05). Physico-nutritional, psychological, sociodemographic, and medical factors are strongly associated with frailty.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1714.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Cardiovascular diseases; mortality; modifiable risk factors; sociodemographic index; BRICS-Plus
Online: 25 July 2023 (11:32:10 CEST)
BRICS-Plus (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa, and 30 other countries) is a group of 35 countries with emerging economies making up more than half of the world’s population. We explored epidemiological trends of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality attributable to modifiable risk factors and its association with period and birth cohort effects and sociodemographic index (SDI) across BRICS-Plus by using joinpoint regression and age-period-cohort (APC) modeling from 1990 to 2019. Between 1990 and 2019, the all-ages CVD deaths increased by 85.2% (6.1 million to 11.3 million) across BRICS-Plus. The CVD ASMR attributable to dietary risks and smoking significantly decreased across BRIC-Plus countries, with some exceptions. However, four-fifth of BRIC-Plus countries observed a remarkable increasing trend of high body mass-index (BMI)-related CVD deaths in particular among younger adults (25-49 years). Early birth cohorts and individuals aged greater than 50 years showed a higher risk of CVD mortality. Both China-ASEAN FTA and Mercosur regions stand out for their successful sociodemographic transition, with a significant reduction in CVD mortality over the study period. Singapore and Brazil achieved great progress in CVD mortality reduction and the other BRICS-Plus countries should follow their lead in adopting public health policies and initiatives into practice.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: risk factors; second primary cancer (SPC); colorectal cancer; classification techniques; extreme gradient boosting
Online: 15 December 2019 (13:30:09 CET)
In Taiwan, colorectal cancer is ranked second and third in terms of mortality and cancer incidence, respectively. In addition, medical expenditures related to colorectal cancer are considered to be the third highest. While advances in treatment strategies have provided cancer patients with longer survival, potentially harmful second primary cancers can occur. Therefore, second primary colorectal cancer analysis is an important issue with regard to clinical management. In this study, a novel predictive scheme was developed for predicting the risk factors associated with second colorectal cancer in patients with colorectal cancer by integrating five data mining classification techniques, including support vector machine, random forest, multivariate adaptive regression splines, extreme learning machine, and extreme gradient boosting. In total, 4,287 patients in the datasets provided by three hospital tumor registries were used. Our empirical results revealed that this proposed predictive scheme provided promising classification results and the identification of important risk factors for predicting second colorectal cancer based on accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve metrics. Collectively, our clinical findings suggested that the most important risk factors were the combined stage, age at diagnosis, BMI, surgical margins of the primary site, tumor size, sex, regional lymph nodes positive, grade/differentiation, primary site, and drinking behavior. Accordingly, these risk factors should be monitored for the early detection of second primary tumors in order to improve treatment and intervention strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0062.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Chikungunya virus, Zika virus, spatial clustering, Bayesian Poisson models, conditional autoregressive models, socioeconomic risk factors, environmental risk factors
Online: 6 February 2019 (13:16:52 CET)
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) have recently emerged as global infections with consequential disability adjusted life years (DALYs) and economic burden. This study aimed to explore the spatiotemporal heterogeneity in the occurrence of CHIKV and ZIKV outbreaks throughout Barranquilla, Colombia during 2014 and 2016 and explored the potential for clustering. Incidence data were fitted using multiple Bayesian Poisson models based on a suite of explanatory variables as potential risk factors and multiple options for random effects. A best fit model was used to analyse the case incidence risk for both epidemics to identify any risk factors during their epidemics. Neighbourhoods in the northern region of Barranquilla were hotspots for the outbreaks of both CHIKV and ZIKV. Additional hotspots occurred in the south-western and central regions of the CHIKV and ZIKV outbreaks, respectively. Multivariate conditional autoregressive models strongly identified higher socioeconomic strata (SES) and residing in detached houses as risk factors for ZIKV case incidences. These novel findings challenge the belief that these infections are driven by social vulnerability and merits further study both in Barranquilla and throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0054.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Chikungunya virus, Zika virus, spatial clustering, Bayesian Poisson models, conditional autoregressive models, socioeconomic risk factors, environmental risk factors
Online: 5 February 2019 (14:25:34 CET)
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) have recently emerged as global infections with consequential disability adjusted life years (DALYs) and economic burden. This study aimed to explore the spatiotemporal heterogeneity in the occurrence of CHIKV and ZIKV outbreaks throughout Barranquilla, Colombia during 2014 and 2016 and explored the potential for clustering. Incidence data were fitted using multiple Bayesian Poisson models based on a suite of explanatory variables as potential risk factors and multiple options for random effects. A best fit model was used to analyse the case incidence risk for both epidemics to identify any risk factors during their epidemics. Neighbourhoods in the northern region of Barranquilla were hotspots for the outbreaks of both CHIKV and ZIKV. Additional hotspots occurred in the south-western and central regions of the CHIKV and ZIKV outbreaks, respectively. Multivariate conditional autoregressive models strongly identified higher socioeconomic strata (SES) and residing in detached houses as risk factors for ZIKV case incidences. These novel findings challenge the belief that these infections are driven by social vulnerability and merits further study both in Barranquilla and throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0022.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Alzheimer's disease; Corpus callosum; Dementia; Down syndrome; Hippocampus; Psychosocial Risk Factors
Online: 5 April 2022 (09:38:33 CEST)
Several recent epidemiological studies attempted to identify risk factors for Alzheimer's disease. Age, family history, genetic factors (APOE genotype, Down syndrome), physical activity, and a low level of schooling are significant risk factors. In this review, we summarize the known psychosocial risk factors for the development of Alzheimer's disease in Down syndrome patients and their association with neuroanatomical changes in the brains of people with Down syndrome. We completed a comprehensive review of the literature on PubMed, Google Scholar, and Web of Science about psychosocial risk factors for Alzheimer's disease, for Alzheimer's disease in Down syndrome, and Alzheimer's disease in Down syndrome and their association with neuroanatomical changes in the brains of people with Down syndrome. Alzheimer's disease causes early pathological changes in Down syndrome patients, especially in the hippocampus and corpus callosum. The field needs more data about the neuroanatomical changes during childhood, how they change with increasing age, and the presence or absence of psychosocial risk factors. Further neuroimaging and psychosocial assessment-focused research is needed to understand the mechanisms leading to Alzheimer's disease at an early age and create more sensitive and relevant clinical, memory, and reasoning assessments for people with Down syndrome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0237.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; risk factors; outcomes; cardiovascular; Latin America.
