Othman, N.F.; Yaacob, M.E.; Mat Su, A.S.; Jaafar, J.N.; Hizam, H.; Shahidan, M.F.; Jamaluddin, A.H.; Chen, G.; Jalaludin, A. Modeling of Stochastic Temperature and Heat Stress Directly Underneath Agrivoltaic Conditions with Orthosiphon Stamineus Crop Cultivation. Agronomy2020, 10, 1472.
Othman, N.F.; Yaacob, M.E.; Mat Su, A.S.; Jaafar, J.N.; Hizam, H.; Shahidan, M.F.; Jamaluddin, A.H.; Chen, G.; Jalaludin, A. Modeling of Stochastic Temperature and Heat Stress Directly Underneath Agrivoltaic Conditions with Orthosiphon Stamineus Crop Cultivation. Agronomy 2020, 10, 1472.
This paper shares some new information on the ambient temperature profile and the heat stress occurrences directly underneath ground-mounted Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Arrays (monocrystalline-based) focusing on different temperature levels. A common ground for this work lies on the fact that 10C increase of PV cell temperature results in reduction of 0.5% energy conversion efficiency thus any means of natural cooling mechanism would gain much benefit especially to the Solar Farm operators. Transpiration process plays an important role in the cooling of green plants where in average it could dissipate around 32.9% of the total solar energy absorbed by the leaf making it a good natural cooling mechanism. This condition is relatively applied for herbs specifically for this project, Orthosiphon Stamineus or generally known as Java Tea are used as the high value crops. The thermal process via convective heat and mass exchange of leaves with the environment is relevant for a better understanding of plant physiological processes in response to environmental conversion factors for a wide range of applications. An important fact for plant heat stress with respect to the Ambient temperature is that the range lies between 10 C to 15 C above the surrounding value. This heat stress condition is relatively important and should be modelled in crops-energy integration. Agrivoltaic concept is a system that combines commercial agriculture and photovoltaic electricity generation in the same space. The concept is in line with the Kyoto Protocol and the United Nation Sustainable Development Goals (UN-SDG) which highlights the clean energy and sustainable urban living. The integration of agrivoltaic systems would optimize the yield, improving clean system efficiency and solving the issue of land resource sustainability. The PV bottom surface temperature are the main source of dissipated heat as shown in the thermal images recorded at 5 minutes interval at 3 sampling time. Statistical analysis shows that the Thermal correlations for transpiration process and heat stress occurrences between PV bottom surface and plant height will be an important finding for large scale plant cultivation in agrivoltaic farms.
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