Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Breast Cancer Risk Factors in Iran: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Version 1 : Received: 3 April 2020 / Approved: 7 April 2020 / Online: 7 April 2020 (01:22:38 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Journal reference: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation 2020
DOI: 10.1515/hmbci-2020-0021


To systematically investigate the epidemiology of breast cancer risk factors in Iran, we performed a systematic search via PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Persian databases for identifying studies published on breast cancer risk factors up to March 2019. Meta-analyses were done for risk factors reported in more than one study. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using a fixed/random-effects models.Thirty-nine studies entered into the meta-analysis. Pooling of ORs showed a significant harmful effect for risk factors including family history (OR: 1.80, 95%CI 1.47-2.12), HRT (OR: 5.48, 95%CI 0.84-1.74), ER positive (OR: 1.87, 95%CI 1.41-2.33), PR positive (OR: 1.84, 95%CI 1.38-2.29), stress condition (OR: 2.67, 95%CI 1.84-3.50), passive smokers (OR: 1.68, 95%CI 1.34-2.03), full-term pregnancy at age 30 (OR: 3.41, 95%CI 1.19-5.63), abortion (OR: 1.84, 95%CI 1.35-2.33), sweets consumption (OR: 1.71, 95%CI 1.32-2.11) and genotype Arg/Arg (crude OR: 1.59, 95%CI 1.07-2.10), whereas a significant protective effect for late menarche (OR: 0.58, 95%CI 0.32-0.83), nulliparity (OR: 0.68, 95%CI 0.39-0.96), 13 to 24 months of breastfeeding (OR: 0.68, 95%CI 0.46-0.90), daily exercise (OR: 0.59, 95%CI 0.44-0.73) and vegetable consumption (crude OR: 0.28, 95%CI 0.10-0.46).This study suggest that factors such as family history, HRT, ER and PR positive status, stress condition, passive smokers, late full-term pregnancy, abortion, sweets consumption and genotype Arg/Arg might increase risk of breast cancer development, whereas late menarche, nulliparity, 13-24 months breastfeeding, daily exercise and vegetable consumption had an inverse association with breast cancer development.


breast tumor; mammary neoplasm; breast carcinoma; meta-analysis; population at risk

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