ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0069.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Solar reflective coatings; Heat transfer; Heat gains; Building roofs
Online: 2 March 2021 (10:11:48 CET)
Building roofs are sources of unwanted heat for buildings situated in zones with a warm climate. Thus, reflective coatings have emerged as an alternative to reject a significant fraction of solar energy received by roofs. In this research, the thermal behavior of concrete slab-type roofs with traditional and solar reflective coatings was simulated using a computational tool. Weather data from four cities in Mexico with a warm climate were used as boundary conditions. This tool is an in-house code based on the Finite Volume Method developed by the author to perform building components simulations. The code was validated with experimental data from previous work. A series of comparative simulations were developed, taking a gray roof as a control case. The results showed that for the roof without thermal insulation (single roof), the solar reflective coatings reduced the exterior surface between 11 and 16∘C. Consequently, the single roofs’ daily heat gain was reduced by a factor ranging between 41 and 54%. On the other hand, for the insulated roof, the reflective coatings reduced the exterior surface temperature between 17 and 21∘C. At the same time, the daily heat gain of composite roofs was reduced between 37 and 56%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0092.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: heat exchangers, heat transfer enhancement, acoustic fields, vibrations, thermo-fluid dynamics, fouling mitigation.
Online: 11 February 2019 (16:14:51 CET)
The aim of this paper is to expose the main involved physical phenomena underlying the alteration of convective heat transfer in a heat exchanger subjected to imposed vibrations. This technique seems to have interesting features and industrial applications, such as efficiency increase, heat transfer rate control and cleanliness action. However, a clear description and comprehension of how vibrations may alter the convective heat transfer coefficient in a heat exchanger is no still reached due to the complexity of the involved physical mechanisms. For this reason, after a presentation and a schematisation of the analyzed thermodynamic system, the fundamental alterations of the thermo-fluid dynamics fields are described. Then, the main involved physical phenomena are exposed for the three cases of gaseous, monophasic liquid and boiling liquid mediums. Finally, on the basis of the characteristics of these described phenomena, some considerations and indications of general validity are presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0264.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Thermodynamics Keywords: heat transfer; inverse method; boiling flow; local Nusselt number; time resolution
Online: 24 July 2019 (04:10:31 CEST)
In this research, a novel method to investigation the transient heat transfer coefficient in a channel is suggested experimentally, in which the water flow, itself, is considered both just liquid phase and liquid-vapor phase. The experiments were designed to predict the temporal and spatial resolution of Nusselt number. The inverse technique method is non-intrusive, in which time history of temperature is measured, using some thermocouples within the wall to provide input data for the inverse algorithm. The conjugate gradient method is used mostly as an inverse method. The temporal and spatial changes of heat flux, Nusselt number, vapor quality, convection number, and boiling number have all been estimated, showing that the estimated local Nusselt numbers of flow for without and with phase change are close to those predicted from the correlations of Churchill and Ozoe (1973) and Kandlikar (1990), respectively. This study suggests that the extended inverse technique can be successfully utilized to calculate the local time-dependent heat transfer coefficient of boiling flow.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0981.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: Molybdenum; Heat transfer; IR characteristics; Stealth; Sputtering
Online: 15 May 2023 (05:35:06 CEST)
Demand for development of the convergence industry, research studies on electrical conductivity, thermal characteristics, semiconductors, motors, and batteries using special materials have come to the fore. Meanwhile, molybdenum (Mo) exhibits relatively small inorganic qualities, and the thermal conductivity rate is applied to various fields. In this study, in-depth characteristics were considered regarding the concentration of thermal characteristics, IR car terminal characteristics, and IR ve-hicles. This study calculated each phase temperature of the molybdenum sputtered specimens in the steady state according to the heat transfer theory. When the molybdenum-sputtered fabric’s metal layer pointed to the outside air, the heat transfer rate (Q) was high at 5748.3W, In contrast, if the molybdenum sputtered film’s metal layer of the pointed toward the heat source, the heat transfer rate (Q) was low at 187.1W. As a result of measuring the IR transmittance, the infrared transmit-tance of the molybdenum sputtering-treated sample was significantly reduced compared to the untreated sample. In the case of untreated samples, the transmittance ranged from 92.7 to 42.0%. When only the cross part was treated with molybdenum sputtering and the molybdenum surface was directed toward the IR irradiator, the IR transmittance was 66.8~0.7%. It is believed that the molybdenum sputtering polyamide samples produced in this study can be applied to multifunc-tional military wear, biosignal detection sensors, semiconductor products, batteries, etc., by utilizing excellent electrical properties, stealth functions, IR blocking properties, and lightness for infrared thermal imaging detectors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0357.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: pulsating heat pipe; local vibration; starting-up characteristic; heat transfer performance
Online: 15 July 2021 (11:15:54 CEST)
This study mainly experimentally investigates and explores the effects of local low-frequency vibrations on the starting-up and heat transfer characteristics of the pulsating heat pipe. A micro motors with the vibration frequency of 200 Hz were imposed on the external surface of evaporation, condensation and adiabatic section of the pulsating heat pipe, respectively, and the starting-up temperature and the average temperatures along the evaporation section as well as the thermal performances of the vibrating heat pipe were experimentally scrutinized under the local vibrations of different positions. The following important conclusions can be achieved by the experimental study: 1) The effect of vibrations at the evaporation section and at the adiabatic section on the starting-up time of pulsating heat pipe is more significant than that at the condensation section. 2) The vibrations at different positions can reduce the starting-up temperature of the pulsating heat pipe. The effect of the vibrations at the evaporation section is the best as the heating power is lower, and the effect of the vibration at the adiabatic section is the best as the heating power is higher. 3) The vibrations at the evaporation section and at the adiabatic section can reduce the thermal resistance of the pulsating heat pipe. However, the vibrations at the condensation section have little effect on the thermal resistance of the pulsating heat pipe. 4) The vibrations at the evaporation section and at the adiabatic section can effectively reduce the temperature of evaporation section of the pulsating heat pipe, but the vibrations at the condensation section have no effect on the temperature of evaporation section of the pulsating heat pipe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0501.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Dental implants; Thermal stress; Modeling of heat transfer; Temperature changes; Heat equation; Analytical solution.
Online: 21 July 2021 (15:37:53 CEST)
Introduction: Heat is a kinetic process whereby energy flows from between two systems; hot-to-cold objects. In oro-dental implantology, conductive heat transfer/(or thermal stress) is a complex physical phenomenon to analyze and consider in treatment planning. Hence, ample research has attempted to measure heat-production to avoid over-heating during bone-cutting and -drilling for titanium (Ti) implant-site preparation and insertion, thereby preventing/minimizing early (as well as delayed) implant-related complications and failure. Objective: Given the low bone-thermal conductivity whereby heat generated by osteotomies is not effectively dissipated and tends to remain within the surrounding tissue (peri-implant), increasing the possibility of thermal-injury; this work attempts to obtain an exact analytical solution of the heat equation under exponential thermal-stress, modeling transient heat transfer and temperature changes in Ti implants upon hot-liquid intake. Materials and Methods: We investigate the impact of the material, the location point along implant length, and the exposure time of the thermal load on temperature changes. Results: Despite its simplicity, the presented solution contains all the physics and reproduces the key features obtained in previous numerical analyses studies. To the best of knowledge, this is the first introduction of the intrinsic time, a “proper” time that characterizes the geometry of the dental implant, where we show, mathematically and graphically, how the interplay between “proper” time and exposure time influences temperature changes in Ti implants, under the suitable initial and boundary conditions. Conclusions: This work aspires to accurately complement the overall clinical diagnostic and treatment plan for enhanced bone-implant interface, implant stability and success rates, whether for immediate or delayed loading strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0272.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematics Keywords: Flourier law of heat transfer; Temperature distribution; Laplace transform
Online: 28 January 2019 (09:49:47 CET)
This paper predict and effectively control the temperature distribution of the steady-state and transient states of anisotropic four-layer composite materials online, knowing the density, specific heat, heat conductivity and thickness of the composite materials. Based on the transfer function, a mathematical model was established to study the dynamic characteristics of heat transfer of the composite materials. First of all, the Fourier heat transfer law was used to establish a one-dimensional Fourier heat conduction differential equation for each composite layer, and the Laplace transformation was carried out to obtain the system function. Then the approximate second-order transfer function of the system was obtained by Taylor expansion, and the Laplace inverse transformation was carried out to obtain the transfer function of the whole system in the time domain. Finally, the accuracy of the simplified analytical solutions of the first, second and third order approximate transfer functions was compared with computer simulation. The results showed that the second order approximate transfer functions can describe the dynamic process of heat transfer better than others. The research on the dynamic characteristics of heat transfer in the composite layer and the dynamic model of heat transfer in composite layer proposed in this paper have a reference value for practical engineering application. It can effectively predict the temperature distribution of composite layer material and reduce the cost of experimental measurement of heat transfer performance of materials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0304.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: staggered wavy fin; perforated wavy fin; discontinuous wavy fin; heat transfer enhancement
Online: 24 April 2018 (04:31:45 CEST)
The plate fin heat exchanger is the compact heat exchanger applied in many industries because of its high thermal performance. To enhance the heat transfer of plate fin heat exchanger in further, three new kinds of wavy plate fins, namely perforated wavy fin, staggered wavy fin and discontinuous wavy fin are proposed and investigated by CFD simulations. The effects of key design parameters, including that of waviness aspect ratios, perforation diameters, stagger ratios and breaking distance are investigated, respectively, with the Reynolds number changes from 500 to 4500. It is found that due to the swirl flow and efficient mixing of fluid, the perforation, serration and breaking techniques are beneficial for the enhancement of heat transfer compared to the traditional wavy fin. At the same time, serration is beneficial to reduce the friction factor, and the breaking technique can reduce heat transfer area as well as enhance heat transfer performance. Through the performance evaluation criteria, the staggered wavy fin has an advantage over the small waviness aspect ratio compared to the perforated wavy fin. The maximum performance evaluation criteria (PEC), as high as 1.24, can be obtained for the perforated wavy fin at the largest waviness aspect ratio.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0063.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: condensed matter; heat transfer; mass transfer; thermodynamics
Online: 11 April 2017 (12:10:49 CEST)
In this work, we experimentally investigate mass and heat transport phenomena in a modular device while converting a solution salinity difference into a temperature difference. Operations occur under fixed total ambient pressure and without mechanical moving parts, thus realizing a fully static conversion. Provided that a constant salinity gradient can be imposed, the proposed device is able to generate a steady cooling capacity. Here, we purposely operate with environmentally benign and easily accessible sodium chloride water solutions only. A numerical model is finally elaborated, validated and used to explore a wider range of possible device configurations and operating conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0449.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Femtoscopy; heat-mass transfer; fluid coherence fraction; radiated source characteristics
Online: 20 July 2021 (11:54:10 CEST)
Higher order femtoscopy measured to examine the heat exchanger characterization of the fluid debris produced in the collisions and investigated a remarkable suppression in the bosons interferences measurement. The analogous suppression can be analyzed to explore the coherence of boson thermal particle production sources at unprecedented energies. We illustrate the particles emissions from radiated sources with statistical coherence which induce the thermal particles interferences to probe the peculiarity of the heated sources as well as the distinctions about the heat exchangers in the collisions at higher temperature. We perspicacious that the bosons seem to the pertinent aspirant of heat exchanger, and the normalized three particles correlators evaluate the existence of such hybrid phases significantly. The key point of this research is that we analyze the three particles correlations with their normalized correlations by difference equations to determine the characteristics of heat exchanger and its applications. With such distinctive and efficient approach, we observe a significant difference in the correlation functions at higher temperature and momenta regimes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1338.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: ancient building; heat transfer moisture transfer; simulation
Online: 18 May 2023 (10:57:28 CEST)
The heritage of ancient buildings is an important part of the world's history and culture, which has an extremely rich historical-cultural value and artistic research value. Beijing has a large number of palace ancient buildings, and because of the age of their construction, many of them have problems of varying degrees of peeling and mold on the inner surfaces of the envelope. To solve the problems of the damp and moldy interior of palace buildings, a mathematical model of indoor heat and moisture transfer was established based on a wooden palace ancient building in Beijing. Through the indoor mold distribution validation model, the effects of outdoor humidity, soil moisture, wall humidity, and other factors on the indoor heat and moisture transfer of ancient buildings were simulated and analyzed by using the control variables method. The results showed that the molds were distributed at the indoor corners and floors, and the simulation of indoor humidity match the measured humidity. Thus, the simulation results were consistent with the actual situation. The variable trend of the relative humidity of the indoor environment with the outdoor humidity is inconsistent from plane to plane, i.e. it increases or remains constant with the increase of the outdoor humidity. The indoor ambient relative humidity increased with increasing the wall humidity. And the indoor average temperature is 23.3 ℃ and indoor relative humidity ranged between 90.9 % to 92.44 %. Soil moisture and wall humidity were the main factors affecting the indoor environmental relative humidity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0208.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: turbine generator; stator ventilation duct; transient heat transfer; pressure loss
Online: 10 July 2020 (08:34:07 CEST)
Turbine generator operates with complex cooling system due to the challenge in controlling the peak temperature of the stator bar caused by ohm loss, which is unavoidable. Therefore, it is important to characterise and quantifies the thermal performance of the cooling system. The focus of the present research is to investigate the heat transfer and pressure loss characteristics of typical cooling system, so-called stator ventilation duct. A real scale model was built at its operating conditions for the present study. The direction of cooling air is varied to consider its operation condition, so that there are (1) outward flow and (2) inward flow cases. In addition, the effect of (3) cross flow (inward with cross flow case) is also studied. The transient heat transfer method using thermochromic liquid crystals is implemented to measure full surface heat transfer distribution. A series of Computational Fluid Dynamics analysis is also conducted to support the observation from the experiment. For the inward flow case, the results suggest that the average Nusselt number of the 2nd duct is about 30% higher than the 3rd duct. The trend is similar with the effect of cross flow. The CFD results are in good agreement with the experimental data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0343.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: film cooling; conjugate heat transfer; radiation; syngas; TBC
Online: 15 November 2018 (05:30:44 CET)
The future power equipment tends to take hydrogen or middle/low heat-value syngas as fuel for low emission. The heat transfer of film cooled turbine blade shall be influenced more by radiation. Its characteristic of conjugate heat transfer is studied experimentally and numerically in the paper by considering radiation heat transfer, multi-composition gas and TBC. The Weighted Sum of Gray Gases spectral model and Discrete Transfer Model are utilized to solve the radiative heat transfer in the multi-composition field, while validated against the experimental data for the studied cases. It is shown that the plate temperature increases significantly when considering the radiation and the temperature gradient of the film cooled plate becomes larger. It is also shown that increasing percentage of steam in gas composition results in increased temperature on the film-cooled plate. The normalized temperature of the film-cooled plate decreases about 0.02, as the total percentage of steam in hot gas increases per 7%. As for the TBC effect, it can smooth out the the temperature distribution and insulate the heat to a greater extent when the radiative heat transfer becomes significant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1645.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: smooth horizontal tube; evaporation heat transfer; evaporative heat transfer; flow boiling; heat transfer; heat transfer coefficient; pressure drop; low temperature; dry-out; flow pattern map; flow regimes; R744
Online: 23 June 2023 (08:30:40 CEST)
This paper studies the evaporative heat transfer characteristics of R744 at low temperatures in a horizontal smooth tube as a cascade refrigeration system (CRS) among hybrid cascade refrigeration systems (HCRSs). There is a lack of research on the low-temperature evaporative heat transfer characteristics of R744 under the operating conditions of evaporators used in actual CRSs used in supermarkets. Therefore, this study aims to provide basic data on the evaporative heat transfer characteristics of R744 in the evaporators of refrigerators used in supermarkets. The tube used in the evaporation experiment conducted herein was a smooth horizontal copper tube with an inner diameter and length of 11.46 mm and 8000 mm, respectively. The experimental pa-rameters were as follows: heat fluxes of 12–21.5 kW/m2, mass fluxes of 75–225 kg/(m2·s), and saturation temperatures of −50–−30 °C. The main results are summarized as follows. (1) When designing the R744 evaporator, the mass and heat fluxes must be maximized within the operating conditions, and the saturation temperature must be designed to be as low as possible. (2) The evaporative heat transfer coefficient of R744 can be predicted well by using the correlation formula of Chen at the evaporation temperature of −40 °C in the CRS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0419.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: liquid cooling; phase-change loop; pressure difference; heat transfer enhancement
Online: 27 October 2021 (15:11:16 CEST)
To overcome the two-phase flow instability of traditional boiling heat dissipation technologies, a porous wick was used for liquid-vapor isolation, thus realizing efficient and stable boiling heat dissipation. A pump-assisted capillary phase-change loop with methanol as working medium was established to study the effect of liquid-vapor pressure difference and heating power on its start-up and steady-state characteristics. The results indicated that the evaporator undergoes four heat transfer modes including flooded, partial flooded, thin film evaporation and overheating. The thin film evaporation mode was the most efficient one with the shortest start-up period. Besides, the heat transfer modes were determined by liquid-vapor pressure difference and power. The heat transfer coefficient could be significantly improved and the thermal resistance could be reduced by increasing liquid-vapor pressure difference as long as it did not exceed 8 kPa. However, when the liquid-vapor pressure difference exceeded 8kPa, its influence on the heat transfer coefficient weakened. In addition, a two-dimensional heat transfer mode distribution diagram considering both liquid-vapor pressure difference and power was drawn through a great number of experiments. During engineering application, the liquid-vapor pressure difference can be controlled to maintain efficient thin film evaporation in order to achieve the optimum heat dissipation effect.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0517.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Microchannel; Nanofluid; Heat transfer enhancement; Numerical simulation.
