ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0165.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: Lake Urmia; Local climate; Temperature adjustment; lake/land breeze
Online: 9 July 2020 (02:07:35 CEST)
Lake Urmia in northwestern Iran is the largest lake in Iran and the second largest saltwater lake in the world. The water level in Lake Urmia has decreased dramatically in recent years, due to drought, climate change, and overuse of water resources for irrigation. This shrinking of the lake may affect local climate conditions, assuming that the lake itself affects the local climate. In this study, we quantified the lake’s impact on the local climate by analyzing hourly time series of data on climate variables (temperature, vapor pressure, relative humidity, evaporation, and dewpoint temperature for all seasons, and local lake/land breezes in summer) for the period 1961-2016. For this, we compared high quality, long-term climate data obtained from Urmia and Saqez meteorological stations, located 30 km and 185 km from the lake center, respectively. We then investigated the effect of lake level decrease on the climate variables by dividing the data into 1961-1995 (normal lake level) and 1996-2016 (low lake level). The results showed that at Urmia station (close to the lake), climate parameters displayed fewer fluctuations and were evidently affected by Lake Urmia compared with those at Saqez station. The effects of the lake on the local climate increased with increasing temperature, with the most significant impact in summer and the least in winter. The results also indicated that, despite decreasing lake level, local climate conditions are still influenced by Lake Urmia, but to a lesser extent.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0320.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Central Rift Valley, Ethiopia, Landsat images, Lake, land use/land cover
Online: 27 December 2018 (10:49:16 CET)
LULC changes are major environmental challenges in many parts of the world which are adversely affecting ecosystem services. This study was aimed to analyze LULC changes in the ecological landscape of Ethiopia CRV areas from 1985 to 2015. Satellite images were accessed and pre-processing and classification is done. Major LULC types were detected and change analysis was executed. Nine LULC changes were successfully evaluated. The classification result revealed that in 1985, 44.34% of the land was covered with small scale farming followed by mixed cultivated/acacia (21.89%), open woodland (11.96%), and water bodies (9.77%). Whereas for the same study year open grazing land, forest, degraded savannah and settlements accounted the smallest proportion. Though the area varied among land use classes, the trend of share occupied by the LULC types in the study area remained the same in 1995 and 2015. Increase in small and large scale farming, settlements and mixed cultivation/acacia while a decrease in water bodies, forest, and open woodlands is noted. About 86.11% of the land showed major changes in land use/cover. Lastly, DPSIR framework analysis was done and integrated land use and development planning and policy reform are suggested for sustainable land use planning and management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0392.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: time series; lake changes; remote sensing; inland lake; lake disturbance
Online: 30 December 2019 (04:45:43 CET)
Inland lake variations are considered sensitive indicators of global climate change. However, human activity is playing as a more and more important role in inland lake area variations. Therefore, it is critical to identify whether anthropogenic activity or natural event is playing as the dominant factor in inland lake surface area change. In this study, we proposed a Douglas-Peucker simplification algorithm and bend simplification algorithm combined method to locate major lake surface area disturbances; these disturbances were then characterized to extract the time series change features according to documented records; and the disturbances were finally classified into anthropogenic or natural. We took the nine lakes in Yunnan Province as test sites, a 31 years long (from 1987 to 2017) time series Landsat TM/OLI images and HJ-1A/1B used as data sources, the official records was used as references to aid the feature extraction and disturbance identification accuracy. Results of our method for both disturbance location and the disturbance identification could be concluded as follows: 1) The method can accurately locate the main lake changing events based on the time series lake surface area curve. The accuracy of this model for segmenting the lake area time series curves in our study area was 95.24%. 2) Our proposed method achieved an overall accuracy of 91.67%, with F-score of 94.67 for anthropogenic disturbances and F-score of 85.71 for natural disturbances. 3) According to our results, lakes in Yunnan Provence, China, have undergone extensive disturbances, and the human-induced disturbances occurred almost twice as often as natural disturbances, indicating intensified disturbances caused by human activities. This inland lake area disturbance identification method is expected to uncover whether a disturbance to inland lake area is human activity-induced or natural event.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0107.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: river-connected lake; Cu, Jinshan lake; tidal action
Online: 7 May 2018 (08:22:55 CEST)
A typical river-connected lake, Jinshan Lake, was selected as the study area. By the combination of field experiment, laboratory experiment and mathematical model, we plotted the relationship between the concentration of DCu-SCu and FDI, and constructed the mathematical model of the migration and transformation of HMCu in Jinshan Lake. We choose a typical diurnal tide to simulate and revealed the vertical migration characteristics of HMCu in Jinshan Lake during a diurnal tide. The results show that: (1) The release rate of DCu was proportional to FDI and background content, respectively. (2) Due to the nearby industrial enterprises and terrain characteristics, SA loads the most HMCu, the average concentration is 70.07mg/kg. According to the characteristics and geographical location of LC, the concentration of copper in the two states fluctuates greatly (DCu: 43.20~74.77 mg/kg, SCu: 53.63~74.67mg/kg). The fluctuation trend of SCu in ZA is significantly different from that in other areas, which mainly due to the complex hydraulic distribution and the sorption-desorption process of HMs in sediment particles. The hydraulic disturbance of JG is the least and relatively stable, which is the farthest from the inlet of the lake and is the least affected by the Yangtze river. (3) The FDI in a diurnal tide reaches the suspension condition of fine sediment particles in each region. FDI and sediment concentration on the vertical exchange of two - state Cu is significant.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: mine lake; pit lake; closure; planning; repurposing; end use; water quality
Online: 21 December 2019 (12:21:14 CET)
Pit lakes can represent significant liabilities at mine closure. However, pit lakes also present opportunities to provide significant regional benefit and address residual closure risks of both their own and overall project closure, and even offset the environmental costs of mining by creating new end uses. Unfortunately, many pit lakes have continued to be abandoned without repurposing for an end use. We reviewed published pit lake repurposing case studies of abandoned mine pit lakes. We found beneficial end use type and outcome varied dependent upon climate and commodity; but equally important social and political dynamics that manifest as mining company commitments or regulatory requirements. Many end uses have been realized: passive and active recreation, nature conservation, fishery and aquaculture, drinking and industrial water storage, greenhouse carbon fixation, flood protection and waterway remediation, disposal of mine and other waste, mine water treatment and containment, and education and research. Common attributes and reasons that led to successful repurposing of abandoned pit lakes as beneficial end uses are discussed. Recommendations are given for all stages of mine closure planning to prevent pit lake abandonment and to achieve successful pit lake closure with beneficial end uses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0092.v1
Online: 11 June 2019 (10:01:22 CEST)
This manuscript examines from the diurnal convection cycle (CDC) to the interdecadal variability in the region of the Peruvian Altiplano (RAP). Currently, estimating precipitation using satellites is an alternative which can be used to study the spatio-temporal evolution of precipitation systems. Herein CPC data Morphing technique - CMORPH (Joyce et al, 2004) was used between 2002 and 2014 to analyze the CDC in RAP. The CMOPRH data were compared with rainfall data series measured by rain gauges of meteorological stations (EMS) in the RAP. The results indicate that the CDC shows high variability in the Titicaca Basin and is associated with patterns of lake breeze (day), land breeze (night) and mountain - valley circulation. The CDC starts at 1800 HL (local time) in the northern region of Lake Titicaca, lasting between 2 h and 6 h, and most of 2000 HL. The CDC over the dry surface (ST) of Titicaca Basin starts early at around 1200 HL, lasting 4 h to 7 h, and maximum at 1800 HL.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0350.v1
Online: 27 June 2022 (05:31:25 CEST)
Turkana County's fisheries sector, which is entirely dependent on Lake Turkana, is vital to the county's economy. The Fisheries Sector in the County supports 1,500 households directly and 1,100 households indirectly. Despite its economic and social importance, the sector faces numerous challenges such as high post-harvest fish losses, uncoordinated development approaches, over-exploitation of some lake areas and weak links between research, management, and other sector players. Furthermore, since the start of devolution in 2013, the sector has been operating without an overall policy and legal framework. The primary goal of the study was to identify important challenges in the management of the fisheries sector in Turkana County that would lead the successful and coordinated growth of the fisheries industry. To capture their perspectives on the problems and potential in the usage of Lake Turkana's fisheries resources, semi-structured questionnaires and Key Informants interviews were used to collect primary data from the sector's fisheries actors. A total of 60 people were interviewed, and their responses were recorded in the Kobo Collect toolbox for later analysis. Secondary data was also gathered from numerous national policy declarations, guidelines, and legislation that have been used to manage Lake Turkana's fishery resources. The findings indicate that a policy directing the exploitation and development of fisheries is required in order to fully realize the potential of fisheries and aquaculture in the County. The development of the policy will lay a solid foundation for the creation of a legal framework to strengthen the sector in Turkana County, which is a necessary step toward achieving sustainable development and management of fisheries in accordance with national, regional, and international frameworks. By leveraging the role of the County Directorate of Fisheries and Beach Management Units in the sectors' monitoring, management, and development, the policy will also promote effective coordination of stakeholders at all levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0267.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Lake Geneva; Lake Titicaca; micropearls; ACC; arsenic; calcium; strontium; barium; biomineralisation; nondetects statistical analysis
Online: 19 November 2021 (09:24:06 CET)
In unicellular organisms, intracellular inclusions of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) have been initially described in cyanobacteria and, later, in unicellular eukaryotes of Lake Geneva (Switzerland/France). Inclusions in unicellular eukaryotes ‒named micropearls‒ consist of hydrated ACCs, frequently enriched in Sr or Ba, displaying internal oscillatory zonations due to variations in the Ba:Ca or Sr:Ca ratios. The analysis of our database consisting of 1597 micropearl analyses from Lake Geneva and 34 from Lake Titicaca (Bolivia/Peru) has shown that a certain number of Sr and Ba-enriched micropearls from these lakes contain As in amounts measurable by EDXS. A Q-mode statistical analysis has confirmed the existence of five geochemically distinct morpho-chemical groups of As-bearing micropearls, among which a new category identified in Lake Geneva, where As is often associated with Mg. This new type of micropearl is possibly produced in a small (7-12 m size) bi-flagellated organism. Micropearls from Lake Titicaca, which contain Sr, are found in an organism very similar to Tetraselmis cordiformis, observed in Lake Geneva. Lake Titicaca micropearls contain higher As concentrations which can be explained by the high As concentration in the water of this lake. The ubiquity of the biomineralization process observed points to the need for better understanding of the role of amorphous or crystalline calcium carbonates in As cycling in surface waters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0255.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: agricultural land conversion; land economic value; urbanization; land rent
Online: 12 October 2018 (05:18:09 CEST)
Agricultural land conversion (ALC) is an incentive–driven process. In this paper we further investigate the inter–relationship between land economic value (LEV) and ALC. To achieve this goal, we calculated LEV for agricultural and non-agricultural (housing) uses in two areas in East Java, Indonesia. The first area represents suburban agriculture, facing rapid urbanization and experiencing high rate of ALC. The second area represents rural agriculture with zero ALC. Furthermore, we identified factors affecting LEV in both areas for both uses. The resut of this study show that agricultural land yielded higher economic benefit in rural area. Conversely, comparing to agricultural land, housing creates 7 times higher value in urban area. Moreover, agricultural land shown to create higher profit after converted. Ironically, the similar comparison doesn’t exists in rural area. Agricultural land only yielded 19% more value, indicate that agricultural land can be easily converted. It is also proven by the growing number of new urban core in the periphery area. There are several factors affecting land economic value, for agricultural use, soil fertility, accessibility, and cropping pattern are important variables. While accessibility and location in urban area increases land value for housing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0333.v1
Online: 23 February 2020 (16:14:28 CET)
This paper examines the diurnal cycle of convection (DCC) over Lake Titicaca Basin (LTb) during summertime months based on the high spatial resolution (8 x 8 km2) and hourly temporal resolution, estimates of Climate Prediction Center Morphing technique (CMORPH). Analysis was performed using observed data from rain gauges (Rg-SENAMHI) for the period 2002 to 2013. Graphical comparisons and several statistical metrics such as correlation coefficient, bias, and root mean square error were used to evaluate CMORPH product. Spatial maps and graphic metrics of diurnal cycle were developed to assess CMORPH data, spatial dependency an accuracy over the LTb. Approximately, 43% of the total Rg-SENAMHI variation is explained CMORPH data. The correlation between Rg-SENAMHI and CMORPH is positively over southeast and northern LTb, and negatively in the central and southern LTb. A underestimation bias is observed over most the LTb areas and overestimation bias (e.g., Lagunillas, Isla Suana and Desaguadero stations). In general, spatial patterns of rainfall over the LTb were captured through CMORPH data. Over the surrounding lake area, high mountain, and plateau area, maximum peaks of precipitation occur in the early evening, neverhtheless over low areas such as the lake, surrounding and valleys, maximum precipitation values occur early morning. The results show that DCC its very related by surface exchange processes and local circulation resulting from solar radiation and heterogeneous topography.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0247.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: artificial neural network; land use land cover; Indonesia; land use prediction
Online: 9 March 2021 (09:43:54 CET)
Great Malang region is developing rapidly with the population increase and inhabitant`s activity, like migration and urbanization. Other activities like agricultural expansion as well as an uncontrolled residential development need to be monitored to avoid any negative impact in the future. The availability of free and open-source software, spatial high-resolution satellite imagery datasets, and powerful algorithms open the possibilities to map, monitor, and predict the future trend of land use land cover (LULC) changes. However, the accuracy and precision of this model is still in doubt, especially in the Great Malang region. Research is needed to provide a foundational basis and documentation on how the changes occur, where did the changes occur, and the accuracy of the predicted model. This study tries to answer those questions using the high spatial resolution of Sentinel-2 imageries. Combination of the fuzzy algorithm, artificial neural network, and cellular automata was utilized to process the datasets. We analysed four different scenarios of simulation and the result then compared. The different number of hidden layers and iteration was used and evaluated to understand the effect of different parameters in the prediction result. The best scenario was then used to predict future land use changes. This study has successfully produced the future LULC model of Great Malang region with high accuracy level (87%). The study also found that the land use transformation from agriculture to urban built-up area is relatively low, where changes of the built-up area over three periods of analysis are below than 5%. This is due to the physical condition of Great Malang region where mountainous areas are dominated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0456.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Land dispute; land alienation; communal grant; native customary land; institutional approach
Online: 18 December 2020 (11:40:17 CET)
Land management and community involvement are two main elements in ensuring the absence of conflict between landowners and agencies. Disputes between owners and agencies will be the biggest obstacle in the land development effort. Therefore, this article aims to address the cause of landowners’ objections against land alienation using the institutional approach. To enable the researchers to understand the root causes of landowners' objections against the alienation of land using the Communal Grant method, the institutional approach has been adopted to identify the issue of the objection. Therefore, questionnaires for 100 landowners were distributed in two villages in Semporna district in Sabah. The purpose is to obtain their views on the cause leading to the dispute of land alienation using the Communal Grant method. The Likert scale was used to enable community rankings on issues that can be understood according to the level of seriousness of the population's views on the issue of using Communal Grants in native customary land alienation. The study results explain that there are four factors that drive objection of the Communal Grant land alienation which involves the formal factors. The findings explained that there are 4 formal provisions which lead to the community's objection against Communal Grants, namely the native customary lands (NCR) act, provision of Communal Grants, provisions in the land ownership and land allocation in Sabah Land Ordinance.Due to numerous objections among native customary peoples concerning the native customary land alienation using Communal Grants, the government has acted in substitution with a fair method of individual ownership for the native customary peoples. This situation explains that disputes in land ownership can be a threat to the country if it cannot be resolved in ways and methods acceptable to the native customary community. This study will benefit the government and NGO’s to alert and focusing on barriers in the context of local community land laws. Communal grants are intended to address land issues in Sabah.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0497.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: urban lake; sediments; nutrients; landuse; pollutant sources
Online: 26 September 2018 (04:53:40 CEST)
Lake Rawa Besar is an urban lake surrounded by dense settlements and market area. Currently Lake Rawa Besar is experiencing physical and ecology strain. This research’s objectives are to determine the levels of sediment and nutrient, the distribution, also the relation to land use and human activities producing pollutant. Field surveys with 30 sample points and observations was needed scattered within the lake. Measuring the value of each parameter is carried out in national standardized laboratory. The result shows that sediment load of TDS is still below the standard limit for clean water, while TSS levels in the middle of lake exceed the standard limit. Nutrient loads, spesifically nitrate and phospate levels is below the standard limit. While turbidity and BOD levels have a uniform distribution pattern in the lake, exceed the standard limit for clean water, and have a positive correlation. High levels of turbidity and BOD are caused by household waste and human activities producing organic waste such as tofu factory, fowl manure, and garbage dump. Small sewage goes into the lake mediates pollutants inflow. Attention is needed by nearby people, also for the government, to sustain the ecological condition of the lake.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0316.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry & Petrology Keywords: Mercury accumulation, Lake sediment, Holocene, Landscape development
Online: 17 August 2018 (16:04:26 CEST)
Forest vegetation plays a key role in the cycling of mercury (Hg) and organic matter (OM) in terrestrial ecosystems. Litterfall has been indicated as the major transport vector of atmospheric Hg to forest soils, which is eventually transported and stored in the sediments of forest lakes. Hence, it is important to understand how changes in forest vegetation affect Hg in soil and its biogeochemical cycling in lake systems. We investigated the pollen records and the geochemical compositions of sediments from two lakes (Schurmsee and Glaswaldsee) in the Black Forest (Germany) to evaluate whether long-term shifts in forest vegetation induced by climate or land use influenced Hg accumulation in the lakes. We were particularly interested to determine whether coniferous forests were associated with a larger export of Hg to aquatic systems than deciduous forests. Principal components analysis followed by principal component regression enabled us to describe the evolution of the weight of the latent processes determining the accumulation of Hg over time. Our results emphasize that the in-lake uptake of Hg during warm climate periods, soil erosion after deforestation and emissions from mining and other human activities triggered changes in Hg accumulation during the Holocene stronger than the changes caused by forest vegetation alone.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0468.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: dynamic downscaling; WRF-Lake; CMIP5; great lakes
Online: 25 July 2018 (06:06:33 CEST)
