ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0273.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: 18S; Cryptosporidium; dairy cattle; gp60; genotyping; prevalence
Online: 19 October 2021 (11:54:33 CEST)
Cryptosporidium is comprised an apicomplexan parasitic protist, which infects a wide range of hosts, causing cryptosporidiosis. In cattle farms, the incidence of cryptosporidiosis results in high mortality in calves leading to considerable economic loss in the livestock industry. Infected animals may also act as a major reservoir of Cryptosporidium spp., in particular C. parvum, the most common cause of cryptosporidiosis in calves. This poses a significant risk to other farms via breeding centres, to trading of livestock and to human health. This study, funded by the Interreg-2-seas programme, is a part of a global project aimed at strategies to tackle cryptosporidiosis. To reach this target, it was essential to determine whether prevalence was dependent on the studied countries or if the issue was borderless. Indeed, C. parvum occurrence was assessed across dairy farms in certain regions of Belgium, France and the Netherlands. At the same time, the animal-to-animal transmission of the circulating C. parvum subtypes was studied. To accomplish this, 1084 faecal samples, corresponding to 57 dairy-farms from all three countries, were analysed. Well-established protocols amplifying the 18S rDNA and gp60 genes fragments, followed by DNA sequencing, were used for the detection and subtyping C. parvum; the DNA sequences obtained were further characterised using a combination of bioinformatics and phylogenetics methods. Our results show 25.7%, 24.9% and 20.8% prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in Belgium, France and the Netherlands respectively. Overall, 93% of the farms were Cryptosporidium positive. The gp60 subtyping demonstrated a significant number of the C. parvum positives belonged to the IIa allelic family, which has been also detected in humans. Consequently, this study highlights how widespread is C. parvum in dairy farms and endorses cattle as a major carrier of zoonotic C. parvum subtypes, which subsequently pose a significant threat to human health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0107.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Coxiella burnetii; dairy cattle; beef cattle; grazing; ELISA; IS1111
Online: 5 September 2020 (03:47:14 CEST)
This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of Coxiella burnetii infection according to cattle breeds and growth types. A total of 491 cattle [cattle breed: 216 dairy cattle and 275 beef cattle; according to growth type: indoor housing (n = 294) and grazing (n = 197)] were tested for the presence of C. burnetii DNA and antibodies against C. burnetii using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Overall, 10.8% and 8.8% of the cattle were positive by PCR and for C. burnetii antibodies, respectively. The prevalence of C. burnetii was significantly higher in beef cattle than in dairy cattle using PCR (13.6% vs 7.4%; P = 0.032) and ELISA (14.6% vs 1.4%; P = 0.000), respectively. The overall infection rate of C. burnetii was significantly high in grazing cattle (PCR: 24.9%, ELSIA: 21.3%; P = 0.000) compared with housing cattle (PCR: 1.4%, ELISA: 0.3%). The results indicate that beef cattle have a significantly higher risk of contracting C. burnetii infection compared with dairy cattle (21.5% vs. 7.9%, χ2 = 5.82, P = 0.000, odds ratio = 3.197, 95% CI: 1.80-5.67). In addition, the infection of C. burnetii was significantly associated with grazing (P = 0.000). Moreover, a risk of contracting C. burnetii infection in grazing cattle was increased by 32.57-fold (95% CI: 12.84-82.60, P = 0.000) compared with indoor housed cattle. The phylogenetic analysis based on the IS111 gene revealed that our isolates were grouped together with humans, ticks, goats, and cattle isolates found in several countries. C. burnetii isolates circulating in the Republic of Korea exhibit genetic variations. Consequently, our results suggest that cattle are potential reservoirs for C. burnetii infection and most importantly, grazing acts as a high risk factor for the occurrence and transmission of this infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0354.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: biogas; black soldier fly; dairy cattle manure; digestate; solid-state anaerobic digestion
Online: 29 December 2018 (05:20:37 CET)
This study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of applying a two-step biological treatment process, solid-state anaerobic digestion (SSAD) and black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) composting, for treating dairy cattle manure. Biogas from SSAD of dairy cattle manure, and the digestate of SSAD was fed to BSFL. In turn, BSFL can be fed to animals as a protein supplement. Adjustment of pH and 30% inoculation ratio (IR30) during SSAD produced the highest theoretical methane yield, 626.1±28.7 L CH4/kg VSdes, with an ultimate methane yield of 96.81±2.0 L CH4/kg VSload. For BSFL composting, the groups with a feeding rate of 75 and 100 mg/day/larvae had the highest body weight change, which was 969.6±28.4 and 984.1±177.6%, respectively. The combination process of SSAD and BSFL composting increases the incentive for dairy cattle manure treatment enabled higher waste removal efficiency, and produced more valuable products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0050.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: antibiotics residue; antimicrobial resistance; ethno-veterinary practices; Herbal formulations; cattle health; dairy farmers; cost effective health care model
Online: 4 January 2021 (13:56:26 CET)
This study demonstrated that antibiotic residue in milk can be reduced when dairy farmers use Ethno-veterinary Practices (EVP) based on herbal alternatives to prevent and cure common clinical conditions in cattle instead of antibiotics. Of the 220 farmers selected for the study, 140 were trained and motivated to use validated herbal formulations, 80 were kept as control. Milk samples from the selected farmers (except Thirukanurpatti milk society) tested positive for antibiotic residue in the baseline survey. One year after interventions, the milk from 123 (87.86%) farmers out of 140, were without any detectable antibiotic residue, while samples from 11 farmers (7.85%) were low positive for either Beta-lactams or sulphonamides and 6 (4.29%) were positive for Beta lactams and/or sulphonamides. These 17 (11 + 6) farmers had used antibiotics along with herbal formulations. The milk samples from the control groups were positive for beta lactam and sulphonamide. There was suggestive significance of change in knowledge, attitude and practice of EVP among the farmers from Kerala and Tamil Nadu. A progressive reduction in the incidence of mastitis, enteritis, repeat breeding and cowpox were observed from 2016 to 2019 among the cows treated with EVP. Use of herbal alternative also resulted in a significant reduction in health care expenditure of cattle.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0216.v1
Online: 13 August 2018 (06:27:29 CEST)