Online: 22 July 2021 (12:22:39 CEST)
The study of the influence of the nanoparticle volume fraction and aspect ratio of microchannels on the fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids in microchannels is important in the optimal design of heat dissipation systems with high heat flux. In this work, the computational fluid dynamics method was adopted to simulate the flow and heat transfer characteristics of two types of water–Al2O3 nanofluids with two different volume fractions and five types of microchannel heat sinks with different aspect ratios. Results showed that increasing the nanoparticle volume fraction reduced the average temperature of the liquid–solid heat transfer surface and thereby improved the heat transfer capacity of the nanofluids. Meanwhile, the increase of the nanoparticle volume fraction led to a considerable increase in the pumping power of the system. Changing the aspect ratio of the microchannel effectively improved the heat transfer capacity of the heat sink. Moreover, increasing the aspect ratio effectively reduced the average temperature of the heating surface of the heat sink without significantly increasing the flow resistance loss. When the aspect ratio exceeded 30, the heat transfer coefficient did not increase with the increase of the aspect ratio. The results of this work may offer guiding significance for the optimal design of high heat flux microchannel heat sinks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0164.v2
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Shape memory alloy; SMA; Smart material; Radiation effect; solar radiation effect; radiation heat
Online: 8 September 2022 (09:02:46 CEST)
The shape memory alloys belong to the smart materials thanks to their thermomechanical proprieties' reply to thermal or to mechanical loading. These materials can change shape, stiffness, displacement, natural frequency, and many mechanical characteristics in response to stress or to heat such as conduction, convection or radiation. However, heating by convection or conduction are the most useful and studied methods unlike radiation. Therefore, this paper aims to study the radiation effect on the shape memory alloy behavior
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0182.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: heat transfer; thermodynamics; evaporation; condensation; regeneration
Online: 13 June 2022 (10:07:32 CEST)
Space shuttle has been a hall mark of American space program since its inception. Despite its temporary shutdown few years ago, with the recent interest in space exploration which includes revitalizing human outpost in microgravity and transportation required to build it, realize other experiments (e.g. in space telescopes, in space manufacturing) and interplanetary voyages, it has regained attention. Its superior design, manufacturing, materials, performance, durability, and efficiency place it among the best, in fact, the only effort by mankind to build a reusable craft horizontally, launch vertically like a rocket and fly back like a plane. Various requirements emerge during its design (thermal, fluid, acoustics, vibration and structural) and design of its main engine (Aerojet Rocketdyne RS 25) which requires considerable attention, heat transfer being most important. This facilitated and necessitated use of various types of heat exchangers such as single coil, heat pipe, built in internal heat exchanger (IHEX), external heat exchanger (EHEX), condensing heat exchanger (CHEX), Interface heat exchangers (InHEX), regenerative heat exchanger (RHEX) and compact heat exchangers (CoHEX), change, manipulate and optimize their configurations in piping and instrumentation diagrams (PIDs). In this short narrative, an effort has been made to summarize them, and their developments over time with a focus on the application, design, manufacturing, materials, and performance (in service and final operation).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0503.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Turbulent heat transfer; Low-Prandtl fluidS; RANS modeling; Logarithmic turbulence model
Online: 31 May 2020 (20:27:53 CEST)
The study of turbulent heat transfer in liquid metal flows has gained interest because of applications in several industrial fields. The common assumption of similarity between the dynamical and thermal turbulence, namely the Reynolds analogy, has been proven to be not valid for these fluids. Many methods have been proposed in order to overcome the difficulties encountered in a proper definition of the turbulent heat flux, such as global or local correlations for the turbulent Prandtl number or four parameter turbulence models. In this work we assess a four parameter logarithmic turbulence model for liquid metals based on RANS approach. Several simulation results considering fluids with Pr = 0.01 and Pr = 0.025 are reported in order to show the validity of this approach. The Kays turbulence model is also assessed and compared with integral heat transfer correlations for a wide range of Peclet numbers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0419.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: asymmetric pulsating flow; in-line tube bundle; CFD; enhancement of heat transfer
Online: 30 June 2022 (07:47:01 CEST)
The pulsating flow is one of the techniques which can enhance heat transfer, therefore leading to energy saving in tubular heat exchangers. This paper investigates the heat transfer and flow characteristics in a two-dimensional in-line tube bundle with the pulsating flow by a numerical method using the Ansys Fluent. Numerical simulation is performed for Reynolds number Re = 500 with different frequencies and amplitude of pulsation. Heat transfer enhancement was estimated from the central tube of the tube bundle. Pulsation velocity had an asymmetrical character with a reciprocating flow. The technique developed by the authors to obtain asymmetric pulsations was used. This technique allows simulating an asymmetric flow in heat exchangers equipped with a pulsation generation system. Increase in both the amplitude and the frequency of the pulsations has a significant effect on heat transfer enhancement. Heat transfer enhancement is mainly observed in the front and back of the cylinder. At a steady flow in these areas, heat transfer is minimal due to the weak circulation of the flow. The increase in heat transfer in the front and back of the cylinder is associated with increased velocity and additional flow mixing in these areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0052.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computational Mathematics Keywords: wire coating; elastico-viscous fluid; MHD flow; heat transfer; ADM and OHAM
Online: 10 January 2017 (10:33:57 CET)
The most important plastic resins used for wire coating are Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC), Nylon, Polysulfone and Low-high density polyethylene (LDPE / HDPE). In this article,the coating process is performed using elastic-viscous fluid as a coating material for wire coating in a pressure type coating die. The elastic-viscous fluid is electrically conducted in the presence of an applied magnetic field. The governing non-linear equations are modeled and then solved analytically by utilizing an Adomian decomposition method (ADM). The convergence of the series solution is established. The results are also verified by Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method (OHAM). The effect of different emerging parameters such as non-Newtonian parameters α and β, magnetic parameter M and the Brinkman number Br on solutions (velocity and temperature profiles) are discussed through several graphs. Additionally, the current result also compares with the published work already available in the literature.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: entropy generation; heat and mass transfer; stretching sheet; variable viscosity
Online: 11 September 2020 (08:05:17 CEST)
This work probes the combined effects of magnetic field and viscous dissipation on heat field and examine the second law analysis (entropy generation) in an electrically conducting fluid under the effect of wall mass transfer over continuous stretched non-isothermal surface with variable viscosity. The viscosity of the fluid is assumed to be an inverse linear function of temperature. The governing equation for the problem are changed to dimensionless ordinary differential equations by using similarity transformation and solved numerically by using Rung Kutta and Shooting technique. Velocity, concentration and temperature distribution are obtained and used to compute the entropy generation and the Bejan number in the flow field. The effect of variable viscosity, Schmidt number, Hartman and Reynolds number on the velocity, concentration, temperature, entropy generation and Bejan number are studied and discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2215.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computational Mathematics Keywords: Numerical time integration; diffusion equation; heat equation; cylindrical coordinates; spherical coordinates; unconditional stability
Online: 31 May 2023 (09:53:08 CEST)
New analytical solutions of the heat conduction equation are presented in cylindrical and spherical coordinates. Then these solutions are reproduced with high accuracy by recent explicit and unconditionally stable finite difference methods. After this, real experimental data from the literature regarding a heated cylinder are reproduced by the explicit numerical methods as well as by Finite Element Methods (FEM) ANSYS workbench. Convection and nonlinear radiation are also considered on the boundary of the cylinder, and it is shown that the explicit methods are much more accurate than the commercial software.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0088.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Enhance heat transfer; Nanofluids; CNTs; Fractional derivatives; Laplace transform
Online: 7 April 2020 (11:04:32 CEST)
Nanofluids are a novel class of heat transfer fluid that plays a vital role in industries. In mathematical investigations, these fluids are modeled in terms of traditional integer-order partial differential equations (PDEs). It is recognized that traditional PDEs cannot decode the complex behavior of physical flow parameters and memory effects. Therefore, this article intends to study the mixed convection heat transfer in nanofluid over an inclined vertical plate via fractional derivatives approach. The problem in hand is modeled in connection with Atangana-Baleanu fractional derivatives without singular and local kernel having strong memory. The human blood is considered as base fluid dispersing carbon nanotube (CNTs) (single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and multi-wall carbon nanotubes(MWCNTs )) into it to form blood-CNTs nanofluid. The nanofluids are considered to flow in a saturated porous medium under the influence of an applied magnetic field. The exact analytical expressions for velocity and temperature profiles are acquired using the Laplace transform technique and plotted in various graphs. The empirical results indicate that the memory effect decreases with increasing fractional parameters in the case of both temperature and velocity profiles. Moreover, the temperature profile is higher for blood-SWCNTs by reason of higher thermal conductivity whereas, this trend is opposite in case of velocity profile due densities difference.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0425.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: porous materials; building wall; modelling; heat and mass transfer; green building
Online: 18 May 2021 (11:36:53 CEST)
The hygrothermal transfer is very important for the design of a building envelope for thermal comfort and economic and energy analysis of the building envelope. The applications of various materials in building envelope have been studied extensively. The study presents several models for the hygrothermal transfer for various building walls. Several energy and mass conservation equations with different boundary conditions and input considerations were presented in this paper for concrete, bricks and wooden walls. The effect of hysteresis was ignored in developing most model equations, while few considered flow pattern of fluid through the wall surfaces. Due to the flexibility of Luikov models, it formed the basis for modelling the coupled heat and mass transfer for porous material independent of hygroscopic nature with different boundary conditions defined according to the geometry and orientations. The influence of type of wall, orientation, thickness, the density of the material and climatic variations on the temperature and moisture evolutions within the building materials was more pronounced. Literature, presenting imaging models using imagery software like COMSOL multi-physics, CFD etc. were scarce considering that microscopic imagery is now deployed to measure the heat and moisture evolution in materials. Future models should include shrinkage or expansion influence on the fibrous material like wood due to their behaviour under environmental condition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0317.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Plasma keyhole arc welding; X-ray observation; Heat transportation; Eddy; Convective pattern
Online: 20 March 2020 (13:03:13 CET)
This investigation aims to discuss the formation process of eddies and the heat transportation in plasma keyhole arc welding. In order to clarify this issue, the measurement of the convection inside the weld pool, the convection on the weld pool surface, also the temperature distribution on the weld pool surface were carried out. The results showed that two eddies were found in the weld pool, which is controlled mainly through the shear force by the plasma flow acting on the weld pool surface. The magnitude, extent and direction of the shear force are thought to be determined primarily by the variation of keyhole profile. The relative shape and strength of each eddy is largely changed depending on the change of the keyhole profile when nozzle diameter changed. These relative strengths of each eddy are considered to decisively govern the heat transport in the weld pool coinciding with the direction of eddies. A larger eddy near the lower part of the keyhole inside the weld pool was found out in the case of 1.6 mm, meanwhile a upward larger eddy was found out near the upper part of the keyhole inside the weld pool in the case of 2.4 mm.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: blood flow, stenosed artery, K-L model, heat and mass transfer, finite difference scheme
Online: 20 March 2019 (16:49:24 CET)
A non-Newtonian fluid model is used to investigate the two-dimensional pulsatile blood flow through a tapered artery with a stenosis. The mixed convection effects of heat and mass transfer are also taken into account. By applying non-dimensionalization and radial coordinate transformation, we simplify the system in a tube. Under the finite difference scheme, numerical solutions are calculated for velocity, temperature concentration, resistance, impedance, wall shear stress and shearing stress at the stenosis throat. Finally, Quantitative analysis is carried out.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0021.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: capacity; cooling and heating; fin-tube heat exchanger; pressure drop; turbulator
Online: 5 January 2017 (09:07:14 CET)
This study presents the comparison of heat transfer capacity and pressure drop characteristics between a basic fin-tube heat exchanger and a modified heat exchanger with the structural change of branch tubes and coiled turbulators. All experiments were carried out using an air-enthalpy type calorimeter based on the method described in ASHRAE standards, under heat exchanger experimental conditions. 14 different kinds of heat exchangers were used for the experiment. Cooling and heating capacities of the turbulator heat exchanger were excellent, compared to the basic one. As the insertion ratio of the coiled turbulator and the number of row increased, the heat transfer performance increased. However, the capacity per unit area was more effective in 4 rows than 6 rows, and the cooling performance of the 6 row turbulator heat exchanger (100% turbulator insert ratio) was down to about 6% than that of 4 row one. As the water flow rate and the turbulator insertion ratio increased, the pressure drop of the water side increased. This trend was more pronounced in 6 rows. In the cooling condition, the pressure drop on the air side was slightly increased due to the generation of condensed water, but was insignificant under the heating condition. The power consumption of the pump was more affected by the water flow rate than the coiled turbulator. The equivalent hydraulic diameter of a tube by the turbulator was reduced and then the heat transfer performance was improved. Thus, the tube diameter was smaller, the heat flux was better.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0110.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: oscillating heat pipe; fluid flow motion; flow pattern; thermal performance; inner diameter
Online: 26 October 2016 (09:30:16 CEST)