Online: 19 June 2020 (10:22:50 CEST)
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) fatal outcomes have been associated with multiple cardiovascular risk factors. In new epidemic areas, such as Latin America, there is a lack of studies about this. Here, we evaluated those factors in a retrospective cohort of patients in a national reference hospital of Lima, Peru. Design. A retrospective cohort observational study was done. For this study, information was obtained from clinical records of the hospital for the cases that were laboratory-diagnosed and related, during March 6th and April 30th, 2020. rRT-PCR was used for the detection of the RNA of SARS-CoV-2 following the protocol Charité, Berlin, Germany, from nasopharyngeal swabs at the National Institute of Health. Calculation of the odds ratio (OR) with the respective 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was done, also logistic regression for adjusted OR (multivariate) was done. Values of p < 0.05 were considered significant for all analyses. Results. One hundred six hospitalized patients were evaluated. The mean age of patients was 61.58 years (SD 16.81). Cardiovascular risk factors among them were hypertension (46.2%), diabetes (28.3%), and obesity (28.3%), among others. Fifty-six patients died (52.8%). Mortality associated factors at the multivariate analysis were arterial hypertension (OR=1.343, 95% 1.089-1.667), myocardial injury (OR=1.303, 95% 1.031-1.642), and mechanical ventilation (OR 1.262, 95% 1.034-1.665), as associated factors. Conclusion. As observed in other regions of the world, cardiovascular risk factors represent a significant and independent threat to be considered in patients with COVID-19. Further studies and interventions in Peru and Latin America are expected.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0123.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; COPD; fall risk factor; gait; balance; cognition; daily activity; muscle dysfunction
Online: 8 September 2022 (10:35:01 CEST)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is increasingly being recognized as a systemic disease rather than a mere disorder of the lungs. Central (respiratory) and peripheral (limb) muscle weakness are among the main pronounced systemic effects of COPD. While the disease primarily affects the lower limb muscles and contributes to gait impairment, COPD is also associated with an increasing risk of falls in patients (COPDp). Previous studies have reported higher rates of falls among COPDp (1.17 to 1.20 falls/person-year), amounting to four times higher than an age-matched healthy group. Potential fall risk factors include muscle weakness, impaired daily activities, cognitive dysfunction, and gait and balance impairment. Although COPDp often manifest many of these risk factors, there remains a gap in literature regarding falls during walking in this population. This study aimed to 1. analyze the literature to identify the risk factors of falling in COPDp, and 2. investigate the underlying mechanisms by which these risk factors can lead to increased prevalence of falling. The results suggest that in addition to the known risk factors of falling, low back pain and mental fatigue should also be considered as relevant risk factors in the treatment process of these patients. Moreover, respiratory problems, which are common in this population, have demonstrated pronounced effects on energy expenditure, gait, and other types of activities of daily living (ADLs), leading to reduced intensity, disrupted coordination of the trunk-pelvic structure with the lower limbs during gait, and altered motor control performance due to activation of muscles in an inefficient synergic manner. These problems potentially lead to the increased vulnerability of these patients to external disturbances and higher incidence risk of falls and injuries. Cognitive problems, which are typically due to reduced oxygen received by the brain, as well as general inflammation caused by COPD, also play a significant role in gait disruption and balance. Future research is warranted to determine the prevalence of falls in COPDp by examining the response of these patients to Medio-Lateral (ML) and Anterior-Posterior (AP) disturbances during gait in association with traditional and recommended fall risk factors.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0334.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Risk factors, lifestyle, practises, breast cancer, prostate cancer, malignancy.
Online: 5 May 2021 (12:04:56 CEST)
In this study, we described the most critical risk factors for different malignancies including: breast, prostate, lung, and colorectal carcinoma among others, with an emphasis on modifiable risk factors. We revised the literature review about risk factors involved in the genesis of cancer in various databases, including articles indexed in PUBMED, SCOPUS, PMC, and Google Scholar. Awareness of risk factors enables conscious decisions to be made in an effort to combat malignancies. Knowing risk factors is a mode of fighting malignancy. Diet, lifestyle, practises, and laboratory/clinical interventions were among risk factors of diverse malignancy. Diet, lifestyle, laboratory/clinical interventions all contribute to the genesis and prognosis in a variety of malignancies. We concluded that abstaining from risk factors can prevent the development of many malignancies in a century where this conundrum is raising disproportionately. By informing the public about modifiable risk factors cancer mortality rates can be reduced. It is treated here is to make the public aware of the modifiable risks of cancers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1773.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: metabolic syndrome; rising prevalence; cardiovascular disease; risk factors; obesity; high blood pressure; dietary habits; preventive strategies; management
Online: 25 August 2023 (05:01:36 CEST)
This article explores the relationship between metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease, providing a comprehensive overview of its risk factors and prevalence. Metabolic syndrome, characterized by a cluster of interconnected risk factors, significantly increases the likelihood of developing cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes. The study, conducted over a one-year period, involved 117 patients with ages between 30 to 79 years old. Various elements such as gender, age, education level, background, smoking, alcohol consumption, dietary aspects, physical activity, and their contribution in developing the metabolic syndrome, were analysed.Central adiposity and high blood pressure emerged as prominent elements of the condition. The findings underscore the importance of a healthy lifestyle in the prevention and management of metabolic syndrome. Encouraging regular physical activity, maintaining a balanced diet, rich in fresh vegetables and fruits, and avoiding harmful behaviours, such as smoking or alcohol consumption, are essential in reducing the risk of metabolic syndrome and its associated cardiovascular complications. The study highlights the need for public health initiatives, as well as individualized preventive strategies to combat the rising prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Through promoting awareness of its risk factors and implementing effective interventions, healthcare professionals can contribute to better cardiovascular health worldwide. Further research in this area will continue to enhance our understanding of the metabolic syndrome and refine preventive and therapeutic approaches for its management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0113.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: entrepreneurship; organizational entrepreneurship; organization performance; risk-taking; innovation; environmental factors
Online: 13 June 2019 (08:01:52 CEST)
Nowadays, environmental circumstances and business rules of organizations are complicate, active and uncertain, so, they cannot assurance their long- term survival through some actions such as, structural changes and methods or relying on creativity of some people in organization. Companies and organizations should prepare conditions to institutionalize entrepreneurial culture in their organization. Corporate entrepreneurship can improve the value of the organization. The entrepreneurial oriented organizations are more responsive for environment and market changes. Opportunity recognition is the base of being successful. The research is applied and in terms of method is descriptive. Data were analyzed, using Linear Regression and Multiple Moderated Regression (MMR) and SPSS software. In this research the effects of organizational entrepreneurship (innovation, proactiveness and risk-taking) on performance of the centers influenced by environmental factors (government’s strategies, competitiveness and technology) as moderating variables, were studied. Furthermore, the study presents that there is a significant positive relationship between organizational entrepreneurship and performance. Although the study does not show any significant moderating effect of environmental factors (Government’s strategies, competitiveness and technology) on the relationship between organizational entrepreneurship and performance, however, the result of the study manifests direct relationship between environmental factors and performance of such centers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2008.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: ELISA, Hepatitis E virus, Portugal, red deer, risk factors, wild boar
Online: 30 August 2023 (13:56:37 CEST)
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a zoonotic foodborne virus with an annual infection prevalence of 20 million human cases, which seriously affects public health and economic development in both developed and developing countries. To better understand the epidemiology of HEV in the Centre of Portugal, a cross-sectional study was conducted from 2016 to 2023 with sera samples from wild ungulates. The seroprevalence and risk factors for HEV seropositivity were evaluated in the present study. Specifically, antibodies against HEV were determined by a commercial enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA). Our results show that in the 650 sera collected from 298 wild red deer and 352 wild boars from Portugal, 9.1% red deer (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.312.9%) and 1.7% wild boar (95% CI: 0.63.3%) were positive for antibodies to HEV. Regarding age, the seropositivity in juvenile wild ungulates was 1.3% (95% CI: 0.273.72%) and 7.2% in adults (95% CI: 4.910.11%). Logistic regression models investigated risk factors for seropositivity. The odds of being seropositive was 3.6 higher in adults than in juveniles (95% CI: 1.7218.11%) and the risk was 4.2 higher in red deer than in wild boar (95% CI: 1.64–10.69%). Both wild ungulate species were exposed to HEV. The higher seroprevalence in red deer suggests that this species may have a major contribution to the ecology of HEV in the Centre of Portugal. Further research is important to understand how wildlife affects the epidemiology of HEV infection in Portugal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0237.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Colorectal cancer; Cerebrovascular-specific mortality; Cerebrovascular-specific diseases; Incidence; Risk factors