The Mozambican dairy industry landscape is not well known because the research about it presents numerous inconsistencies. These inconsistencies are possibly due to miscommunication between scholars, entrepreneurs, the government and other actors, besides major events such as the civil war and policy changes and overall lack of coordination. This study aimed to catalog and relate the major studies and findings in the Mozambican dairy research, contextualize them historically, analyze the implications and provide hints for future researchers. Dairy research seemed intimately related to the industry’s development, and it has been dependent on the country’s sociopolitical changes and opportunities. Social and economic studies are more abundant, perhaps because the dairy industry is emerging, thriving to stand out in a very competitive environment, but there are also studies in applied sciences, especially microbiology and chemistry. There are promising directions to follow such as the improvement of herding techniques (e.g. feeding, disease control), multidisciplinary synergies or exploration of traditional dairy products such as masse. Also, it would be important for institutions to share their research through electronic platforms, even the information published prior to the existence of the worldwide web.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0397.v1
Online: 19 August 2021 (10:30:53 CEST)
Background: The dairy industry heavily relies on fermentation processes driven in high proportion by Lactococcus lactis. The fermentation process can be perturbed or even stopped by bacteriophage activity leading to complete loss of fermentation batch or decreased quality product. Monitoring of the phage diversity and dynamics in the process allows to implement protective measures (e.g. starter rotation) in order to maintain unperturbed production.; Methods: Universal primers were used to amplify sequences of the 936, c2, and P335 Lactococcus phage types. The amplicons were sequences with Sanger method and obtained degenerate sequences were analyzed using simple bioinformatic pipeline in R environment.; Results: The most prevalent phage type is 936, followed by P335, whereas c2 type is less frequent.; Conclusions: Curd cheeses prepared on non-pasteurized milk based on native milk microbiota had higher diversity of phages distinct of these found in dairy plants. Sanger sequencing of heterogenous amplicons generated on metagenome DNA can be used to asses low-complexity microbiota diversity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0743.v1
Online: 31 July 2020 (10:32:09 CEST)
Cryptosporidiosis is a common illness in young cattle that causes high morbidity and some mortality. A common prophylactic treatment are halofuginone products but it seems likely disease could be reduced by other other pharmacological products or some management strategies. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analyses on key outcomes for treatment of calves before and after 5 days of age with any management strategy, any nutritional strategy or any non-halofuginone product. A systematic literature search was undertaken with data extracted for outcomes = oocyst shedding, diarrhea, mortality and weight gain. Experiments had to describe results for same age animals in contemporary arms. Control animals had to be observed concurrently in planned experiments (pre-post and case-control studies were not eligible). Both randomized and other clinically controlled trials were eligible. Results were subgrouped by study design and outcomes were described in detail where at least two articles described the same treatment strategy. 55 articles were found. Significantly lower incidence of oocyst shedding, diarrhea burden and mortality was reported in many experimental arms, especially when animals started treatment before 5 days old. Weight gain was not mostly affected by treatment, however, by three weeks of age. The evidence base is at least encouraging but insufficient about paromomycin, bumped kinase inhibitors and azithromycin treatment, especially for diarrhea and oocyst shedding, given late or early. Azithromycin is the most promising of these.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0356.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: experimental sensor; dairy cows; abomasal displacement
Online: 16 July 2020 (13:17:00 CEST)
The aim of the current study was to determine the effectiveness of two surgical techniques regarding the cow respiratory rates, heart rates, and rumination time using two sensors: an experimental device that was created by the Institute of Biomedical Engineering of Kaunas University of Technology (Lithuania) and the “SCR” (SCR Engineers Ltd., Netanya, Israel) system. The cows were divided into two groups: PA1—cows treated by percutaneous abomasopexy (n = 10), and RSO2—cows treated by right side omentopexy (n = 8). For the control group (KH), according to the principle of analogues (number of lactations, breed, and days in milk), we selected clinically healthy cows (n = 9). After the surgical treatment for the abomasal displacement, the experimental device was applied for the recording of the heart and breathing rates; 12 hour tracking of the rumination time (RT) was implemented using the system ''SCR''; and the body temperature was measured. After 12 hours, the blood was taken for biochemical and morphological tests. The experimental device recorded 12 hours of the respiratory rate (RR) and heart beat rate (HBR) information. We determined the concentrations of the blood serum beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (Phos), magnesium (Mg), and iron (Fe), as well as the activities of aspartarte aminotransferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT). According to searches for relationships between the traditional blood biochemical and morphological parameters, and the parameters measured by the experimental device, the more efficient abomasal displacement surgical method was the right side omentopexy. With the sensors, we found, after right side omentopexy, a 5.19 beats/min lower (1.10-times) average value of the respiratory rate, 1.13-times higher level of the heart rate, a 0.15 oC higher temperature, and a 3.29-times lower rumination time compared to the clinical healthy cows. Further research with larger numbers of animals and longer experimental periods are needed prior to practical applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0007.v1
Online: 1 September 2022 (07:10:13 CEST)
Intramammary infections (mastitis) of dairy cows, along with other periparturient diseases, have become problematic within the dairy industry as they lead to loss of milk production. The main objective of this study was to determine whether elevated somatic cell counts (SCC) in cows prior to drying off are related to the incidence of other periparturient diseases. Additionally, we de-termined whether milk composition and milk yield are affected by a high SCC prior to drying off. Somatic cell counts of milk samples were determined prior to dry off (n = 140) and were used to classify cows in the study as high (>200,000 cells/mL) or low (<200,000 cells/mL) SCC. The com-position of milk was analyzed before drying off and at 1 and 2 weeks after calving. The results showed that an elevated SCC before drying off was related to the incidence of ketosis. Cows with a high SCC at drying off also showed an increased likelihood of retained placenta, metritis, and lameness postpartum; however, it was not statistically significant. Milk lactose was lower in cows with high SCC, while protein content was lower after parturition. Milk production was lower for cows with pre-drying elevated SCC, particularly for cows with retained placenta, keto-sis, and mastitis. In conclusion, cows with pre-drying elevated SCC were more likely to develop disease after parturition and produce less milk and with lower lactose and protein content.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0041.v1
