Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Population Risk Factors for COVID-19 Deaths in Nigeria at Subnational Level

Version 1 : Received: 24 July 2020 / Approved: 25 July 2020 / Online: 25 July 2020 (18:20:23 CEST)

How to cite: Hassan, Z.; Hashim, M.J.; Khan, G. Population Risk Factors for COVID-19 Deaths in Nigeria at Subnational Level. Preprints 2020, 2020070621 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202007.0621.v1). Hassan, Z.; Hashim, M.J.; Khan, G. Population Risk Factors for COVID-19 Deaths in Nigeria at Subnational Level. Preprints 2020, 2020070621 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202007.0621.v1).

Abstract

Nigeria is the most populous country in the African continent. The aim of this study was to analyze risk factors for COVID-19 prevalence and deaths in all 6 geopolitical regions and 37 states in Nigeria. We analyzed the data retrieved from various sources, including Nigeria CDC, Nigeria National Bureau of Statistics, Unicef-Nigeria multiple indicator cluster survey and the Institute of Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington. We examined 4 clinical risk factors (prevalence of TB, HIV, smoking and BCG vaccination coverage) and 5 sociodemographic factors (age ≥65, population density, literacy rate, unemployment and GDP per capita). Multivariate modeling was conducted using generalized linear model. Our analysis showed that the incidence of confirmed COVID-19 cases differed widely across the 37 states, from 0.09 per 100,000 in Kogi to 83.7 in Lagos. However, more than 70% of confirmed cases were concentrated in just 7 states: Lagos, Abuja, Oyo, Kano, Edo, Rivers and Delta. Case mortality rate (CMR) per million population also varied considerably, with Lagos, Abuja and Edo having CMR above 9. On bivariate analysis, higher CMR correlated positively with GDP and to a lesser extent with TB and population density. On multivariate analysis, which is more definitive, states with higher HIV prevalence and BCG coverage had lower CMR, while high GDP states had a greater CMR. This study indicates that COVID-19 has disproportionately affected certain states in Nigeria. Population susceptibility factors include higher economic development but not literacy or unemployment. Death rates were mildly lower in states with higher HIV prevalence and BCG vaccination coverage.

Subject Areas

SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; mortality; epidemiology; risk factors; Nigeria; Africa

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