Online: 12 November 2021 (16:47:45 CET)
Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most prevalent diseases and the second leading cause of death worldwide. However, the relationship between CRC and cerebrovascular-specific mortality (CVSM) remains elusive and less is known about the influencing factors associated with CVSM in CRC. Here, we aimed to analyze the incidence as well as the risk factors of CVSM in CRC. Methods: Patients with a primary CRC diagnosed between 1973 and 2015 were identified from Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database with follow-up data available until 31 December 2016. Conditional standardized mortality ratios were calculated to compare the incidence of CVSM between CRC patients and the general US population. Univariate and multivariate survival analyses with a competing risk model were used to interrogate the risk factors for CVSM. Results: A total of 563298 CRC individuals were included. The CVSM in CRC patients was significantly higher than the general population in all age subgroups. Among competing causes of death in patients, the cumulative mortality caused by cerebrovascular-specific diseases steadily increased during study period. While age and surgery positively influenced CVSM on both univariate and multivariate analyses, male patients and those who had radiotherapy, chemotherapy, more recent year (2001-2015) of diagnosis as well as multiple primary or distant tumors experienced a lower risk of CVSM. Interpretation: Our data suggest a potential role for CRC in the incidence of CVSM and also identify several significant predictors of CVSM, which may be helpful for risk stratification and therapeutic optimization of cerebrovascular-specific diseases in CRC patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0168.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: malaria; fever; Plasmodium falciparum; Falciparum vivax; under-five; determinants; risk factors
Online: 6 August 2021 (14:09:07 CEST)
Background/Purpose: Over the last two decades, malaria has remained a major worldwide public health concern, especially in the developing countries leading to high morbidity and mortality among children. Nigeria is the world most burdened malaria endemic nation, contributing more than a quarter of global malaria cases. This study determined the prevalence of malaria among children 6-59 months in Nigeria, and the effects of individual and contextual factors. Methods: The study utilized data from 2018 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) involving a weighted sample size of 10,185 children who were tested for malaria using rapid diagnostic test (RDT). Given the hierarchical structure of the data set, such that children at level-1 are nested in community at level-2, and nested in states and Federal Capital Territory (FCT) at level-3, multilevel mixed effect logistic regression models were used for the analysis. Results: The proportion of children 6-59 months of age in Nigeria that had malaria fever positive as assessed by RDTs was 35.5% (3,418/10185), (CI: 33.9-37.1). Kebbi State had the highest proportion of children 6-59 months who were malaria positive, 77.6%, (CI: 70.2-83.5), followed by Katsina State, 55.5%, (CI: 47.7-63.1). The Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja had the proportion of 29.6%, (CI: 21.6-39.0), malaria positive children of 6-59 months of age. Children between the age of 48 and 59 months were 2.68 times more likely to have malaria fever than children 6-11 months of age (AOR=2.68, 95% CI: 2.03-3.54). Also, children from the rural area (AOR= 2.12, 95% CI: 1.75-2.57), were more likely to suffer from malaria infection compare with children from urban area. Conclusion: The study identified some individual and contextual predictors of malaria among children in Nigeria. These factors are areas that need to be considered for policy designs and implementations toward control and total elimination of malaria-related morbidity and mortality among children in Nigeria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0759.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: adolescents; cardiometabolic risk factors; insulin resistance; abdominal obesity; lifestyle; nutritional habits
Online: 30 December 2020 (15:16:17 CET)
The prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors has increased in Slovakian adolescents as a result of serious lifestyle changes. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the prevalence of insulin resistance (IR) and the associations with cardiometabolic and selected lifestyle risk factors in a sample of Slovak adolescents. In total, 2,629 adolescents (45.8% males) aged between 14 and 18 years were examined in the study. Anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, and resting heart rate were measured, fasting venous blood samples were analysed, and HOMA-IR was calculated. The mean HOMA-IR was 2.45±1.91 without a significant intersexual difference. IR (cut-off point for HOMA-IR=3.16) was detected in 18.6% of adolescents (19.8% males, 17.6% females). IR was strongly associated with overweight/obesity (especially central) and with almost all monitored cardiometabolic factors, except for TC and systolic BP in females. The multivariate model selected variables such as low level of physical fitness, insufficient physical activity, breakfast skipping, a small number of daily meals, frequent consumption of sweetened beverages, and low educational level of fathers as the significant risk factors of IR in adolescents. Recognizing the main lifestyle risk factors and early IR identification is important in terms of the performance of preventive strategies. Weight reduction, regular physical activity, and healthy eating habits can improve insulin sensitivity and decrease the incidence of metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and CVD in adulthood.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1417.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: COVID-19; risk factors; hospitalization; mortality; Bosnia and Herzegovina
Online: 20 June 2023 (09:38:40 CEST)
Background and Objectives: Since the beginning of COVID-19 pandemic, the infection primarily affected patients with following chronic conditions: cardiovascular disease, hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, obesity and cancer. The aim of this study was to explore clinical and epidemiological characteristics associated with COVID-19 outcomes in patients at the primary health care centre from March 2020 to September 2022. Materials and Methods: The study included 40,692 citizens of Banja Luka County, Bosnia and Herzegovina, who were confirmed and registered as RT-PCR positive on COVID-19. Differences regarding the distributions of patients between groups were analysed using Pearson chi square test and Mantel-Haenszel chi square test for trends, while differences in mean values were compared using independent samples t test. Relationship between mortality and independent variables were examined using logistic regression. Results: Out of 40,692 COVID-19 positive patients, 7.76% were hospitalized. The average age of hospitalized patients was significantly higher than the age of non-hospitalized patients (64.2±16.1 vs. 45.4±18.7; p<0.001). The average age of patients with lethal outcome was nearly twice higher compared to patients with non-lethal outcome (74.6±11.5 vs. 45.7±18.6; p<0.001). Male patients had higher hospitalization and mortality rate, compared to females (9.8% vs. 5.9%, p<0.001; 4.8% vs. 3%, p<0.001, respectively). The highest hospitalization rate was in patients with chronic renal failure, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, while the death rate was the highest among patients with CRF and hearth comorbidities. Fever, cough, fatigue, nausea and vomiting, chest pain, shortness of breath and appetite loss favoured hospitalization. Patients with fatigue and appetite loss had higher percentage of lethal outcome. Vaccinated patients had significantly lower rate of lethal outcome. Conclusions: Clinical symptoms, signs and outcomes, are posing as predictive parameters for further management of COVID-19. Vaccination has an important role in clinical outcomes of COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1777.v1
Subject: Engineering, Safety, Risk, Reliability And Quality Keywords: fire probabilistic risk; fire safety factor; fire checklist; analytic hierarchy process
Online: 25 May 2023 (08:54:03 CEST)
Fires are the leading cause of death, serious injury and property damage. In the past, schools, temples and government offices had more frequent fires than they should. Statistics showed that the number of fires between 2017 to 2022 amounted 13,593 cases which mostly occurred in the school, temple and government offices (40.0% of all buildings). Moreover, it causes more damage among disabled especially the blinds who has a limited vision. Therefore, this cross-sectional purpose of this study was to assess fire risk including management model in school for the blind. The fire checklists, brainstorming and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) were applied to estimate the fire risk in school for the blind building. The findings revealed an inherent fire hazard factors with a risk score equal to 3.2830 and evacuation factors with a risk score equal to 3.3178 were acceptable risk except the fire control factors with a risk score equal to 1.4320 was unacceptable risk may cause an impact on life, health, property and public communities. Eventually, efforts should be made to supervise those risk factors by designing suitable activities to reduce undesirable conditions in school for the blind.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0394.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; physician trainee; resident; fellow; risk factors
Online: 14 April 2021 (17:42:02 CEST)