Online: 2 August 2022 (05:58:45 CEST)
Mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland initiated by pathogenic bacteria. In fact, mastitis is the second most important reason for the culling of cows from dairy herds, after infertility. In this review we focus on various forms of mastitis, including subclinical and clinical mastitis. We also stress the importance of the dry-off period as an important time when pathogenic bacteria might start their insult to the mammary gland. An important part of the review is the negative effects of mastitis on milk production and composition, as well as economic consequences for dairy farms. The two most important groups of bacteria that are involved in infection of the udder, Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, are also discussed. Although all cows have both innate and adaptive immunity against most pathogens, some are more susceptible to the disease than others. That’s why we summarize the most important components of innate and adaptive immunity so that the reader understands the specific immune responses of the udder to pathogenic bacteria. One of the most important sections of this review is interrelationship of mastitis with other diseases, especially retained placenta, metritis and endometritis, ketosis, and laminitis. Is mastitis the cause or the consequence of this disease? Finally, the review concludes with treatment and preventive approaches to mastitis.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0354.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: mastitis; staphylococci; inflammation; memory cells; dairy cattle.
Online: 19 November 2021 (13:02:18 CET)
The present study explored the expression of CD62L and CD44 by bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and WC1.1+ γδ T cells under Staphylococcus aureus cell culture stimu-lation. In this study, peripheral blood cells were isolated from ten dairy cows and cocultured with S. aureus. Afterward, the γδ T cell subpopulation and the expression of CD44, CD62L and prolif-erative (Ki67+) cells were evaluated by flow cytometry. Our results showed that the percentages of proliferative PBMCs and WC1.1+ γδ T cells were higher when stimulated with S. aureus. The percentage of CD44+ cells increased in S. aureus-stimulated cultured PMBCs and WC1.1+ γδ T cells, as did the CD44 geometric mean fluorescence intensity (GMFI). The rate of CD62L cells did not differ among groups for either PBMCs or WC1.1+ γδ T cells. A higher GMFI of CD62L in prolif-erative PBMCs than nonproliferative PBMCs upon stimulation with S. aureus was detected, whereas no impact on the GMFI of CD62L was observed in WC1.1+ cells. In summary, our study identified that S. aureus was associated with high expression of CD44 in overall PBMCs and WC1.1+ γδ T cells, and they could generate memory WC1.1+ γδ T cells, preferably central memory cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0320.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: biological control; anaerobically digested dairy slurry; Bacillus velezensis
Online: 24 March 2022 (02:25:19 CET)
This study was designed to assess the suppressive effects of various anaerobically digested slurries (ADSs), and the microorganisms inhabiting them, against Fusarium wilt in spinach. We used five different ADSs from a range of source materials (dairy cow manure, sewage sludge, food garbage, pig manure, night soil sludge), combined in different proportions. All five raw ADSs suppressed the growth of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae (Fos) on agar plates using a co-culture test. In contrast, filtrate ADSs did not suppress the growth of Fos. In total, 32 bacterial strains were isolated from five ADSs, and 8 isolates showed antagonistic activities against Fos. Based on 16S rDNA sequences, the strain AD-3 isolated from ADS from dairy cow manure belonged to Bacillus velezensis. Genome analysis revealed that AD-3 had two kinds of genes related to the production of the non-ribosomal lipopeptides, fengycin/plipastatin (pps genes), and surfactin (srf genes). In pot assays, inoculation of AD-3 (1.0 × 106 CFU·g−1 dry soil) into Fos-infected soil (1.0 × 105 bud-cells·g−1 dry soil) significantly reduced the severity of Fusarium wilt disease at 28 d after seedling. The percentage reductions in disease severity in two replicates were 64.3% and 44.3%, respectively. Thus, bacterial strain AD-3 could be applied to reduce Fusarium wilt in spinach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0014.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: aflatoxin M1; milk; dairy products; risk assessment; children
Online: 1 November 2021 (12:26:43 CET)
The present study was conducted to estimate the exposure and risk characterization of the children population of Serbia to Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) from milk and milk-based food. A total of 3404 samples comprising of milk and different milk-based food samples were collected from various regions of Serbia from 2017 to 2019. Evaluation of the AFM1 exposure was carried out using the deterministic method, whereas risk characterization was evaluated with the calculation of the Margin of Exposure (MOE) and the risk of Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC). Detection rates for AFM1 in milk and milk-based food samples ranged between 2% and 79%, with the highest incidence (79%) and mean level (22.34 0,018 ng kg-1) of AFM1 was detected in pasteurized and UHT milk. According to the three consumption estimates, the values of EDI were higher for toddlers as compared with children. Children aged 1–3 years had the highest risk of exposure to AFM1 in milk, with an estimated daily intake of 0.164 and 0.193 ng kg-1 bw day-1 using a lower bound (LB) and the upper bound (UB) exposure scenarios, respectively. Such difference could result from the higher consumption versus weight. Based on the EDI found in this study, the risk of AFM1 due to consumption of milk and milk-based food was low since MOE values obtained were 10000. In addition, the risk of HCC cases/year/105 individuals of different age groups showed that the value of HCC using potency estimates of 0.0017 (mean) was maximum (0.00034) in the age group 1–3 years which indicates no health risk for the evaluated groups. The present study revealed the importance of controlling and preventing AFM1 contamination in milk through continuous monitoring and regular inspection to reduce the risk of AFM1 exposure, especially in children.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0588.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Antimicrobial use; knowledge; farmer-attitude; dairy-farmer; sheep
Online: 23 June 2021 (13:26:05 CEST)