The oscillating heat pipe (OHP) is a new member in the family of heat pipes, and it has great potential applications in energy conservation. However, the fluid flow and heat transfer in the OHP as well as the fundamental effects of inner diameter on them have not been fully understood, which are essential to the design and optimization of the OHP in real applications. Therefore, by combining the high-speed visualization method and infrared thermal imaging technique, the fluid flow and thermal performance in the OHPs with inner diameters of 1, 2 and 3 mm are presented and analyzed. The results indicate that three fluid flow motions, including small oscillation, bulk oscillation and circulation, coexist or, respectively, exist alone with the increasing heating load under different inner diameters, with three flow patterns occurring in the OHPs, viz. bubbly flow, slug flow and annular flow. These fluid flow motions are closely correlated with the heat and mass transfer performance in the OHPs, which can be reflected by the characteristics of infrared thermal images of condensers. The decrease in the inner diameter increases the frictional flow resistance and capillary instability while restricting the nucleate boiling in OHPs, which leads to a smaller proportion of bubbly flow, a larger proportion of short slug flow, a poorer thermal performance, and easier dry-out of working fluid. In addition, when compared with the 2 mm OHP, the increasing role of gravity induces the thermosyphon effect and weakens the 'bubble pumping' action, which results in a little smaller and bigger thermal resistances of 3 mm OHP under small and bulk oscillation of working fluid, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0769.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: magnetic field; heat transfer; Finite Difference Method; Blood Plasm; Asymmetric segment
Online: 23 April 2023 (04:37:33 CEST)
Theoretical approaches were applied to study the effect of magnetic field and heat transfer on the flow of blood plasma through an asymmetric arterial segment. The plasma was considered to be unsteady, laminar and an incompressible fluid through non-uniform arterial segment in a two-dimensional flow. Axial velocity, pressure gradient, stream function and pressure shift per wavelength were evaluated in blood plasma flow in arteries by use of coupled linear partial differential equations, solved with the help of Finite difference method. The corresponding initial and boundary conditions were obtained by discretizing the flow channel. The effect of magnetic field on blood plasma in arteries was determined by creating a magnetic field gradient through the application of a varying strength of magnetic field on the flow. Heat transfer characteristics due to applied magnetic field and viscosity of blood was obtained by use of linear partial differential equations to determine varying temperature conditions in heat transfer characteristics. Numerical results for velocity profiles, magnetic profiles and temperature profiles were obtained to characterize blood plasma viscosity by use of various non-dimensional parameters. The results were graphically presented using MATLAB software. The results obtained helped in analyzing theoretically the effects of magnetic field and heat transfer in arterial plasma flow.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0252.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: radiative heat transfer; radiative exchanges; form factors; aerospace technology sustainability of curved geometries; retrofit of Architectural Heritage
Online: 15 February 2023 (03:25:55 CET)
The exact determination of radiative exchanges between solids and surfaces has been a long sought-for question in heat transfer science. Being the canonical equation that rules such phenomena, a fourfold integral, it is extremely difficult to obtain an accurate solution like a formula or abacus. Over the last thirty years, the author has tried to integrate the canonical expression by sundry procedures and they have published two books and a dozen of articles on the matter, recently by virtue of computational geometry and graphic algorithms as a new way to solve the finite-difference problems that arise on complex geometries. In architectural engineering curved radiant emitters are customary since antiquity, especially in domes and vaults and their oculus, However, a consistent procedure to handle them was not readily available. The principles that are described hereby based on Cabeza-Lainez’ first principle for spherical fragments offer a complete panorama on the manner in which surface sources related or contained in spheres can be interpreted and accounted for without resorting to integration. The main advance is that a variety of unexplained problems of radiative heat transfer, applicable to aerospace engineering, meteorological, architectural and medical sciences can be sorted out as exactly as quickly.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0266.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Flow boiling; Heat transfer coefficient; Two phase flow; hydrocarbons; Ethanol; Flow boiling correlations
Online: 5 June 2023 (08:21:06 CEST)
This study will present a comprehensive review of the two-phase flow boiling heat transfer coefficient of hydrocarbons such propane (R-290), butane (R-600) and iso-butane (R-600a) and ethanol at various experimental conditions. Studying the multiphase flow heat transfer coefficient has a crucial importance for many heat transfer equipment to achieve higher efficiency for more compact design and cost reduction. One reason behind choosing hydrocarbons as refrigerants in this study is because hydrocarbons have zero ozone depletion potential (ODP=0) and insignificant direct global warming potential (GWP = 3). Moreover, thermodynamic and thermophysical characteristics of hydrocarbons qualify them to be a strong candidate for more heat transfer applications. Initially, by constructing a database for the working fluids from various experimental work available in the literature. The current data that this study has collected for the flow boiling of spans wide ranges of parameters, such as: mass flux, heat flux, operating pressure, and saturation temperature, etc. Furthermore, by comparing the experimental multiphase heat transfer coefficient database with the anticipated values of each correlation, the prediction performance of 26 correlations found in the literature was assessed. This study leads to the selection of the best prediction method based on the minimum deviation of predicted results from the experimental database provided by calculated mean absolute error (MAE) from the assessed correlations. The findings of this study can also be useful in the development of more accurate correlation methods for these fluids and improve the prediction of their flow boiling characteristics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0469.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Chemical Physics Keywords: heat transfer; mass transfer; convection-radiation; surface reaction; diffusion approximation; finite difference.
Online: 28 September 2021 (11:38:54 CEST)
The steady-state, coupled heat and mass transfer from a fluid flow to a sphere accompanied by an exothermal catalytic chemical reaction on the surface of the sphere is analysed taking into consideration the effect of thermal radiation. The flow past the sphere is considered steady, laminar and incompressible. The radiative transfer is modeled by P0 and P1 approximations. The mathematical model equations were discretized by the finite difference method. The discrete equations were solved by the defect correction – multigrid method. The influence of thermal radiation on the sphere surface temperature, concentration and reaction rate was analysed for three parameter sets of the dimensionless reaction parameters. The numerical results show that only for very small values of the Prater number the effect of thermal radiation on the surface reaction is not significant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0078.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: printed circuit heat exchanger; airfoil fin; supercritical LNG; thermal-hydraulic performance
Online: 12 October 2017 (05:19:21 CEST)
As a new kind of highly compact and efficient micro-channel heat exchanger, printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) is a promising candidate satisfying the heat exchange requirements of liquefied natural gas (LNG) vaporization at low and high pressure. The effects of airfoil fin arrangement on heat transfer an flow resistance were numerically investigated using supercritical liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a working fluid. The thermal properties of supercritical LNG were tested by utilizing a REFPROF software database. Numerical simulation was performed using FLUENT. The inlet temperature of supercritical LNG was 121 K,and its pressure was 10.5MPa. The reference mass flow rate of LNG was set 1.22 g/s for the vertical pitch Lv = 1.67 mm and the staggered pitch Ls = 0 mm, with the Reynolds number of about 3750. The SST k-ω model with enhanced wall treatment was selected by comparing with the experimental data. The airfoil fin PCHE had better thermal-hydraulic performance than that of the straight channel PCHE. Moreover, the airfoil fins with staggered arrangement displayed better thermal performance than that of the fins with parallel arrangement. The thermal-hydraulic performance of airfoil fin PCHE was improved with increasing Ls and Lv. Moreover, Lv affected on the Nusselt number and pressure drop of airfoil fin PCHE more obviously. In conclusion, a sparser staggered arrangement of fins showed a better thermal-hydraulic performance in airfoil fin PCHE.
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: heat exchanger; plate-fin tube; tube-fin contact; CFD
Online: 28 June 2021 (14:07:40 CEST)
Plate fin-tube heat exchangers are widely used in air conditioning and refrigeration systems and other industry fields. Various errors made in the manufacturing process can result in the formation of an air gap between the tube and fin. Several numerical simulations were carried out for a symmetric section of plate fin-tube heat exchanger to study the influence of air gap on heat transfer under periodic flow conditions. Different locations and sizes of an air gap spanning 1/2 circumference of the tube were considered for the range of airflow velocities. Velocity and temperature fields for cases with air gap were compared with ideal thermal contact cases. Blocking of heat flow by the gap leads to the reduction of heat transfer rate. Fin discontinuity in the front of the tube causes the smallest reduction of the heat transfer rate in comparison to the ideal tube-fin contact, especially for thin slits. The rear gap position is the worst in the smallest gap range. Therefore, reversing the flow direction can lead to up to a 15% heat transfer increase, if mainly the rear gaps are present. The introduction of a thin slit in the front of the tube leads to convective heat transfer enhancement, which should be further investigated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0195.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Spirally corrugated tube; Twisted tape; Heat transfer enhancement; Friction factor; Nusselt number; Computational fluid dynamics (CFD); Star CCM+
Online: 5 September 2023 (02:54:41 CEST)
Abstract: In this study, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation was conducted to validate the CFD model with experimental data from Zimparov et.al (2012), which investigates the heat transfer performance in a spirally corrugated tube that has a twisted tape inserted. The heat transfer was then compared to a simple corrugated tube without the twisted tape and to a smooth tube with no corrugations and no twisted tape. This simulation is compared with a previous experimental study conducted by (Zimparov et al. 2012), which focuses on tubes with a height-to-diameter ratio e/Di > 0.04 and small relative pitches of the twisted tape, H/Di. The largest improvement was noticed in the tube with e/Di= 0.057 and ridge pitch-to-height ratio p/e=6.77 with a twisted tape of H/Di= 4.7. This tube is labeled 5035. Tube 5035 was found to have the most significant enhancement, hence the focus of the CFD simulation will be on this tube, and the simulation will range for Reynolds numbers, 3.5 x 103 < Re < 5.0 x 104. The focus of this simulation is the evaluation of heat transfer and friction factors; a metric was used to obtain an empirical representation of the tube’s performance. Keywords: Spirally corrugated tube; Twisted tape; Heat transfer enhancement; Friction factor; Nusselt number; Computational fluid dynamics (CFD); Star CCM+
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1521.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Fluids And Plasmas Physics Keywords: Symmetrical cylinder; Nanofluid; numerical platform; bioconvection; swimming microbes; melting heat transfer
Online: 24 July 2023 (08:48:48 CEST)
Nonlinear thermal transport of non-Newtonian polymer flows is an increasingly important area in materials engineering. Motivated by new developments in this area which entail more re-fined and mathematical frameworks, the present analysis investigates the boundary layer ap-proximation and heat transfer persuaded by a symmetrical cylindrical surface positioned hori-zontally. To simulate thermal relaxation impacts the bioconvection cross nanofluid flow Buongiorno model is deployed. The impact of the magnetic field applied on the nanofluid using the heat generation and melting phenomena are inspected. The nonlinear effect of thermosolutal buoyant forces is incorporated into the proposed model. The novel mathematical equations comprise thermophoresis and Brownian diffusion effects. Via robust transformation techniques, the primitive resulting partial equations for momentum, energy, concentration, and motile living microorganism are rendered into nonlinear ordinary equations with convective boundary postulates. An explicit and efficient numerical solver procedure in Mathematica 11.0 programming platform is developed to engage the nonlinear equations. The consequence of multiple governing parameters on dimensionless fluid profiles is inspected through plotted visuals and tables. Finally, outcomes declared on the surface drag force, heat, and mass transfer coefficients are exhibited through 3D visuals via different influential parameters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2162.v1
Subject: Engineering, Aerospace Engineering Keywords: heat transfer; gas turbine; turbulence intensity; Reynolds number; boundary layer
Online: 30 September 2023 (10:25:27 CEST)
The amount of heat transfer in gas turbine blades depends on cooling techniques and various flow phenomena. The effect of eddies, passing shock waves and free flow turbulence has been noticed by many researchers since the beginning. The focus of the upcoming work is on the numerical investigation of the effects of turbulence intensity and Reynolds number on the amount of heat transfer from the blade surface with internal cooling. The SST model has been used to solve this problem, which has been compared with the experimental work to ensure the correctness of the numerical simulation. In this regard, by changing the free flow turbulence intensity with values of 1, 5, 7, and 10% and at three Reynolds numbers of 150,000, 350,000, and 750,000, the changes in heat transfer coefficients have been investigated. The results show that with the increase of the turbulence intensity at different Reynolds numbers, due to the positive effect of the flow turbulence on the suppression of separation and promotion of the boundary layer transition, the blade surface heat transferincreases and this increase is more evident at higher Reynolds numbers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0233.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: entropy generation; entropy acceleration; glucose catabolism; irreversible reactions; heat transfer; matter transfer; cancer biology; stem cell biology
Online: 9 November 2018 (03:49:41 CET)
The heat and matter transfer during glucose catabolism in living systems and their relation with entropy production are a challenging subject of the classical thermodynamics applied to biology. In this respect, an analogy between mechanics and thermodynamics has been performed via the definition of the entropy density acceleration expressed by the time derivative of the rate of entropy density and related to heat and matter transfer in minimum living systems. Cells are regarded as open thermodynamic systems that exchange heat and matter resulting from irreversible processes with the intercellular environment. Prigogine’s minimum energy dissipation principle is reformulated using the notion of entropy density acceleration applied to glucose catabolism. It is shown that, for out-of-equilibrium states, the calculated entropy density acceleration is finite and negative and approaches as a function of time a zero value at global thermodynamic equilibrium for heat and matter transfer independently of the cell type and the metabolic pathway. These results could be important for a deeper understanding of entropy generation and its correlation with heat transfer in cell biology with special regard to glucose catabolism representing the prototype of irreversible reactions and a crucial metabolic pathway in stem cells and cancer stem cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0222.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: low Biot number material; conjugate heat transfer; film boiling; large-scale domain; turbulent flow; Kelvin-Helmholtz instability; frozen turbulence approach
Online: 2 June 2023 (16:40:35 CEST)
The DNS of film boiling requires strong computational resources that are difficult to obtain for a daily CFD use by the practitioners of the industrial R&D experts. On the other hand, the film boiling experiments are associated with the usage of the expensive and highly sophisticated apparatus, and the research to this end is found to be relatively difficult due to high heat flow rates that are present in the process itself. When combined with a transient heat conduction in a solid, the problem becomes significantly difficult. Therefore, a novel method in computation of conjugate heat transfer during film boiling in a quiescent liquid has been proposed in this paper. The method relies on the solution of mass, momentum and energy conservation equations in a two-fluid framework, supplemented with the appropriate closures. Furthermore, the turbulent flow has been found as an important parameter in obtaining the accurate solution of the temperature field evolution in a solid specimen, via the proper modeling of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) value, that has been imposed as a constant value, i.e., the frozen turbulence approach. It was found, in addition, that the appropriate TKE value can be obtained by use of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability theory in conjunction with the boundary layer theory. The obtained results show excellent agreement with the experimental data within the first 15 s of the experiment, i.e., the first ca. 10 % of the total duration of the film boiling mode of heat transfer. Furthermore, the heat transfer coefficient has matched the error bands prescribed by the authors of the paper that has presented the correlations, whilst the averaged values are far beyond this band, i.e., are slightly more than 30 % higher. The further inspection has revealed a measure of similarity between the computational result of the volume fraction field distribution and the experiment, thus confirming the capability of the method to obtain realistic interface evolution in time. The method has shown full capability for further pursuing the industrial-scale film boiling problems that involve turbulent flow and the conjugate heat transfer approach.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0533.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Evaporative cooling; Supercritical carbon dioxide; Heat and mass transfer; Orthogonal experiment; Correlation equation; Experimental verification