Risk factors for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection are not well-defined in resident physicians and fellows (trainees). We aimed to identify sociodemographic, occupational and community factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection among trainees during the first wave of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in New York City (NYC). In this retrospective cohort study, we administered an electronic survey between June 26 and August 31, 2020 to trainees at the Mount Sinai Health System in NYC to assess risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection between February 1 and June 30, 2020. We used Bayesian generalized linear mixed effect regression and structural equation models to examine associations. SAR-CoV-2 infection was determined by self-reported IgG antibody and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction results and confirmed with laboratory results. Among 2354 trainees invited to participate, 328 (14%) completed the survey and reported test results. The cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection was 20.1%. Assignment to medical-surgical units (odds ratio [OR], 2.51; 95% CI, 1.18-5.34), and training in emergency medicine, critical care and anesthesiology (OR, 2.93; 95% CI, 1.24-6.92) were independently associated with infection. Deployment to care for unfamiliar patient populations was protective against infection (OR, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.03-0.73). Community factors were not significantly associated with infection after adjustment for occupational factors. Our findings may inform tailored infection prevention strategies for trainees responding to the COVID-19 pandemic.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0726.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: mental health; risk factor; protective factor; refugee; asylum-seeker; sustainable intervention
Online: 27 April 2021 (14:24:31 CEST)
This systematic review followed the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement to synthesizes the existing literature with a goal to review current conceptual frameworks of mental health of forced migrants for further practice research priorities in social work. The search was done between January 2015 to January 2021. As a result, 29 studies met inclusion criteria. Medicalizing mental health issues by relying solely on the effectiveness of medicine was a controversial risk factor that negatively affected the daily life activities of refugees and reduced their willingness for seeking professional mental health services. Empowering vulnerable minorities by giving them back their power and agency to be able to speak for themselves and raise voices of trauma and recovery was the missing protective factor for sustainable mental health practice. The benefits of group-based interventions are highlighted in which communities and individuals address mental health issues as well as isolation through building collective identities and support networks. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) can add more strength to any kind of mental health intervention. Finally, the benefits of applying ecological perspective for the mental health of refugees, and its implications for a sustainable intercultural practice are discussed. Social workers in this model are the representatives of at-risk groups, thus need more agency and creativity in reflecting client’s concrete needs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2112.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: ongenital heart disease; extracorporeal life support; ECMO; single ventricle; complications; risk factors; mortality
Online: 30 June 2023 (03:41:18 CEST)
For children born with congenital heart defects (CHD), extracorporeal life support may be necessary. This study aimed to investigate the outcomes of children on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), focusing on various risk factors, including the type of CHD. The study was conducted as a retrospective single-center analysis at the Children's Hospital Zurich. All patients with CHD who required ECMO (veno-arterial or veno-venous) between 2009 and 2019 were included. Among the 88 patients, 36 (41%) had a single ventricle heart defect while 52 (59%) had a biventricular heart defect. Out of the total patients, 25 (28%) survived, with 7 (8%) having a single ventricle heart defect and 18 (20%) having a biventricular heart defect. Statistical analysis with a p-value of 0.19 revealed no significant difference in survival rates between the two groups. At the one-year follow-up, all children who survived to discharge were still alive. The rate of complications on ECMO was higher in children with a single ventricle (odds ratio [OR] 1.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.67 - 3.7). The occurrence of a second ECMO run was more frequent in patients with a single ventricle compared to those with a biventricular physiology (22% vs. 9.6%). Although the study did not identify a significant difference in survival rates, it did indicate that patients with a single ventricle faced a higher risk of complications during ECMO and a greater likelihood of requiring a second ECMO run.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: body shape index; body roundness index; metabolic risk factors; Southern China adults
Online: 24 May 2020 (16:44:12 CEST)
This purpose was to compare the ability of body shape index (ABSI) and body roundness index (BRI) with waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and body adiposity index (BAI) to predict metabolic risk. The cross-sectional study was conducted in 17,360 Chinese subjects (were aged 18-95 years old) who escaped cardiovascular disease (CVD) or diabetes. Biochemical and anthropometric variables were measured by trained staff. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) and optimal cutoff values of obesity indices were recruited to compare the predictive ability for metabolic risk factors. The mean age of subjects was 53.7(13.1) years, 41.6 % were males. Within young group (<60 years), the areas under the curve (AUC) demonstrated that WC, BMI, WHR, WHtR and BRI were able to similarly predict high metabolic risk in males (0.74 vs. 0.74 vs. 0.73 vs. 0.73 vs. 0.73) and in females (0.73 vs. 0.73 vs. 0.71 vs. 0.73 vs. 0.73), while the approximate predictive ability were only acquired in males (0.73 vs. 0.73 vs. 0.70 vs. 0.73 vs. 0.73) within elder group (≥60 years). The optimal cut-off values of BRI for high metabolic risk were calculated in males (<60 y: 3.49 vs. ≥60 y: 3.46) and females (<60 y: 3.47 vs. ≥60 y: 3.60). Meanwhile, BRI displayed a strong prediction to elevated BP and elevated TG in males (AUC = 0.64; AUC = 0.70) and to elevated BP, elevated TG and elevated SUA in females (AUC = 0.67; AUC = 0.69; AUC =0.70). BRI was able to similarly predict high metabolic risk compared to WC, BMI, WHR, WHtR and BAI, while ABSI was not. Moreover, BRI revealed specific predictive ability for elevated BP, elevated TG and elevated SUA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0450.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: adolescent idiopathic scoliosis; proximal junctional kyphosis; complication; risk factor; spinous process; sagittal alignment; rod contouring
Online: 26 August 2022 (05:10:17 CEST)
Proximal Junctional Kyphosis (PJK) as one of the most discussed problems after corrective surgery in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), is still not fully clarified and seems to be multifactorial. Biome-chanical and few clinical studies have shown the influence of destruction of posterior ligaments by re-section of spinous processes and some parameters concerning rod contouring as risk factors for PJK. To verify these results 192 patients with AIS and corrective surgery via posterior approach between 2009 and 2017 were included. Radiographic parameters were analyzed preoperatively (preOP), postoperatively (postOP), and with a mean follow up (FU) of 27 months. The participants were divided into two groups (PJK group and non-PJK group). The incidence of PJK was 15.6%. Contrary to the results of biomechanical studies, we could not find any significant influence of the spinous process resection. However, the PJK group had significantly larger preOP T4-T12 kyphosis (31.1°±13.93° vs. 23.3°±14.93°, p=.016). Furthermore, the PJK group showed a significantly larger rod contour angle (RCA) (8.0°±4.44° vs. 5.9°±3.28°, p=.003) and mismatch of postOP proximal junctional angle (PJA) and RCA (3.5°±5.72° vs. 0.9°±4.86°, p=.010) compared to the non-PJK group. An increase of the mismatch of postOP PJA and RCA (OR=1.14, p=.008) and a high RCA are risk factors for PJK and need to be focused on by surgeons.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0447.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Tropical Medicine Keywords: Malaria, Fever, Plasmodium falciparum, falciparum vivax, under-five, determinants, risk factors, review
Online: 22 January 2021 (13:08:29 CET)
Background/Purpose: In recent times, Sub-Sahara Africa (SSA) had been rated by the World Health Organization, (WHO), as the most malaria endemic region in the world. Evidence synthesis of the risk factors associated with malaria among children aged under-five in SSA is urgently needed. This would help to inform decisions that policy makers and executors in the region need to make for the effective distribution of scare palliative resources to curb the spread of the illness. This scoping review is aimed to identify studies that have used multivariate classical regression analysis to determine risk factors associated with malaria among children under-five years old in SSA. Methods/Design: The search terms followed PICOTS, (Population, Intervention, Comparator, Outcome, Timing, Setting), and were used in searching through the following databases: PubMed, MEDLINE, Web of Science, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Scopus, and MeasureDHS. The databases were searched for published articles from January 1990 to December 2020. Results: Among the 1154 studies identified, only thirteen (13) studies met the study’s inclusion/exclusion criteria. Narrative syntheses were performed on the selected papers to synchronise the various risk factors identified. Factors ranging from child-related, (age, birth order and use of bed net), parental/household-related, (maternal age and education status, household wealth index) and community-related variables, (community wealth status, free bed net distribution), were some of the identified significant risk factors. Conclusion: It is timely to have a synthesis of risk factors that influence the malaria status of children under-five in SSA. The outcome of the review will increase the knowledge of the epidemiology of morbidity that will form the basis for designing efficient and cost-effective distribution of palliatives and controls of malaria in SSA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0054.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: COVID-19; Knowledge; Perception of Risk; Pandemic Outbreak; Disease Control; Cross-sectional Study