This work examines dairy and sheep farmer attitudes toward antimicrobial use (AMU) in New Zealand. There is increasing public demand on livestock producers to reduce AMU in livestock. The demand stems from concerns about potential antimicrobial resistance (AMR) that could originate from food animals. There is limited practical data on farmer knowledge of AMU. An electronic survey was sent to dairy (n= 378) and sheep farmers (n= 551). Seventy-six dairy farmers (20%, n=76/378) returned the survey. Dairy farmers (69%) showed low levels of concern about antimicrobial resistance and awareness of the need to reduce AMU. Additionally, 76% of dairy farmers didn’t think it was possible to reduce AMU. Thirty-nine sheep farmers (7%, 39/551) returned the survey. 76% of sheep farmers were supportive of restricted use of AMU. The dairy and sheep farmers sourced most of the advice from veterinarians (>90%), the livestock industry (>80%) and their colleagues (>70%). This study shows that farmers showed varied concerns about AMR and AMU. Moreover, sheep farmers were more amenable to increased restriction on AMU than dairy farmers. This study suggests that knowledge gaps in farmers may best be filled by veterinarian input.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0259.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: diabetes; microbiota; yogurt; milk; dairy; probiotic; prebiotic; synbiotic
Online: 13 January 2021 (17:23:07 CET)
The prevalence of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is increasing worldwide and there are no long-term preventive strategies to stop this growth. Emerging research shows that perturbations in the gut microbiome significantly contribute to the development of T2D, while microbiome modulators may be beneficial for T2D prevention. However, microbiome modulators that are effective, safe, affordable, and able to be integrated daily in the diet are not yet available. Based on our previous pro- and prebiotic studies, we developed a novel synbiotic yogurt comprised of human-origin probiotics and plant-based prebiotics and investigated its impact on diet- and streptozotocin-induced T2D in mice. We compared the effects of our synbiotic yogurt to those of a commercially-available yogurt (control yogurt). Interestingly, we found that feeding of this synbiotic yogurt significantly reduced the development of hyperglycemia (diabetes) in response to high-fat diet feeding and streptozotocin compared to milk-fed controls. Surprisingly, the control yogurt exacerbated diabetes progression. Synbiotic yogurt beneficially modulated the composition of gut microbiota compared to milk; conversely, the control yogurt negatively modulated the gut microbiota by significantly increasing the abundance of detrimental bacteria like Proteobacteria and Enterobacteriaceae. In addition, the synbiotic yogurt protected intact pancreatic islet morphology compared to the milk control, while the commercial yogurt demonstrated worse effects on pancreatic physiology. These results suggest that our newly developed synbiotic yogurt protects against diabetes in mice and can be used as a modality to prevent diabetes progression.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0115.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: intramammary infection; spa typing; antimicrobial susceptibility; dairy cow
Online: 5 September 2020 (04:51:45 CEST)
In the present study, we aimed to determine the antimicrobial resistance and genetic structure of a population of S. aureus recovered from transient and persistent intramammary infections and nares/muzzles. We investigated the antimicrobial resistance of 189 S. aureus strains using a broad antimicrobial susceptibility profile. Furthermore, 107 S. aureus isolates were strain-typed using staphylococcal protein-A (spa) typing. Here, a great proportion of strains exhibited multidrug resistance to antimicrobials, including resistance to critically important antimicrobials, although no methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains were found. Our study did not strengthen the idea that extramammary niches (i.e., nares/muzzles) are an important source for S. aureus. A discrepancy in the antimicrobial resistance between S. aureus strains isolated from nasal/muzzles and milk samples was observed. Furthermore, S. aureus isolates from transient and persistent IMIs did not differ by spa typing, suggesting that the persistence of bovine IMIs was determined by cow factors. Thus, the high level of multidrug-resistant S. aureus found in the two herds studied together with the predominance of a well udder-adapted S. aureus strain may contribute to the history of the high prevalence of mastitis caused by S. aureus, leading to great animal and public health concerns.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0609.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Dairy; Health; Matrix; Metabolism; Nutrient; Composition; Saturated Fats
Online: 27 August 2020 (09:46:06 CEST)
Milk and dairy foods are naturally rich sources of a wide range of nutrients, and when consumed according to recommended intakes contribute essential nutrients across all stages of the life cycle. Since then, seminal studies recommendations with respect to intake of saturated fat have been consistent and clear; limit total fat intake to 30% or less total dietary energy, with a specific recommendation for intake of saturated fat to less than 10% of total dietary energy. However, recent work has re-opened the debate on intake of saturated fat in particular, with suggestions that recommended intakes be considered not at a total fat intake within the diet, but at a food specific level. A large body of evidence exists examining the impact of dairy consumption on markers of metabolic health, both at a total dairy intake and also at a food level, with mixed findings to date, but suggests that the impact of saturated fat intake on health differs both across food groups and even between foods within the same good group such as dairy. Milk and dairy foods contain a range of nutrients and bioactive components in different levels, housed within very different food structures. The interaction of the overall food structure and the nutrients describes the concept of the ‘food matrix effect’ which has been well documented for dairy foods. Studies show that nutrients from different dairy food sources can have different effects on health and for this reason, they should be considered individually rather than grouped as a single food category in epidemiological research. This review examines the current evidence from randomised controlled trials and meta-analyses, with respect to dairy, milk, yoghurt and cheese on aspects of metabolic health, and summarises some of the potential mechanisms for these findings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0001.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: chronic heat stress; dairy buffaloes; proteomics; adaptation mechanisms
Online: 3 January 2019 (08:32:13 CET)
Chronic heat stress (HS), aggravated by global warming, reduces the production efficiency of the buffalo dairy industry. Here, we conducted a proteomic analysis to investigate the adaptation strategies used by buffalo in response to heat stress. Seventeen differentially abundant proteins with known functions were detected using label-free quantification (LFQ), and five of these differentially expressed proteins were validated with parallel reaction monitoring (PRM). These five proteins were associated with various aspects of heat stress, including decreased heat production, increased blood oxygen delivery, and enhanced natural disease resistance. Lipase (LPL), glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPX3), cathelicidin-2 (CATHL2, LL-37), ceruloplasmin (CP), and hemoglobin subunit alpha 1 (HBA1) were shown to play cooperative roles in the tolerance of chronic HS in dairy buffalo. We found that high levels of HBA1 increased blood oxygen transport capacity. Our results increase our understanding of the adaptation of dairy buffalo to chronic heat stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0325.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: mastitis; dairy cow; S. aureus; genotypes; virulence genes