Large water bodies such as the Laurentian Great Lakes have significant influences on local and regional climate through their unique physical features. Due to the coarse spatial resolution of general circulation models (GCMs), the Great Lakes are geometrically ignored in most GCMs. Thus, the dynamical downscaling technique serves as a necessary and feasible solution to bridge the gap. The Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) with an updated lake scheme is employed to downscale from a GCM, GFDL-CM3. The WRF-Lake’s performance is evaluated against observations, the GCM, as well as 23 other GCMs. Results show that the coupled air-lake model, with a fine spatial resolution and realistic lake bathymetries, reproduced a more reasonable spatiotemporal climatology than GCMs, as well as the lake-induced characteristics that were missed in GCMs. With lakes present, the seasonal variability of air temperature was reduced in WRF-Lake relative to GFDL-CM3, especially in summer. A reduced air temperature trend, about 4.5 °C/100 year in the 21st century, was projected in WRF-Lake. The seasonal evolutions of lake surface temperature and lake ice coverage were well captured by the lake model. The lake surface temperature was projected to be warming by 3.5-4 °C and the lake ice diminishing by 58.9% - 86%. Those results brought by the WRF-Lake model suggest that a fine resolution of the topography and the incorporation of the lake-atmosphere interactions are crucial to improve the understanding of the climate and climate change in the Great Lakes region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0143.v1
Subject: Keywords: land cover maps; land cover scenario; Land Change Modeler (LCM); transition probabilities
Online: 15 June 2019 (16:13:07 CEST)
The results reveal CILSS as the most accurate data set with a Kappa coefficient of 68% and an overall accuracy of 83%. CILSS data shows a decrease of savanna and forest whereas an increase of cropland over the period 1975 to 2013. The increase of cropland area of 30.97% from 1975 to 2013 can be related to the increase in population and their food demand, while the losses of forest area and the decrease of savanna are further amplified by using wood as energy sources and the lack of forest management. The three datasets were used to simulate future LULC changes using the Terrset Land Change Modeler. The validation of the model using CILSS data for 2013 showed a quality of 50.94%, it is only 40.04% for ESA and 20.13% for Globeland30. CILSS data was utilized to simulate the LULC distribution for the years 2020 and 2027 because of its satisfactory performances. The results show that a high spatial resolution is not a guarantee of high quality. The results of this study can be used for impact studies and to develop management strategies for mitigating negative effects of land use and land cover change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0262.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: land use and cover; land surface temperature; built-up land; agricultural land; gradient analysis; Nuwara Eliya; Sri Lanka
Online: 26 August 2019 (05:07:33 CEST)
Although urbanization has contributed to improving living conditions, it has had negative impacts on the natural environment in the urbanized areas. Urbanization has changed the urban landscape and resulted in increasing land surface temperature (LST). Thus, studies related to LST in various urban environments have become a popular research topic. However, few LST studies focusing on the mountain landscapes (i.e. hill stations) have been carried out. The primary objective of this study is to investigate changes in the landscape and their impacts on LST intensity (LSTI) in the tropical mountain city of Nuwara Eliya, Sri Lanka. The study utilized annual median temperatures extracted from Landsat data collected from 1996 to 2017 based on the Google Earth Engine (GEE) interface. The fractions of built-up (BL), forest (FL), and agricultural (AL) land were calculated using land use and cover maps based on the urban-rural zone (URZ) analysis. The urban-rural margin was demarcated based on the fraction of BL (<10%) and LSTI was measured using the mean LST difference in the urban-rural zone. In addition, the mixture of land use types was calculated using the AL/FL and BL/FL fraction ratios, and grid-based density analysis. The result shows that the BL in all URZ rapidly developed, while AL decreased during the period 1996 to 2017. There was minimal change in the forest area of the Nuwara Eliya owing to the government forest preservation policies. The fraction of the BL increased from 32.4% in 1996 to 58.7% in 2017 in the city center zone (URZ1) resulting in increased mean LST by 4.7 °C. Furthermore, the increase of the BL/FL fraction ratio and the decrease of the AL/FL fraction ratio were positively correlated with the mean LST. Grid-based analysis showed an increasing positive relationship between mean LST and density of BL. This indicated that BL density has been a crucial element in increasing LST in the study area. The results of this study will be a useful indicator to introduce improved landscape and urban planning in the future to minimize the negative impact of LST on urban sustainability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0273.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Landscape Ecology; Lake; River; Urban Ecosystem; Urban Forest
Online: 11 February 2021 (09:46:04 CET)
Within the town, Abiotic is a built environment that includes buildings, roads, pedestrians, and other elements that interact with biotics, which are living things including plants, animals, and humans. From a landscape ecological perspective, the urban structure consists of (1) a matrix, which is a collection of dominant buildings and homogeneous elements, (2) Patches are grouped as housing, urban forests, parks, lakes, and finally (3) Corridors such as roads, rivers, and pedestrians. The dominance of watertight areas over green open spaces in urban development can lead to increased temperatures and runoff. The condition of the soil structure and the steep slope of the soil can cause landslides, therefore urban development must pay attention to the natural conditions of the area being built. This research was conducted in Kota Baru, Bogor, South Tangerang, and Cikarang (Bekasi Regency). The purpose of this study is to determine the natural environment and the built environment as well as changes in the ecosystem and their consequences for the new town and its surroundings. This research uses quantitative and qualitative approaches. Analysis of land-use change uses spatial and temporal methods, while Nieuwolt's equation is used to measure comfort. This study finds comfortable environmental planning, with green open spaces such as urban forests, city parks, and bodies of water, such as lakes, as a space for interaction between fellow new city residents and people outside the new towns.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0067.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Chapala Lake; Climate change; RClimdex; NDWI; Water management
Online: 1 February 2021 (17:35:10 CET)
Lake Chapala is a natural ecosystem of Mexico, declared Ramsar site, currently, is an area with importance in the agricultural sector, tourism, and important source of drinking water in the Metropolitan area of Guadalajara, considered as a thermo regulatory body. This study used tools such as Rhtest, as well as analyzing extreme climate indices using RClimdex. In addition, the relationship with the change in water surface of Lake Chapala was assessed through the NDWI index, using Landsat images, between 1985 and 2018. According to the obtained results, the signs of climatic variability are detected in the study region, which, directly affects the basin runoff and water levels in the lake, as well as, the factor of water overexploitation in the basin, so it is considered that the lake conditions mostly depend on the type of management that is given to the resource. Finally, the results will help the understanding of climate variability and its water resources influence of the Lerma Chapala basin, which will assist in future research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0316.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: phosphorus; N:P ratio; cyanobacteria; Planktothrix agardhii; Lake Vombsjön
Online: 24 April 2018 (10:12:39 CEST)
Control of nutrients, mainly nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), plays a significant role in preventing cyanobacterial blooms (harmful algal blooms (HABs)). This study aimed at evaluating changes in the risk of the occurrence of cyanobacterial blooms and advancing the understanding of how N and P affect the growth of cyanobacteria in a eutrophic lake, Lake Vombsjön, in southern Sweden. Statistical analysis was used to demonstrate the pattern of cyanobacterial blooms, that the highest content present in September and the later that algal blooms occur, the more likely it is a cyanobacterial bloom as cyanobacteria became dominating in October and November (90%). Two hypothesises tested in Lake Vombsjön confirmed namely that a high total phosphorus (TP) level correlates with an abundance of cyanobacteria and that low N:P ratio (total nitrogen/total phosphorus < 20) favours the growth of cyanobacteria. To control the growth of cyanobacteria in Lake Vombsjön, the TP level should be kept below 20 µg/L and the N:P ratio be maintained at a level of over 20. The two species Planktothrix agardhii, and Pseudanabaena spp. should be carefully monitored especially in late autumn. Future work should consider any high degree of leakage from the sediment of the dissolved phosphorus available there.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0671.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Land Suitability Analysis; Major crops; Land Management practice
Online: 30 August 2020 (15:07:23 CEST)
This study to assess the Physical Land Suitability Analysis for Cultivation of Selected Cool Weather Cereal Crops, Misha District, Hadiya Zone, South Central Ethiopia of major cereal crops of barley and teff in Misha district. Each of the criteria was separately reclassified and analyzed for their suitability for supporting barley and teff crops based on the FAO crop requirements specified for them. The major data sources were climatic data, soil, LGP and topographic data as well as key informant interview, questioner observation of crop requirements which have been considered to undertake suitability assessments of the study area. The factor maps like land use /land cover, temperature, rain fall, soil type and altitude were classified based on suitability evaluation methods of FAO and experts’ opinion. At final stage these were reclassified and standardized in GIS software extension tools, which led to the preparation of suitability analysis map of the major crops plant suitability classes. As part of spatial MCDM, AHP pair wise comparison module was used to derive internal and external weights for each individual factors and parameters respectively. Consequently, suitability analysis was done and weighted overlay suitability map was visualized with integration of GIS. The findings show that among total area of land suitability maps for both barley and teff cops were using weighted overlay techniques. The suitability map of teff crop shows that 12,038.22 hectare of the investigated area are highly suitable (S1), 19,646.07 hectare moderately suitable (S2) and 4,501.71 hectare marginally suitable (S3) and 112 hectare not suitable. On the other hand, the suitability map of barley crop shows that 7,898.52 hectare of the investigated area are highly suitable (S1), 22,830.08 hectare moderately suitable (S2), and 5,466.4 hectare marginally suitable (S3) and 103 hectare not suitable for economic reasons (N1). This was done for barley and Teff crops separately. Results of the study revealed that most of the lands in the study area are suitable for the cultivation of the selected crops and other crops. Based on finding, it could be recommended that this work would be used as policy guide for planners; investment could be successful in the District, further suitability research works should be carried out in order to optimize the major crop cultivation and production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0251.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: sustainability development; land use change; Corine Land Cover
Online: 19 December 2019 (07:21:51 CET)
The article presents the author's method of land use change assessment in the context of sustainable development and the results of its application based on the transformations that occurred in individual areas of Europe in the years 2012–2018. This method is based on data from the CORINE Land Cover program and local government units presenting the degree of urbanization (DEGURBA). The authors evaluate the transformations taking place in space, reducing them to economic, social and environmental dimensions. They then analyse the results in terms of space (covering the entire Europe) and in terms of division into: large cities, small towns as well as suburbs and rural areas. It has been shown that: development of the economic dimension most often takes place at the expense of natural resources; the higher the population density and more important function in the functional system of a given country, the greater the sustainable development differentiation level in the analysed dimensions, of which the social dimension is characterized by the lowest differentiation and the economic dimension is the highest; development of rural areas is less sustainable than in case of large urban centres. The result interpretation also leads to the conclusion that the areas of Europe are very diverse in terms of sustainable development. However, the method itself, despite the imperfections observed by the authors, may be used in further or similar studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0165.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Regulation Effectiveness; Land Use Plan; Construction Land; China
Online: 20 March 2017 (18:42:46 CET)
Nowadays the relationship between planning land use and actual land use is not so clear in general. A lot of efforts have been put in the failures of regulation for the expansion of construction land. However, it still lacks an integrated approach to study the effectiveness of land use regulation in terms of different land use types. Furthermore, the existing evaluation of land use plan mainly focuses on a general level, a detailed research on the regulation effectiveness of each construction land use type is absent. Therefore, this research tries to evaluate regulation effectiveness of land use plan, which takes Cangwu country, Guangxi Province as an example. The finding by analysis is that the total area of construction land expansion was about 3494.73 ha, nearly 1.1 times of the plan quota. Moreover, the effectiveness differs greatly in various construction land use types. Town, industrial/mining sites can be well regulated through the quota of land use plan. While, the quota regulation system is not as effective for other type of construction land. Thus, we suggest to improve the regulation effectiveness of construction land through different plan instruments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0136.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Land dispute, customary land tenure, statutory land tenure, tenure security, Ghana, sub-Saharan Africa
Online: 8 January 2021 (10:31:29 CET)
Despite the ongoing land administration reforms being implemented across sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), including Ghana as viable pathway to achieve tenure security and greater efficiency in land administration, the subject of land dispute resolution has received relatively less attention. Whereas customary tenure institutions play a central role in land administration (controlling ~80% of all land in Ghana), they remain at the fringes of the formal land dispute adjudicatory process. Recognizing the pivotal role traditional institutions as development agents and potential vehicles for promoting good land governance, recent discourse on land tenure have geared towards mainstreaming traditional land disputes institutions into the architecture of formal judicial process via alternative dispute resolution pathways. Yet little is known at least empirically as to the operations of traditional dispute resolution institutions in the contemporary context. This study therefore explores the importance of traditional dispute resolution institutions in the management of land-related disputes in southcentral and western Ghana. Drawing on data collated from 380 farming households operating 746 plots. The results show that contrary to the conventional thinking that traditional institutions are anachronistic and not fit for purpose, they remain strong and preferred forum for land dispute resolution (proving resilient and adaptable) given the changing socio-economic and tenurial conditions. Yet these forums have differing implications for different actors within the customary spheres accessing them. The results highlight practical ways for incorporating traditional dispute resolution in the overall land governance setup in Ghana and elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa. This has implications for redesigning context-specific and appropriate land-use policy interventions that address local land dispute resolution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0007.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: adoption; land degradation; poisson regression; sustainable land management practices
Online: 1 May 2017 (08:33:17 CEST)
Land degradation is a serious impediment to improving rural livelihoods in Eastern Africa. This paper identifies major land degradation patterns and causes, and analyzes the determinants of sustainable land management (SLM) in three countries (Ethiopia, Malawi and Tanzania). The results show that land degradation hotspots cover about 51%, 41%, 23% and 23% of the terrestrial areas in Tanzania, Malawi and Ethiopia respectively. The analysis of nationally representative household surveys shows that the key drivers of SLM in these countries are biophysical, demographic, regional and socio-economic determinants. Secure land tenure, access to extension services and market access are some of the determinants incentivizing SLM adoption. The implications of this study are that policies and strategies that facilities secure land tenure and access to SLM information are likely to incentivize investments in SLM. Local institutions providing credit services, inputs such as seed and fertilizers, and extension services must also not be ignored in the development policies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0584.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: CMIP6; HighResMIP; ScenarioMIP; Lake Victoria; Climate change; East Africa
Online: 26 July 2021 (14:39:44 CEST)
In late/early 2019/2020, unprecedented high-water-levels were observed in Lake Victoria causing massive flooding in the low-lying lake-adjacent areas and disrupting human and natural systems in the Lake Victoria Basin (LVB). The high lake water-level coincided with unusually heavy and prolonged 2019 June to December precipitation in the LVB. The current study estimates future precipitation patterns over the LVB using HighResMIP and ScenarioMIP general circulation model (GCM) simulations from the 6th phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6). Results show that HighResMIP and ScenarioMIP simulations can adequately reproduce LVB’s precipitation patterns – albeit with location-specific biases. Generally, the GCM simulations tend to over-estimate precipitation patterns over Lake Victoria while under-estimating precipitation patterns over the lake-adjacent areas. Projections show significant future precipitation changes over the LVB relative to the 1970-1999 baseline, with more pronounced changes over the lake than in lake-adjacent areas. Overall, mean annual precipitation is projected to increase by about 18% and 31% by the end of the century, under SSP2-4.5 and SSP5-8.5 scenarios, respectively. Additionally, mean daily precipitation intensity (SDII) is projected to increase by up-to 14% while the maximum 5-day precipitation values (RX5Day) increase by up-to 71% under the SSP5-8.5 scenario. Heavy precipitation events, represented by the width of the right tail distribution of precipitation (99p-90p), are projected to increase by 50% and 94% under SSP2-4.5 and SSP5-8.5, respectively. Given that direct precipitation accounts for about 80% of Lake Victoria’s water budget, the lake’s future water-level fluctuations are likely to be more rampant and unpredictable under the changing climate. Hence, enhanced production and use of climate services is recommended to minimize the risk posed by potentially high water-level fluctuations in Lake Victoria and, ultimately, enhance the socio-economic safety of communities in the LVB.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0006.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: nitrogen cycle; ammonium; nitrate; nitrite; stratification; boreal; meromictic lake
Online: 1 July 2021 (09:33:16 CEST)
In order to better understand the biogeochemical cycle of nitrogen in meromictic lakes, which can serve as a model for past aquatic environments, we measured dissolved concentrations of nitrate, nitrite, ammonium and organic nitrogen in deep (39 m maximal depth) subarctic Lake Svetloe (NW Russia). The lake is a rare type of freshwater meromictic water boy with high concentrations of methane, ferrous iron, manganese and low concentrations of sulfates and sulfides in the monimolimnion. In the oligotrophic mixolimnion, the concentration of mineral forms of nitrogen decreased in summer compared to winter, likely due to phytoplankton bloom. The decomposition of the bulk of organic matter occurs under microaerophilic/anaerobic conditions of the chemocline and accompanied by the accumulation of nitrogen in the form of N-NH4 in the monimonimlion. We revealed a strong relationship between methane and nitrogen cycles in the chemocline and monimolimnion horizons. The nitrate concentrations in Lake Svetloe varied in the range from 9 to 13 μM throughout the water column. This fact is rare for meromictic lakes, where nitrate concentrations up to 13 µM are found in the monimolimnion zone down to the bottom layers. We hypothesize, in accord with available data for other stratified lakes, that under conditions of high concentrations of manganese and ammonium at the boundary of redox conditions and below, anaerobic nitrification with the formation of nitrates occurs. Overall, most of organic matter in Lake Svetloe undergoes biodegradation essentially under microaerophilic/anaerobic conditions of the chemocline and the monimolimnion. Consequently, the manifestation of the biogeochemical nitrogen cycle is expressed in these horizons in the most vivid and complex relationship with other cycles of elements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0594.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: transparency; suspended solids; wind effect; shallow lake; Sentinel-2
Online: 26 February 2021 (08:17:05 CET)
Wind is one of the factors that has a great influence on suspended matter in lakes, especially in shallow lagoons. In order to know how wind affects the water in Albufera of Valencia, a shallow coastal lagoon, the measured variables of turbidity and transparency have been correlated with the estimates by processing Sentinel-2 satellite images with the Sen2Cor processor. Data from four years of study show that most of them are light to gentle easterly breezes and moderate to fresh westerly breezes. The results obtained show significant correlations between the measured variables and those obtained from the satellite images for total suspended matter and water transparency and with the average daily wind speed. There is no significant correlation between wind and chlorophyll a. Moderate to fresh breezes resuspend the fine sediment reaching concentration values from 100 to 300 mg L-1 according to satellite data. However, it is necessary to obtain field data for the values of moderate and fresh winds, as for now there are no experimental data to verify the validity of the satellite estimates.