Online: 5 July 2020 (08:10:36 CEST)
COVID-19 is an infectious disease spreading through human touch. This study explored the risk perception and knowledge towards COVID-19 infection among Bangladeshi adult participants. Two self-administered online surveys were administered at two different time points from 26-31 March 2020 (Early lockdown) and 11-16 May 2020 (Late lockdown) through social media on 1005 respondents (322 and 683 participants, respectively) during COVID-19 lockdown period in Bangladesh. Univariate and multiple linear regression models were used to examine factors associated with risk perception and knowledge towards COVID-19. The mean knowledge (8.4 vs. 8.1, P=0.022) and risk perception (11.2 vs. 10.6, P < 0.001) scores differ significantly between early and late lockdown. Compared to the early lockdown period, the scores for perceived risk of contracting COVID-19 decreased significantly while public knowledge about COVID-19 was lower but not statistically significant. Female participants who practiced high quarantine particularly those who did so at the public health order during the lockdown reported increased knowledge towards the spread of COVID-19 and perceived high risk of contracting COVID-19. Education intervention using awareness to increase public knowledge and perception towards COVID-19 in Bangladesh should target male participants who practiced low quarantine and are less worried about the spread of such novel coronavirus even as the physical distancing persists.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0206.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: COVID-19; multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C); risk classification; prognosis
Online: 14 June 2022 (11:12:22 CEST)
Background: Two years after the first cases, critical gaps remain in identifying prognostic factors in multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). Methods: This retrospective study included 99 patients with MIS-C hospitalized between August 2020 and March 2022 in a pediatric tertiary center. The patients were divided into two groups according to clinical severity (low and high-risk). Prognostic values of baseline clinical and laboratory characteristics were evaluated with advanced statistical analysis, including machine learning. Results: Sixty-three patients were male, and the median age was 83 (3–205) months. Fifty-nine patients (%59.6) were low-risk cases. Patients aged six years and over tended to be at higher risk. Involvement of aortic or tricuspid valve or >1 valve was more frequent in the high-risk group. Mortality in previously healthy children was 3.2%. Intensive care unit admission and mortality rate in the high-risk group were 37.5% and 7.5%, respectively. At admission, high-risk patients were more likely to have reduced lymphocyte count and total protein level and increased brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), ferritin, D-dimer, and troponin concentrations. The multiple logistic regression model showed that BNP, total protein, and troponin were associated with higher risk. When the laboratory parameters were used together, BNP, total protein, ferritin, and D-dimer provided the highest contribution to the discrimination of the risk groups (100%, 89.6%, 85.6%, and 55.8%, respectively). Conclusions: Our study widely evaluates and points to some clinical and laboratory parameters that, at admission, may indicate a more severe course. Modeling studies with larger sample groups are strongly needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0354.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: heart failure; mid-range ejection fraction; atrial fibrillation; cardiac inflammation; cardiac fibrosis; risk factors.
Online: 15 July 2021 (10:18:01 CEST)
Aims: Heart failure (HF) is frequently accompanied by atrial fibrillation (AF), a combination that worsens the outcomes of both diseases. Despite advances in the treatment of AF, it remains a serious and unsolved problem for clinicians and researchers. The aim of this study was to examine risk factors for incidents of paroxysmal and persistent AF in patients having heart failure with mid-range ejection fraction (HFmrEF). Methods. Overall, 71 patients with HFmrEF and non-valvular AF, including paroxysmal and persistent types, were enrolled in this study. As a control group, 42 HFmrEF patients without AF were also enrolled. All patients underwent detailed physical examination, including resting electrocardiography, echocardiography, and 24-hour ambulatory Holter monitoring. Levels of the inflammation markers high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and the fibrotic marker transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) were measured by ELISA and expressed as odds ratios. Results: We show that paroxysmal AF was associated with higher diastolic blood pressure, whereas both paroxysmal and persistent forms of AF were associated with more frequent occurrence of hypertensive crisis episodes and greater body mass index. Progression from paroxysmal to persistent AF was associated with significant ventricular remodeling. Persistent and paroxysmal AF were associated with higher levels of inflammatory markers when compared to HFmrEF patients having no AF. In addition, TGF-1 was significantly increased in HFmrEF patients having persistent but not paroxysmal AF. Conclusions: Occurrence of AF, first paroxysmal and then persistent, in HFmrEF patients is associated with left ventricular remodeling and the appearance of systemic inflammatory and fibrotic markers. Changes in those parameters may be indicators by which to identify patients at increased risk of atrial fibrillation. Further studies are needed to determine the prognostic validity of these markers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0201.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Indian ocean; livestock; Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae; risk factors; CTX-M; enzymes
Online: 22 January 2018 (12:02:53 CET)
In South Western Indian ocean (IO), Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL) are a main public health issue. In livestock, ESBL burden was unknown. The aim of this study was estimating the prevalence of ESBL on commercial farms in Reunion, Mayotte and Madagascar and genes involved. Secondly, risk factors of ESBL occurrence in broiler, beef cattle and pig farms were explored. In 2016-2017, commercial farms were sampled using boot swabs and samples stored at 4°C before microbiological analysis for phenotypical ESBL and gene characterization. A semi-directive questionnaire was performed. Prevalences observed in all production types and territories were elevated, except for beef cattle in Reunion which differed significantly. The most common ESBL gene was the CTX-M-1 subtype. Generalized linear models explaining ESBL occurrence varied between livestock production sectors and allowed identifying main protective (e.g., water quality control and detergent use for cleaning) and risk factors (e.g., recent antibiotic use, other farmers visiting the exploitation, pet presence). This study is the first to explore tools for antibiotic resistance management in IO farms. It provides interesting hypothesis to explore about antibiotic use in IO and ESBL transmission between pig, beef cattle and humans in Madagascar.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0162.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: cardiovascular disease (CVD); Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs); cost of admission; risk factors
Online: 16 January 2020 (09:05:32 CET)
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is considered to be one of the leading health issues in Thailand. CVD not only contributes to an increase in the number of hospital admissions year on year but also impacts on the rising health care expenditure for the treatment and long-term care of CVD patients. Therefore, this study is aimed at examining the impacts of risk reduction strategies on the number of CVD hospital admissions, Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) and the costs of hospitalisation. To estimate such impacts a CVD cost-offset model wasapplied using a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. The number of the mid-year population was classified by age, gender and the CVD risk factor profiles from the recent Thai National Health Examination Survey (NHES) IV. This survey was chosen as the baseline population. The CVD risk factor profiles included age, gender, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and smoking status. The Asia-Pacific Collaborative Cohort Study (APCCS) equation was applied to predict the probability of developing CVD over the next eight-year period. Estimates on the following were obtained from the model: (1.) the CVD events both fatal and non-fatal; (2.) the difference between the projected number of deaths and the actual number of deaths in that population; (3.) the number of patients who are expected to live with CVD; (4.) the DALYs from the estimated number of fatal and non-fatal events; (5.) the cost of hospital admissions. Four CVD risk strategy scenarios were investigated as follows: (1.) the do nothing scenario; (2.) the optimistic scenario; (3.) achieve the UN millennium development goal; and (4.) the worst-case scenario. The findings showed that over the next eight years there are likely to be 3,297,428 recorded cases of CVD; 5,870,049 cases of DALYs; and, approximately ฿57,000 million, ($1.9 billion), is projected as the total cost of hospital admissions. However, if the current health policy can reduce the levels of risk factors as defined in the optimistic scenario or such policy meets the specifications of the UN millennium development goal,there would be a significant reduction in the number of hospital admissions. These are estimated to be a reduction of 522,179 male and 515,416 female cases. With these results it is expected that health care costs would save approximately ฿9,000 million, ($298.3 million), for CVD and 900,000 million of DALYs over the next eight years. However, if there is an upward trend in the risk factors as predicted in the worst-case scenario, then there will be an increase of 428,220 CVD cases; consequently, DALYs cases may rise by 766,029 while the hospitalisation costs may increase by approximately ฿7,000 million, ($232.1 million). Based on our findings, reducing the levels of CVD risk factors in the population will drastically reduce: (1.) the number of CVD cases; (2.) DALYs cases; and (3.) health care costs. Therefore it is recommended that the health policy should enhance the primary prevention programs which would be targeted at reducing the CVD risk factors in the population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1003.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Bacterial profile; Antibiotic susceptibility; reproductive age females; risk factors; Urinary tract infection (UTI)