Online: 25 April 2018 (08:04:51 CEST)
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is recognized worldwide as one of the major agents of dairy cow intra-mammary infections. This microorganism can express a wide spectrum of pathogenic factors used to attach, colonize, invade and infect the host. The present study evaluated 120 isolates from eight different countries that were genotyped by RS-PCR and investigated for 26 different virulence factors to increase the knowledge on the circulating genetic lineages among the cow population with mastitis. New genotypes were observed for South African strains while for all the other countries new variants of existing genotypes were detected. For each country, a specific genotypic pattern was found. Among the virulence factors, fmtB, cna, clfA and leucocidins genes were the most frequent. The sea and sei genes were present in seven out of eight countries; seh showed high frequency in South American countries (Brazil, Colombia, Argentina), while sel was harboured especially in one Mediterranean country (Tunisia). The etb, seb and see genes were not detected in any of the isolates, while only two isolates were MRSA (Germany and Italy) confirming the low diffusion of methicillin resistance microorganism among bovine mastitis isolates. This work demonstrated the wide variety of S. aureus genotypes found in dairy cattle worldwide. This condition suggests that considering the region of interest might help to formulate strategies for reducing the infection spreading.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0384.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Cryptosporidium; dairy cattle; gp60; genotyping; 18S rRNA; occurrence; Cyprus
Online: 25 January 2022 (14:06:37 CET)
Cryptosporidium parvum is one of the major causes of neonatal calf diarrhoea resulting in reduced farm productivity and compromised animal welfare worldwide. Livestock act as a major reservoir of this parasite, which can be transmitted to humans directly and/or indirectly, posing a public health risk. Research reports on Cryptosporidium prevalence from the east Mediterranean region are scarce with even less originating from Cyprus. This study is the first to explore occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in young dairy calves on the island. A total of 242 faecal samples were collected from 10 dairy cattle farms in Cyprus, all of which were screened for Cryptosporidium spp. using nested-PCR amplification targeting the small subunit of the ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) gene. The 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene was also sequenced for the samples identified as C. parvum positive to determine the subtypes present. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium was 43.8% (106/242) with at least one positive isolate in each farm sampled. Prevalence per farm ranged from 20¬‒64%, while C. bovis, C. ryanae and C. parvum were the only species identified. Amongst those, the latter was the predominant species, representing 51.8% of all positive samples. Four zoonotic subtypes were identified – IIaA14G1R1, IIaA15G1R1, IIaA15G2R1 and IIaA18G2R1. IIaA14G1R1 was the most abundant; representing 48.2% of all C. parvum positive samples and was also the most widespread. This is the first report of zoonotic subtypes of C. parvum circulating in Cyprus. These results highlight the need for further research into the parasite focusing on its diversity, prevalence, host-range and transmission dynamics on the island.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0208.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Probiotic; Lactobacilli; Fermented dairy product; Identification; enumeration; Rep-PCR
Online: 10 May 2021 (15:11:18 CEST)
A selection of 36 commercial probiotic fermented dairy products from UK and Europe markets were evaluated for the numbers, types and viability of Lactobacillus strains against the stated information on their packages. A comparative study was carried out on selectivity of MRS-Clindamycin, MRS-Sorbitol and MRS-IM Maltose, to select the right medium for enumeration of probiotic Lactobacillus. Based on selectivity of medium for recovery of the targeted lactobacilli and also simplicity of preparation, MRS-Clindamycin was chosen as the best medium for enumeration of probiotic Lactobacillus in fermented milks. The results of enumeration of lactobacilli showed that 22 out of a total 36 tested products contained more than 106 colony forming units/g at the end of their shelf- life, which comply with the recommended minimum therapeutic level for probiotics. Rep-PCR using primer GTG-5 was applied for initial discrimination of isolated strains, and isolates, which presented different band profile, were placed in different groups. The isolated Lactobacillus spp. were identified mainly as Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus paracasei by analysis of partial sequences of the 16S ribosomal RNA and rpoA genes. In conclusion, it is unknown to recommend the adequate number of probiotic bacteria to be consumed to ensure the beneficial properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0331.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: milk lactose; automatic milking system; smart farming; dairy cows
Online: 15 September 2020 (04:51:45 CEST)
In this study pH, temperature of the contents of the forestomach of cows and cow activity were measured using specific smaXtec boluses manufactured for animal care. Rumination time, body weight, milk yield, milk fat/protein ratio, milk lactose, milk somatic cell count, milk electrical conductivity and conception of concentrates were registered with the help of Lely Astronaut® A3 milking robots. The following parameters were obtained: base excess in blood, partial carbon dioxide pressure, partial oxygen pressure, bicarbonate, hydrogen potential, total carbon dioxide carbon, base excess in extracellular fluid, sodium, calcium, potassium, packed cell volume, chlorides, hemoglobin concentration and lactate. According to the concentration of lactose in milk, cows were grouped into two groups: group 1 - milk lactose <4.70% (n = 20), group 2 - milk lactose ≥ 4.70% (n = 15). Data of cows were also divided by milk fat and protein ratio: F/P<1.2 (class 1), F/P=1.2 (class 2) and F/P>1.2 (class 3). According our results we can conclude that inline registered milk lactose concentration can be used as indicator for the health status of fresh dairy cows. Cows with higher lactose concentration (≥ 4.70%) developed more activity (54.47%) and had less risk of mastitis (lover milk EC, and SCC) and metabolic disorders according to F/P. Cows with higher lactose concentration showed higher glucose concentrations. Low level of lactose can be used as indicator of mastitis (milk SCC ≥ 100 thousand/ml) and metabolic disorders according to F/P.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0293.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: precision dairy farming; milk progesterone; production; reproduction; automatic milking system