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Manzala Lake; pollution; water quality; hydrodynamic model; Delft3D-WAQ
Online: 5 September 2019 (11:14:57 CEST)
Lake Manzala, the largest of the northern Delta lakes of Egypt, has a great economic importance as a major natural resource of fish and salt. Unfortunately, the lake is suffering from the high inputs of pollutants from industrial, domestic, and agricultural sources. The present study aims to develop the proposed water quality management scenarios to assess and control lake pollution, the pollution sources as well as the pollution spread from the lake to the connected Mediterranean Sea. To apply study methodology, the work tasks divided into two main parts, the first part involved in modelling the lake environments by using Delft3D-WAQ hydrodynamic and water quality model to study the current status and predict the dynamic state of the Lake. This model was calibrated and validated by using various water quality datasets to simulate different scenarios. In the second part, the required lake water quality improvement scenarios were developed to solve the lake water quality problems. The study results showed that the first three developed scenarios that focusing on treatment drain effluent using primary, secondary treatment and surface wetland techniques respectively have a limited efficiency on lake water quality improvement. While the fourth scenario that involved on using biological biofilm techniques can improve lake water quality parameters. Moreover, the fifth scenario that proposed adding a new artificial inlet has a limitation due to the noted increases in lake salinity levels. The sixth scenario that proposed a diversion of some drains can improve lake water quality parameters but it can lead to a decrease in Lake water level. From water quality view point, the last scenario that applying a combination biological biofilm activated technique and also adding a new artificial inlet at northern lake region can represent the optimum scenario. Hopefully, this research will preserve the lake environment and contribute to the benefit of the man health as well. This approach could be extended to the hydrodynamic studies in similar large, shallow lakes anywhere in the world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0048.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Sustainable Development Goals; SDGs; land conflicts; land tenure security; Uganda
Online: 5 May 2022 (16:03:11 CEST)
Land tenure security is important for achieving a number Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The purpose of this paper was to investigate variation in land tenure security across three districts located in different geographical regions of Uganda. Using a quantitative cross-sectional survey data collected in early 2019. The findings show that Kanungu district found in South-Western Uganda had significantly higher levels of land tenure security as compared to Nakasongola (Central) and Nwoya (Northern). Research findings have implications on further study and benchmarking land governance systems in Kanungu. Furthermore, they have implications on implementation of government and donor land titling or registration programs in terms of priority areas. They further sheds light on the importance of accounting for geographical context in land tenure studies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0225.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Ethiopia; Geographic Information Systems; Land Use Land Cover; Remote Sensing
Online: 11 May 2021 (09:27:29 CEST)
Land Use Land Cover (LULC) changes analysis is one of the most useful methodologies to understand how the land was used in the past years, what types of detections are to be expected in the future, as well as the driving forces and processes behind these changes. In Ethiopia, the rapidly changing of LULC is mainly due to population pressure, resettlement programs, climate change, and other human and nature-induced driving forces. Anthropogenic activities are the most significant factors adversely changing the natural status of the landscape and resources, which exerts unfavourable and adverse impacts on the environment and livelihood. The main goal of the present work is to review previous studies, discussing the spatio-temporal LULC changes in Ethiopian basins, to find out common points and gaps that exist in the current literature, to be eventually addressed in the future. Seventeen articles, published from 2011 to 2020, were selected and reviewed, focusing on LULC classification using ArcGIS and ERDAS imagine software by unsupervised and maximum likelihood supervised classification methods. Key informant interview (KII), focal group discussions (FGDs) and collection of ground truth data using ground positioning systems (GPS) for data validation were the major approaches discussed in most of the studies. All the analysed research showed that, during the last decades, Ethiopian lands changed to agricultural land use, waterbody, commercial farmland and built-up/settlement. Some parts of forest land, grazing land, swamp/wetland, shrubland, rangeland and bare/ rock out cropland cover class were changed to other LULC class types, mainly as a consequence of increasing anthropogenic pressure. In summary, these articles confirmed that LULC changes are a direct result of both natural and human influences. However, most of the study provided details of LULC for the past decades within a specific spatial location, while they did not address the challenge of forecasting future LULC changes at the basin scale.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0149.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Land price index; Land slope; Slope discount; Decomposition; Builder’s model
Online: 5 February 2021 (09:24:11 CET)
This paper focuses on the physical attributes of land that intrinsically limit land use and possibly affect land values. In particular, we investigate if the slope of a land does decrease its price and investigate the role of land slope in forming more reliable constant-quality land price indices and aggregate house price indices. We find that, while land slopes do decrease the land price per unit, they have a small effect on the quality-adjusted land price indices in selected neighborhoods in Auckland, New Zealand, where sloped terrain is common.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0344.v2
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Landsat8; multi-temporal; crops statistics; land use land cover; Pakistan
Online: 21 August 2018 (12:25:17 CEST)
Developing countries like Pakistan is among those where lack of adoption to science and technology advancement is a major constraint for Satellite Remote Sensing use in crops and land use land cover digital information generation. Exponential rise in country population, increased food demand, limiting natural resources coupled with migration of rural community to urban areas had further led to skewed official statistics. This study is an attempt to demonstrate the possible use of freely available satellite data like Landsat8 under complex cropping system of Okara district of Punjab, Pakistan. An Integrated approach has been developed for the satellite data based crops and land use/cover spatial area estimation. The resultant quality was found above 96% with Kappa statistics of 0.95. Land utilization statistics provided detail information about cropping patterns as well as land use land cover status. Rice was recorded as most dominating crop in term of cultivation area of around 0.165 million ha followed by autumn maize 0.074 million ha, Fallow crop fields 0.067 million ha and Sorghum 0.047 million ha. Other minor crops observed were potato, fodder and cotton being cultivated on less than 0.010 million ha. Population settlements were observed over an area of around 0.081 million ha of land.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0232.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: cadastre; land registry; notary; cartography; geomatic; coordination; GML; land surveyors
Online: 28 March 2018 (04:45:38 CEST)
Ever since the Cadastre and Land Registry have existed in Spain, they have been completely separate organisations with very different objectives, which influence the real-estate reality. Their coordination is essential to better identify buildings and to more suitably render services to citizens and Administrations. To this end, Law 13/2015 was passed in 2015 for this desirable and pressing Cadastre-Land Registry coordination to come about. This law came into force on 1 November 2015, and coincided with the development of the technical aspects of the graphical information exchange among the Cadastre, Land Registries and Notaries. Several ministries and different organisations, like the Cadastre personnel, jurists, technicians, and even citizens, are implied in this law. Among the technical aspects, georeferenced graphical representations and GML exchange files adapted to the European INSPIRE directives stand out. Such technical aspects are a genuine revolution as they were transferred to the legal world. After more than 2 years after its application, it is still in its initial and adaptation stages because it is a long-standing law that allows land registry units-cadastral parcels to be coordinated while they are incorporated into real-estate trade.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0626.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: tilapia; negative-sense RNA virus; Tilapia lake virus; DNA vaccine
Online: 28 July 2021 (11:11:37 CEST)
Tilapia lake virus (TiLV) is the main tilapia-infecting virus worldwide, causing serious economic losses. However, there is no vaccine for this viral disease. Here, TiLV ORF10 (TiLV-ORF10) encoding a protein with abundant epitopes was constructed into the eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1, and used to evaluate the immune protective effects in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). RT-PCR and western blot analyses conﬁrmed vaccine plasmid expression in tilapia muscle tissues. Moreover, the transcription levels of immunoglobulin M, toll-like receptor 2, myeloid differentiation factor 88, interleukin 8, tumor necrosis factor alpha, gamma-IFN, and nuclear factor κB immune-related genes were statistically signiﬁcantly upregulated in the spleen, liver, and kidney of vaccinated tilapias (P < 0.05). TiLV challenge experiments showed that relative percent survival (RPS) was signiﬁcantly enhanced in ﬁsh by this DNA vaccine. Moreover, RPS was enhanced further when using a higher amount of the DNA vaccine (85.72% RPS at a DNA dose of 45 μg pcDNA3.1–ORF10). Vaccination with pcDNA3.1–ORF10 signiﬁcantly reduced virus replication, as evidenced by the low amount of virus in the spleen, liver, and kidney of vaccinated tilapias after TiLV challenge. Thus, pcDNA3.1–ORF10 could induce protective immunity in tilapia and may be a potential vaccine candidate for controlling diseases caused by TiLV.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0049.v1
Subject: Keywords: diarrhoeal cases; drinking water; water sources; water pollution; Darbandikhan Lake
Online: 2 August 2020 (17:41:51 CEST)
Water pollution in Iraq has been extended disaster edge; this pollution is caused by wastes and sewages into soil and rivers, pollutant water sources influence the outbreak and serious epidemic status among the population.. The aim of this study is to determine the bacteriological quality of drinking water sources and characteristics of water-borne diseases especially diarrheal cases in Darbandikhan city. 166 water samples, collected from the different sources and areas, were tested for the presences of coliform bacteria as an indicator for pathogen contamination. Most probable number index was used for coliform enumeration. 161 diarrheal cases were taken as a sample from the patients were admitted to the general hospital in Darbandikhan district.. The questionnaire form was planned to view characteristics of diarrheal cases and patients were interviewed directly, the data was analyzed by STATA software application. 46% of the diarrheal cases used tap water for drinking. On the other hand, the reminder (54%) used other sources for the same purpose. All the risk factor such as type of water source, sufficiency of the water, duration of water storage and chlorination were associated with diarrhea. Almost half of the cases were children and three quarters were single. The data was analyzed by STATA version 13.1.This study indicated that the majority of drinking water sources in Darbandikhan city are not suitable for drinking, although net pipe system supplied chlorine significantly it has been proven that the tap water from the homes is not suitable for consumption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0722.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Pollution; water quality; Keenjhar lake; environmental impacts; Physico-chemical parameters
Online: 30 July 2020 (12:24:53 CEST)
Keenjhar Lake is the main source of drinking water for the metropolitan city of Karachi. The release of untreated wastewater from Kotri industrial area and other sources have made the lake water polluted. This study was subjected to determine the impacts of such pollutant sources on the water quality of Keenjhar Lake. The study involves the analysis of water quality parameters of Keenjhar Lake and its Feeding source (KB Feeder). The sampling sites were selected based on the sources of contamination. The water samples are tested for physical, chemical and microbiological parameters. The result of water analysis indicates the contamination level of the lake is quite alarming for the sites of Kotri effluent and WAPDA colony where Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Chloride and other ionic metals were quite higher in concentration than other sites. These sites are also contaminated with Fluoride and Arsenic which are carcinogenic elements. The study reveals that the contamination level of feeding source is causing big non-reversible damage to the lake if continued to be uncontrolled. This contamination is mainly due to the release of toxic metals and ions in the KB feeder caused by human carelessness.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: soil temperature; data evaluation; climatology; interannual variation; Poyang Lake Basin
Online: 24 February 2020 (01:38:30 CET)
Soil temperature reflects the impact of local factors，such as vegetation，soil and the atmosphere of a region. Therefore, it is important to understand the regional variation of soil temperature. However, lack of observations with adequate spatial and/or temporal coverage, it would be difficult to use the observation data to study the regional variation. Based on the observation data from Nanchang and Ganzhou stations and ERA-Interim/Land reanalysis data, this study analyzed the temporal-spatial distribution characteristics of soil temperature over Poyang Lake Basin. The results showed close correlations between observation data and reanalysis data at different depths. Reanalysis data could mainly reproduce the temporal-spatial distributions of soil temperature over the Poyang Lake Basin, but generally underestimate their magnitudes. Temporally, there is an obvious warming trend in the basin. Seasonally, the temperature raised fastest in spring and slowest in summer, except for the ST4, which rising fastest in spring and slowest in winter. In terms of depths, the temperature of ST1 rises fastest. For the other layers, the warming trend is almost similar. An abrupt change of annual soil temperature at all depths occurred in 1997, and annual soil temperatures at all depths were abnormally low in 1984. Spatially, annual soil temperature decreased with latitude, except for the summer ST1. Because of the high temperature and precipitation in summer, the ST1 are higher around the lake and the river. The climatic trend of soil temperature presents the general increase trend from south to north, opposite to the distribution of soil temperature. The findings provide a basis for understanding and assessing the variation of the soil temperature over the Poyang Lake Basin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0005.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: non-freezing; temperate lake; heat budget; heat storage; global warming
Online: 2 January 2018 (08:17:58 CET)
A temperate deep lake, Lake Kuttara, Hokkaido, Japan (148 m deep at maximum) was completely frozen every winter in the 20th century. However, unfrozen conditions of the lake over winter occurred four times in the 21st century, which is probably due to global warming. In order to understand how thermal regime of the lake responds to climate change, its heat storage change was calculated by estimating heat budget of the lake and monitoring water temperature at the deepest point for September 2012–June 2016. As a result, temporal change of the heat storage from the heat budget was very consistent with that from the direct temperature measurement (determination coefficient R2 = 0.827). The 1978–2017 data at a meteorological station near Kuttara indicated that there are significant (less than 5% level) long-term trends for air temperature (0.024 °C/yr) and wind speed (−0.010 m/s/yr). A sensitivity analysis for the heat storage from the heat budget estimate and an estimate of return periods for mean air temperature in mid-winter allow us to conclude that the lake could be unfrozen once per about two year in a decade.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0187.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: urban development; land use/ land cover; Soviet Union; major cities; Afghanistan
Online: 9 August 2021 (10:00:02 CEST)
The rapid increase in population along with the economic activities led to rapid depletion of natural resources. Land use studies help us analyze the impacts of urban development on environment. Given the political upheavals in Afghanistan, this study aims to analyze how urban development evolved from 1978 to 2018 in six major cities- Kabul, Kandahar, Kunduz, Herat, Mazar-e Sharif and Jalalabad- in Afghanistan using Landsat Satellite Images. This study is based on quantitative approach. ArcGIS 9.4 software was used to synchronize the Landsat Satellite Images within the area of study. The results of the study show that the Annual rate of urban land expansion in Afghanistan was the lowest (average 1.07 square kilometers per year) during the military presence of Soviet Union in Afghanistan while it was the highest (3.35 square kilometers per year) from 2001 to 2018 due to the military presence of US-led NATO forces, relative security and rapid economic activities in Afghanistan. The authors believe that this study could be further explored if other inter-connected factors, e.g., the role of culture, literacy, immigration etc., are incorporated into the study of urban development processes in Afghanistan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0775.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Land Degradation; Land Productivity Dynamics; Vegetation Cover Change; Soil Organic Carbon
Online: 31 May 2021 (13:29:58 CEST)
Land degradation a serious and nationwide environmental concern in Ethiopia. The problem is its iterative relationship between land degradation, climate change, and agriculture, exacerbating one another via negative and positive feedback loops. Due to the need for an efficient response to land degradation in the country, different sustainable land management practices have been implemented since the late 1980s. The objective of this study was to analyze land degradation neutrality status using remote sensing data in the study area. We have studied the land degradation neutrality conditions of the North Wello Zone by using indicators data, namely land cover change, land productivity dynamics, and soil organic carbon stock. The result shows that the settlement areas consistently expanded at the fifth speed (2010-2018) from 1995 to 2010. Between 1995 and 2010, forestland declined by 18 percent, while an increasing trend of 26.8 percent from 2010 to 2018. The assessment results also indicate that 52.8 percent of the total area is stable and characterized by less stressed land productivity. The soil organic carbon is comparatively abundant in the high and midland vegetation areas but very thin in lowland areas. Most of the highland and midland parts of the study areas are in the conditions of stable and increasing land productivity with high biomass and soil organic content. However, most lowland areas showed a decline in land productivity conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0150.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Change detection; NDVI; Landsat; Land cover land use change; Urban environment