Online: 18 September 2023 (14:36:21 CEST)
Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the commonest bacterial infections among reproductive age females. Untreated UTI in reproductive age female is associated with sexual dysfunction, cystitis, pyelonephritis and Pelvic inflammatory disease. At present, the antimicrobial resistance emergency has quadrupled worldwide and poses a serious threat to the treatment of patients. Thus, this study aimed to determine bacterial profile, antibiotic susceptibility pattern and associated risk factors of urinary tract infection among reproductive age females attending the Logbaba District Hospital Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted from January – July, 2023. Convenient sampling was employed to recruit 259 reproductive age females. Sociodemographic and risk factors information were obtained using a well-structured questionnaire. Mid-stream urine was collected and inoculated on cystine lactose electrolyte deficient media. Isolates were identified using API 20. Antibiotic sensitivity testing was performed using modified kirby-bauer susceptibility testing technique. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to assessed risk factors. A p-value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: The overall prevalence of UTI among reproductive age females was 82/259 (31.66%). Symptomatic and asymptomatic patients reported a prevalence of 50/121(41.32%) and 32/138 (23.19%), respectively. Ages ranging from 21-30 years (AOR: 2.53 ,95% CI 1.32 – 4.43, p=0.006) and 31 – 40 years (AOR: 0.19 , 95% CI: 0.14- 0.54; p <0.0001), student (AOR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.21 - 2.75; p = 0.010), history of UTI (5.34, 95% CI = 1.86 - 18.15; p = 0.03), symptomatic (AOR = 2.86, 95% CI1.78 - 4.67, p <0.0001) and secondary education (AOR: 0.13, 95% CI 0.08 - 0.32; p<0.0001) were predictors to UTI. Klebsiella Pneumoniae was the most frequent species 27 (32.9%), follow by E coli 22(26.8%), Staphylococcus aureus 16 (19.5%), CONS 8 (9.8%), Proteus mirabilis 6 (7.3 %) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 3(3.7%). Majority of the isolates were sensitive to cefotaxime (87.80%), imipenem (85.7%), vancomycin (79.27%), Ofloxacillin (76.83%), Ceftriaxone (75.61%), Ciprofloxacin (74.39%), Gentamicin (71.95%) and Doxycycline (69.51%), and resistant to Amoxicillin (51.22%), cotrimoxazole (47.56%) and Azithromycin (31.71%) , All the isolates were multidrug drug resistant (100%) and Klebsiella Pneumoniae and E coli were the most multidrug drug resistant species Conclusion: In the present study, the prevalence of urinary tract infection among reproductive age females was high and considerably a high proportion of multidrug resistance was observed. This result will have a significant impact on the selection of appropriate antimicrobial agents for the treatment of urinary tract infection in the study area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0620.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: risk factors; longevity, death; euthanasia; retirement; longitudinal; TeamMate; working dogs; herding dogs; working farm dogs
Online: 25 March 2021 (14:24:34 CET)
Working farm dogs are essential to many livestock farmers. Little is known about factors that influence dogs’ risk of being lost from work. This paper explores risk factors for farm dogs being lost through death, euthanasia and retirement. All enrolled dogs were working and minimum 18 months old. Five data collection rounds were done over four years. Data about dogs were collected from owners and dogs were given physical examinations by veterinarians. Dogs that were lost from work were counted and owner-reported reasons for loss were recorded. Multivariable logistic regression modelling was used to investigate risk factors for loss. Of 589 dogs, 81 were lost from work. Of these, 59 dogs died or were euthanized and 22 were retired. Farm dogs tended to reach high ages, with 38% being 10 years or older when last examined. Acute injury or illness was the most commonly owner-reported reason for loss. Age group (P < 0.0001) and lameness (P = 0.04, OR = 1.8) significantly affected dogs’ risk being lost. These results expand our knowledge about factors that affect health, welfare and work in farm dogs. Further investigation into reasons for lameness may help improve health and welfare in working farm dogs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0236.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: Blood Pressure; Rope Exercise; physical activity; Lifestyle Modification; Adolescents; BMI; Hypertension; Cardiovascular risk factors; Academic Performance
Online: 18 October 2021 (10:21:34 CEST)
There are evidences of shared biological mechanisms between obesity and hypertension during childhood in the adulthood, and loads of research literatures have proven that, it will cost the economies and health of nations profoundly if neglected. The Prevention and early diagnosis of cardiovascular risk factors such as overweight and hypertension is an essential strategy for control, effective treatment and prevention of its’ complications. The aim of the study is to assess the effect of school based Exercise and Life style Motivation Intervention (SEAL-MI) on adolescent's cardiovascular risk factors and academic performance. An experimental study was conducted among 1005 adolescents - 520 and 485 adolescents were randomly selected for control and study group, respectively. Demographic details and the data related to dietary habits, physical activity and sleep quality were collected by a structured interview questionnaire. The study group adolescents were given the SEAL-MI for six months which includes a school based rope exercise for 45 minutes per day for 5 days a week and a motivation intervention related to dietary habits, physical activity and sleep. Post-test 1 and 2 were done after 3 and 6 months of intervention. The prevalence of overweight among adolescents was 28.73% and prehypertension was 9.26%. Among overweight adolescents, the prevalence of prehypertension was found to be very high (32.25%). In post intervention, there was a significant reduction in weight, BP (p=0.000) and improvement in dietary habits, physical activity, sleep (p=0.000) and academic performance. A significant positive correlation was found between BMI and SBP (p=0.000) and BMI and academic performance (p=0.003). The linear regression analyses revealed that the gender (ß: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.39, 0.81), age (ß: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.17, 0.46), family income (ß: 0.2, 95% CI: 0.41, 0.5), residence (ß: 0.19, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.27) and type of family (ß: 0.25, 95% CI: 0.39, 0.02) had the strongest correlate with the BMI of the adolescents. Also, Mother’s education Mother’s education (ß: 0.35, 95% CI: 0.18, 0.59) had the strongest correlate with the SBP of the adolescents. In contrast, the DBP was negatively persuaded by age (ß: -0.36, 95% CI: 1.54, 0.29) and gender (ß: -0.26, 95% CI: 1.34, 0.12) of the adolescents. Regular practice of rope exercise and lifestyle modification such as diet, physical activity and sleep quality among adolescents prevent and control childhood CVD risk factors like overweight, hypertension. The SEAL-MI may lead to age appropriate development of adolescents and improves their academic performance and quality of life. Giving importance to the adolescents from urban habitat, from affluent nuclear family and catching them young will bring significant change in the disease burden.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0381.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: continuous quality improvement; healthcare sector; biology risk control; patient safety; research to practice
Online: 18 August 2020 (10:57:11 CEST)
Stakeholder input into the decision-making process when developing public health programs and policies is crucial. This article presents an innovative approach, involving online participation with a wide group of stakeholders located in different geographic locations, for policy consensus by research methodology. The results of the project have been used to propose assumptions regarding a strategy for preventing blood-borne diseases in Poland. The research was conducted iteratively using a multi-stage qualitative methodology to explore risk assessment involving blood-borne infections. The final output of the entire project is a list of key problems/challenges and solutions associated with medical and nonmedical services that are connected to the breakage of tissue continuity. Qualitative research is rare in risk assessment as priority is usually given to statistical data and end-points (quantitative studies ). Statistical data on health risk allows to assess the health implications, while the methodology applied also allowed diagnosis of the processes leading to these effects. In addition to policy preparation for blood-borne illnesses, the methodology employed in the study can also be used to successfully explore other areas of public health policy decisions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0419.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Intimate partner violence; Domestic violence; Prevalence rates, forms of IPV (physical, sexual, emotional, economic); Risk factors; cultural attitudes towards violence and gender roles, GCC, Arab, Khaliji
Online: 17 April 2023 (07:22:16 CEST)
