ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0129.v3
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, General Psychology Keywords: nonverbal communication; interspecific communication; domestic horse
Online: 29 January 2019 (04:59:54 CET)
Although there has been research regarding the response of horses to human behaviour, there is still a gap concerning the knowledge about the interaction of horses and humans in showing individual responses to different human behaviour in the same situation. In this work, the horses´ individual responses to different humans were examined to close this research gap and to identify whether or not horses actually respond differently to different people. To this end, 29 interactions between horses and humans, where the humans were supposed to lead the horse through a training course (including two identical exercises in each situation) were videoed and then transcribed in the style of the action-oriented system of notations HANOS (Handlungsorientiertes Notationssystem). The qualitative content analysis was appropriated on the basis of Mayring. Just nonverbal interactions between each person and one horse were focused. In total, just under 600 interactions were analyzed and categorized. The categories were then put into a chi-square-test (quantitative analyses). Based on these analyses, it can be assumed that each human individual received an individual, different feedback from the horses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0460.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: atmospheric propagation; communication system performance; attenuation; communication
Online: 29 July 2022 (11:15:18 CEST)
6G is already being planned and will employ much higher frequencies, leading to a revolutionary era in communication between people as well as things. It is well known that weather, especially rain, can cause increased attenuation of signal transmission for higher frequencies. The standard methods for evaluating the effect of rain on symbol error rate are based on long-term averaging. These methods are an inaccurate, which results with an inefficient system design. This is critical regarding bandwidth scarcity and energy consumption and requires a more significant margin of effort to cope with the imprecision. Recently we have developed a new and more precise method for calculating communication system performance in case of rain, using the probability density function of rain rate. For high rain rate (above 10mm/hr), for a typical set of parameters, our method shows the symbol error rate in this range to be higher by orders of magnitude than that found by ITU standard methods. Our model also indicates that sensing and measuring the rain rate probability is important in order to provide the required bit error rate to the users. To the best knowledge of the authors, this novel analysis is unique. It can constitute a more effi-cient performance metric for the new era of 6G communication and prevent disruption due to incorrect system design. Keywords: atmospheric propagation, communication system performance, attenuation, com-munication
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0389.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Communication; leadership; communion; technology-mediated learning; supportive collaboration; teacher-student communication
Online: 15 March 2021 (13:45:12 CET)
This qualitative inquiry explores how, during the early stage of the COVID-19 pandemic in Lithuania (European Union), the stakeholders in education system – university teachers, general education teachers, students and children’s parents – coped with the encountered challenge and what was important to them under changed conditions. This paper uses a communication management objective to describe how participants in the education system respond to the emerging distance learning situation and its challenges.The phenomenographic research approach was chosen to carry out the qualitative study. The 37 interviews from higher education teachers, university students, school teachers and parents of minor school-aged children were conducted during the early stage of COVID-19 quarantine. The research allows concluding that after a successful transition to distance learning the dimensions of communion and supportive collaboration acquired importance among stakeholders in education. Starting new activities, a need for communion and mobilization for joint activities under the crisis situation emerged. The research showed that the adaptation period was necessary at the beginning of the new activity. Competent leadership was expected from the teacher also advance preparation of all the actors in education process was needed. The data do offer a window into the dynamics of online teaching in crisis situation and experiences in new activity that are key to success.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0148.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: MERS; Emergency Risk Communication; Communication and Coordination; Qatar; media monitoring; epidemic
Online: 29 September 2017 (04:13:27 CEST)