Online: 7 December 2020 (12:44:21 CET)
Urban cities are the major drivers of economic growth and development. Economic growth and development however results in considerable land cover land use dynamics. This study assessed the dynamics in land cover land use that have occurred in New Braunfels, Texas in the last 7 years (2013 - 2020) to observe areas in the city that had experienced considerable shifts in land cover and land use. A 30-meter resolution Landsat images were used to examine possible changes in land cover land use. New Braunfels was observed to have experienced significant changes in land use especially in developed areas. This change can be attributed to the influx of people into the city, contributing to the need for increased urban development. Analysis of this study shows that about 16% (about 553 hectares) of forest land cover class and 28% (about 1,139 hectares) of grassland class in time 1 (August 31, 2013) changed to built-up land use class in time 2 (November 5, 2020). A limitation to this study was that of the spatial resolution of images used. Higher spatial resolution images could impact the producers, users, and overall accuracy assessment. Results from this study can aid in supporting better decision-making for sustainable urban development and climate change mitigation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0271.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: geographic information system; land demand; land use; universal soil loss erosion
Online: 12 August 2020 (05:09:55 CEST)
The information on the land use and soil conservation practice based on year 2006, 2010 and 2014, hence offering an opportunity to model the impacts of land use change on erosion, deposition and surface water runoff. Limitation in the use of hydrological models had been their inability to handle the large amount of input data that describe the heterogeneity of the natural system. In this study, a procedure that takes into account soil conservation practice based on the land use change, the response of soil erosion and sediment export from the George Town Conurbation catchment area, and average annual sediment yields were estimated for each grid cell of the watershed to identify the critical erosion areas of rural and urban planning proposes. Average annual sediment yield and data on a grid basis estimated using Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and an emerging technology represented by Geographic Information System (GIS) used as a tool to produce a map for erosion rate. The changing of the land use from forest to agriculture and then to an urban area is a challenging task to research on land use demand for population, and environmental impact assessment is important for the planning of natural resources management, allowing research the modification of land use properly and implement more sustainable for long term management strategies. The challenge is to formulate strategies that would promote an integrated approach to the land use planning at an appropriate level as to address the issues that arose. Modelling for creating urban growth boundary for the George Town Conurbation must have to be controlled surface runoff and soil loss and sediment export from land use of the George Town Conurbation catchment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0184.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: Land deal; Land grab; Oil Palm; Labour; Farmworkers; Plantation; Everyday politics
Online: 20 February 2019 (09:04:36 CET)
This study presents empirical evidence on the nature of the political struggles for inclusion on an oil palm land deal in Ghana. It examines the employment dynamics and the everyday politics of workers on an oil palm plantation in a predominantly migrant and settler society of the north-eastern part of Ghana, where large-scale production has only been introduced within the past decade. It shows that by the nature of labour organization, as well as other structural issues, workers do not benefit equally from the land deals and therefore express everyday forms of resistance against exploitation, and for better terms of incorporation. Particularly, they express agency through absenteeism and non-compliance, which especially, enables them to maintain their basic food sovereignty/security. Nonetheless, these everyday politics is not necessarily liberating in confronting the everyday peasant problems and unfavourable agrarian transitions associated with capitalist agriculture. Overall, this paper contributes to the land grab literature by providing context-specific dynamics of impacts and politics and how are they are shaped by a multiplicity of factors- beyond class.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0023.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: Land Use Land Cover (LULC); Land Surface Temperature (LST); Google Earth Engine (GEE); relationship; remote sensing indices; MODIS; global
Online: 3 January 2020 (05:03:05 CET)
Land Surface Temperature (LST) and Land Use Land Cover (LULC) are the principal aspects of climate and environment studies. The object of the study is to assess spatial relationship between LST and remote sensing LULC indices at the global and continental scale. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Aqua daytime LST and eight LULC MODIS indices of 2018 prepared and processed using Earth Engine Code Editor. R squared and significance of the relationship values of randomly selected points computed in R program. The research observed the relationship between examined indices and LST is significant at the 0.001 level. Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and Normalized Difference Snow Index (DSI) are the dominant drivers of LST in the world, Asia and North America. In Australia and Africa, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) are the dominant drivers of LST. Albedo and Normalized Difference Soil Index (NDSI) have superior in Central America. In South America and Europe, the dominant driver of LST is NDWI. Relationship between albedo and LST is moderate inverse on a global scale. Observed relationship between LST and examined vegetation indices is positive in Europe and North America while inverse in Australia and Africa. All observed relationship between Normalized Difference Built-up Index (NDBI) and LST are positive. Association observed between NDSI and LST is positive in Australia, Africa and Central America.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0456.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Econometrics & Statistics Keywords: Rural land right; farmers’ income; farm income; non-farm income; land transfer
Online: 26 August 2022 (09:44:58 CEST)
Based on data from the Yunnan Province farm household survey, we examine the effect of rural land rights policy on farmers’ income. The regression results show that right significantly raises the total income of farmers, with farm income serving as the primary source of total income. After performing numerous robustness tests, using instrumental variables to handle endogeneity and arriving at the same conclusion, the result is still valid. According to the heterogeneity analysis, in the sample of households with long-term migrant workers, the confirmation of rural land rights significantly increases total and nonfarm income while decreasing farm income. Furthermore, total income includes nonfarm income, which reflects the effect of different farmers' optimal labor allocation based on the external market environment. According to the impact mechanism anal-ysis, right can increase farmers' total income by promoting land transfer, and farmers in less developed areas are more willing to increase their income by land transfer out.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0248.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Landsat; urban growth; Land Use Land Cover (LULC); remote sensing; urbanisation; NDVI
Online: 18 July 2022 (04:49:07 CEST)
Land Use Land Cover (LULC) change and urban growth have a significant influence on local climate of cities. From 1985 to 2021 the population of Baghdad increased by 103%. Therefore, the risen question is how this expansion influences the temperature of the city. The study aims to identify urban growth of Baghdad, investigate its influence on variation of Land Surface Temperature (LST) and identify the main factors that control the surface temperature of the city. Three Landsat images from 1985 to 2021, in addition to sixteen potential factors, were used in the study. Our findings suggest that during the study period, vegetated areas declined by 39% while built-up class increased by 139%. Bare soil recorded the highest surface temperature. The study found that surface temperature has a strong inverse relationship with vegetation (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI): r = -0.62, p < 0.001) and moisture (Normalized Difference Moisture Index (NDMI): r = -0.65, p < 0.001). Therefore, increasing vegetation and water body lead to decrease temperature of the city. Our findings help policymakers to deal with climatic issues rising from urban growth of the city.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0110.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Climate change; Land cover; Land use; Conversion; Sand dunes; Environment; Degradation; Poverty.
Online: 10 January 2022 (12:26:22 CET)
In Nigeria, desertification has become one of the most pronounced ecological disasters, with the impacts mostly affecting eleven frontline States. This has been attributed to a range of both nat-ural and man-made factors. This study applied a remote sensing-based change detection and indicator analysis to explore land use/land cover changes and detect major conversions from ecologically active land covers to sand dunes. Results indicate that areas covered by sand dunes (a major indicator of desertification) have doubled over the 25 years under consideration (1990 to 2015). Although about 0.71 km2 of dunes have been converted to vegetation, indicative of the success of various international, national, local, and individual afforestation efforts, conversely about 10.1 km2 of vegetation were converted to sand dunes, implying around 14 times more de-forestation compared to afforestation. Juxtaposing the progression of sand dune with climate records of the study area and examining the relationship between indicators of climate change and desertification suggested a mismatch between both processes as increasing rainfall and lower temperatures observed in 1994, 2005, 2012, and 2014 did not translated into positive feedbacks for desertification in the study area. On average, our results reveal that sand dune is progressing at a mean annual rate of about 15.2 km2 in the study area. Based on this study’s land cover change, trend and conversion assessment, visual reconciliation of climate records with land cover data, statistical analysis, observations from ground-truthing, as well as previous literature, it can be inferred that desertification in Nigeria is less a function of climate change, but more a product of human activities driven by poverty, population growth and failed government policies. Further projections by this study also reveal a high probability of more farmlands being converted to sand dunes by the year 2030 and 2045 if current practices prevail.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0630.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Africa; Ethiopia; Landsat; Land Use Land Cover Change; Remote Sensing; SWAT model
Online: 28 July 2021 (12:20:13 CEST)
Land use land cover (LULC) changes are highly pronounced in African countries, as they are characterized by an agriculture-based economy and a rapidly growing population. Understanding how land use/cover change (LULCC) influence watershed hydrology will enable local governments and policymakers to formulate and implement effective and appropriate response strategies to minimize the undesirable effects of future land use/cover change or modification and sustain the local socio-economic situation. The hydrological response of the Ethiopia Fincha’a watershed to LULCC happened during the last 30 years was investigated comparing the situation in three reference years: 1994, 2004 and 2018. The information was derived from Landsat sensors, respectively Landsat 5 TM, Landsat 7 ETM and Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS. The various LULC classes were derived via ArcGIS using a supervised classification system, and the accuracy assessment was done using confusion matrixes. For all the years investigated the overall accuracies and the kappa coefficients were higher than 80%, with 2018 as the more accurate year. The analysis of LULCC revealed that forest decreased by 19.99% between the years 1994-2004, and it decreased by 11.85% in the following period 2004-2018. Such decline in areas covered by forest is correlated to an expansion of cultivated land by 16.4% and 10.81%, respectively. After having evaluated the LULCC at the basin scale, the watershed was divided into 18 sub-watersheds, which contained 176 Hydrologic Response Units (HRUs), having a specific LULC. Accounting for such a detailed subdivision of the Fincha’a watershed, the SWAT model was firstly calibrated and validated on past data, and then applied to infer information on the hydrological response of each HRU on LULCC. The modelling results pointed out a general increase of average water flow, both during dry and wet periods, as a consequence of a shift of land coverage from forest and grass towards settlements and build-up areas. The present analysis pointed out the need of accounting for past and future LULCC in modelling the hydrological responses of rivers at the watershed scale.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0136.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: land engineering; development stage; discipline uniqueness; theory system; subject matter; land science
Online: 14 September 2019 (12:14:38 CEST)
Land engineering is a specific new academic discipline in China. Although the undergraduate major of land engineering was officially approved and established lately since 2017, the birth of land engineering as an academic discipline dates back 40 years ago. It has passed through four development stages: the incubation stage in 1978-1985, the initial stage in 1986-1997, the growth stage in 1998-2011, and the expanding stage from 2012 to present. However, land engineering as an academic discipline remains immature and seriously lags behind practice. There are still no unified academic community and broad academic consensus. After a historical overview of the four development stages, this study gave a strategic consideration to five key questions. We argue that the study object of the discipline is land engineering activity, which is defined as the artificial transformation of a land complex combined by various natural and human elements. The uniqueness of the discipline is rooted in its ability to study the comprehensive and integrated reorganization or rebuilding of various elements of land as a complex, with the theory of land complex reconstruction being the core theory. The discipline of land engineering is based on land pure science and land technology, and is one basis of land management. It consists of two modules (rural land engineering and urban land engineering), five secondary disciplines of each module (land development, land rearrangement, land improvement, land protection, and land remediation), and more than 30 research directions. Various technologies are only instrumental but not essential components of land engineering as an academic discipline.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0610.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: land price map; land use development; GIS; spatio-temporal changes; sustainability; Olomouc
Online: 25 October 2018 (14:23:11 CEST)
Land price sustainability issues have been addressed by many authors in the past. Most of these researchers used land prices (from land price maps) as the primary data source in their studies. Only a few papers analysed official land price maps, which are available very rarely. For this reason, we studied the spatial and temporal changes of land prices in the city of Olomouc based on an analysis of official land price maps from 1993 to 2017. We proposed several research hypotheses to confirm some general statements about land price development. We concluded that some macroeconomic indicators had a significant impact on changes in land prices. In the residential and commercial areas and historical centre, land prices are significantly higher than in other monitored aspects (land-use types). We also concluded that no link existed between land-use stability and land price stability. Surprisingly, no long-term stable areas were found in the area of interest. The analysis also confirmed that land price and its change over time varied in different spatial aspects. Surprisingly, the smallest influence was reflected in the economic aspect. Regarding natural events in recent decades, we observed a significant drop in land prices in the vicinity of watercourses threatened by flooding. These findings can assist in better understanding local development and changes in land price.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0020.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Landsat-9 data; Qinghai-Tibet Plateau; Lake Waterbody; GEE; Algorithms comparison
Online: 1 June 2022 (13:14:56 CEST)
The monitoring of lake waterbody area in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau (QTP) is of great significance to deal with global climate change. As the latest generation of Landsat series satellites, Landsat-9 data not only have higher radiometric resolution, but also cooperate with other Landsat satellites to greatly improve the temporal resolution. It has great application potential in lake waterbody area monitoring. In order to explore the performance of different algorithms for extracting waterbody and lake waterbody area in Landsat-9 data under large-scale QTP regions, this study relies on Google Earth Engine (GEE) platform and selects 10 waterbody extraction algorithms as the basis to realize the quantitative evaluation of QTP lake waterbody area extraction results. The results show that the Random Forest (RF) algorithm performs best in all models. The overall accuracy of waterbody extraction is 95.84%, and the average error of lake waterbody area extraction is 1.505%. Among the traditional threshold segmentation waterbody extraction algorithms, the overall accuracy of the NDWI waterbody extraction method is 89.89%, and the average error of lake waterbody area extraction is 3.501%, which is the highest performance model in this kind of algorithms. This study proves that Landsat-9 data can effectively classify QTP waterbodies. With the development of cloud computing technologies such as Gee, more complex models such as RF can be selected to improve the extraction accuracy of water body and Lake area in large-scale research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0575.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Lake Victoria; Climate change; Return periods; Detection and Attribution; DAMIP; CMIP6
Online: 26 July 2021 (13:42:00 CEST)