The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), locally known as Khaliji, is a group of six Arab nations, including Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health concern in the GCC region, but the research that synthesized the trend has received scant attention. The present narrative review examines existing research on the prevalence and frequency of IPV among Khaliji women in GCC nations. This review synthesized studies on physical violence, sexual violence, emotional abuse, and controlling behaviors perpetrated by an intimate partner. The prevalence rates of IPV among Khaliji women are observed to be high: women reported facing different types of abuse from their partners, namely physical (7% - 71%), sexual (3.7% - 81%), financial (21.3% - 26%) and psychological (7.5% - 89%), which is a culmination of controlling behavior (36.8%), emotional (22% - 69%) and social violence (34%). The extant studies in the GCC suggest that the most endorsed IPV was psychological abuse (89%) followed by sexual violence (81%). Qualitative content analysis of the associated factors resulted in four meaningful descriptors such as demographics of the victim, sociocultural factors, socioeconomic, and perpetrator-related issues. The study on IPV is still nascent and few. The way forward will require developing culturally appropriate interventions that address unique risk factors for IPV among Khaliji populations, strengthening institutional responses, and increasing awareness and social support for the victim of IPV.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0598.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Zambezi; Health Care Workers; cigarette smoking; Cigarettes; Gender differences; Prevalence; Tobacco use; Vulnerable populations; Risk factors
Online: 23 December 2020 (16:28:15 CET)
Smoking is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases and remains a significant public health challenge in many lower- and middle-income countries (LMIC) including Namibia. The purpose of the study was to estimate the prevalence of smoking and its associated risk factors among HCWs and non-HCWs in Zambezi region. An exploratory cross-sectional survey was conducted between March and October 2020 among residents of the eight (8) constituencies of Zambezi region. Four hundred and sixty-one (461) respondents who had been residents of the selected constituencies for over five years and aged between 17-60 years were selected for the study. The main outcome measure was current cigarette smoking status. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents. We stratified data analysis by individual being health workers or non-health workers. A bivariate Pearson Chi-square test was used to determine the association between socio-demographic characteristics and the smoking status. Statistically significant variables in the bivariate analysis were used as predictors in the univariate and multivariate models. The response rate of potential participants was 95% (n=434). The mean (±SD) age of participant’s was 32.5 (± 11.34 years). Significant relationships were observed between smoking status and area of residency (constituency), gender, age category, level of education, age of onset of smoking and the daily smoking frequency. The majority of smokers (n=108) were none-HCWs with males being the majority (n=62). Age (p=0.001), education levels (p=0.001) and area of residency (p=0.022) were highly associated with smoking among none-HCW while marital status was associated with smoking among HCWs (p=0.013). In the final multivariate model, the odds of smoking among female non-HCWs were significantly lower (OR: 0.386; 95% CI: 0.228 – 0.655). Furthermore, the odds of smoking among this same group were lower among those who had secondary level education (OR: 0.178; 95% CI: 0.0659 – 0.483), post-secondary (OR: 0.117, 95% CI: 0.0412 – 0.330) and first stage tertiary (OR: 0.306: 95% CI: 0.106 – 0.881) compared to those who had primary school education. In conclusion, smoking prevalence among none HCWs and HCWs working in Zambezi included in the study was similar to that of the general Namibian population but higher than other neighboring countries within SADC. The results showed a need for the establishment of specific smoking related strategies that target HCWs to address smoking use parallel to the running of none HCWs which would ultimately decrease the smoking prevalence and improve health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2143.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: caesarean section; pre-pregnancy; overweigh; obesity; gestational weight gain; preterm birth; pregnancy complications; nutritional interventions; maternal risk factors
Online: 29 June 2023 (12:38:51 CEST)
Background: There is an exponential increase in caesarean sections with epidemic proportions worldwide, which is considered as a serious public health issue that influences negatively both maternal and childhood health. Aims: This study aimed to evaluate the associations between pre-dominant maternal risk factors and the prevalence of caesarean section in a representative sample of women from Greece. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted on 5182 healthy, re-productive-aged women from 11 geographically diverse Greek areas after applying specific inclu-sion and exclusion criteria. Statistical analysis was applied to evaluate the impact of maternal so-ciodemographic, anthropometric, lifestyle and perinatal factors in the risk of caesarean section de-liveries. Results: A high prevalence of 56.4% of caesarean section deliveries was recorded in the study population. The incidence of caesarean sections reached to 51.5% in private hospitals in which an increasing rate of 47.5% for planned caesarean sections were noticed. Older maternal age, pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity, excess gestational weight gain, high rates of preterm birth, better economic status, smoking habits, and private type of birth hospital were significantly related with enhanced risk of caesarean section, independently of multiple confounding factors. Conclu-sions: Our study revealed that caesarean section rates are continuously increase, while several maternal risk factors, including especially pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity and excess gestational weight gain, cumulatively raise its prevalence which further increase the risk for postnatal adverse outcomes for both the mothers and their children. Emergent public health policies and strategies should be promoted to confront the predominant maternal risk factors-related with caesarean sec-tion and inform future mothers how to be prevented from them by applying healthier nutritional and lifestyle habits and to select caesarean section only due to emergency medical reasons. Alarmingly enough, targeted nutritional intervention strategies are strongly recommended to ef-fectively reduce the prevalence of maternal pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity and the excess gestational weight gain, which in turn may minimize the risk of childhood overweight/obesity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0303.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: depopulation; inland areas; rural areas; seismic risk; hydraulic risk; hydrogeological risk; risk mitigation; risk measures; RI.P.R.O.VA.RE. project
Online: 3 August 2023 (10:50:47 CEST)
The abandonment of inland areas has become a major demographical challenge, establishing a condition of local fragility in terms of spatial marginalization. To deal with this issue, a number of policy actions have been released over the time, namely the National Strategy for Inland Areas, established in Italy a decade ago, and more recently the Next Generation EU (NGEU) to foster local economic recovery and employment. In this context, RI.P.R.O.VA.RE., a project funded by the former Italian Ministry of the Environment and Protection of Land and Sea (MATTM), aimed at strengthening the resilience characteristics of communities and territories, focusing on areas falling in the Matese and Ufita in Campania Region and the Medio Agri in Basilicata Region (Southern Italy). Besides the ability to respond to different pressure factors (demographics, economic, geophysical, etc.), the project dealt with seismic, hydraulic and landslide risk conditions in the Matese area, proposing mitigation measures. After presenting the developed methodology, the results obtained for the study area are presented and discussed. The procedure can be applied as supporting tool to enhance the regeneration of inland areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0588.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: retrospective cohort study; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; health care workers; risk of infection
Online: 27 August 2020 (03:25:18 CEST)
Purpose: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the health care workers (HCWs) at the frontline have been largely exposed to infected patients, running an high risk of being infected by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. This study investigates the epidemiological, clinical and lifestyles characteristics that might play roles in the susceptibility of HCWs to COVID-19 in a hit Italian hospital. Methods:Demographic, lifestyle, work-related and comorbidities data of 1447 HCWs which underwent a nasopharyngeal swab for SARS-CoV-2 were retrospectively collected. For the 164 HCWs positive for SARS-CoV-2, data about safety in the workplace, symptoms and clinical course of COVID-19 were also collected. Cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection was estimated. Risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection were assessed using a multivariable Poisson regression. Results: The cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among the screened HCWs was 11.33 (9.72-13.21). Working in a COVID-19 ward, being a former smoker (vs being a person who never smoked) and BMI were positively associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, whereas being a current smoker was negatively associated with this variable. Conclusions: Assuming an equal accessibility and proper use of PPE of all the HCWs of our Hospital, the great and more prolonged contact with COVID-19 patients remains the crucial risk factor for SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, increased and particular care needs to be focused specifically on the most exposed HCWs groups, which should be safeguarded. Furthermore, in order to limit the risk of asymptomatic spread of SARS-CoV-2 infection, the HCWs mild symptoms of COVID-19 should be considered when evaluating the potential benefits of universal staff testing
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0937.v1
Online: 12 May 2023 (11:15:15 CEST)