Online: 9 October 2023 (12:32:56 CEST)
To study the heat and mass transfer characteristics of an evaporative cooler for cooling high-temperature working fluids such as supercritical carbon dioxide, an experimental device of the evaporative cooler was built, and a corresponding test system was constructed. Then, the experimental study was carried out based on the orthogonal test method, and the law and extent of the influence of water flow in the tube, spray water flow rate, inlet water temperature in the tube, and air flow rate on heat dissipation, cooling efficiency, and heat and mass transfer coefficients have been obtained. The correlation equations of the heat and mass transfer coefficients were obtained by fitting the orthogonal experimental data, and the validity of the correlation equations was confirmed by the verification experiment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0249.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: conjugate heat transfer; convection-radiation; Rosseland approximation; P1 approximation; finite difference; defect correction - multigrid.
Online: 8 April 2021 (17:57:29 CEST)
The effect of thermal radiation on the two – dimensional, steady-state, conjugate heat transfer from a circular cylinder with an internal heat source in steady laminar crossflow is investigated in this work. P0 (Rosseland) and P1 approximations were used to model the radiative transfer. The mathematical model equations were solved numerically. Qualitatively, P0 and P1 approximations show the same effect of thermal radiation on conjugate heat transfer; the increase in the radiation – conduction parameter decreases the cylinder surface temperature and increases the heat transfer rate. Quantitatively, there are significant differences between the results provided by the two approximations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0015.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Heat transfer; Williamson fluid; Homotopy analysis method; exponential stretching; MHD; suction/injection
Online: 1 April 2021 (12:19:59 CEST)
This article investigates the features of heat and mass transfer for the steady two-dimensional Williamson nanofluid flow across an exponentially stretched surface depending on suction/injection. The boundary conditions incorporate the impacts of the Brownian motion and thermophoresis boundary. The analysis of heat transfer is carried out for the two cases of prescribed exponential order surface temperature (PEST) and prescribed exponential order heat flux (PEHF). The ongoing flow problem is mathematically modeled under the basic laws of motion and heat transfer. The similarity variables are allowed to transmute the governing equations of the problem into a similarity ordinary differential equation (ODEs). The solution of this reduced non-linear system of ODEs is supported by the Homotopy analysis method (HAM). The combination of HAM arrangements is acquired by plotting the h-curve. In order to evaluate the influence of several emergent parameters, the outcomes are presented numerically and are plotted diagrammatically as a consequence of velocity, temperature and concentration proles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0056.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: heat-related illness; international classification; heat cramp; syncope; heat exhaustion; heat stroke; novel classification
Online: 3 August 2018 (03:51:27 CEST)
The Japanese Association for Acute Medicine Committee recently proposed a novel classification system for the severity of heat-related illnesses. The illnesses are simply classified into three stages based on symptoms and management or treatment. Stages I, II, and III broadly correspond to heat cramp and syncope, heat exhaustion, and heat stroke, respectively. Our objective was to examine whether this novel severity classification is useful in the diagnosis by healthcare professionals of patients with severe heat-related illness and organ failure. A nationwide surveillance study of heat-related illnesses was conducted between June 1 and September 30, 2012, at emergency departments in Japan. Among the 2130 patients who attended 102 emergency departments, the severity of their heat-related illness was recorded for 1799 patients, who were included in this study. In the patients with heat cramp and syncope or heat exhaustion (but not heat stroke), the blood test data (alanine aminotransferase, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and platelet counts) for those classified as stage III were significantly higher than those of patients classified as stage I or II. There were no deaths among the patients classified as stage I. This novel classification may avoid underestimating the severity of heat-related illness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0260.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Heat Wave; Heat-related illness; Early heat-health warning systems
Online: 18 July 2022 (10:14:10 CEST)
Exposure to extreme heat is a known risk factor that is associated with increased heat-related illness (HRI) outcomes. The relevance of heat wave definitions could change across the health conditions and geographies due to the heterogenous climate profile. This study compared the sensitivity of 28 heat wave definitions associated with HRI emergency department visits over five summer seasons (2011-2016), stratified by two physiographic regions (Coastal and Piedmont) in North Carolina. The HRI rate ratios associated with heat waves were estimated using the generalized linear regression framework assuming a negative binomial distribution. We compared the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) values across the heat wave definitions to identify an optimal heat wave definition. In the Coastal region, heat wave definition based on daily maximum temperature with a threshold >90th percentile for two or more consecutive days had the optimal model fit. In the Piedmont region, heat wave definition based on the daily minimum temperature with a threshold value >90th percentile for two or more consecutive days was optimal. Additionally, we observed that the optimal heat wave definitions from this study captured moderate and frequent heat episodes than the national weather service (NWS) heat products that worked best for extreme heat episodes. This study compared the HRI morbidity risk associated with epidemiologic-based heat wave definitions and with NWS heat products. Our findings could be used for public health education and suggest recalibrating NWS heat products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1617.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: heat transfer analysis; P4O10/TiO2 photocatalyst; CO2 reduction with NH3; black body material; infrared ray; mass transfer promotion
Online: 25 October 2023 (10:15:44 CEST)
Since the photocatalytic reaction is a surface reaction, enhancing the gas movement around photocatalyst would promote photocatalytic CO2 reduction performance. A new approach to enhance the gas movement around the photocatalyst by the natural thermosiphon movement of gasses around photocatalyst using black body material was proposed and confirmed experimentally, but the heat transfer mechanism on the phenomena was not clarified yet. The purpose of this study is to clarify the heat transfer mechanism of it. This study calculated the temperature of mixed gases of CO2 and NH3 around P4O10/TiO2 photocatalyst by the heat transfer formula. It is revealed that there was no difference between the increase temperature (Tg) from the temperature at the beginning of the CO2 reduction experiment (Tini) and the temperature of mixed gases of CO2 and NH3 measured by thermocouple in the experiment (Te) under the illumination condition with a visible light (VIS) + an infrared light (IR) and IR only. The heat transfer model proposed by this study has predicted Tg well under the illumination condition with VIS + IR and IR only well. On the other hand, it is revealed that the difference between Tg and Te was as large as 10 ℃ under the illumination condition with an ultra violet light (UV) + VIS + IR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0596.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Heat pipe, Particle size, Heat transfer, Thermal conductivity, Heat transfer coefficient
Online: 8 June 2023 (07:36:33 CEST)
This study examines the effects of particle size and heat pipe angle on the thermal effectiveness of a cylindrical screen mesh heat pipe using silver nanoparticles as the test substance. The experiment investigates three different particle sizes (30nm, 50nm, and 80nm) and four different heat pipe angles (0°, 45°, 60°, and 90°) on the heat transmission characteristics of the heat pipe. The results show that the thermal conductivity of the heat pipe increased with an increase in heat pipe angle for all particle sizes, with the highest thermal conductivity attained at a 90° heat pipe angle. Furthermore, the thermal resistance of the heat pipe decreased as the particle size decreased for all heat pipe angles. The thermal conductivity measurements of the particle sizes - 30, 50, and 80 nm - were 250 W/mK, 200 W/mK, and 150 W/mK, respectively. The heat transfer coefficient values for particle sizes 30nm, 50nm, and 80nm were 5500 W/m2K, 4500 W/m2K, and 3500 W/m2K, respectively. The study also found that the heat transfer coefficient increased with increased heat pipe angle for all particle sizes, with the highest heat transfer coefficient obtained at a 90° heat pipe angle.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0225.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Heat-stable proteins; Heat treatment; Hyperthermophilic proteins; Heat stability; Protein purification
Online: 9 August 2020 (22:00:46 CEST)
Proteins possess complex three-dimensional structures, and these structures are stable only within specific ranges of temperature which mostly correspond to the temperature ranges of the host organisms. However, few exceptional proteins, called heat-stable proteins, are stable at temperatures that are substantially higher than those tolerated by the host organisms themselves. Most of the heat-stable proteins possess heat stability to perform their functions at high temperatures, but some of them are intrinsically heat-stable due to their structure. Heat-stable proteins are usually divided into three or four groups depending upon the intricacies of their structures and thermal behaviors. Their peculiar property, i.e. heat-stability, makes them very valuable in applications such as polymerase chain reaction, industrial processes requiring high temperature, and protein engineering. Heat-stability also makes it feasible to purify such proteins, from the rest of the heat-labile proteins, using a simple heat-treatment method. Moreover, heat treatment can be used as a combined cell-lysis and protein purification step which, as compared to conventional methods, can result in a higher yield of heat-stable proteins. Furthermore, some special heat-stable proteins, i.e. intrinsically disordered proteins (which include the proteins involved in important neurodegenerative diseases), need heat-treatment step, in some cases, as the only way for their successful purification and study. Hence, this paper provides a first-ever comprehensive review of all major aspects of heat-stable proteins, i.e., their structure, evolution, classification, significance, and heat-treatment mediated purification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0778.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: environmental justice; urban heat island; extreme heat; heat vulnerability; public transportation infrastructure
Online: 12 June 2023 (07:05:42 CEST)
Extreme heat is a climate, public health, and environmental justice issue. This case study examined public transit exposure and vulnerability to extreme heat by investigating the microenvironment, land cover characteristics, and social vulnerability of heat-vulnerable bus stops in Knoxville, Tennessee. The community’s temperature and Heat Index information, bus stop point data, land cover characteristics data, and the microenvironment of bus stops (i.e., trees and shelters) were processed and mapped with ArcGIS Pro. The pictures of the microenvironment of the bus stop were collected from Google Maps, and the social vulnerability of the area where the bus stops are located was investigated by analyzing the Center for Disease and Prevention's Social Vulnerability Index. Results found that the most heat-vulnerable bus stops were concentrated in West Knoxville, South, North, Northeast, and Northwest Knoxville. In addition, the most heat-vulnerable bus stops were concentrated in commercial complexes and areas a large number of systematically marginalized populations reside.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1989.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: embedded cooling; microchannel; heat dissipation; heat exchange
Online: 28 June 2023 (10:26:07 CEST)
High in reliability, multi in function, strong in tracking and detecting, active phased array antennas have been widely applied in radar system. Heat dissipation is a major technological barrier preventing the realization of next-generation high-performance phased array antennas. As a result of the advancement of miniaturization and the in-tegration of microelectronics technology, the study and development of embedded di-rect cooling or heat dissipation has significantly enhanced the heat dissipation effect. In this paper, a novel swept-back fishnet embedded microchannel topology (SBFEMCT) is designed, and various microchannel models with different fishnet runner mesh den-sity ratios and different fishnet runner layers are established to characterize the chip Tmax, runner Pmax, and Tmax and analyze the thermal effect of SBFEMCT under these two operating conditions. The Pmax is reduced to 72.37% and 57.12% of the original at mesh density ratios of 0.5, 0.25, and 0.125, respectively. The maximum temperature reduction figures are average with little change in maximum velocity and a small increase in maximum pressure drop for the number of fishing mesh runner layers of 0-4. This paper provides a study of the latest embedded thermal dissipation from the dimension of a single chip to provide a certain degree of new ideas and ref-erences for solving the thermal technology bottleneck of next-generation high-performance phased array antennas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0767.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Thermal calculation; Convective-condensation heat transfer; Tubular condensing heat exchanger; Heat transfer; Mass transfer
Online: 13 September 2023 (02:33:55 CEST)
The condensing heat exchanger is commonly applied in various heat exchange systems. It can efficiently recover moisture and heat from the flue gas that contains water vapor. However, the convective-condensation heat transfer process is so complicated that no mature thermal calculation model is available. This study develops a thermal calculation model for the widely employed tubular condensing heat exchanger in industry. To characterize the degree of the heat and mass transfer, this study introduces two parameters, namely the sensible and latent heat transfer efficiencies of fin. The thermal calculations are conducted for the condensing heat exchangers reported in the literature to verify the proposed model by comparing it with the experimental data. The results show that the absolute error of the calculated sensible and latent heat transfer efficiencies is 0.0365 and 0.0268, respectively. Under the working conditions in this study, a maximum difference of 5.2 K has been acquired between the measured and calculated values of the outlet temperature. The relative error of the condensate water flowrate is mostly within ±5.0% and ±10.0% under the bare-tube and finned-tube conditions, respectively, with a maximum deviation of 0.7 and 1.4 kg h-1. This study provides a general model for designing and optimizing various tubular condensing heat exchangers accurately.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0804.v1
Subject: Engineering, Metallurgy And Metallurgical Engineering Keywords: heat treatment; quenching; heat transfer; heat transfer coefficient; Leidenfrost temperature; cooling section design; steel
Online: 11 May 2023 (05:38:14 CEST)