This study investigated the influence of land-use and precipitation change and variability on Lake Victoria’s water-level fluctuations. Extreme precipitation events, corresponding to extreme water-levels, over the lake and its catchment area were identified and their return periods estimated by fitting them into a generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution. Using general circulation models from the 6th phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6)’s Detection & Attribution Model Intercomparison Project (DAMIP), an assessment of the potential contribution of human-induced climate change on the observed precipitation patterns over the study area was done. The greatest precipitation anomalies for the period 1900-2020 were recorded in 1961’s October-December (OND) season and 2019’s June-August (JJA) and OND seasons, corresponding to the period when the highest water-levels were recorded in Lake Victoria. While land-use change in the study domain was observed, extended and unusually heavy June to December 2019 precipitation bore the greatest responsibility for the 2019/2020 high water-levels in Lake Victoria. The OND precipitation event of 2019 was a 1-in-52-year event compared to the 1961’s 1-in-693 years. Differences in return periods at various parts of the lake imply a high spatial climate variability within the lake itself. An analysis of the fraction of attributable risk (FAR) showed natural variability to have a greater influence on the JJA and OND precipitation patterns over Lake Victoria than human-induced climate change. However, variability over the land area of the study domain was mainly driven by human-induced climate change rather than natural variability, implying a unique climate system over Lake Victoria. Findings from the current study enhance the understanding of Lake Victoria’s water budget and motivate for further research to inform effective strategies on the planning and use of Lake Victoria’s water resources in a changing climate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0565.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: ARIMA, CPUE, Fish biomass landings, Forecasting, Lake Malombe, Time series approach
Online: 27 October 2020 (21:04:35 CET)
Lake Malombe fish stocks have been depleted by chronic overfishing. Various management approaches (co-management, command control, and ecosystem-based management to fisheries) have been used to manage the fishery. However, the lack of an accurate predictive model has hampered their success. Therefore, we developed and tested a time series model for Lake Malombe fishery. The seasonal fish biomass and CPUE trends were first observed and both were non-stationary. The second-order differencing was applied to transform the non-stationary data into stationary. Autocorrelation functions (AC), partial autocorrelation function (PAC), and Akaike information criterion (AIC) were estimated, which led to the identification and construction of autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models, suitable in explaining the time series and forecasting. The results showed that ARIMA (1,2,1) provided a better prediction than its counterparts. The model satisfactorily predicted that by 2032, both fish biomass and CPUE will decrease to 3204.6 tons and 59.672 respectively, signifying the potential threat to Lake Malombe fishery. The model justified the necessity of taking precautionary measures to avoid the total collapse of the fishery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0050.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: batch fermentation; Lake Victoria; ornamental verdure; poly-3-hydroxybutyrate; sewage sludge
Online: 5 March 2019 (03:50:16 CET)
Environmental isolates, genetically manipulated organisms, plants, animals and their products and economical methods are being expertly explored to biosynthesize poly-3-hydroxybutyrate plastics of comparable properties to petroplastics. This study assessed a hypothesized feasibility of utilizing a proliferative pleustophytic greenery, water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laubach) in Lake Victoria, Uganda as a potential carbon source for poly-3-hydroxybutyrate biosynthesis. The poly-3-hydroxybutyrate biosynthesizing bacteria (Bacillus megaterium) was isolated from municipal sewage sludge and harnessed for batch fermentation of acid-catalysed water hyacinth biomass. Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate formed in the cytoplasm of the bacterial cells was extracted by chloroform extraction method, and thereof confirmed and quantified by UV spectroscopy. Batch fermentation was carried out in 100ml of the culture media in a 250ml fermenter for different times (48, 96, 144 and 192 hours) to determine the best incubation time for maximum yield. An all-out net yield of 61.3% was realized after 96 hours of fermentation. Utilization of this ecological plague for poly-3-hydroxybutyrate biosynthesis is a promising strategy for regulating the weed population along the length of Nile River and the Victorian basin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0574.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: land cover; land use; citizen science; mobile apps; in-situ data collection; LUCAS
Online: 24 September 2020 (08:26:29 CEST)
There are many new land use and land cover (LULC) products emerging yet there is still a lack of in-situ data for training, validation, and change detection purposes. The LUCAS (Land Use Cover Area frame Sample) survey is one of the few authoritative in-situ field campaigns, which takes place every three years in European Union member countries. More recently, a study has considered whether citizen science and crowdsourcing could complement LUCAS survey data, e.g., through the FotoQuest Austria mobile app and crowdsourcing campaign. Although the data obtained from the campaign were promising when compared with authoritative LUCAS survey data, there were classes that were not well classified by the citizens, and the photographs submitted through the app were not always of sufficient quality. For this reason, in the latest FotoQuest Go Europe 2018 campaign, several improvements were made to the app to facilitate interaction with the citizens contributing and to improve their accuracy in LULC identification. In addition to extending the locations from Austria to Europe, a change detection component (comparing land cover in 2018 to the 2015 LUCAS photographs) was added, as well as an improved LC decision tree and a near real-time quality assurance system to provide feedback on the distance to the target location, the LULC classes chosen and the quality of the photographs. Another modification was the implementation of a monetary incentive scheme in which users received between 1 to 3 Euros for each successfully completed quest of sufficient quality. The purpose of this paper is to present these new features and to compare the results obtained by the citizens with authoritative LUCAS data from 2018 in terms of LULC and change in LC. We also compared the results between the FotoQuest campaigns in 2015 and 2018 and found a significant improvement in 2018, i.e., a much higher match of LC between FotoQuest Go Europe and LUCAS. Finally, we present the results from a user survey to discuss challenges encountered during the campaign and what further improvements could be made in the future, including better in-app navigation and offline maps, making FotoQuest a model for enabling the collection of large amounts of land cover data at a low cost.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0217.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Climate; land-atmosphere interaction; clouds; diurnal cycle; snow cover; Prairies; land-use; hydrometeorology
Online: 8 November 2018 (14:13:53 CET)
Analysis of the hourly Canadian Prairie data for the past 60 years has transformed our quantitative understanding of land-atmosphere-cloud coupling. The key reason is that trained observers made hourly estimates of opaque cloud fraction that obscures the sun, moon or stars, following the same protocol for 60 years at all stations. These 24 daily estimates of opaque cloud data are of sufficient quality that they can be calibrated against Baseline Surface Radiation Network data to give the climatology of the daily short-wave, longwave and total cloud forcing (SWCF, LWCF and CF). This key radiative forcing has not been available previously for climate datasets. Net cloud radiative forcing reverses sign from negative in the warm season to positive in the cold season, when reflective snow reduces the negative SWCF below the positive LWCF. This in turn leads to a large climate discontinuity with snow cover, with a systematic cooling of 10°C or more with snow cover. In addition, snow cover transforms the coupling between cloud cover and the diurnal range of temperature. In the warm season, maximum temperature increases with decreasing cloud, while minimum temperature barely changes; while in the cold season with snow cover, maximum temperature decreases with decreasing cloud and minimum temperature decreases even more. In the warm season, the diurnal ranges of temperature, relative humidity, equivalent potential temperature and the pressure height of the lifting condensation level are all tightly coupled to opaque cloud cover. Given over 600 station-years of hourly data, we are able to extract, perhaps for the first time, the coupling between cloud forcing and the warm season imbalance of the diurnal cycle; which changes monotonically from a warming and drying under clear skies to a cooling and moistening under cloudy skies with precipitation. Because we have the daily cloud radiative forci, which is large, we are able to show that the memory of water storage anomalies, from precipitation and the snowpack, goes back many months. The spring climatology shows the memory of snowfall back through the entire winter, and the memory in summer goes back to the months of snowmelt. Lagged precipitation anomalies modify the thermodynamic coupling of the diurnal cycle to the cloud forcing, and shift the diurnal cycle of mixing ratio which has a double peak. The seasonal extraction of the surface total water storage is a large damping of the interannual variability of precipitation anomalies in the growing season. The large land-use change from summer fallow to intensive cropping, which peaked in the early 1990s, has led to a coupled climate response that has cooled and moistened the growing season, lowering cloud-base, increasing equivalent potential temperature, and increasing precipitation. We show a simplified energy balance of the Prairies during the growing season and its dependence on reflective cloud.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0129.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: emissivity; land cover; land surface temperature; surface urban heat island; thermal environment; mitigation
Online: 29 January 2017 (10:38:44 CET)
In urban area, one of the great problem is the rise of temperature, which leads to form the urban heat island effect. This paper refers to the trend of the urban surface temperature extracted from the Landsat images from which to consider changes in the formation of surface urban heat island for the north of Ho Chi Minh city in period 1995-2015. Research has identified land surface temperature from thermal infrared band, according to the ability of the surface emission based on characteristics of normalized difference vegetation index NDVI. The results showed that temperature fluctuated over the city with a growing trend and the gradual expansion of the area of the high-temperature zone towards the suburbs. Within 20 years, the trend of the formation of surface urban heat island with two typical locations showed a clear difference between the surface temperature of urban areas and rural areas with space expansion of heat island in 4 times in 2015 compared to 1995. An extreme heat island located in the inner city has an area of approximately 18% compared to the total area of the region. Since then, the solution to reduce the impact of urban heat island has been proposed, in order to protect the urban environment and the lives of residents in Ho Chi Minh City becoming better
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0396.v1
Online: 14 April 2021 (17:51:47 CEST)
In recent years, many libraries and archives have started digitizing their collections thus making maps by Indigenous peoples more easily available for scholars to study. While a number of these maps were discussed by G. Malcolm Lewis in the History of Cartography series (volume 2, book 3, Chapter 4: 1984), more have since been found and disseminated. These maps are critical in understanding the historic and current land tenure of Indigenous groups. Further, Indigenous claims to land can be seen in their connections via toponymy. European concepts of territory and political boundaries did not coincide with First Nation/American Indian views resulting in the mistaken view that Natives did not have formal concepts of their territories. Further, Tribes/First Nations with cross-border territory have special jurisdictional problems. This paper will illustrate how many Native residents were very spatially cognizant of their own lands, as well as neighboring nations’ lands, overlaps between groups, hunting territories, populations, and trade networks. Currently, the Sinixt First Nation provides a perfect example of how an Aboriginal people are inputting and using a GIS representation of their territory with proper toponymy and use areas.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0604.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Indonesia, biofuel, land restoration, pongamia
Online: 27 November 2018 (12:20:35 CET)
Indonesia has a large area of degraded land, i.e. 30 million ha, which could potentially be utilized for biofuel plantations. The leguminous tree pongamia (Pongamia pinnata syn. Milettia pinnata) could be utilized to produce biofuel while restoring degraded land. Here, we explore the potential of pongamia as a source of biofuel and for restoring degraded land in Indonesia. Pongamia occurs across Indonesia, in Sumatra, Java, Bali, West Nusa Tenggara and Maluku. It grows to a height of 15–20 m and can grow in a range of environmental conditions. Its seeds can generate up to 40% crude oil by weight. It can help to restore degraded land and improve soil properties. Pongamia also provides wood, fodder, medicine, fertilizer and biogas. Therefore, as a multipurpose species, pongamia holds great potential to combat Indonesia’s energy crisis and to restore much of the degraded land.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0406.v1
Online: 30 May 2018 (17:21:00 CEST)
The natural and man-made landscape settings in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) province of Northern Pakistan have significantly changed in the last decade due to increasing demands of urbanized populace, migration, two major natural disasters, and climate change. The aim of this study is to analyze land possession, income and land-use diversification of KPK administered Charsadda district. Field data is collected through a sample survey. Furthermore, freely available Landsat 7 satellite images are used to classify land-use classes (e.g. vegetation, built-up) for two different years (e.g. 2005 and 2017) for cross-verification and comparison. The highest 45% of 80% land-owners occupy land-area between 1-10 hectares. Annually, the highest 57.5% of the total farmers / employed in-habitants of surveyed regions earn more than Rs. 100,000 or ~ $ 970 from agriculture activities. About 41.9% land-area covered by agricultural-land is transformed into built-up area since 2007, which is attributed to the increasing demand for buildings and commercial markets. The highest diversification is reported in Naguman area of Charsadda district followed by Rajjar and Niami. Population growth and huge migration of displaced persons from neighboring tribal areas are likely to be few factors which contributed to such a drastic change in land-use pattern since 2007 to 2017. Urgent attention of the policy makers, agricultural experts and society is required to minimize land degradation and to thwart further agricultural-land loss.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0383.v1
Online: 28 May 2018 (05:20:28 CEST)
The natural and man-made landscape settings in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) province of Northern Pakistan have significantly changed in the last decade due to increasing demands of urbanized populace, migration, two major natural disasters, and climate change. The aim of this study is to analyze land possession, income and land-use diversification of KPK administered Charsadda district. Field data is collected through a sample survey. Furthermore, freely available Landsat 7 satellite images are used to classify land-use classes (e.g., vegetation, built-up) for two different years (e.g., 2005 and 2017) for cross-verification and comparison. The highest 45% of 80% land-owners occupy land-area between 1–10 hectares. Annually, the highest 57.5% of the total farmers / employed in-habitants of surveyed regions earn more than Rs. 100,000 or ~$970 from agriculture activities. About 41.9% land-area covered by agricultural-land is transformed into built-up area since 2007, which is attributed to the increasing demand for buildings and commercial markets. The highest diversification is reported in Naguman area of Charsadda district followed by Rajjar and Niami. Population growth and huge migration of displaced persons from neighboring tribal areas are likely to be few factors which contributed to such a drastic change in land-use pattern since 2007 to 2017. Urgent attention of the policy makers, agricultural experts and society is required to minimize land degradation and to thwart further agricultural-land loss.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0401.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: microbial eukaryotes; phylogeography; marine-freshwater transitions; evolutionary radiation; species flocks; Lake Baikal
Online: 31 December 2019 (03:57:14 CET)
Ancient lakes are among the most interesting models for evolution studies, because their biodiversity is the result of a complex combination of migration and speciation. Here, we investigate the origin of single celled planktonic eukaryotes from the oldest lake in the world – Lake Baikal. By using 18S rDNA metabarcoding we recovered 1,427 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) belonging to protists populating surface waters (1-50 meters) and belonging to pico- and nano-plankton size fractions. The recovered communities resembled other lacustrine freshwater assemblages found elsewhere, especially the unclassified protists. However, our results suggest that a fraction of Baikal protists originated evolutionary recently from marine/brackish ancestors. Moreover, our results suggest that rapid radiation may have occurred among some protist taxa, partially mirroring what was already shown for multicellular organisms in Lake Baikal. We found potential species flocks in Stramenopiles, Alveolata, Opisthokonta, Archaeplastida, Rhizaria and Hacrobia. Putative flocks predominated in Chrysophytes, which are highly diverse in Lake Baikal. Some of the species, especially those from these flocks, may be endemic from Lake Baikal, because their 18S rDNA differed > 10% from known DNA. Overall, our study points to novel diversity of planktonic protists in Lake Baikal, some of which may have emerged in situ after evolutionary diversification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0068.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Fishermen; Lake Ziway; Small scale irrigation users; Socioeconomic benefit; Wetland ecosystem service
Online: 22 July 2016 (16:02:46 CEST)
ABSTRACT This study focused for socio-economic benefit of Western shoreline of Lake Ziway ecosystem. The data collected from two woredas they are Adami Tulu Jidu Kombolch (ATJK) and Dugda woreda of fishermen and small scale irrigation users. Lake Ziway great importance food and water for both groups of respondents and additionally sources of raw material, energy, cultivation, organic fertilizers, genetic and medicinal plants. Lake Ziway also has a major economic benefit for both groups of respondents. The sampled fishermen cached mean amount of 2,524Kg per year with minimum and maximum amount of fish 504Kg and 16,800Kg per year respectively and with this fish catching they got average income of 51,398 Birr ($2,570) per year with range of 7,200 Birr ($360) and 288,000 Birr ($14,400) per year. As like of fishermen small scale irrigation also got economic benefit with their production of cereal crops, fruits and vegetables. They produce in average 13.47Quintal of cereal crop and 69.56Quintal of fruits and vegetables per year and they got average income of 7,727 Birr ($386) and with range of 13,714 Birr ($686) per year respectively. this incurred that wetland ecosystem has a lot of socio-economic benefit for the people live near by specially for developing countries like Ethiopia they are more dependent on natural ecosystem like of Lake Ziway. Because of its high importance, we have to protect and conserve and use sustainably of Lake Ziway and similar wetland ecosystems. Key Words: Wetland ecosystem service; Lake Ziway; Socioeconomic benefit; Fishermen; Small scale irrigation users