This case study is the first to be developed in the Middle East region to describe the timeline of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) epidemic events in Qatar along with the features of the implemented Emergency Risk Communication (ERC) activities. It sought to describe how the performed ERC strategy particularly during the first days (then over the course of the following phases) of the outbreak might have contributed to the authorities’ credibility, public trust, and outbreak control measures despite the overwhelming uncertainty. All of the relevant news stories during the period 24 Sep 2012 to 17 Mar 2014 were retrieved from a local daily, then were analyzed and interpreted before they were compiled and matched with the issued press releases, records of response activities and the public reactions along the course of the epidemic timeline. Despite the prevailing uncertainty, the health authorities’ early preparedness to the epidemic and its commitment to a proactive and open ERC strategy since the first days of the outbreak favored the authorities’ credibility and allowed for the quick initiation of the national response efforts during the course of the outbreak. However, there was some pitfalls as the print media reported some conflicting messages and paternalist approach during the early phases of the epidemic. Reliance solely on the print media is an acknowledged limitation to this study. Yet, it might be useful for emergency planners regarding what communication challenges to expect during the first days of a novel virus or similar threats.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0750.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Underwater Communication; Wireless Communication; Acoustic Communication; Ultrasound Acoustics; Digital Signal Processing; Chirp Modulation; Chirp Slope Keying; Chirp Spread Spectrum
Online: 30 March 2021 (14:25:50 CEST)
We propose an asynchronous acoustic chirp slope keying to map bit sequences on single or multiple bands without preamble or error correction coding on the physical layer. Details of the implementation are disclosed and discussed, the performance verified on laboratory scale in a pool measurement, as well as simulated for a channel containing Rayleigh fading and Additive White Gaussian Noise. For time-bandwidth products of 50 in single band mode, a raw data rate of 100~bit/s is simulated to achieve bit error rates below 0.001 for signal-to-noise ratios above -6~dB. In dual-band mode and a data rate of 200~bit/s, this bit error level was achieved for signal-to-noise ratios above 0~dB for time-bandwidth product of 25. The packet error rates follow this behavior with an offset of 1~dB.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0072.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: aerial communication; FANET; not-spots; stratospheric communication platform; UAV; UAV-Assisted network; 5G
Online: 5 October 2021 (08:48:11 CEST)
Access to broadband communications in different parts of the world has become a priority for some governments and regulatory authorities around the world in recent years. Building new digital roads and pursuing a connected society includes looking for easier access to the Internet. In general, not all the areas where people congregate are fully covered, especially in rural zones, thus restricting access to data communications and bringing inequality. In the present review article, we have comprehensively surveyed the use of three platforms to deliver broadband services to such remote and low-income areas are proposed: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), Altitude Platforms (APS), and Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites. These novel strategies support the connected and accessible world hypothesis. Hence UAVs are considered a noteworthy solution since their efficient maneuverability can aboard the rural coverage issues or not-spots.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0330.v1
Online: 16 August 2021 (11:53:38 CEST)
To monitor the detail information in the sea and on the seafloor, sensors are generally installed on Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV). AUV cannot accurately grasp the absolute position and needs to communicate with the sea-surface vehicle. However, the sea-surface vehicle cannot perform observation operations at high speed and with high efficiency due to low mobility and high human and financial costs. From this perspective, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) has possibilities as the next-generation platform. In this study, we conducted a demonstration experiment to use UAV as a sea-surface base for AUV’s underwater communication. We additionally verified the capability of UAV, which can land on and separate from the sea surface, as a drifting buoy to monitor underwater data. Experiment results and obtained data suggest that UAV is suitable for a research operation near the coastal region in terms of position keeping ability, performance against sway, and operation speed as a communication base. To carry out more complicated work (transportation of AUV, etc.) with UAV, new research and development such as weight reduction of AUV will be required.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0053.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: antenna; PIFA; LTE; 5G; communication
Online: 7 January 2020 (04:17:21 CET)
This paper designed a miniaturized Planer Inverted-F Antenna for 5G communication networks including Long Term Evolution Advanced mobile communication services. With showing the radiation pattern, voltage standing wave ratio, and antenna gain of the designed Planer Inverted-F Antenna, this paper evaluates its performance. To show the key characteristics of the Planer Inverted-F Antenna, this paper modeled and simulated it with various variances. Moreover, the real Planer Inverted-F Antenna is fabricated, and measurements were done to validate the simulated characteristics of the internal antenna.