To achieve the required mechanical properties in the heat treatment of steel, it is necessary to have an adequate cooling rate and to achieve the desired final temperature of the product. This should be achieved with one cooling unit for different product sizes. In order to provide high variability of the cooling system, different types of nozzles are used in modern cooling systems. Designers often use simplified, inaccurate correlations to predict the heat transfer coefficient, resulting in oversizing of the designed cooling or failure to provide the required cooling regime. This typically results in longer commissioning times and higher manufacturing costs of the new cooling system. Accurate information about the required cooling regime and the heat transfer coefficient of the designed cooling is critical. This paper presents a design approach based on laboratory measurements. Firstly, the way to find or validate the required cooling regime is presented. The paper then focuses on nozzle selection and presents laboratory measurements that provide accurate heat transfer coefficients as a function of position and surface temperature for different cooling configurations. Numerical simulations using the measured heat transfer coefficients allow the optimum design to be found for different product sizes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1763.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: isothermal titration calorimetry; racemization heat; dilution heat; amino acids
Online: 26 June 2023 (09:12:29 CEST)
Chiral interactions play a crucial role in both chemistry and biology. Understanding the behavior of chiral molecules and their interactions with other molecules is essential, and chiral interactions in solutions are particularly important for studying chiral compounds. Chirality influences the physical and chemical properties of molecules, including solubility, reactivity, and biological activity. In this work, we used Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC), a powerful technique for studying molecular interactions, including chiral interactions in solutions. We conducted a series of ITC measurements to investigate the heat of dilution and the heat of racemization of several amino acids (Asn, His, Ser, Ala, Met, and Phe). We also performed ITC measurements under different solute concentrations and temperatures to examine the effects of these parameters on chiral interactions, as well as the heat of dilution and racemization. The results of our measurements indicated that the heat of dilution, specifically the interactions between the solvent (water) and solute (chiral molecules), had a significant impact compared to the chiral interactions in the solution, which were found to be negligible. This suggests that the interactions between chiral molecules and the solvent play a more dominant role in determining the overall behavior and properties of the system. By studying chiral interactions in solutions, we can gain valuable insights into the behavior of chiral compounds, which can have implications in various fields, including drug design, chemical synthesis, and biological processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1056.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Flame straightening; heat input; microstructure; toughness; welding heat input
Online: 27 April 2023 (07:31:24 CEST)
Abstract: The paper compares and analyses the effects of correctly and excessively executed heating cycles on flame straightening, far above the limits recommended by the steel manufacturer. The paperwork emphasizes the microstructural changes induced by overheating in the flame straightening process. Flame straightening is a flame heating process of metal constructions in which very limited areas of the construction are heated to the straightening temperature with the aim of inducing geometrical changes.The flame straightening process is used in most of metallic structure manufacturing companies. In many cases, it is not possible to carry out under economic conditions of metal structures without flame straightening.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0173.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: heat conduction; thermal properties; geothermal heat pump; damping depth
Online: 14 March 2022 (03:34:10 CET)
Undisturbed ground temperature (UGT), thermal conductivity (TC) and heat capacity (HC) are essential parameters for the design of borehole heat exchanger (BHE) and borehole thermal energy storage systems. However, field methods to assess the thermal state and properties of the sub-surface are costly and time consuming. Moreover, HC is often not evaluated but arbitrarily selected from literature considering the geological materials intercepted by boreholes. Therefore, this work aims at proposing a field heat tracing method to infer the thermal diffusivity (TD) and HC with assumption of natural transient heat conduction in the subsurface. Empirical equations were developed to reproduce a UGT profile measured along a BHE. Experimental coefficients are found with a non-linear least square solver optimization and used to calculate the damping depth and TD. Subsequently, the TD is used to evaluate HC considering TC obtained from a thermal response test (TRT). Results from this proposed heat tracing method were verified and validated against a set of TRT results and oscillatory TRT analysis using a field dual probe concept to infer HC. The example here described highlights the advantages and novelty of this fast and simple field method relying only on a single UGT profile measured before a TRT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1866.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Computational heat transfer; Coating; Feature combination; Machine learning; Heat-exchangers
Online: 26 May 2023 (05:38:40 CEST)
Cross flow heat exchangers are commonly used in the thermal industry to transfer heat from hot tubes to cooling fluid. To protect the heat exchanger tubes from corrosion and dust accumulation, microscale coatings are often applied. In this study, we present machine-learning models for predicting heat transfer from hot tubes with different micro-sized coatings to cooling fluid in a turbulent flow using computational fluid dynamics simulations. A dataset of approximately 1000 cases was generated by varying the coating coverage thickness of each tube, the inlet Reynolds number, fluid flow inlet temperature, and wall temperature of tubes. The machine-learning models were generated to predict the overall heat flow rate in the heat exchanger, and it was found that combining the features based on their importance preserved the accuracy of the models while maintaining all the relevant information. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method increases the coefficient of determination (R2) for the models. The R2 values for unseen data for Random Forest, K-Nearest Neighbors, and Support Vector Regression were 0.9810, 0.9037, and 0.9754, respectively, indicating the usefulness of the proposed model for predicting heat transfer in various types of heat exchangers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0327.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Thermodynamics Keywords: heat equation; relativistic heat equation; emergence of entropy; equipartition theorem
Online: 20 September 2021 (11:05:37 CEST)
Motivated by the well-known contradiction of special relativity and the heat equation, a wave equation for temperature scalar field is presented that also resolves the old controversy of (Lorentz) transformation of temperature and entropy. After showing that the current dogma of temperature and entropy being emergent concepts is based on but a logical fallacy, it is proposed that single particles posses entropy. This principle of fundamentality of entropy is then shown to be compatible with the equipartition theorem by yielding corrections in the quantum gravity regime.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0005.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: non-freezing; temperate lake; heat budget; heat storage; global warming
Online: 2 January 2018 (08:17:58 CET)
A temperate deep lake, Lake Kuttara, Hokkaido, Japan (148 m deep at maximum) was completely frozen every winter in the 20th century. However, unfrozen conditions of the lake over winter occurred four times in the 21st century, which is probably due to global warming. In order to understand how thermal regime of the lake responds to climate change, its heat storage change was calculated by estimating heat budget of the lake and monitoring water temperature at the deepest point for September 2012–June 2016. As a result, temporal change of the heat storage from the heat budget was very consistent with that from the direct temperature measurement (determination coefficient R2 = 0.827). The 1978–2017 data at a meteorological station near Kuttara indicated that there are significant (less than 5% level) long-term trends for air temperature (0.024 °C/yr) and wind speed (−0.010 m/s/yr). A sensitivity analysis for the heat storage from the heat budget estimate and an estimate of return periods for mean air temperature in mid-winter allow us to conclude that the lake could be unfrozen once per about two year in a decade.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0101.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: compact heat exchanger; louvered fins; heat transfer coefficient; friction factor
Online: 12 May 2017 (05:00:34 CEST)
The air side thermal hydraulic performance of multi-louvered aluminium fin heat exchangers is investigated. A detailed study was performed to analyse the thermal performance of air over a wide range of Reynolds number i.e. from 30 to 250. Air-side heat transfer coefficient and air pressure drop were calculated and validated over the mentioned band of Reynolds numbers. Critical Reynolds number was determined numerically and the variation in flow physics along with the thermal and hydraulic performance of microchannel heat exchanger associated with R_cri has been reported. Moreover, a parametric study of the multi-louvered aluminium fin heat exchangers was also performed for 36 heat exchanger configurations with the louver angles (19-31°), fin pitches (1.0, 1.2, 1.4 mm) and flow depths (16, 20, 24 mm); and the geometric configuration exhibiting the highest thermal performance was reported. The air-side heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop results for different geometrical configurations were presented in terms of Colburn j factor and Fanning friction factor f, as a function of Reynolds number based on louver pitch.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0250.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: surface heat fluxes; latent heat flux; sensible heat flux; tropics; extratropics; air-sea exchanges; lower atmosphere variables
Online: 25 August 2019 (14:39:40 CEST)
Ocean surface heat fluxes play a significant role in the genesis and evolution of various marine-based atmospheric phenomena, from the synoptic scale down to the microscale. While in-situ measurements from buoys and flux towers will continue to be the standard in regards to surface heat flux estimates, they commonly have significant gaps in temporal and spatial coverage. Previous and current satellite missions have filled these gaps; though they may not observe the fluxes directly, they can measure the variables needed (wind speed, temperature, and humidity) to estimate latent and sensible heat fluxes. However, current remote sensing instruments have their own limitations, such as infrequent coverage, signals attenuated by precipitation, or both. The Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) mission overcomes these limitations over the tropical and subtropical oceans by providing improved coverage in nearly all weather conditions. While CYGNSS (Level 2) primarily estimates surface winds, when coupled with observations or estimates of temperature and humidity from reanalysis data, it can provide estimates of latent and sensible heat fluxes along its orbit. This paper describes the development of the Surface Heat Flux Product for the CYGNSS mission, its current results, and expected improvements and changes in future releases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0627.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Non-headed Chinese cabbage; heat stress; physiological mechanism; heat-resistant varieties
Online: 9 May 2023 (09:40:07 CEST)
Under the increasingly severe global heat threat, continuous high temperature has far-reaching effects on plant growth and development and become a major constraint to crop production. The development of heat-resistant varieties has become research hotspot in many fields, and it is also necessary to establish effective identification methods. In this study, twenty Brassica rapa varieties were selected to to investigate the physiological and biochemical characteristics under heat stress, explore the relationship between physiological response and the heat resistance mechanism, select some typical heat-resistant and heat-sensitive varieties. The effects of photosynthetic electron transfer and antioxidant pathway on heat resistance of Brassica rapa were identified. These findings will providing an important reference for the physiological regulation and identification method of high-temperature stress in plants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0152.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: heat stress; air temperature; humidity; wind; heat wave; electrical fan; index
Online: 3 May 2023 (12:52:02 CEST)
Increasing wind speed alleviates physiological heat strain, however, health policies have advised against using ventilators or fans under heat wave conditions with air temperatures above the typical skin temperature of 35 °C. Recent research, mostly with sedentary participants, suggests mitigating effects of wind at even higher temperatures depending on the humidity level. Our study aimed at exploring and quantifying, whether such results are transferable to moderate exercise levels, and whether the Universal Thermal Climate Index UTCI reproduces those effects. We measured heart rates, core and skin temperatures and sweat rates in 198 laboratory experiments completed by five young, semi-nude, heat-acclimated, moderately exercising males walking the treadmill with 4 km/h on the level for three hours under widely varying temperature-humidity combinations and two wind conditions. We quantified the cooling effect of increasing wind speed from 0.3 to 2 m/s by fitting generalized additive models predicting the physiological heat stress responses depending on ambient temperature, humidity and wind speed. We then compared the observed wind effects to the assessment performed by UTCI. Increasing wind speed lowered physiological heat strain for air temperatures below 35 °C, but also for higher temperatures with humidity levels above 2 kPa water vapour pressure concerning heart rate and core temperature, and 3 kPa concerning skin temperature and sweat rate, respectively. UTCI assessment of wind effects correlated positively with the observed changes in physiological responses, showing the closest agreement (r=0.9) for skin temperature and sweat rate, where wind is known for elevating the relevant convective and evaporative heat transfer. These results demonstrate the potential of UTCI for adequately assessing sustainable strategies for heat stress mitigation involving fans or ventilators depending on temperature and humidity for moderately exercising individuals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0477.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: Laser power; Joule heat; Composite heat source; Temperature field; Additive manufacturing
Online: 30 December 2021 (07:16:03 CET)
The Laser Thermal-Joule Heating Composite Process was studied by orthogonal tests based on an analysis of fabrication parameters such as the laser power, wire feeding speed, and electric current. Temperature profiles and the geometric morphology of deposited layers under different process parameters were analyzed, and the overlaps between the layers and the substrate were observed. Results show that when the temperature at the bottom layer of the additive manufacturing is higher than the melting point of the substrate, and the highest temperature at the top layer does not exceed the over-firing temperature, good morphology and close bonding with the substrate can be obtained. Finally, appropriate process parameters were identified and verified to print multiple layers continuously.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0254.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Shallow geothermal, Borehole heat exchanger, Heat pump, Renewable energy, Applied thermogeology
Online: 27 February 2019 (11:58:26 CET)
When considering implementation of shallow geothermal energy as a renewable source for heating and cooling of the building, special care should be taken in hydraulic design of borehole heat exchanger system. Laminar flow can occur in pipes due to usage of glycol mixture at low temperature or inadequate flow rate. This can lead to lower heat extraction and rejection rates of the exchanger because of higher thermal resistances. Furthermore, by increasing flow rate to achieve turbulent flow and satisfactory heat transfer rate can lead to increase the pressure drop of the system and oversizing of circulation pump which leads to impairment of seasonal coefficient of performance at the heat pump. Most frequently used borehole heat exchanger system in Europe is double-loop pipe system with smooth inner wall. Lately, development is focused on implementation of different configuration as well as with ribbed inner wall which ensures turbulent flow in the system, even at lower flow rates. At a location in Zagreb, classical and extended thermal response test was conducted on three different heat exchanger configurations in the same geological environment. With classic TRT test, thermogeological properties of the ground and thermal resistance of the borehole were determined for each smooth or turbulator pipe configuration. Extended Steady-State Thermal Response Step Test (TRST) was implemented, which incorporate series of power steps to determine borehole extraction rate at the define steady-state heat transfer conditions of 0/-3°C. Results show that heat exchangers with ribbed inner pipe wall have advantages over classic double-loop smooth pipe design, in terms of greater steady state heat extraction rate and more favorable hydraulic conditions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0242.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: Metal-organic frameworks; heat transformation; low temperature heat; adsorbent; water adsorption.