Online: 14 July 2020 (05:48:53 CEST)
The aim of the instant study was to evaluate relative inline progesterone dynamic changes according to parity and status of reproduction and to estimate the relationship with productivity in dairy cows by inline milk analysis system (IMAS) Herd Navigator. According to a progesterone assay, cows were divided into three periods: postpartum, after insemination, and pregnancy. In the first stage of the postpartum period (0-29 days), the progesterone level in milk was monitored every 6 days. The second stage of the postpartum period (30-65 days) lasted until cows were inseminated. In the third period (0-45 days) after cows were inseminated, progesterone scores were distributed according to whether or not cows became pregnant. The stability of progesterone dynamics was monitored in the last study period (45-90 days). For milk progesterone detection, the fully automated real-time progesterone analyzer Herd Navigator (Lattec I/S. Hillerød. Denmark) was used in combination with a DeLaval milking robot (DeLaval Inc., Tumba, Sweden). The highest progesterone concentration in multiparous cows ranged from 1.08% (11-17 days postpartum) to 34.89% higher than that in cows of the first parity. The lowest progesterone concentrations in the milk of all cows were estimated during the first 5 postpartum days and between 18 and 23 days after calving. Peak milk progesterone concentrations were evaluated in the first stage of the experiment on days 24-29 after calving. In the 30-65-day period after calving, the level of milk progesterone was 2.02-2.08 times higher than that in the 24-29-day postpartum period. After insemination, the level of progesterone in milk increased by 10.77-22.54% compared with the level from cows on days 30-65 after calving. A higher (12.88%) concentration of progesterone in milk was evaluated in multiparous cows compared with that from cows of the first parity. In pregnant cows, milk progesterone within 0-45 days after insemination was 23.88% (in multiparous cows) and 32.54% (in primiparous cows) higher than that in non-pregnant cows. On days 31–35 after insemination, pregnant cows had higher milk progesterone levels, which can predict pregnancy success. According to our study results, we can suggest that an inline progesterone concentration determined by inline milk analysis system Herd Navigator and changes in its dynamics correlate with different reproductive statuses and milk yield of cows. Pregnant cows 11–15 days after insemination have higher milk progesterone levels, what positively, associated with a successful pregnancy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0465.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: vitamin D; calcium; bone mass; osteoporosis; dairy foods; fortified foods
Online: 22 May 2020 (05:18:43 CEST)
Background: Vitamin D and calcium are important dietary compounds that affect bone mass, even if other minerals (potassium, zinc, etc.) and other vitamins (A, C and K) are also involved. Vitamin D and other minerals, in fact, play an important role in calcium homeostasis and calcium absorption. Hip fractures incidence is higher in western countries, where calcium is frequently included in human diet, while the occurrence of these fractures is lower in developing countries, where diets are often poor in calcium. This situation is known as the “calcium paradox”, and may be partially explained considering phosphate toxicity, that can induce a disorder of mineral metabolism. It is important to maintain adequate dietary calcium-phosphate balance in order to perform a healthy life, reducing the risk of osteoporotic fracture in older people. Vitamin D can also act as a hormone; vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) is derived from the UV-B radiation of ergosterol, the vitamin D precursor naturally found in plants, fungi, and invertebrates. Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) is originated by sunlight exposure from 7-dehydrocholesterol, a precursor of cholesterol that can also act as a provitamin D3. Dietary intake of vitamin D3 is very important when skin is exposed for short times to ultraviolet B light (UV-B) one of the three kinds of invisible light rays together with UV-A and UV-C. This can be considered the usual situation in northern latitudes and in winter season, or the typical condition for older people and/or for people with very white delicate skin. Actually, the recommended daily intake of dietary vitamin D is strictly correlated with age, ranging from 5 μg for infants, children, teen-agers and adults, including women during pregnancy and lactation, to 15 μg for people over 65 years.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0038.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: phospholipids; atherosclerosis; inflammation; anti-inflammatory; dairy; marine; meat; egg; nutrition
Online: 6 November 2017 (10:30:12 CET)
In this review paper, the latest literature on the functional properties of phospholipids in relation to inflammation and inflammation-related disorders has been critically appraised and evaluated. The paper is divided into three sections: Section one addresses the relationship between the anti-inflammatory bioactivities of different phospholipids in relation to their structures and compositions. Sections two and three are dedicated to the structures, functions and anti-inflammatory properties of dietary phospholipids from animal and marine sources. Most of the dietary phospholipids of animal origin come from meat, egg and dairy products. To date, there is very limited work published on meat phospholipids, undoubtedly due to the negative perception that meat consumption is an unhealthy option due to its putative associations with several chronic diseases. These assumptions are addressed with respect to the phospholipid composition of meat products. Recent research trends indicate that dairy phospholipids possess anti-inflammatory properties, which has led to an increased interest into their molecular structures and reputed health benefits. Finally, the structural composition of phospholipids of marine origin is discussed. Extensive research has been published in relation to ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and inflammation, however this research has recently come under scrutiny and has proved to be unreliable and controversial in terms of the therapeutic effects of ω-3 PUFA, which are generally in the form of triglycerides and esters. Therefore, this review focuses on recent publications concerning marine phospholipids and their structural composition and related health benefits. Finally, the strong nutritional value of dietary phospholipids are highlighted with respect to marine and animal origin and avenues for future research are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0085.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: aflatoxin M1; milk; dairy; cholesterol; β-cyclodextrin; food safety; global warming
Online: 11 April 2022 (03:18:05 CEST)