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0381.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Physico-chemical parameters; water quality index; land use land cover; GIS integration; special correlation
Online: 26 October 2021 (12:24:29 CEST)
The water quality of the river is becoming deteriorated due to human interference. It is essential to understand the relationship between human activities and land-use types to assess the water quality of a region. GIS has the latest tool for analyzing the spatial correlation. Land use land cover and change detection is the best illustration to show the human interactions on land features. The study assessed water quality index of upper Ganga River near Haridwar, Uttarakhand and spatially correlated them with changing land use to reach a logical conclusion. At the upper course of Ganga along 78 Km long from Kaudiyala to Bhogpur, water samples were collected from five stations. For water quality index the physicochemical parameters like pH, EC, DO, TDS, CaCO3-, CaCO3, Cl¯, Ca++, Mg++, Na+, K+, F-, Fe2+ were considered. The result of the spatial analysis was evaluated through error estimation and spatial correlation. The root mean square error between spatial land use and water quality index of selected sampling sites was estimated as 0.1443. The spatial correlation between land-use change and site-wise differences in water quality index has also shown a high positive correlation with R² = 0.8455. The degree of positive correlation and root mean square error has strongly indicated that the water quality of the river at the upper course of Ganga is highly impacted through human activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0302.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: land tenure in Mexico; ejido system; land expropriation; gated-communities; San Andrés Cholula; Ocoyucan
Online: 26 July 2019 (16:40:05 CEST)
The ejido system in Mexico based on communal land was transformed for private ownership due to neoliberal trends during 1990. This research describes the evolution of Mexican land policies that changed the ejido system into private development to answer why land tenure change is shaping urban growth. To demonstrate this, municipalities of San Andrés Cholula and Ocoyucan were selected as a case study. Within this context, we evaluated how much ejido land is being urbanized due to real estate market forces and what type of urbanization model is created. These two areas represent different development scales: S.A. Cholula where its ejidos were expropriated as part of a regional urban development plan; and Ocoyucan where its ejidos and rural land were reached by private developers without local planning. To analyze both municipalities, historical satellite images from Google Earth were used with GRASS GIS 7.4 and corrected with QGIS 2.18. We found that privatization of ejidos fragmented and segregated the rural world for the construction of massive gated-communities. Therefore, a disturbing land tenure change occurred during the last 30 years, hence this research questions the role of local authorities in permitting land use change without regulations or local planning. The resulting urbanization model is a private sector development that isolates rural communities in their own territories, for which we provide recommendations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0243.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: digital farming; remote sensing; land management; multispectral image processing; land cover mapping; agricultural field boundary
Online: 14 December 2021 (15:01:03 CET)
This paper considered the issue of agricultural fields boundary recognition in satellite images. A novel algorithm based on the aggregated history of vegetation index data obtained via open satellite data, Sentinel-2, was proposed. The proposed algorithm included several basic steps, namely the detection of parcel regions on aggregated index data; the calculation of aggregated edge maps; the segmentation of parcel regions using the edges obtained; the computation of connected components and their contour extraction. In this paper, we showed that the use of aggregated vegetation index data and boundary maps allow for much more accurate agricultural field segmentation compared to the instant vegetation index approach. The quality of segmentation within regions of Russia and the Ukraine was estimated. The dataset that was used and Python implementation of the proposed algorithm were provided.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0289.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: land surface temperature; operational land imager; thermal infrared sensor; normalized difference vegetation Index; geospatial technology
Online: 13 September 2020 (15:28:24 CEST)
Land Surface Temperature is a one of the key variable of Global climate changes and model which estimate radiating budget in heat balance as control of climate model. It is a major influenced factor by the ability of the surface emissivity. In this study, were used Landsat 8 satellite image that have Operational Land Imager and Thermal Infrared Sensor to calculate Land Surface Temperature through geospatial technology over Ampara district, Sri Lanka. The Land Surface Temperature was estimated with respect to Land Surface Emissivity and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index values determined from the Red and Near Infrared channels. Land Surface Emissivity was processed directly by the thermal Infrared bands. Pixels based calculation were used to effort at LANDSAT 8 images that thermal Band 10 various dates in this study. The results were achievable to compute Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Land Surface Emissivity, and Land Surface Temperature with applicable manner to compare with land use/ land cover data. It determines and predicts the changes of surface temperature to favorable to decision making process for the society. Study area faces seasonal drought in Sri Lanka, the prediction method that how land can be efficiently used with the present condition. Therefore, the Land Surface Temperature estimation can prove whether new irrigation systems for agricultural activities or can transformed source of energy into useful form that introducing solar hubs for energy production in future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0119.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: mediterranean lagoon complex; surface water dynamic; land use and land cover; landscape metrics; remote sensing
Online: 10 May 2019 (10:40:14 CEST)
Mediterranean coastal lagoons and their peripheral areas often provide a collection of habitats for many species, and they often face significant threats from anthropogenic activities. Diverse human activities in such areas directly affect the spatio-temporal dynamic of surface water and its ecological characteristics. Monitoring the surface water dynamic, and understanding the impact of human activities are of great significance for coastal lagoon conservation. The Regional Natural Park of Narbonne includes a typical Mediterranean lagoon complex where surface water dynamic and its potential link with local diverse human activities has not yet been studied. In this context, based on all the available Landsat images covering the study area during 2002-2016, this study identified the water and non-water classes for each satellite observation by comparing three widely used water indices (i.e., NDVI, NDWI and MNDWI) and using the Otsu method. The yearly water frequency index was then computed to present the spatio-temporal dynamic of surface water for each year, and three water dynamic scenarios were also identified for each year: permanent water (PW), non-permanent water (NPW) and non-water (NW). The spatial and inter-annual variation in the patterns of the three water scenarios were characterized by computing the landscape metrics at scenario-level quantifying area/edge, shape, aggregation and fragmentation. Finally, the quantitative link between different land use and land cover (LULC) types derived from the LULC maps of 2003, 2012 and 2015 and the surface water dynamic scenarios was established in each of the 300 m x 300 m grid cells covering the study area to determine the potential impact of human activities on the surface water dynamic. In terms of the inter-annual variation during 2002-2016, PW presented an overall stability, and NPW occupied only a small part of the water surface in each year and presented an inter-annual fluctuation. NPW had a smaller patch size, with lower connectivity degree and higher fragmentation degree. In terms of spatial variation during 2002-2016, NPW often occurred around PW, and its configurational features varied from place to place. Moreover, PW mostly corresponded to natural lagoon, and salt marsh (as a part of lagoons), and NPW had a strong link with arable land (agricultural irrigation) and salt marsh (salt production), sand beach/dune, coastal wetlands and lagoon for the LULC maps of 2003, 2012 and 2015. However, more in-depth analysis is required for understanding the impact of sand beach/dune, coastal wetlands and lagoon on surface water dynamics. This study covers the long-term variations of surface water patterns in a Mediterranean lagoon complex having intense and diverse human activities, and the potential link between LULC types and the water dynamic scenarios was investigated on different dates. The results of the study should be useful for environmental management and protection of coastal lagoons.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0275.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: flood; Geodesign; urban growth; development; land use/land cover; green infrastructure; drainage; stormwater; runoff; underground storage
Online: 28 April 2019 (10:35:14 CEST)
The consequences of growing urbanization can be perceived in multiple levels around the globe: overpopulated living conditions, water and air pollution, loss of open space, costly transportation infrastructure, food shortages, fires and floods. The Houston metropolitan area is an example of fast urban growth, with a population increase of more than sixteen percent in seven years, going from 5.8 million people in 2010 to 6.9 million in 2017 . By 2045, the robust growth of the region is projected to lead to the addition of approximately five hundred square miles of developed area, including an estimated six million parking spaces, seven hundred eighty million square feet of non-residential uses, and three and a half billion square feet of residential use . The accelerated development, in addition to physical features, geomorphic processes and human activities in the region are believed to have caused Houston to suffer through over fifty devastating floods since its settlement, despite some successful flood damage reduction projects. The present study focused on the potential outcomes of an increased use of green infrastructure in comparable urban areas, and its effects on flooding volume. Results from the research revealed that not only these measures would likely improve the performance of existing urban drainage systems and attenuate flood incidence in the area, but would also promote connectivity between areas otherwise detached or only accessible by car, improving walkability and incentivizing engagement in outdoor activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0164.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: land use/land cover; nighttime light (NTL); NDEUI; landscape metrics; random Forests; urban growth mode
Online: 9 October 2018 (03:31:38 CEST)
Rapid urbanization has dramatically spurred the economic development over the past three decades, especially in China, but has nevertheless had negative impacts on natural resources since it is an irreversible process. Thus, it is essential to timely monitor and quantitatively analysis the changes in land use over time and to identify the landscape pattern variation related to growth mode in different period. This study aims at inspecting spatiotemporal characteristics of landscape pattern respond to land use changes in Xuzhou city during the period from 1985 to 2015. In this connection, we proposed a new spectral index, named the Normalized Difference Enhanced Urban Index (NDEUI), which combines data from NTL (Nighttime light) from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program/Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) with annual maximum Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) to reduce the detection confusion between urban areas and barren land, as well as follows. NDEUI-assisted Random Forests algorithm was implemented to obtain the land use/land cover (LULC) maps of Xuzhou in 1985, 1995, 2005 and 2015, respectively. Here, four different periods viz. 1985–1995, 1995–2005, 2005–2015 and 1985–2015 are chosen for the change analysis of land use and landscape pattern. The results indicated that the urban area has increased by about 30.65%, 10.54%, 68.77%, and 143.75% during the four periods mentioned above at the main expense of agricultural land, respectively. The spatial trend maps revealed that continuous transition from other land use types into urban land has appeared a dual-core development mode throughout the urbanization process, located at the new city region and the Jiawang district, mainly affected by the construction of new city region, freeway and the high railway station. Furthermore, we quantified the patch complexity, aggregation, connectivity and diversity of landscape employing a number of landscape metrics to represent the changes of landscape pattern at both class and landscape level, affected by urbanization during the study period. The results showed that with regard to the four aspects of landscape pattern, there were considerable differences among the four years, mainly owing to the increasing dominance of urbanized land. Spatiotemporal variation of landscape pattern was also conducted on the basis of subgrids in 900 m × 900 m. Combined with the land use changes and spatiotemporal variation of landscape pattern, it can be concluded that different urbanization modes and intensity result in variously the spatiotemporal evolution of landscape patterns. For Xuzhou city, the urban growth mainly appeared a leapfrog mode alone both sides of the roads during the period of 1985 to 1995, and then shifted into edge-expansion mode during the period from 1995 to 2005, whereas the edge-expansion and leapfrog modes coexisted for the period from 2005 to 2015. The high valuable spatiotemporal information generated utilizing RS and GIS in this study may give assistance to urban planners and policymakers to well understand urban dynamics and evaluate their spatiotemporal and environmental impacts at a local level for the sake of sustainable urban planning in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0533.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: driving forces; landscape change; landscape dynamics; forest landscape; land use; land cover; landscape change index
Online: 30 August 2018 (14:49:28 CEST)
Abstract: Changes in forest landscapes have been connected with human activity for centuries, which can be considered as one of the main driving forces of change in the global perspective. The spatial distribution of forests changes along with the geopolitical situation, demographic changes, intensification of agriculture, urbanization or changes in the land use policy. However, due to the limited availability of historical data, the driving forces of changes in forest landscapes are most often considered in relation to recent decades, without taking into account long-term analyzes. The aim of this paper is to determine the impact of natural and socio-economic factors on changes in forest landscapes within the protected area – Ślęża Landscape Park and its buffer zone in the aspect of long-term analyzes covering the period of 140 years (1883-2013). The comparison of historical and current maps, demographic data on 4 different periods as well as natural and location factors by using the ArcGIS software allowed analyzing selected driving forces of forest landscape transformations. We took into account natural factors like altitude, slope, exposure of the hillside and socio-economic drivers like population changes, distances to centers of municipalities, main roads and built-up areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0560.v1
Subject: Keywords: Urbanization growth prediction; Sustainable development, Land Change Modeler; IDRISI Selva; Land use land cover; Coastal cities; Lagos; Markov Chain; Multi-Layer Perceptron; Sustainability; Agenda 2063
Online: 23 July 2020 (12:32:04 CEST)
The most extensive urban growths in the next 30 years are expected to occur in developing countries. Lagos, Nigeria - Africa’s second most populous megacity- is a prime example. To achieve more sustainable and resilient cities, there is a need for modeling the urban growth patterns of major cities and analyzing their implications. In this study, the urban growth of Lagos state was modeled using the Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) neural network for the transition modeling and the Markov Chain analysis for the change prediction, achieving a model accuracy of 81.8%. An innovative visual validation of the model results using the ArcGIS was combined with kappa correlation statistics. The results show that by 2031, built-up areas will be the most spatially extensive LULC class in the study area with percentage coverage of 34.1% as opposed to 9% in 1986. The coverage of bare areas is also expected to increase by 53% between 2016 and 2031. Conversely, 24.9% and 68.3% loss of forestlands and wetlands respectively, are expected between 2016 and 2031. In view of the 11th goal of SDGs which focuses on achieving sustainable cities and communities, the objectives of African Union’s Agenda 2063, and based on the urban growth trends observed, the study recommends a prioritization of vertical expansion as opposed to the current horizontal urban growth trends in the study area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0237.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Mansagar Lake; Physico-chemical parameters; Water quality investigation; Trend analysis; Pearson’s correlation analysis
Online: 14 September 2021 (11:38:52 CEST)
The article reviews the constituent’s physico-chemical parameters in the water of the Mansagar Lake of the Jaipur City. The water quality is also investigated using evaluated physico-chemical parameters with in-depth study of their distribution as per sample location-wise and season-wise. A detailed discussion on the associationship among parameters (pH, Conductivity, turbidity, dissolved Oxygen, chemical and Biochemical Oxygen demand, etc.) using the Pearson’s analytical method is also presented. The strength of the article is the graphical presentation of evaluated physico-chemical parameters and the water quality indices for sample station-wise and the season-wise. To our best of understanding, first time such details have been clubbed together and discussion in brief for studied lake.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0035.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, General Humanities Keywords: biodiversity loss; Venda; cultural landscape; myths; legends; Thathe forest; Lake Fundudzi; Phiphidi waterfalls
Online: 2 September 2021 (11:59:07 CEST)
Human-driven biodiversity destruction are responsible for significant and sustained heritage losses in Africa. In Venda, northern South Africa, biodiversity losses are eroding the existence of sacred places. Such places define the essence of indigenous people’s identity and well-being. We highlight how developments in Venda such as mining and agricultural expansion since apartheid times have destroyed biodiversity in the broader landscape, undermining efforts to reduce hunger and poverty. Thathe forest, Lake Fundudzi and Phiphidi waterfalls are central to Venda mythology and legends, origins and identity and are key towards conserving current biodiversity and heritage losses.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: seston stoichiometry; source estimation; n-alkanes proxies; large eutrophic floodplain lakes; Lake Taihu