Online: 13 July 2018 (15:32:52 CEST)
Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) are a subclass of porous materials that have unique properties such as varieties of structures from different metals and organic linkers, tunable porosity from a structure or framework design, etc. Moreover, modification/functionalization of the material structure could optimize the material properties and demonstrate high potential for a selected application. MOF materials exhibit exceptional properties and make these materials widely applicable including in energy storage and heat transformation applications. This review aims to give a broad overview of MOFs and their development as adsorbent materials having the potential for heat transformation applications. We summarize current investigations, developments, and possibilities of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) especially the tuning of the porosity and hydrophobic/hydrophilic design required for this specific application. These materials applied as adsorbent are promising in the thermal driven adsorption for heat transformation using water as working fluid and related application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0394.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: heat treatment; termite control; termites; Crytotermes brevis; wood pest; heat technology; non-chemical; pest management; condominium; temperature sensor
Online: 3 December 2021 (10:12:33 CET)
With heat treatments to control drywood termites (Blattodea: Kalotermitidae), the presence of heat sinks causes heat to be distributed unevenly throughout the treatment areas. Drywood termites may move to galleries in heat sink areas to avoid exposure to lethal temperatures. Our studies were conducted in Crytotermes brevis-infested condominiums in Honolulu, Hawaii to reflect real-world condominium scenarios; either a standard heat treatment performed by a heat remediation company or an improved heat treatment was used. For improved treatments, heated air was directed into the toe-kick voids of C. brevis infested cabinets to reduce heat sink effects and increase the heat penetration into these difficult-to-heat areas. Eight thermistor sensors placed inside toe-kick voids, treatment zone, embedded inside cabinets’ sidewalls, and in a wooden cube recorded target temperatures of above 46 °C or 50 °C for 120 minutes. A pretreatment and follow-up inspections were performed at 6 months posttreatment to monitor termite inactivity using visual observations and by recording the numbers of spiked peaks on a microwave technology termite detection device (Termatrac). In improved treatment condominiums, significantly higher numbers of spiked peaks were recorded at pretreatment as compared to 6 months posttreatment. Efficacious heat treatment protocols using the improved methods are proposed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1785.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: effective thermal conductivity; heat conduction; heat convection; damaged tree-like bifurcation network
Online: 27 October 2023 (11:00:32 CEST)
Due to the complexity of the microstructure of porous media, it is of great significance to explore the heat transport mechanism in porous media in many engineering applications. In this study, an expression for effective thermal conductivity（ETC） of porous media with randomly distributed damaged tree-like bifurcation networks is derived based on the theory of thermodynamics and fractal features of tree-like bifurcation networks. We investigate the effect of heat conduction and heat convection in porous media with randomly distributed damaged tree-like bifurcation networks on the ETC of the porous media. It is found that our fractal model is in good consistency with the existing available experimental data. In addition, the influence of the micro-structural parameters of the model on heat transfer in the porous media have been analyzed in detail. The research results can provide significant theoretical guidance for the development and design of heat transfer systems.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0882.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: testicular heat stress; NRF2; heme oxygenase; seasonal variantion; hyperthermia; scrotal heat stress
Online: 13 September 2023 (11:26:19 CEST)
Testicular heat stress is a well described phenomenon that occurs in mammals that possess a scrotum. Different models to induce testicular hyperthermia, such as surgical cryptorchidism, hot water bath, scrotal insulation or increased environmental temperature have all shown that spermatocytes and spermatids are unambiguously affected by high temperature, resulting in poor sperm production weeks later. Furthermore, a body of evidence suggest the involvement of oxidative stress is either a major or contributory pathway, which gives rise to the potential to overcome this condition. Whilst experimental models conclusively show the deleterious effect of testicular heat on sperm quality, the physiological relevance of the work is still debated. Herein we summarise a cohort of studies that report the effect of “season” on sperm quality. The data show season can affect sperm production, motility and morphology depending on where the work was performed. In countries where temperatures drop below zero, there is evidence showing summer conditions tend to improve semen quality. However, in sub-tropical countries, some studies show a decrease in summer, whilst others show no change. Herein we offer a reasonable explanation for this apparent controversy and present a range of antioxidant supplements that may offer some protection against testicular hyperthermia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1965.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Heat metering; Heat using behavior; Thermal comfort; Heating end valve; Operating window
Online: 29 August 2023 (09:32:09 CEST)
Heat using behavior has a large impact on in heating energy in heat metering system, and therefore a better understanding can assist in behavior guidance to reduce energy. To understand the current situation of indoor thermal environment and heat using behavior for heat metering households in northern China, including adjusting heating end valves and operating windows, 30 households were measured and surveyed. The factors influencing heat using behavior, including outdoor and indoor environmental parameters and time of the day, were analyzed. The results are :1) Thermal neutral temperature for heat metering households is relatively high, up to 24.5℃; 2) The heat using behavior of households is lack of rationality: low proportion of active households; high indoor temperature setting; more frequency of window opening. Improving indoor comfort is the main reason for households to adjust the heating end valve, and only 7.15% of households have considered the economic benefits brought by adjusting the valve. " Thermostat control valve does not work" is the main reason for households without adjustment; 3) Time of the day and indoor temperature affect active households’ willingness to adjusting heating end valve. Time of the day, indoor temperature and outdoor temperature have impacts on opening window during heating period.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0217.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: solar collection; solid structure; heat absorption analysis; collection heat analysis; reflection spectrum
Online: 8 June 2021 (12:06:13 CEST)
A solid structure, such as a road, building wall or envelop, used as a solar collector is considered an effective and new way to use renewable energy. This paper focused on the temperature characteristics of four structures exposed to sunshine: asphalt, red brick, composite cement and concrete road slab. Furthermore, the collected heat based on a hydraulic system was investigated experimentally. For the four structure slabs, their temperature differences are due to solar radiation absorption varied greatly by the material’s heat absorptance and color. Through the test, asphalt slab attained the highest temperature and had the weakest reflection among the structures. Compared with the others, the temperature of the asphalt slab was greater by 8.1%, 14.9% and 16.4% than the brick, composite cement and concrete, respectively. The reflection intensity growth ratio was defined and indicates the growth potential for absorbing radiation in the solid slab surface. From the experiments, it was concluded that a suitable selection of road materials can greatly improve the thermal absorption, conduction and penetration into the solid slab. The collected heat capability was approximately 250 W/m2 to 350 W/m2 in the natural summer condition. A black coating or a surface modification can collect more heat, reaching greater than 250 W/m2. The solar collecting heat efficiency with a surface configuration of the road slab can reach above 30% in the summer time.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0501.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Energy Efficiency Ratio; Economic Impact, heat engine; heat pump; Coefficient of Performance
Online: 22 October 2018 (14:03:54 CEST)
Three-temperature heating systems consist of a heat engine and a heat pump, enabling thus maximum usage of the primary thermal source for the heating of buildings. This analysis has revealed obvious advantages and disadvantages that the combining of thermodynamic systems has in future development, also with respect to environmental and economic issues. It appears that the combination of a Stirling engine or a similar heat drive with a heat pump is especially suitable. In order to analyze the effectiveness of such a system, a comprehensive calculation procedure is used: its basis lies in accounting for all types of energy and their relationship to the original natural resource. The present paper aims to point out that the combination of Stirling engine and a heat pump is a useful solution thanks to the most favorable resultant economic impact if compared to the usage of a diesel, four-stroke gas, or, most commonly used, electric drive.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0414.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: superhydrophobic surface treatment; electric vehicle; heat pump; microchannel heat exchanger; coefficient of performance
Online: 4 August 2023 (11:36:40 CEST)
Battery-powered electric vehicles (EVs) have emerged as an environmentally friendly and efficient alternative to traditional internal combustion engine vehicles, while their single-charge driving distances under cold conditions are significantly limited due to the high energy consumption of heating systems. Heat pumps can provide an effective heating solution for EVs, but their coefficient of performance (COP) is hampered by heat transfer deterioration due to frost accumulation. This study proposes a solution to this issue by introducing a microchannel heat exchanger (MHE) with superhydrophobic surface treatment (SHST) as a heat pump evaporator. A computational-fluid-dynamics MHE model and a dynamic heat pump model are developed and rigorously validated to examine the detrimental impact of frost accumulation on heat transfer, airflow resistance, and heat pump performance. When the frost layer thickness is 0.8 mm at a given air-side velocity of 1.0 m/s, the air-side heat transfer coefficient can be reduced by about 75%, and the air-side pressure drop sharply increases by 28.4 times. As frost thickness increases from 0 to 0.8 mm, the heating effect drops from 3.97 to 1.82 kW, and the system COP declines from 3.17 to 2.30. Experimental results show that the frost thickness of the MHE with SHST reaches approximately 0.4 mm after 30 minutes, compared to that of 0.8 mm of the MHE without SHST, illustrating the defrosting capability of the superhydrophobic coating. The study concludes by comparing the performance of various heating methods in EVs to highlight the advantages of SHST technology. As compared to traditional heat pumps, the power consumption of the proposed system is reduced by 48.7% due to the defrosting capability of the SHST. Moreover, the single-charge driving distance is extended to 327.27 km, an improvement of 8.99% over the heat pump without SHST.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0002.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Isobaric expansion engines; heat driven pump; compressors; low-grade heat; mixed working fluids
Online: 1 July 2022 (03:59:26 CEST)
Economic expedience of waste heat recovery systems (WHRS), especially for low temperature difference applications, is often questionable due to high capital investments and long pay-back periods. By its simple design isobaric expansion (IE) machines could provide a viable pathway to utilize otherwise unprofitable waste heat streams for power generation and particularly for pumping liquids and compression of gases. Different engine configurations are presented and discussed. A new method of modelling and calculation of the IE process and efficiency is used on IE cycles with various pure and mixtures as a working fluid. Some interesting cases are presented. It is shown in this paper, that the simplest non-regenerative IE engines are efficient at low temperature differences between a heat source and heat sink. Efficiency of non-regenerative IE process with pure working fluid can be very high approaching Carnot efficiency at low pressure and heat source/heat sink temperature differences. Regeneration permits to increase efficiency of the IE-cycle to some extent. Application of mixed working fluids in combination with regeneration permits to significantly increase the range of high efficiencies to much larger temperature and pressure differences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0275.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Heat wave; satisfaction to community; social linkage; global warming; perception to heat wave
Online: 12 May 2021 (17:17:44 CEST)
The research examines the relationship between self-rated health situation and personal percep-tion of heat waves, and how social linkage of communities would be a moderator variable in residents’ perception of heat waves in Taiwan. This study uses the questionnaire conducted by Sinica “Responsive Capacity under Heat Wave: The Perspectives of the Locals”(2019), using OLS method for estimating the unknown parameters in multiple regression model. The author finds that the correlation of self-rated health situation and perception toward heat is significantly posi-tive. Also, social linkage in communities affects strongly as a moderator variable: While the sat-isfaction to with their community could reduce negative reaction to heat, contacts with neighbors could increase possibility people feel uncomfortable in high-temperature situation. This study ex-hibits the effects of social environment on community, and expects further related researches or practices to strengthen capability to resist heat wavesƒ for Taiwanese residents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0694.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Transpiration; PV Heat Conversion; Plant Heat Stress; Agrivoltaic system; Sustainable Integration; Thermal Analysis
Online: 29 July 2020 (11:20:25 CEST)
This paper shares some new information on the ambient temperature profile and the heat stress occurrences directly underneath ground-mounted Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Arrays (monocrystalline-based) focusing on different temperature levels. A common ground for this work lies on the fact that 10C increase of PV cell temperature results in reduction of 0.5% energy conversion efficiency thus any means of natural cooling mechanism would gain much benefit especially to the Solar Farm operators. Transpiration process plays an important role in the cooling of green plants where in average it could dissipate around 32.9% of the total solar energy absorbed by the leaf making it a good natural cooling mechanism. This condition is relatively applied for herbs specifically for this project, Orthosiphon Stamineus or generally known as Java Tea are used as the high value crops. The thermal process via convective heat and mass exchange of leaves with the environment is relevant for a better understanding of plant physiological processes in response to environmental conversion factors for a wide range of applications. An important fact for plant heat stress with respect to the Ambient temperature is that the range lies between 10 C to 15 C above the surrounding value. This heat stress condition is relatively important and should be modelled in crops-energy integration. Agrivoltaic concept is a system that combines commercial agriculture and photovoltaic electricity generation in the same space. The concept is in line with the Kyoto Protocol and the United Nation Sustainable Development Goals (UN-SDG) which highlights the clean energy and sustainable urban living. The integration of agrivoltaic systems would optimize the yield, improving clean system efficiency and solving the issue of land resource sustainability. The PV bottom surface temperature are the main source of dissipated heat as shown in the thermal images recorded at 5 minutes interval at 3 sampling time. Statistical analysis shows that the Thermal correlations for transpiration process and heat stress occurrences between PV bottom surface and plant height will be an important finding for large scale plant cultivation in agrivoltaic farms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0455.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Flying-fox, disaster management, heat events, heat stress, roost management, physiology, veterinary management.