Approximately one-third of mankind is chronically exposed to the carcinogenic aflatoxin M1 contained in milk and dairy products and there is no ready to use procedure for decontamination purposes applicable in milk technology. Since β-cyclodextrin is frequently used in food industry, its effect on aflatoxin M1 concentration was investigated during cholesterol removal. So, milk samples were spiked with aflatoxin M1 at the average level 0.89 µg/kg and cholesterol removal was carried out by 2.0% (w/w) β-cyclodextrin addition. As found, average cholesterol concentration decreased by 92.3% while aflatoxin M1 concentration decreased to 0.53 µg/kg, i. e. by 39.1% after the treatment. The procedure itself is easy, inexpensive, and ready to use in milk processing technology on current production lines without any investments, thus fully applicable with a high potential of full aflatoxin M1 milk decontamination efficiency and such way to strengthen considerably the food safety issues associated with milk and dairy products on global level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0063.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: raw milk; microbiological safety; microbiological quality; food safety; dairy; MBS method
Online: 3 August 2020 (08:07:03 CEST)
The consumption of dairy products and the dairy industry is one of the main global agro-food sectors for size, economic importance and level of technology. Microbiological quality of pasteurized milk or other milk products is dependent on microbiological quality of raw milk. A variety of microbiological count methods is available for monitoring the hygienic quality of raw milk. Among them, the pour plate method is the official essay for counting the number of colony forming units in milk samples according to ISO 4833-1:2013. The aim of the present study is the validation of the Micro Biological Survey (MBS) method, against the reference plate count method, for the assessment of the microbiological quality of raw milk. This comparative study, performed in collaboration with the “Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Lazio e della Toscana M. Aleandri” (IZSLT), demonstrates the accuracy of this alternative method for the determination of total viable bacterial count in cow’s raw milk. The results obtained with the MBS method highlighting its potential as a valid tool for reliable microbiological analysis in dairy industries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0053.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Microeconomics And Decision Sciences Keywords: dairy farming; sustainability; organic farming; technology acceptance model; structural equation modeling
Online: 14 August 2017 (06:27:08 CEST)
The goal of the study was to assess the farmers’ acceptance of three sustainable production strategies, namely ‘Agro-forestry’, ‘Alternative protein source’ and ‘Prolonged maternal feeding’. Data on the acceptance of these strategies were collected by a survey of dairy farmers in six EU countries (AT, BE, DK, FI, IT, UK). An extended version of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) was applied by means of Structural Equation Modelling to testing various hypotheses on attitudes and intentions of dairy farmers towards these novel production strategies, as well as the influence of organic practices and collaborative behaviours along the supply chain. We found that the most preferred strategy - across all countries - was soy substitution by alternative protein sources. We also found that the intention to adopt a sustainable production strategy may derive from the influence of opinions (and behaviours) of relevant others, showing the role of interactions among farmers and other stakeholders in the adoption of innovations. Finally, the perceived usefulness of all investigated strategies is higher for organic farmers, while collaborative patterns reduce the impact of subjective norm on usefulness and overall acceptance. Our findings should encourage policy makers to consider the important role of supply chain management practices, including collaboration, to enhance the sustainability of dairy farming systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0313.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Asiatic swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis); large ruminant production; Laos; dairy; molasses nutrient blocks; supplementation
Online: 10 November 2020 (13:18:15 CET)
Milk production from Asiatic swamp buffalo is a new enterprise in Laos. As yields are limited, provision of high-quality Cow-Calf molasses nutrient blocks containing 10% urea (UMNB10) may improve productivity. A trial in a recently established commercial buffalo dairy examined dietary supplementation of lactating buffalo cows with UMNB10, with 3 groups of 9 cows in mid-lactation randomly selected. Two groups received ad-libitum access to UMBs with the remaining group free of block supplements. All animals were daily fed fresh Napier grass (30kg), corn (750gm), rice bran (1.45kg), plus accessed fresh Mulatto grass. Daily milk production (DMP) and body condition score (BCS) were recorded for the 2 months of access to UMB. Average DMP for the 2 supplemented groups were 1.02 litres and 0.96 litres, compared to 0.78 litres for the control group, suggesting improved milk productivity of 31% and 24% from accessing UMB. Partial budget analysis identified a strong incentive for use of the molasses blocks, with a net profit of USD408 and USD295 over a 30-day period for the supplemented groups. Molasses nutrient blocks may be a simple motivator for smallholder farmers in developing countries to increase the efficiency of large ruminant production, improving rural livelihoods, food security and potentially, reducing GHG emissions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0453.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: dairy cattle; prediction model; methane conversion factor; dry matter intake; fatty acid; neutral detergent fiber
Online: 19 May 2021 (16:49:00 CEST)
The aim of this study was to develop a basic model to predict enteric methane emission from dairy cows and to update operational calculations for the national inventory in Norway. Basic models were developed using a database with 63 treatment means from 19 studies. The database included records for enteric CH4 production (MJ/day), dry matter intake (DMI), and dietary nutrient composition. The basic models were evaluated against an external database (n=36, from ten studies) along with other extant models. When evaluated by low root mean square prediction errors and high concordance correlation coefficients, the developed basic models that included DMI, dietary concentrations of fatty acids and neutral detergent fiber performed slightly better in predicting CH4 emissions than extant models. In order to propose country-specific values for the CH4 conversion factor Ym (% of gross energy intake partitioned into CH4) and thus to carry out the national inventory for Norway, the existing operational model was updated for the prediction of Ym over a wide range of feeding situations using energy corrected milk and dietary concentrate share as predictor variables. Input values of Ym were updated based on the results from the basic models. The predicted Ym ranged from 6.22 to 6.72%. In conclusion, the prediction of CH4 production from dairy cows was improved with the help of newly published data, which enabled an update of the operational model for calculating the national inventory of CH4 in Norway.