Online: 18 November 2019 (04:31:03 CET)
Although sources of seston are much more complicated in lakes compared to marines, the influences of different source on the spatiotemporal variations in seston stoichiometry are still underexplored, especially in large eutrophic floodplain lakes. Here, we investigated the seston stoichiometry across a typical large eutrophic floodplain lake (Lake Taihu) over one year. In addition, we used the n-alkanes proxies for source estimation which are more robust than other elemental indicators (e.g. C: N ratios). Throughout the study, the average value of C: N: P ratio of 143: 19: 1 across Lake Taihu was higher than the classical Redfield ratio, but closed to the synthesized data from other lakes. Generally, seston C: N ratios varied the least across all environments, but C: P and N: P ratios varied widely and shown a significant seasonal pattern with lower ratios of N: P and C: P during senescence seasons and higher ratios in the growing seasons. This seasonal change was mainly associated with the shift from terrestrial-derived seston to algal-derived seston as, the significant lower ratios of terrestrial-derived seston from surrounding agricultural watershed. Spatially, the mean ratios of each site were similar, except relative high values of C: P and N: P ratios in the algal dominated area. Statistically, the predictive power of environmental variables was strongly improved by adding n-alkanes proxies. However, apart from sources indicators, particulate phosphorus (PP) contents also partly explained the spatiotemporal variations in stoichiometric ratios. Nevertheless, the mechanisms behind the dynamics of PP could be totally different and source-specific. This study highlights the priority of using n-alkanes proxies as tools to identify the source of seston which is essential to interpret the spatiotemporal variations in seston stoichiometric ratios among eutrophic floodplain lakes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0466.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: Lake Van; Van earthquake; aftershock hypocenters; rupture complexity; azimuthal distribution; aftershock clusters; microseismicity
Online: 28 June 2018 (11:26:31 CEST)
This study presents an analysis of the spatial and temporal distribution of the two large destructive earthquakes that occurred in Lake Van area on October 23, and November 9, 2011, together with the azimuth-dependent distribution of the seismic activity and microseismicity clusters after the mainshocks, associated with the complex rupture processes of their aftershock sequence. The sequence began with the magnitude Mw 7.1 earthquake of 23 October and a second destructive earthquake of Mw 5.6. The aftershock sequences of the two mainshocks were linked to the local crustal faults beneath Lake Van area, followed successively and produced unusually intense activity and significant damage in the area. The main purposes of this study are to document the spatial and temporal distribution and evolution of the October 23, 2011 aftershock hypocenters and the azimuth-dependent distribution of seismic activity, and to understand the spatial and temporal character of the aftershock sequence using the distributional and evolutional patterns of the aftershock hypocenters. A total of 10,000 aftershocks were obtained from seismic data with a high signal-to-noise ratio over collected over three years from October 23, 2011 to March 2014. These aftershocks were plotted for the time periods from November 2011 through March 2012 to March 2014 and ≈ 5000 aftershocks were retained in the depth versus distance cross-sections to detect the clusters in the first step of study (November 2011–March 2012). The focal depth distribution of the aftershock clusters, the migration of hypocenter activity and microseismicity clusters were analyzed and the distributional patterns of the detected clusters were assessed using the geometric distribution of the aftershock hypocenters. The spatial and temporal distribution of aftershocks reveal interesting key features of the deep rupture complexity of the Van earthquake: (1) most prominent aftershocks have been located in the upper crust at depths shallower than 10 km beneath ruptured area, indicating that the upper crust is brittle and seismogenic; (2) two spatial clusters have been detected at 8-10 km depths and the upward extrapolation of these clusters intersects with faults; the main cluster (60 km wide) bounded by inferred reverse faults (f3 and f4) and the central cluster (25–30 km wide) bounded by faults (f1 and f2); (3) these spatial clusters form the largest volumetric pattern of the conical-shaped cluster at depths of about 25–30 km of the azimuth-dependent rotational projections, suggesting azimuthal distributions of deep rupture characteristics; and (4) the strongest temporal cluster of microseismicity derived from temporal distribution of aftershocks has been detected within an area of about 2.5–3.0 km2 and it is spatially observed at 20 km depth within the central cluster, suggesting progressive failure of the adjacent patches of possible fault.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0203.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Suspended sediment, Hydrodynamics, Numerical model, SELFE-SED, Wind-driven current, Tsuei-Feng Lake
Online: 29 May 2017 (19:13:37 CEST)
A three-dimensional, unstructured grid, hydrodynamic and suspended-sediment transport model (i.e., SELFE-SED) was developed to simulate temporal and spatial variations of suspended sediment and was applied to the subtropical subalpine Tsuei-Feng Lake (TFL) of Taiwan. The model was validated with measured water level and suspended‑sediment concentration in 2009, 2010, and 2011. The overall model simulation results are in quantitative agreement with the observational data. The validated model was then applied to explore the most important parameter that affects the suspended-sediment concentration and to investigate the effect of wind stress on the mean current and suspended‑sediment distribution in this shallow lake. Modeling results of sensitivity analysis reveal that the settling velocity is a crucial parameter and erosion rate is less important in the suspended-sediment transport model. Remarkable lake circulation was found based on the strength of wind speed and wind direction. Strong wind would result in higher mean current in the top layer and suspended-sediment distribution in the top and bottom layers. This study demonstrated that the wind stress played a significant influence on mean circulation and suspended-sediment transport in a shallow lake.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0715.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: energy crops; land use; biomass; bioenergy
Online: 27 April 2021 (12:38:38 CEST)
Research Highlights: (1) Reed canary grass (RCG) is analysed in Sweden compared to willow and poplar for 2001-2020 (2) Each crop presents a different land-use and climatic profile (3) Average yield records of reed canary grass are similar to willow and poplar (4) There are divergences between trial-based and commercial yields (5) Existing LUC patterns suggest meadow>RCG and RCG>cereal (6) RCG land area is very sensitive to policy incentives. Background and objectives: RCG is an alternative crop for biomass-to-energy due to high yield and frost tolerance. We assess the cultivation in Sweden by using an extensive compilation of data, with emphasis on the extension of the cultivation, areas planted, climatic profile, land use patterns and yield levels. Material and methods: All RCG plantations are analysed for 2001-2020. A geostatistical analysis is performed to characterize where is cultivated and the land uses associated. Climatic, productivity and yield profiles are compared to willow and poplar plantations, from experiments and from commercial plantations. Results: The results show that the cultivation of reed canary grass expanded after 2005, with a maximum of 800 ha in 2009 to then decrease to the current levels of about 550 ha. It is mainly grown in colder climatic areas, with lower agricultural productivity than willow and poplar. Mean yields from trials are 6 odt ha-1 yr-1; commercial yields are 3.5 odt ha-1 yr-1. RCG replace meadow land and is replaced by cereals, when abandoned. Conclusions: Reed canary grass is an interesting alternative, growing on colder areas but on similar yield levels than other energy crops. The cultivation is more sensitive to policy incentives
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0298.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: degraded land; biodiesel; biomass; energy; Indonesia
Online: 13 November 2018 (05:17:34 CET)
This study spatially estimates degraded lands in Indonesia that have limited functions for food production, carbon storage, and conservation of biodiversity and native vegetation, and examines their suitability to grow biodiesel species (Calophyllum inophyllum, Pongamia pinnata and Reutealis trisperma) and biomass species (Calliandra calothyrsus and Gliricidia sepium). Results showed that Indonesia has ∼3.5 million ha of degraded lands potentially suitable for these species. With the all-five-species scenario, these lands had the potential to produce 1105 PJ yr−1 of biomass and 3 PJ yr−1 of biodiesel. With the biodiesel-only-species scenario, these lands showed the potential to produce 10 PJ yr−1 of biodiesel. Despite this energy potential, however, the land sizes were too small to support economies of scale for biofuel production. The study findings contribute to identifying lands with limited functions, modeling biofuel-species growth on regional lands and estimating carbon stocks of restored degraded lands in Indonesia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0148.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: institutional, land, alternate, mastery and sustainable
Online: 9 July 2018 (13:54:08 CEST)
The community of farmers in land tenure have different institutional in terms of mastery of the land. In Indonesia there were generally institutional governing the utilization of land for mastery permanently, but there were also institutional governing dominion land in turn. This research aimed to chart institutional pattern characteristic mastery of the land inheritance system passes in, andanalyzeits contribution to sustainability of agriculture in the economic, social and ecological. Research method using case studies, with unit case a subdistrict in Gowa, South Sulawesi province, Indonesia. The results showed that institutional land pattern mastery system passes the inheritance patterns of alternation that has in effect hereditary, pattern rotation established by the heir land management patterns, depending on the number of beneficiaries, as well as not having managed to land fragmentation, so the scale of farming land, conditions can be maintained , the land was slanted so given a terracing, planting process was carried out by means of mutual. Neither found that institutional land pattern mastery system passes the inheritance had been contributing the sustainability of agriculture in social and ecological, but have yet to fully contribute to the sustainability of agriculture in economy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0061.v1
Online: 12 January 2017 (10:05:06 CET)
This paper proposes a method to utilize weather and land cover models to generate future environmental scenarios, and presents the watershed models to simulate the hydrological impact on watershed-scale hydrology. The Weather Generator model and General Circulation Model were applied to produce rainfall and local temperature under different climate conditions, and the Conservation and Land Use and its Effects model was incorporated to simulate future land cover variability. The circumstances of future climate and land cover changes were used as inputs to drive the HEC-HMS rainfall runoff model for obtaining surface runoff in a mountainous area. The WASH123D model was then utilized for the entire watershed simulation. Modeling results were then examined to discuss hydrological impacts on three different time periods: near future (2020-2039), future (2050-2069), and distant future (2080-2099). The Fengshan Creek basin in northern Taiwan was selected as study site. Simulations results indicated that the influence of climate change revealed more relevant effects when compared to local land cover changes. The ground water levels tended to diminish as the land cover area changed. In addition, both river and groundwater levels reveal that it is drier in dry season and wetter in wet season in future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0157.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Land use and land cover; Classification; Object-based change detection; Multi-temporal image analysis; Landsat; Tiaoxi
Online: 7 June 2021 (09:27:22 CEST)
The changing of land use and land cover (LULC) are both affected by climate and human activity and affect climate, biological diversity, and human well-being. Accurate and timely information about the LULC pattern and change is crucial for land management decision-making, ecosystem monitoring, and urban planning, especially in developing economies undergoing industrialization, urbanization, and globalization. Biodiversity degradation and urban expansion in eastern China are research hot-spots. However, the influence of LULC changes on the region remains largely unexplored. Here, an object-based and multi-temporal image analysis approach was developed to detect how LULC changes during 1985-2015 in the Tiaoxi watershed (Zhejiang province, eastern China) using Landsat TM and OLI data. The main objective of this study is to improve the accuracy of unsupervised change detection from object-based and multi-temporal images. To this end, a total of seven LULC maps are generated with multi-temporal images. A random stratified sample design was used for assessing change detection accuracy. The proposed method achieved an overall accuracy of 91.86%, 92.14%, 92.00%, and 93.86% for 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2015, respectively. Nevertheless, the proposed method, in conjunction with object-oriented and multi-temporal satellite images, offers a robust and flexible approach to LULC changes mapping that helps with emergency response and government management. Urbanization and agriculture efficiency are the main reasons for LULC changes in the region. We anticipate that this freely available data will improve the modeling for surface forcing, provide evidence of changes in LULC, and inform water-management decision-making.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0133.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: land and water management; land use change modelling; water and irrigation policy; modelling of policy impact.
Online: 3 July 2017 (15:13:44 CEST)
Agriculture and farming worldwide are responsible for numerous environmental threats, including degradation of land and water resources depletion. Underlining the dynamic interaction between bio-physical and socio-economic drivers is the key towards a more sustainable land and water management. With regard to a highly developed agricultural area in southern Italy, multi-regression models were developed to interpret the observed inter-annual variability of cropped land. Main drivers related to Common Agricultural Policy support, product market prices, crop yield and irrigation water availability were investigated. The adopted models revealed the different weighs of each driver. The findings reported the role that direct payments played in supporting the extension of irrigated crops, such as processing tomato. Likewise, the models pointed to decoupled payment scheme as the most important driver of change in the crop pattern over the last years.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0031.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Sustainability, Environmental Evaluation of Land use, Soil sealing soil take, land plus value recapture, transition matrix
Online: 4 November 2016 (17:24:32 CET)
Our work is regarding the analysis of land use changes, in the light of “saving soil” against the expansion due to unearned plus value of land: The loss of natural and agricultural surface in front of the expanding urban environment is a critical aspect of unsustainability of urban development, especially in the way it was carried out in the past decades. The measure of the physical transition of land use and characters from a more natural condition of land surface to a new artificial one, joint with a parallel analysis of the increase of land value due to such change is nowadays a major land-policy tool. The interplay of urban economics regulation with planning, reveals new key issues in urban governance and environmental preservation. In this paper it will be shown some experiment about the impact assessment of soil take, related with the seek of valorization of property inside the planning process. Our paper reports as well about the experimental activity carried out inside the MITO Lab of the Polytechnic of Bari, where reports about property values and environmental values have been produced, specially looking at the reality of the Apulia, a southern Italian Region, that is rich of farmlands and coastlines, often invaded by constructions with a severe loss of nature, landscape and ecosystems services.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0214.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: land-use/land-cover (LULC); uncertainty; bootstrap resampling; chi-square threshold; class probability vector (CPV); entropy
Online: 26 August 2016 (11:56:26 CEST)
Supervised land-use/land-cover (LULC) classifications are typically conducted using class assignment rules derived from a set of multiclass training samples. Consequently, classification accuracy varies with the training data set and is thus associated with uncertainty. In this study, we propose a bootstrap resampling and reclassification approach that can be applied for assessing not only the uncertainty in classification results of the bootstrap-training data sets, but also the classification uncertainty of individual pixels in the study area. Two measures of pixel-specific classification uncertainty, namely the maximum class probability and Shannon entropy, were derived from the class probability vector of individual pixels and used for the identification of unclassified pixels. Unclassified pixels that are identified using the traditional chi-square threshold technique represent outliers of individual LULC classes, but they are not necessarily associated with higher classification uncertainty. By contrast, unclassified pixels identified using the equal-likelihood technique are associated with higher classification uncertainty and they mostly occur on or near the borders of different land-cover.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0282.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: land-use/land-cover; multi-decadal change analysis; irrigation ponds; textural features; supervised classification; multi-source data
Online: 18 June 2018 (16:40:31 CEST)
A multi-decadal change analysis of the irrigation ponds in Taoyuan, Taiwan was conducted by using multi-source data including digitized ancient maps, declassified single-band CORONA satellite images, and multispectral SPOT images. Supervised LULC classifications were conducted using four textural features derived from the single-band CORONA images and spectral features derived from SPOT images. Post-classification analysis revealed that the number of irrigation ponds in the study area decreased during the post-World War II farmland consolidation period (1945 – 1965) and the subsequent industrialization period (1970 – 2000). However, efforts on restoration of irrigation ponds in recent years have resulted in gradual increases in the number (9%) and total area (12%) of irrigation ponds in the study area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0139.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: viscous lake equations，Navier-Stokes equation, Existence and uniqueness, Semigroup of operators, Fractional powers.