Online: 24 September 2018 (12:28:19 CEST)
Flying-fox populations are increasingly threatened by heat events, starvation events and other stressors due to habitat clearing and human/flying-fox conflict.These factors are unlikely to resolve, meaning that a well-coordinated and timely approach to flying-fox disasters is imperative for the mitigation of further flying-fox population impacts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0063.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Capacity; Cooling and heating; CO2; Cycle performance; , EEV; Heat pump; Internal heat exchanger
Online: 11 December 2017 (12:30:52 CET)
Developing high performance HVAC system using natural refrigerants including carbon dioxide (CO2) has been important in respect of environmental preservation and associated technologies. Thus studies to optimize the HVAC (heating ventilation air conditioner) system using natural refrigerants through clarifying the cycle performance characteristics are necessary. The CO2 heat pump system using air and water sources was consisted to examine its performance characteristics, and by varying conditions of several factors that affect or characterize the system performance like the amount of refrigerant charge, EEV (electronic expansion valve) opening, and internal heat exchanger under cooling mode. The performance characteristics of CO2 heat pump system were tested by using an air enthalpy calorimeter. In the case of the CO2 heat pump system without internal heat exchanger, the opening of #3 EEV and #4 EEV was 60% and refrigerant charge amount was 5,600g. However, in the case of that with internal heat exchanger, the best performance was obtained when the opening of #2 EEV is 20%. From the present studies, it was observed that the performance variation and operational characteristics of the CO2 heat pump system were affected by design factors like refrigerant charge amount, EEV opening, and internal heat exchanger and thereby, the configuration on an optimal operation conditions of the system was enabled.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: dissipation; computing; fluctuations; heat; energy
Online: 13 May 2019 (10:00:55 CEST)
An increasing amount of electric energy is consumed by computers as they progress in function and capabilities. All of it is dissipated in heat during the computing and communicating operations and we reached the point that further developments are hindered by the unbearable amount of heat produced. In this paper we briefly review the fundamental limits in energy dissipation, as imposed by the laws of physics, with specific reference to computing and memory storage activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0022.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: heat stress; cruciferae; ONSEN; retrotransposon
Online: 2 May 2017 (04:58:58 CEST)
Transposable elements (TEs) are highly abundant in plant genomes. Environmental stress is one of the critical stimuli that activate TEs. We analyzed a heat-activated retrotransposon named ONSEN in cruciferous vegetables. The multiple copies of ONSEN-like elements (OLEs) were found in all the cruciferous vegetables that were analyzed. The copy number of OLE was abundant in Brassica oleracea, which includes cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussels sprout, and kale. Phylogenic analysis demonstrated that some OLEs transposed after the allopolyploidization of parental Brassica species. Furthermore, we found that the increasing number of OLEs in B. oleracea appeared to be induced transpositional silencing by epigenetic regulation, including DNA methylation. The results of this study would be relevant to the understanding of evolutionary adaptations to thermal environmental stress in different species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0183.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Pool boiling; Femtosecond laser; Anisotropic properties; Bubble dynamics; Heat transfer coefficient; Critical heat flux
Online: 4 December 2023 (12:17:43 CET)
The effects of anisotropic properties (wettability and roughness) on microgroove surfaces in pool boiling heat transfer using Novec-7100 as a working fluid were experimentally investigated. The idea of introducing the concept of anisotropic wettability in boiling experiments draws inspiration from biphilic surfaces. The investigation is also motivated by two-phase immersion cooling, which involves phase-change heat transfer by using dielectric liquid as a working fluid. Very few studies have focused on the effects of surfaces with anisotropic properties on boiling performance. Thus, this study aims to examine the pool boiling heat transfer performance on surfaces with microgroove-induced anisotropic properties under the saturation condition. A femtosecond laser–texturing method was employed to create microgroove surfaces with different groove spacing. The results indicated that anisotropic properties affected the heat transfer coefficient and critical heat flux. Relative to the plain surface, microgroove surfaces enhanced the heat transfer performance due to the increased number of bubble nucleation sites and higher bubble detachment frequency. An analysis of bubble dynamics under different surface conditions was conducted with the assistance of high-speed images. The microgroove surface with groove spacing of 100 μm maximally increased the BHTC by 37% compared to the plain surface. Finally, the CHF results derived from experiments were compared with related empirical correlations. Good agreement was achieved between the results and the prediction correlation.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: solid sensible heat storage; thermal calculation; fluid-solid coupling; heat transfer characteristics; experimental investigation
Online: 5 October 2020 (10:53:24 CEST)
Electric heating and solid thermal storage system (EHSTSS) is widely used in district clean heating and the flexibility adjustment of combined heat and power (CHP) unit. It has been an effective way to absorb renewable energy. Aiming at the thermal design calculation and experimental verification of EHSTSS, the thermal calculation and the heat transfer characteristics of the EHSTSS are investigated in this paper. Firstly, a thermal calculation method for the EHSTSS is proposed in the paper. The calculation flow and calculation method for key parameters of heating system, heat storage system, heat exchange system and fan-circulating system in the EHSTSS are studied. Then, the instantaneous heat transfer characteristics of the thermal storage system (TSS) in the EHSTSS are analyzed, and the heat transfer process of ESS is simulated by FLUENT software. The uniform temperature distribution in the heat storage and release process of the TSS verifies the good heat transfer characteristics of the EHSTSS. Finally, EHSTSS test verification platform is built, and the historical operation data of the EHSTSS is analyzed. During the heating and release thermal process, the maximum temperature standard deviation of each temperature measurement point is 28.3℃ and 59℃respectively. The correctness of the thermal calculation of the EHSTSS is verified.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0141.v2
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: heat pump; dynamic test method; seasonal performance factor; variable frequency drive; field approximation; energy label; air source heat pump; ground source heat pump
Online: 15 March 2019 (04:40:11 CET)
The growing market penetration of heat pumps indicates the need for a performance test method which better reflects the dynamic behavior of heat pumps. In this contribution, we developed and implemented a dynamic test method for the evaluation of the seasonal performance of heat pumps by means of laboratory testing. Current standards force the heat pump control inactive by fixing the compressor speed. In contrast, during dynamic testing, the compressor runs unfixed while the heat pump is subjected to a temperature profile. The profile consists of the different outdoor temperatures of a typical heating season based on the average European climate and also includes temperature changes to reflect the dynamic behavior of the heat pump. The seasonal performance can be directly obtained from the measured heating energy and electricity consumption making subsequent data interpolation and recalculation with correction factors obsolete. The method delivers results with high precision and high reproducibility and could be an appropriate method for a fair rating of heat pumps.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0108.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: heat loss; integrated energy system; concentrating solar power; low-carbon; heat storage tank; economical dispatch
Online: 4 December 2020 (12:05:58 CET)
With the development of energy internet, integrated energy system can effectively reduce carbon emissions and improve the utilization of renewable energy. In this paper, a low-carbon optimal scheduling model of integrated energy system considering heat loss of heat network pipeline is proposed. Based on the study of concentrating solar power (CSP) plant and heat storage tank (HS), an optimal scheduling model is established, which takes system operation cost, environmental pollution and penalty cost of abandoning wind and solar energy as objectives. Through the analysis of example results, it is proved that the model proposed in this paper can achieve the goal of reliable, low-carbon and economic operation of the system. At the same time, it shows that CSP unit can reduce the operation cost of system and increase energy coupling and utilization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0089.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: plate-fin and tube heat exchanger; air-side Nusselt number; different heat transfer coefficient in particular tube row; numerical simulation; CFD simulation; air heat pump
Online: 6 July 2022 (08:49:27 CEST)
The object of this work is to determine the correlation on the Nusselt number on the individual rows of a four-row tubular finned heat exchanger with continuous fins with a staggered tube arrangement using CFD modelling. Correlations for calculating Darcy-Weisbach friction factors on individual tube rows were also determined. Relationships for the Nusselt number and friction factor derived for the entire exchanger based on CFD modelling were compared with those available in the literature determined using experimental data. The maximum relative differences between the Nusselt number for a four-row exchanger determined experimentally and by CFD modelling are in the range from 22% for a Reynolds number based on a tube's outside diameter of 1,000 to 30% for a Reynolds number of 13,000. The maximum relative differences between the friction factor for a four-row exchanger determined experimentally and by CFD modelling are in the range of 50% for a Reynolds number based on a tube outer diameter of 1,000 to 10% for a Reynolds number of 13,000. The CFD modeling performed shows that in the range of Reynolds numbers based on hydraulic diameters from 150 to 1,400, the Nusselt number for the first row in a four-row finned heat exchanger is about 22% to 15% higher than the average Nusselt number for the entire exchanger. In the range of Reynolds number changes based on hydraulic diameter from 2,800 to 6,000, the Nusselt numbers on the first and second rows of tubes are close to each other. Correlations on Nusselt numbers and friction factors derived for individual tube rows can be used in the design of plate-fin and tube heat exchangers used in equipment such as air-source heat pumps, automotive radiators, air-conditioning systems and in air hot-liquid coolers. In particular, the correlations can be used to select the optimum number of tube rows in the exchanger.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1307.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: hay; straw; radiant heat; ignition temperature
Online: 18 August 2023 (07:54:31 CEST)
Hay and straw are commonly used materials in agriculture. They are organic materials and therefore flammable. This article examines the behaviour of hay and straw when exposed to radiant heat. The objective of this study is to experimentally determine the ignition temperature of hay and straw under the influence of radiant heat. The research investigates the effects of sample type (hay and straw) and sample quantity on the thermal degradation process, temperature increase within the samples, and ignition temperature of the samples as a function of time. The ignition temperature of hay was determined to be higher (407°C) compared to straw (380°C). The results did not demonstrate a significant correlation between sample type and the thermal degradation process or the ignition temperature of hay and straw.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1737.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: SOG; DRIE; heat dissipation; charging effect
Online: 26 July 2023 (05:27:19 CEST)
Anode bonding is a widely used method for fabricating devices with suspended structures, and this approach is often combined with deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) for releasing the device. However, the DRIE process with a glass substrate can potentially cause two critical issues: heat accumulation on the suspended surface and charging effects resulting from the reflection of charged particles from the glass substrate. In particular, for torsional bars with narrow width, the heat accumulated on the suspended surface may not dissipate efficiently, leading to photoresist burning and subsequently resulting in the fracture of the torsional bars. Moreover, once etching is finished through the silicon diaphragm, the glass surface becomes charged, and incoming ions are reflected towards the back of the silicon, resulting in the etching of the back surface. To address these issues, we proposed a method of growing silicon oxide on the back of the device layer. By designing, simulating, and fabricating electrostatic torsional micromirrors with common cavity silicon-on-glass (SOG) structures, we successfully validated the feasibility of this approach. This approach ensures effective heat dissipation on the suspended surface, even when the structure is over-etched for an extended period, and enables the complete etching of torsional bars without adverse effects due to the overheating problem. Additionally, the oxide layer can block ions from reaching the glass surface, thus avoiding the charging effect commonly observed in SOG structures during DRIE.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0118.v3
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Physical Chemistry Keywords: entropy; hydrogen bond network; specific heat
Online: 28 February 2020 (13:32:36 CET)
The purpose of this study is to check out the involvement of entropy in Mpemba effect. Provided that preheating of the water the cooling duration is reduced, we theoretically show that water gains more entropy when warmed and re-cooled to the original temperature.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0433.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: fermentation; bioreactor; heat transfer; mass transfer
Online: 24 August 2018 (11:34:14 CEST)
Fermenter is a vessel that maintains optimum environment for the development of significant microorganism used in large scale fermentation process and the commercial production of products like Alcoholic beverages, Enzymes, Antibiotics, Organic acids etc. The fermenter aims to produce biological product like vaccines and hormones, it is necessary to monitor and control the different parameters like external and internal mass transfer, heat transfer, fluid velocity, shear stress, agitation speed, aeration rate, cooling rate or heating intensity, and the feeding rate, nutrients, base or acid valve. Fermentation in the fermenter are accomplished in several configuration and these simple configurations are batch, fed-batch and continuous fermentation process. Fermentation process is carried out in small or large size fermenter depending on product quantity. The selection of the suitable process depends on the fermentation kinetics, type of microorganism used and process economic aspects. Improved modelling tools, reactor operation and reactor design in bioreactor is because of mass transfer behavior and it is important for reaction rate maximizing, throughput rates optimization and cost minimizing. The fermenter design, fermentation process, types of the fermenter that are used in industries and heat and mass transfer in fermenter is discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0056.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: intermediate heat treatment; boron; fabrication process
Online: 8 January 2018 (09:36:45 CET)
In this study, we evaluated the cold drawing workability of two kinds of modified 9Cr-2W steel containing different contents of boron and nitrogen, depending on the temperature and time of normalizing and tempering treatments. Using ring compression tests at room temperature, the effect of intermediate heat treatment condition on workability was investigated. It was found that the prior austenite grain size can be changed by the austenite transformation, and the grain size increases with increasing temperature during normalizing heat treatment. Alloy B and Alloy N showed different patterns after normalizing heat treatment. Alloy N had higher stress than Alloy B, and the reduction in alloy N increased, while the reduction in alloy B decreased. Alloy B showed a larger number of initially formed cracks and a larger average crack length than Alloy N. Crack length and number increased proportionally in Alloy B as the stress increased. Alloy B had lower crack resistance than Alloy N due to boron segregation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0083.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: nanofluid; numerical simulation; heat transfer; sedimentation
Online: 23 September 2016 (08:36:48 CEST)