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: branched-chain amino acid; ion-pair reversed-phase liquid chromatography; mastitis; dairy cow; staphylococcus aureus
Online: 18 September 2019 (16:51:46 CEST)
The early diagnosis of mastitis represents an essential factor for a prompt detection of the animal for further actions. In fact, if not culled, infected cows must be segregated from the milking herd and milked last, or milked with separate milking units. Besides microbiological analysis, the somatic cell count (SCC) commonly used as predictor of intramammary infection, frequently lead to a misclassification of milk samples. To overcome these limitations, more specific biomarkers are continuously evaluated. Total amino acid content increases significantly in mastitic milk compared to normal one. Bovine mastitis can arise as a result of infection of the mammary gland by Staphylococcus aureus. Multiplication of this bacterium within the mammary gland is required for infection to persist. S. aureus requires branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs: isoleucine, leucine, valine) for protein synthesis, branched-chain fatty acids synthesis and environmental adaptation by responding to their availability via transcriptional regulators. The importance of BCAAs for S. aureus physiology necessitates that it either synthesize them or scavenge them from the environment. Increase of BCAAs in composite milk has been postulated to be linked to mammary infection by S. aureus. In the present work, we demonstrated, by a direct ion-pairing reversed-phase method based on the use of the evaporative light-scattering detector (IP-RP-HPLC-ELSD), applied to 65 composite cow milk samples, a correlation between the concentration of isoleucine and leucine and S. aureus load.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0277.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Mathematical Physics Keywords: Dairy cow; Lyapunov exponent; bio-mechanical model; Nonlinear dynamics; gait; Weight scale; Three-link model; Fractals
Online: 24 February 2022 (09:57:02 CET)
The shape of the knee is a chain-like structure of an ellipsoid. This suggests that, in the latest study, in addition to rolling, there is slippage in the motion of the knee. This paper selects a mechanical braking model for cattle based on two mechanical structures in different directions at the joints. The experimental results show that the modified dynamical system has strong chaotic properties. This can be one of the basis for judging various health states.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0135.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: dietary substitution; CVD; saturated fatty acids; protein; monounsaturated fatty acids; polyunsaturated fatty acids; dairy fat; refined carbohydrates; whole grains
Online: 18 May 2017 (04:01:53 CEST)
Dietary recommendations to decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) have focused on reducing intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA) for more than 50 years. While the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans advise substituting both monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids for SFA, evidence supports other nutrient substitutions that will also reduce CVD risk. For example, replacing SFA with whole grains, but not refined carbohydrates, reduces CVD risk. Replacing SFA with protein, especially plant protein may also reduce CVD risk. While dairy fat (milk, cheese) is associated with a slightly lower CVD risk compared to meat, dairy fat results in a significantly greater CVD risk relative to unsaturated fatty acids. As research continues, we will refine our understanding of dietary patterns associated with lower CVD risk.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0174.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: lactic acid bacteria; food-producing animals; dairy products; health benefits; One health; antimicrobial resistance; probiotics; starter cultures; adjunct cultures; protective cultures.
Online: 7 August 2021 (00:17:15 CEST)
Animal products, in particular dairy and fermented products, are natural, major sources of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Due to their antimicrobial properties, LAB are used in humans and in animals, with beneficial effects, as probiotics or in the treatment of a variety of diseases. In livestock production, LAB contribute to animal performance, health, and productivity. In the food industry, LAB are applied as bioprotective and biopreservation agents, contributing to improve food safety and quality. However, some studies have described resistance to relevant antibiotics in LAB, with the concomitant risks associated to the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes to foodborne pathogens, their potential dissemination throughout the food chain, and the environment. Here, we summarize the application of LAB in livestock and animal products, as well as the health impact of LAB in animal food products. In general, the beneficial effects of LAB on the human food chain seem to outweigh the potential risks associated with their consumption as part of animal and human diets. However, further studies and continuous monitorization efforts are needed to ensure their safe application in animal products and in the control of pathogenic microorganisms, preventing the possible risks associated with antibiotic resistance and, thus, protecting public health.