Online: 8 November 2021 (13:10:30 CET)
In this paper we study solutions and drift homogenization for a class of viscous lake equations by using the method of semigroups of bounded operators. Suppose that the initial value i.e.,for some Hölder continuous function onwith smooth function value satisfying and Then the initial value problem (2) for viscous lake equations has a unique smooth local strong solution. Using this result we study the drift homogenization for three-dimensional stationary Stokes equation in the usual sense
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0086.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: contigent valuvation; Black Twin Lake of Abdanan; Recreational Value; Willingness to Pay; Logit Model
Online: 3 August 2021 (14:47:59 CEST)
As one of the unique destinations in Iran, Abdanan Black Twin Lake attracts many tourists yearly. Among striking features is the presence of minerals, boiling springs, and its beautiful landscape. Human beings are willing to spend money on such natural resources. An economic valuation can be interfered constructively and positively in improving environmental policies. So, quantifying these benefits is of the utmost importance. The paper mainly estimated the tourists' willingness to pay and their recreational value using the contingent valuation method. Random sampling was conducted on 384 people using the two-dimensional double-choice questionnaire in spring 2019. In the Twin Lake Recreational Value Questionnaire, the main questions were devoted to the visitors' willingness to pay, with three bids of 0.07 $, 0.14 $, and 0.22$. Among 384 respondents, 304 (79%) were willing to pay for recreational use of the lake, and 80 respondents (21%) were not. The likelihood, the model's parameters were estimated. The findings indicated the average tourists' willingness to pay for recreational value was estimated at 0.09$ per visit and the recreational value of this lake for each household was estimated at 0.40$. The findings revealed the effect of education, household income, household size and tourists' willingness to pay was significant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0095.v1
Online: 4 November 2021 (08:57:00 CET)
The threat of fine particulate matter concentration (PM2.5) is increasing globally, Tackling this issue requires an accurate understanding of its trends and drivers. The article investigates the PM2.5 characteristics of 285 prefecture-level cities in China from 2000-2018 based on multiscale geographically weighted regression(MGWR), and the results show that（1）previous studies based on classical MGWR models may be somewhat unstable, while MGWR can reflect the scale of influence of different variables on the dependent variable, and its regression results are more reliable.（2）PM2.5 is very sensitive to carbon emission(CE) factors, and there is a high degree of spatial heterogeneity, and the influence scale of location is the smallest among all variables, close to the municipal scale.（3）In 2000, the constant term all, IS, OFT, CE, and LT positively affect PM2.5, while GDP (jurisdiction) and UR negatively affect PM2.5; in 2010, the constant term all, GDP (jurisdiction), IS, OFT and LT positively affect PM2.5, while UR and CE negatively affect PM2.5; in 2018 the constant term all, IS, OFT and CE factors positively affect PM2.5, and GDP (jurisdiction), UR and LT negatively affect PM2.5.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0287.v1
Online: 13 May 2021 (12:49:40 CEST)
Quantity-intensity characteristics are among conventional approaches for studying potassium dynamics and its availability; this was assessed to determine availability in four districts: namely, Sodo Zuria, Damot Gale, Damot Sore, and Boloso Sore at three different land use type viz., enset-coffee, crop land, and grazing land. There was water soluble, ammonium acetate, nitric acid extractable potassium, exchangeable potassium, and non-exchangeable potassium studied in soil samples, which were collected from 0-20 cm depth of each land type. The study revealed that water soluble and ammonium acetate extractable potassium concentrations ranged from 0.04 to 0.42 cmolKg-1 soils enset-coffee and grazing land use types, respectively. The study showed that exchangeable potassium constituted the highest proportion of available potassium, while the proportion of water soluble potassium was found to be the lowest. In this study, non-exchangeable potassium concentrations varied from 0.10 to 0.04cmolKg-1soils for enset-coffee, and crop and grazing land use type. Furthermore, available potassium and exchangeable potassium concentrations were positively correlated with OC(r=0.95***), cation exchange capacity, and sand and clay(r=0.98***). In addition, the K dynamics as impacted by land use types found that the highest change in exchangeable potassium (0.31cmolkg-1soils) and potential buffering capacity (1.79cmolkg-1soils) were noted in crop land use types, whereas the lowest change(1.26cmolkg-1 soils) was observed in the enset-coffee system, The varying properties, potassium status, dynamic and land use type of soils identified in the study areas provided adequate information to design soil potassium management options and further research about the soil in each site. Therefore, application of site specific soil fertility management practices and research can improve soil potassium status and quantity intensity parameters to sustain crop productive soils.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0507.v1
Online: 25 January 2021 (14:53:39 CET)
The main focus of this paper is to analyze the effect of local public finance on spatial land use through economic models and empirical evidence from Israel. The theoretic models extends the Alonso-Mill-Muth model by incorporating local public finance. The first finding is that steady population growth provides a channel for land capitalization through the mechanism of long term land property right. This implies a possible conflict of interest if ownership of land leasing revenue and the ad valorem property tax are not consistent. The empirical section examines one of the implications derived from the models highlighting a possible inconsistency between central and local governments due to land ownership centralization. This causes local tax revenue inequality among Israeli municipalities. Statistical evidence shows that cities with a larger share business land use can generate more tax without assistance from the central government, and are therefore more fiscal independent. Fiscal status has a significant effect on the planning time of residential construction. Municipalities with higher local tax revenues have shorter planning time(higher probability of acceptance) conditional on the plan’s size and other features.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0087.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: sustainable land management; adoption; risk; upland; Vietnam
Online: 8 October 2019 (10:50:40 CEST)
This study investigates how the determinants including risk preference affect farmers’ decision to adopt SLM practices in upland areas of Vietnam. Empirical data collected through in-depth interviews with 200 farmers in Na Ri district, Bac Kan province were used. The factors affecting SLM adoption of farmers in Na Ri district were examined by the 2SLS or IV-Probit model. The estimated 2SLS regression indicated that there is a set of factors affecting SLM adoption, namely, relative risk aversion, farming experience, farm size, knowledge of SLM, membership in farmers’ organization, number of labors, and slope of farm land. Specifically, relative risk aversion had a negative effect on SLM practices adoption. The farmers who are less risk averse are more likely to adopt more SLM practices. This implies that reducing farmer’ risk exposure could promote SLM practices. This result is also helpful for policymakers to understand farmers’ behaviors and promote the diffusion of SLM practices across regions on a large scale.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0268.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: land surface temperature; remote rensing; reanalysis; ECMWF
Online: 24 September 2019 (05:18:26 CEST)
Land surface temperature (LST) is a key variable in surface-atmosphere energy and water exchanges. The main goals of this study are to (i) evaluate the LST of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ERA-Interim and ERA5 reanalyses over Iberian Peninsula using the Satellite Application Facility on Land Surface Analysis (LSA-SAF) product and to (ii) understand the main drivers of the LST errors in the reanalysis. Simulations with the ECMWF land-surface model in offline mode (uncoupled) were carried out over the Iberian Peninsula and compared with the reanalysis data. Several sensitivity simulations were performed in a confined domain centered in Southern Portugal to investigate potential sources of the LST errors. The Copernicus Global Land Service (CGLS) fraction of green vegetation cover (FCover) and the European Space Agency’s Climate Change Initiative (ESA-CCI) Land Cover dataset were explored. We found a general underestimation of daytime LST and slightly overestimation at night-time. The results indicate that there is still room for improvement in the simulation of LST in ECMWF products. Still, ERA5 presents an overall higher quality product in relation to ERA-Interim. Our analysis suggested a relation between the large daytime cold bias and vegetation cover differences between (ERA5 and CGLS FCocver) with a correlation of -0.45. The replacement of the low and high vegetation cover by those of ESA-CCI provided an overall reduction of the large Tmax biases during summer. The increased vertical resolution of the soil at the surface, has a positive impact, but much smaller when compared with the vegetation changes. The sensitivity of the vegetation density parameter, that currently depends on the vegetation type, provided further proof for a needed revision of the vegetation in the model, as there is a reasonable correlation between this parameter and the Tmax mean errors when using the ESA-CCI vegetation cover (while the same correlation cannot be reproduced with the original model vegetation). Our results support the hypothesis that vegetation cover is one of the main drivers of the LST summertime cold bias in ERA5 over Iberian Peninsula.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0071.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Land surface reanalysis, remote sensing, data assimilation,
Online: 7 February 2019 (11:31:26 CET)
This study focuses on the ability of the global land data assimilation system LDAS-Monde to improve the representation of land surface variables (LSVs) over Burkina Faso through the joint assimilation of satellite derived Surface Soil Moisture (SSM) and Leaf Area Index (LAI) from January 2001 to June 2018. The LDAS-Monde offline system is forced by the latest European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) atmospheric reanalysis ERA5, leading to a 0.25° x 0.25° spatial resolution reanalysis of the LSVs. Within LDAS-Monde, SSM and LAI observations from the Copernicus Global Land Service (CGLS) are assimilated using the CO2-responsive version of the ISBA (Interactions between Soil, Biosphere and Atmosphere) land surface model (LSM). First, it is shown that ERA5 better represents precipitation and incoming solar radiation than ERA-Interim former reanalysis from ECMWF. Results of two experiments are compared: open-loop simulation (i.e. no assimilation) and analysis (i.e. joint assimilation of SSM and LAI). After jointly assimilating SSM and LAI, it is noticed that the assimilation is able to impact soil moisture in the first top soil layers (the first 20 cm), and also in deeper soil layers (from 20 cm to 60 cm and below). The assimilation is able to improve the simulation of both SSM and LAI. For LAI in particular, the southern region of the domain (dominated by a Sudan-Guinean climate) highlights a strong impact of the assimilation compared to the other two sub-regions of Burkina Faso (dominated by Sahelian and Sudan-Sahelian climates). In the southern part of the domain, differences between the model and the observations are the largest, prior to any assimilation. These differences are linked to the model failing to represent the behavior of some specific vegetation species, which are known to put on leaves before the first rains of the season. The LDAS-Monde analysis is very efficient at compensating for this model weakness. Evapotranspiration estimates from the Global Land Evaporation Amsterdam Model (GLEAM) project as well as upscaled carbon uptake from the FLUXCOM project are used in the evaluation process, again demonstrating improvements in the representation of evapotranspiration and gross primary production after assimilation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0048.v2
Online: 27 December 2018 (11:42:03 CET)
Geospatial Information Systems (GIS) can provide a great environment for using machine learning algorithm for spatial data such as satellite images. Integrating this functionality with artificial intelligence algorithms for analyzing spatial data enables us to predict challenging disasters such as deforestation. Deforestation as an environmental problems has been recorded the most serious threat to environmental diversity and one of the main components of land-use change. In this paper, we investigate spatial distribution of deforestation using artificial neural networks and satellite imagery. We modeled deforestation process using various factors in determining the relationship between deforestation and environmental and socioeconomic factors. Hence, for this purpose, the proximity to roads and habitats, fragmentation of the forest, height from sea level, slope, and soil type are considered in the model. In this research, we modeled land cover changes (forests) to predict deforestation using an artificial neural network due to its significant potential for the development of nonlinear complex models. The procedure involves image registration and error correction, image classification, preparing deforestation maps, determining layers, and designing a multi-layer neural network to predict deforestation. The satellite images for this study are of a region in Hong Kong which are captured from 2012 to 2016. The results of the study demonstrate that neural networks approach for predicting deforestation can be utilized and its outcomes show the areas that destroyed during the research period.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0105.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Land Surface Data Assimilation, remote sensing, ERA5
Online: 6 September 2018 (00:24:47 CEST)
LDAS-Monde, an offline land data assimilation system with global capacity, is applied over the CONtiguous US (CONUS) domain to enhance monitoring accuracy for water and energy states and fluxes. LDAS-Monde ingests satellite-derived Surface Soil Moisture (SSM) and Leaf Area Index (LAI) estimates to constrain the Interactions between Soil, Biosphere, and Atmosphere (ISBA) Land Surface Model (LSM) coupled with the CNRM (Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques) version of the Total Runoff Integrating Pathways (CTRIP) continental hydrological system (ISBA-CTRIP). LDAS-Monde is forced by the ERA-5 atmospheric reanalysis from the European Center For Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) from 2010 to 2016 leading to a 7-yr, quarter degree spatial resolution offline reanalysis of Land Surface Variables (LSVs) over CONUS. The impact of assimilating LAI and SSM into LDAS-Monde is assessed over North America, by comparison to satellite-driven model estimates of land evapotranspiration from the Global Land Evaporation Amsterdam Model (GLEAM) project, and upscaled ground-based observations of gross primary productivity from the FLUXCOM project. Also, taking advantage of the relatively dense data networks over CONUS, we also evaluate the impact of the assimilation against in-situ measurements of soil moisture from the USCRN network (US Climate Reference Network) are used in the evaluation, together with river discharges from the United States Geophysical Survey (USGS) and the Global Runoff Data Centre (GRDC). Those data sets highlight the added value of assimilating satellite derived observations compared to an open-loop simulation (i.e. no assimilation). It is shown that LDAS-Monde has the ability not only to monitor land surface variables but also to forecast them, by providing improved initial conditions which impacts persist through time. LDAS-Monde reanalysis has a potential to be used to monitor extreme events like agricultural drought, also. Finally, limitations related to LDAS-Monde and current satellite-derived observations are exposed as well as several insights on how to use alternative datasets to analyze soil moisture and vegetation state.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0119.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: land use preference; ecosystem service; natural conservation
Online: 23 November 2016 (18:08:51 CET)
This paper aims to build up a preference function to evaluate the public benefits of the type of agricultural farming, biodiversity, water provisions, land use type, ecotourism modes, and a monetary attribute (environmental trust fund and willingness to contribute) associated with an ecosystem service and land use program in a forest park. This study used the choice experiments to build a random utility model, analyze the average preference for the above land use attributes based on the conditional logit and used a latent class model to test the resident’s heterogeneous preferences for land use planning in the forest park. We also estimated the welfare derived from various land use programs. The empirical result had shown that: (1) increasing organic farming area, maintaining the status quo of species biodiversity, increasing the surface water provision, increasing the area of custom flora, increasing the wetland area, and setting up an integrated framework for ecotourism increase the public’s preference for the land use program; (2) we found that farmer and non-farmer haven’t the same land use preferences; (3) the ecotourism development program incorporating biodiversity, organic farming, ethnobotany, and wetland area with integrated ecotourism are more preferred than other land use program scenarios.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0081.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: resilience, land management, wildfire, Mediterranean dry forest
Online: 27 July 2016 (10:01:44 CEST)
Wildfires have always been a part of the history of Mediterranean forests. However, forest regeneration after a wildfire is not certain. It depends on many factors, some of which may be influenced by land management activities. Failure of regeneration will cause a regime shift in the ecosystem, reducing the provision of ecosystem services and ultimately leading to desertification. How can we increase Mediterranean forests’ resilience to fire? To answer this question, we did a literature review, investigating chains of processes that allow forests to regenerate (which we label “regeneration mechanisms”), and assessed the impact of selected management practices documented in the WOCAT database on the regeneration mechanisms. We identified three distinct regeneration mechanisms that enable Mediterranean forests to recover, as well as the time frame before and after a fire in which they are at work, and factors that can hinder or support resilience. The three regeneration mechanisms enabling a forest to regenerate after a fire consist of regeneration (1) from a seed bank; (2) from resprouting individuals; and (3) from unburned plants that escaped the fire. Management practices were grouped into four categories: (1) fuel breaks, (2) fuel management, (3) afforestation, and (4) mulching. We assessed how and under what conditions land management modifies the ecosystem’s resilience. The results show that land management influences resilience by interacting with resilience mechanisms before and after the fire, and not just by modifying the fire regime. Our analysis demonstrates a need for adaptive – i.e. context- and time-specific – management strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0021.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: landscape, landscape change, landscape change index, monitoring of landscape change, landscape dynamics, land use change, land cover change
Online: 10 April 2019 (12:30:30 CEST)
One of the most problematic forms of nature protection in Poland relates to landscape parks. On the one hand, they include the most valuable landscapes; on the other hand, the areas within the landscape park still have economic uses. Therefore, the monitoring of landscape changes within landscape parks is necessary in order to properly manage these forms of protection. The main objective of the study was to monitor the scale and nature of landscape transformations within the boundaries of landscape parks in Poland during the period 2000–2018 and to assess the possibility of using the landscape change index (LCI) to monitor the intensity of landscape transformations within this type of protected area. Filling a gap in the research on landscape changes, I developed and verified the possibility of using LCI for monitoring the intensity of landscape changes using the example of 12 landscape parks in the Lower Silesia region. Preliminary analyses of the transformations within all landscape parks in Poland showed an upward trend, both in terms of the number of types of identified landscape changes as well as their area. In spite of the large diversity and degree of transformation in landscape parks, several dominant processes can be observed. The largest number and area of changes during each of the analyzed periods were found in transformations within forest landscapes (temporary and permanent deforestation and forest maturation), which constitute the dominant type of land cover within most of the landscape parks. In open landscapes, changes mainly relate to afforestation and natural succession in meadows, pastures and arable land, as well as the transformation of arable land into mining areas. Twelve case studies, covering all landscape parks of the Lower Silesia, have shown that the LCI is an excellent tool for monitoring the intensity of landscape changes, but it is dependent on the accuracy of the source data. The analyses confirmed that, during the study periods, the changes in all 12 Lower Silesian landscape parks were at a low level, but their particular intensification took place in the years 2012–2018. The highest LCI was found in the area where a natural disaster had occurred (air tornado), which destroyed huge areas of forest in landscape parks. After changes in the forest landscape, the most frequently identified type of change in 2006–2012 is the transformation of non-forest landscapes into forest landscapes. The main reason for such changes was the expansion of forest into abandoned arable land, meadows and pastures. The use of the Corine Land Cover database to calculate LCI and monitor the intensity of landscape change revealed a low usability of the database for the year 2000 and a high usability for data from 2006–2018.