Risk protection and precaution are noticeable present, especially in times of a pandemic like Covid 19. However, it is not only in times of abruptly upcoming and unexpected situations like Corona that companies and economic entities are exposed to opportunities and threats. Internal and external developments that could influence the organization’s aims are defined as risks. Hence, it is important to emphasize that every operational activity is associated with risks and is consequently a challenge for companies. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the identification and classification of individual risks. In this regard, the objectives and relevance of risk management are highlighted. Through the accomplishment of a classic literature review and the application of a comparative methodology the procedure of how hedging instruments are applied, is elaborated. The analysis indicates that various business concerns have a high awareness of risks inherent in business transactions, although they are still very hesitant to insert hedging instruments. Their uncertainties consist in defining and classifying the relevant risks plus identifying the appropriate hedging methods for them. Thus, this research can add new dimensions to hedging transactions and, particularly, express the benefits and opportunities of hedge accounting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0410.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: social representations; natural hazard risk; Alpine hazards; risk communication; risk management; qualitative risk research;
Online: 16 November 2018 (13:35:01 CET)
The term “risk” is connoted with divergent meanings in natural hazard risk research and the practice of risk management. Whilst the technical definition is accurately defined, in practice, the term “risk” is often synonymously used with “danger”. Considering this divergence as a deficiency, risk communication often aims to correct laypersons’ understanding. We suggest in reference to Breakwell (2001) to treat the variety of meanings as a resource for risk communication strategies instead. However, there is no investigation so far, of what laypersons’ meanings of risk actually comprise. To address this gap, we examine the meanings of risk applying a social representations approach (Moscovici, 2001) in a qualitative case study design. Results of the study among inhabitants of Swiss mountain villages show that differences in meanings were found according to hazard experience and community size. We found commonly shared core representations, and single peripheral ones. We conclude with suggestions on how to make usage of the knowledge on SR in risk communication.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0806.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: nutrition disorders; risk factors; body composition; physical functional performance; independent living; and aged; 80 and over
Online: 13 September 2023 (09:38:11 CEST)
Background and aims: Only one cohort study exists on the incidence of the risk of malnutrition (RM) in older adults, though numerous cross-sectional –and that cohort research– have reported several risk factors associated with the prevalence and incidence of this condition. However, alterations of body composition and impaired physical performance as exposition variables of RM have not been explored. This study assessed the incidence of RM and determined its association with excess fat mass, low total lean tissue, gait speed, and handgrip strength as exposition variables for RM in community-dwelling older adults. Methods: This is a secondary analysis in older adults (≥60 years old) derived from the study “Frailty, dynapenia, and sarcopenia in Mexican adults (FraDySMex)” a prospective cohort project conducted from 2014 to 2019 in Mexico City. At baseline, volunteers underwent body composition analysis and physical performance tests. Several covariates were identified through comprehensive geriatric assessment. At baseline and follow-up, RM was assessed using the long form of the mini nutritional assessment (MNA-LF) scale. Associations between the exposition variables and RM were assessed by multiple logistic regression. Results: The cohort included 241 subjects. Average age was 75.6±7.8 years; 83.4% were women. The mean follow-up period was 4.1 years, during which 28.6% of subjects developed RM. This condition was less likely to occur in subjects with excess fat mass index, even after adjusting for several covariates. RM was also more likely to occur in subjects with low total lean tissue index, according to both an unadjusted model and after adjusting for the corresponding variables. Regarding the association between RM and gait speed, RM was also more likely to occur in subjects with low gait speed according to both the unadjusted and adjusted models. Similar results were found for RM in relation to low handgrip strength; however, after adjusting for the associated covariates, models 1 and 2 no longer reached the level of significance. Conclusion: The risk of malnutrition diagnosed by MNA-LF was significantly less likely to occur among subjects with excess fat mass, but possibility was significantly higher in those with low total lean tissue and low gait speed after 4.1 years of follow-up in community-dwelling older adults. These results highlight that excess fat mass, low total lean tissue, and low gait speed are first than risk of malnutrition and not vice versa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1556.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: risk analysis; risk communication; hazard; risk; food regulation; food safety
Online: 21 June 2023 (13:04:04 CEST)
For risk communication, it is important to understand the difference between "hazard" and "risk". Definitions can be found in Codex Alimentarius and the European Union (EU) General Food Regulation (EC) No 178/2002. The use of these terms as synonyms or their interchange is a recurrent issue in the area of food safety, despite awareness-raising messages sent by EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) and other interested entities. A quick screening of EU’s food regulations revealed several inconsistencies. Hence, it was considered necessary to further investigate if regulations could act as a source for this problem. A software tool was developed to support the detection and listing of inconsistent translations of “hazard” and “risk” in certain EU food regulations. Subsequently, native-speaking experts working in food safety, from each EU country, were asked to provide their individual scientific opinion on the prepared list. All data was statistically analyzed after applying numerical scores (1-5) describing different levels of consistency. Results showed that the most common problem was the interchange of “hazard” with “risk” and vice versa. This lack of consistency can create confusion that can further translate into misjudgments at food risk assessment and communication level.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0128.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: large scale systems; risk assessment; risk management techniques; risk mitigation
Online: 10 December 2019 (07:14:12 CET)
Risk assessment management have been a hot topic for the researchers since a very long time. Software risk management is an important part of project management as it contains the identification, analysis, estimation and monitoring of different risks present in the system. This helps developers in decision making while assessing the problems that could arise in the software systems. Risk management is very complex in large scale system as these systems have very complex development. The paper describes risk management techniques for large scale system. Furthermore we have provided a detailed comparative analysis of these techniques with commonly identified risks in software systems and have provided a systematic order for risk management process to ensure risk mitigation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0551.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Risk analysis, risk assessment, biological invasions, regulations, policy, risk management
Online: 22 November 2018 (14:44:57 CET)
This report presents a framework for analysing the risk of alien taxa under South Africa's National Environmental Management: Biodiversity Act of 2004, and the Alien and Invasive Species Regulations of 2014. While the report was initially designed to meet a specific South Africa need, the risk analysis processes developed can, we believe, be transferred to any specified geographic region. In outlining a series of questions related to a taxon’s likelihood of invasion and the consequences thereof, i.e. the potential impacts, the report provides a structure for collating data relevant to the process of listing taxa as well as a process for developing recommendations that is both mathematically sound, transparent, and that explicitly takes uncertainty into account. The framework is based on collating information according to international standards in biological invasions (specifically the IUCN Environmental Impact Classification of Alien Taxa Scheme, the CBD's scheme for classifying invasion pathways, and the Unified Framework for Biological Invasions proposed by Blackburn et al. 2011). The risk analysis framework is currently being implemented in South Africa in an effort to underpin national regulatory lists of invasive species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0030.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: green building; risk management; risk factors, risk mitigation measures; architect
Online: 2 May 2018 (16:55:58 CEST)
The number of green buildings has increased to address the global environmental crisis. However, green buildings face risks resulting from new materials and methods. In addition, these buildings are expected to perform at higher levels than traditional ones. The objectives of this study are to identify the possible risk factors for architects developing green building projects in South Korea and to assess risk mitigation measures. To attain this goal, fourteen risk factors and twelve mitigation measures were identified from a comprehensive literature review. A questionnaire survey was administered to architects practicing green building design. Findings revealed the ‘adoption of new technology and processes’ was the largest difference between green and traditional building projects. This study identified ‘financial risk,’ ‘design changes,’ and ‘client’s goal uncertainty’ as the top three risk factors in green building design. Additionally, the survey proposed the four most effective risk mitigation measures for green building projects: (1) ‘contract indicating each party’s roles, liabilities and limitations clearly’; (2) ‘utilizing integrated design process’; (3) ‘understanding client’s goal in green building projects’; and (4) ‘improving communication and coordination among stakeholders.’ There are a few studies focusing on the architects’ perceived risk concerning green building projects; however, this study expands the knowledge and fills the literature gap. Additionally, this study provides a comprehensive understanding of critical risks and mitigation measures that can benefit South Korea’s green building design practice through better risk management.