In the present paper, laminar forced convection nanofluid flows in a uniformly heated horizontal tube were revisited by direct numerical simulations. Single and two-phase models were employed with constant and temperature-dependent properties. Comparisons with experimental data showed that the mixture model performs better than the single-phase model in the all cases studied. Temperature-dependent fluid properties also resulted in a better prediction of the thermal field. A particular attention was paid to the grid arrangement. The two-phase model was used then confidently to investigate the influence of the nanoparticle size on the heat and fluid flow with a particular emphasis on the sedimentation process. Four nanoparticle diameters were considered: 10, 42, 100 and 200 nm for both copper-water and alumina/water nanofluids. For the largest diameter dnp = 200 nm, the Cu nanoparticles were more sedimented by around 80 %, while the Al2O3 nanoparticles sedimented only by 2.5 %. Besides, it was found that increasing the Reynolds number improved the heat transfer rate, while it decreased the friction factor allowing the nanoparticles to stay more dispersed in the base fluid. The effect of nanoparticle type on the heat transfer coefficient was also investigated for six different water-based nanofluids. Results showed that the Cu-water nanofluid achieved the highest heat transfer coefficient, followed by C, Al2O3, CuO, TiO2, and SiO2, respectively. All results were presented and discussed for four different values of the concentration in nanoparticles, namely φ = 0, 0.6, 1 and 1.6%. Empirical correlations for the friction coefficient and the average Nusselt number were also provided summarizing all the presented results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1338.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: District heating; Electrification; power-to-heat; Balancing markets; Techno-economic analysis; Helsinki metropolitan area; heat pump
Online: 22 November 2023 (07:41:13 CET)
Finnish government's carbon neutrality goal by 2035 requires integration of renewable energy sources into the power grid. Considering the stochasticity of these resources, additional sources of flexibility are necessary to balance supply and demand in the power grid. District heating network (DHN) operators in Finland plan to shut down fossil-fuel-based combined heat and power plants and electrify heating systems by deploying heat pumps (HPs) and electric boilers. Techno-economic analysis and optimal operation of DHN-connected HPs and electric boilers in providing ancillary balancing services considering the 15-minute granularity in the balancing markets in Finland were investigated. The objective was to maximize the potential revenue for DHN operators gained from the day-ahead electricity market and frequency containment reserve (FCR) balancing markets. Three inter-connected DHNs in the Helsinki metropolitan area were optimized considering the reference year 2019 and each operator's decarbonization strategies for 2025. HPs could gain the highest profit from FCR-D up-regulation market, while the electric boiler may gain considerable profits from FCR-D down-regulation market. Compared to other balancing markets studied, the FCR-N market had a limited profit margin. Sensitivity analysis indicated that spot electricity prices and CO2 emission allowance prices have a significant impact on the profit from balancing markets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0098.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Aluminium bronze with -transformation; Cu-11Al-6Fe bronze; heat treatment; mechanical characteristics; optimisation of heat treatment
Online: 1 November 2023 (14:48:59 CET)
Aluminium bronzes possess a unique combination of high strength and wear and corrosion resistance in aggressive environments; thus, these alloys find wide application in marine, shipbuilding, aviation, railway, offshore platform applications and other fields. Iron-aluminium bronzes (IABs) are the cheapest and most widely used. When the aluminium content is above 9.4 wt%, IAB is biphasic (i.e. it undergoes -transformation) and can be subjected to all heat-treatment types depending on the desired operating behaviour of the bronze component. This article presents correlations (mathematical models) between the primary mechanical characteristics (yield limit, tensile strength, elongation, hardness and impact toughness) and the ageing temperature and time of quench at 920°C in water Cu-11Al-6Fe bronze, obtained using the centrifugal casting method. The microstructure evolution was evaluated depending on the ageing temperature and time changes. Overall, the research was conducted in three successive inter-related stages: a one-factor-at-a-time study, planned experiment, and optimisations. Four optimisation tasks, which have the greatest importance for practice, were formulated and solved. The defined multiobjective optimisation tasks were solved by searching for the Pareto-optimal solution approach. The decisions were made through a nondominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) using QstatLab. The optimisation results were verified experimentally. Additional samples were made for this purpose, quenched at 920°C in water and subjected to subsequent ageing with the optimal values of the governing factors (ageing temperature and time) for the corresponding optimisation task. The comparison of the results for the mechanical characteristics with the theoretical optimisation results presents good agreement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0091.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Ground coupled Heat Exchangers; Thermal Response Test; Thermal conductivity; Thermal diffusivity; Geotechnical properties; Borehole heat exchangers
Online: 11 February 2019 (16:13:18 CET)
The performance of ground heat exchangers systems depends on the knowledge of the thermal parameters of the ground like thermal conductivity, thermal capacity and diffusivity. The knowledge of these parameters often requires quite accurate experimental analysis, known under the name of Thermal Response Test (TRT). In this paper, after a general analysis of the various available types of TRT and the study of the theoretical basics of the method, the perspective of the definition of a simplified routine method of analysis based on the combination of a particular version of TRT and the routine geotechnical tests for the characterization of soil stratigraphy and of the ground characteristics, mandatory before the construction of a new buildings, even if limited to quite short drilling depth (lower than 30 m). The idea of developing TRT in connection with geotechnical test activity has the objective of promoting a widespread use of in-situ experimental analysis and of reducing TRT costs and time duration of the experimental analysis. The considerations exposed in the present paper lead to reconsider a particular variety of the TRT in particular the version known as Thermal Response Test while Drilling (TRTWD).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0288.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: solar energy; geothermal energy; seasonally thawed layer; thermosyphon; heat flux; performance indicator; near-surface layer; heat shielding
Online: 17 December 2021 (12:37:39 CET)
We have suggested earlier a new sustainable method for permafrost thermal stabilization that combines passive screening of solar radiation and precipitation with active solar-powered cooling of the near-surface soil layer thus preventing heat penetration in depth. Feasibility of this method has been shown by calculations, but needed experimental proof. In this article, we are presenting the results of soil temperature measurements obtained at the experimental implementation of this method outside of the permafrost area which actually meant higher thermal loads than in Polar Regions. We have shown that near-surface soil layer is kept frozen during the whole summer, even at air temperatures exceeding +30°C. Therefore, the method has been experimentally proven to be capable of sustaining soil frozen even in more extreme conditions than expected in permafrost areas. In addition to usual building and structure thermal stabilization, the method could be used to prevent the development of thermokarst, gas emission craters, and landslides; greenhouse gases, chemical, and biological pollution from the upper thawing layers at least in the area of human activities; protection against coastal erosion; and permafrost restoration after wildfires. Using commercially widely available components, the technology can be scaled up for virtually any size objects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0502.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: BTMS; Refrigerant Cooling; Evaporation heat transfer; EVs
Online: 7 December 2023 (17:10:58 CET)
This paper proposes a simulation technique for investigating the battery thermal management system based direct refrigerant cooling (BTMS-DRC). It employs finite element method for a combined-conduction-convection heat transfer to predict the module temperature and to prove the temperature uniformity. The refrigerant side cooling is based on the two-phase flow evaporation which is represented by the convection heat transfer (flow evaporation) under a certain refrigerant saturation temperature. The battery heat generation is modeled as the constant heat flux. The main module is modeled as the conduction heat transfer. The real BTMS-DRC is constructed for experimentation with the test bench which is based on the dual-evaporators vapour compression refrigeration system. The simulated result is validated with the experimental results to ensure the correction of the modelling. The simulation also investigates the impact of the heat generation, convection heat transfer coefficient, refrigerant saturation temperature, and thermal conductivity on the module temperature and temperature uniformity. It is found that the simulated results agree well with the experimental results. The errors are around 2.9 - 7.2% throughout the specified working conditions. Overall, the proposed technique can be used as a design tool for further developing the BTMS-DRC.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1728.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: Geothermal power; coatings; heat exchangers; corrosion, fouling
Online: 27 October 2023 (02:37:35 CEST)
Geothermal energy is likely to be a significant contributor in achieving sustainable energy goals and net-zero emissions targets. Within geothermal power plants, heat exchangers play a critical role in harnessing this renewable energy source. However, these heat exchangers encounter significant challenges when exposed to geothermal fluids, including erosion, corrosion, and scaling, which adversely affects their performance and longevity. The current review focuses on surface engineering techniques, particularly coatings, as a highly effective and economically viable solution to address these challenges in geothermal heat exchangers. The review begins by providing an overview of geothermal energy, its significance in the context of sustainability and the important role played by heat exchangers in geothermal power generation, followed by the challenges and their impact on heat exchangers. The subsequent section focuses on surface engineering by coatings and its types employed to enhance the performance of heat exchangers. In the final part, the reader is presented with an overview of the challenges associated with the application of coatings in geothermal heat exchangers and potential future directions in this field. This review offers a detailed understanding of the critical role coatings play in improving the efficiency and service life of heat exchangers in geothermal power plants.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2178.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: mortality; sepsis; shock; heat shock protein 27
Online: 31 May 2023 (07:15:28 CEST)
Is HSP-27 an emerging marker of good prognosis in septic shock patients – a pilot study Objective To estimate the value of serum changes of C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, presepsin, heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in assessing the prognosis in patients with septic shock (SS) treated in intensive care unit. Methods The SS was diagnosed and treated in accordance with the guidelines of the Surviving Sepsis Campaign. 37 selected adult patients with SS were included. Serum concentrations of biomarkers were measured at admission and daily for 4 consecutive days (time points T0,T1, T2, T3 and T4 respectively). The mortality rate was determined 28 days after admission. Patients were divided into survivor and non-survivor groups according to their mortality. The differences between the levels of biomarkers at the T0 and T4 time points were analyzed. Results The mean value of the SOFA score on admission was 11.7 ± 2.7, and the APACHE II scale 29.9 ± 6.85. Nine patients died. Univariate logistic analysis revealed that changes between T0 and T4 time points of presepsin, procalcytonin, and HSP27 were associated with prognosis. A multivariate Cox analysis showed that an increase in HSP27 on T4 was the only independent predictor of good prognosis in SS patients. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve for HSP27 was 0.785. Kaplan–Meier analysis showed that the mortality was lower (p=0.014) in patients who had an increase in HSP27 on T4 compared to those whose serum HSP27 did not increase on T4. Conclusions The increase of HSP27 level on the 4th day predicts favorable outcome in SS patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1157.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: neonicotinoids; imidacloprid; heat treatment; rice; drinking water
Online: 28 April 2023 (09:45:10 CEST)
Neonicotinoids (NEOs) have become the most widely used insecticides in the world since the mid-1990s. According to Chinese dietary habits, rice and water are usually heated before being consumed, but the information about the alteration through the heat treatment process is very limited. In this study, the parents of NEOs (p-NEOs) accounted for >99% of the total NEOs mass (∑NEOs) in both uncooked (median: 66.8 ng/g) and cooked (median: 41.4 ng/g) rice samples from Guangdong Province, China, while the metabolites of NEOs (m-NEOs) involved in this study accounted for less than 1%. We aimed to reveal the concentration changes of NEOs through heat treatment process, thus, several groups of rice and water samples from Guangdong were cooked and boiled, respectively. Significant (p < 0.05) reductions in acetamiprid, imidacloprid (IMI), thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam (THM) have been observed after the heat treatment of the rice samples. In water samples, the concentrations of THM and dinotefuran decreased significantly (p < 0.05) after the heat treatment. These results indicate the degradation of p-NEOs and m-NEOs during the heat treatment process. However, the concentrations of IMI increased significantly in tap water samples (p < 0.05) after heat treatment process, which might be caused by the potential IMI precursors in those industrial pesticide products. The concentrations of NEOs in rice and water can be shifted by the heat treatment process, so this process should be considered in relevant human exposure studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0334.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Chemical Engineering Keywords: surface roughening; heat pipe; annealing twin; texture
Online: 20 February 2023 (09:06:52 CET)
Thin-wall heat pipe is an efficient heat transfer component, which has been widely used in the field of heat dissipation of high-power electronic equipment in recent years. In this study, the orange peel morphology defect of thin-wall heat pipes after bending deformation was analyzed both for the macro 3D profile and for the micro-formation mechanism. The results show that after high temperature sintering treatment, the matrix grains of heat pipe are coarsened seriously and formed a strong Goss texture, while a certain annealing twins with the unique Copper orientation are retained. The distribution of Schmid factor value subjected to the uniaxial stress indicate the inhomogeneity of intergranular deformation exist among the annealing twins and matrix grains. The annealing twin exhibit a “hard-oriented” component during the deformation; thus, it plays a role as barrier and hinder the slipping of dislocation. As the strain accumulates, part of the annealing twins may protrude from the surface of heat pipe, forming a large-scale fluctuation of the surface as the so called the “orange peel” morphology. The 3D profile shows the bulged twins mostly perpendicular to the drawing direction, with about 200-300μm in width and 10-20μm in height.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0476.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Adiabatic; figure of merit; Heat engine; Single
Online: 26 December 2022 (06:50:12 CET)
A quantum Otto engine with a single ion harmonic oscillator as its working substance is studied for an adiabatic operation at high and low temperature limits. Using the universal optimization method, the heat engine is effectively optimized and found to yield better working conditions in some ranges of temperature ratios. Accordingly, the figure of merit, ψ, is found to be greater than unity in the range: 0<β2β1≤0.12; showing that the heat engine performs better in the optimized condition than in the maximum power working condition. ψ is determined to be less than one in the range 0.12≤β2β1≤0.35 under the same temperature limit ; depicting that the maximum power working condition is preferred to the optimized working condition. On the other hand, in the low temperature limit, the figure of merit, ψ, is found to be greater than unity in the range 3.7<ω1ω2≤18; revealing that optimized working condition is better than the maximum power working condition for the heat engine. In the same temperature limit, ψ is found to be less than one in the range 0≤ω1ω2≤3.7; showing that maximum power working condition is preferred to the optimized one. For the model of heat engine studied, in some ranges of temperature ratio, it is found to work better in the optimized condition, whereas in the other ranges it performs better under the maximum power working condition. So, it is possible to switch the engine between the two conditions depending on one’s need.