Online: 30 October 2019 (09:31:14 CET)
A naked human eye can perceive objects down to a millimeter length. While lenses and microscopes have overcome this limit, the human mind still lacks perspective when navigating conventional scales (1), especially in the range that are less palpable to naked human eye (2,3). This problem is particularly acute in the context of science communication, where the conventional scale bar units facilitate little comprehension regarding the perception for factorial size differences (3). Here we aim to bridge the gap of scale factors and perspectives using a universal toolkit of objects, which can help comprehend the relative change in length dimensions up to 13 orders of magnitude difference. We further have demonstrated the use of such a universal object toolkit as a length perceptive scale by illustrating and narrating biological phenomena. The meter to picometer ‘length perceptive scale’ proposed here has the potential to cover majority of length scales present in the biological realm, and is analogous to the time compression methods widely used in explaining cosmos timeline (4). Our toolkit can also be calibrated according to the users need in their scientific communication and illustrations, which will aid the readers’ benefit in understanding the length scale perception of illustrated phenomenon.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0079.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: entanglement; quantum computation; quantum communication
Online: 5 September 2018 (03:56:20 CEST)
In this paper, I propose new models of quantum information processing using the exchange interaction in physical systems. The partial SWAP operator that can be realized using the exchange interaction is used as the underlying resource for defining models of quantum computation, quantum communication, quantum memory and decoherence-free subspaces. Given the non-commutativity of these operators (for adjacent operators operating on a common qubit), a number of quantum states and entanglement patters can be obtained. This zoo of states can be classified, due to the parity constraints and permutation symmetry of the states, into invariant subspaces that are used for the definition of some of the applications in this paper.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0427.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility; Twitter; Stakeholder Management; Social Media Communication; Social Media; CSR; Communication Strategy
Online: 23 November 2022 (01:14:53 CET)
Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has become increasingly important for companies in recent years. On the one hand, regulatory frameworks require the disclosure of measures for sustainable management. On the other hand, for long-term corporate success, stakeholders must be strategically engaged in the dialog on sustainability aspects. Social media, and Twitter in particular, offer the potential to foster a meaningful stakeholder dialogue on CSR topics. Due to Elon Musk's acquisition in the fall of 2022, this strategic disruption provides an opportunity to systematically capture the platform's past activities and strategies to synthesize practical information that can guide Twitter usage decision making and be used for research to serve as the basis for future comparative longitudinal studies of changes in usage. We conducted a literature review including 42 papers to contribute to the body of evidence on CSR communication strategies on Twitter across industries and countries by deriving interdisciplinary suggestions for strategic CSR-related stakeholder management. Results cover relevant CSR topics, prioritized stakeholder groups for CSR communication on Twitter and successful communication strategies for companies to obtain beneficial results, such as generating social media capital. The results contribute to the strategic planning and implementation of CSR stakeholder management on Twitter and offer starting points for future studies on social media mining and CSR communication strategies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0165.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Underwater Wireless Sensor Network (UWSN); Routing Protocols; Acoustic Communication; Multi-hop communication; Energy-Efficient; Reliable
Online: 10 March 2020 (10:44:22 CET)
Water covers a greater part of the earth's surface. Even though we know very little about the underwater world as most parts of it remain unexplored. Oceans including other water bodies hold huge natural resources and also the aquatic lives. These are mostly unexplored and very few of those are known due to unsuited and hazardous environments for the human to explore. This vast underwater world can be monitored remotely from a distant location with much ease and less risk. To monitor water-bodies remotely in real-time, sensor networking has been playing a great role. It is needed to deploy a wireless sensor network over the volume which we want to surveil. For vast water bodies like oceans, rivers and large lakes, data is collected from the different heights of the water level which is sent to the surface sink. Unlike terrestrial communication, radio waves and other conventional mediums can't serve the purpose of underwater communication as they pose high attenuation and very reduced transmission range. Rather an acoustic medium can transmit data more efficiently and reliably in comparison to other mediums. To transmit data reliably from the bottom of the sea to the sinks at the surface, multi-hop communication is needed which must involve a certain scheme. For seabed to surface sink communication, leading researchers have proposed different routing protocols. The goal of these routing protocols is to make underwater communication more reliable, energy-efficient and delay efficient thus to improve the performance of the overall communication. This paper surveys the advancement and applications of the routing protocols which eventually helps in finding the most efficient routing protocol for the Underwater Wireless Sensor Network (UWSN).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0162.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: communication cost; simulating quantum correlations; contextuality
Online: 9 November 2022 (01:49:04 CET)
We review some semantical aspects of probability bounds from Boole’s “conditions on possible experience” violated by quantum mechanics. We also speculate about emerging space-time categories as an epiphenomenon of quantization and the resulting breakdown of relativity theory by non-unitary and non-linear processes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0343.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: resilience; communication; systemic risk; systemic recovery
Online: 25 March 2022 (09:02:49 CET)
This work reviews three frameworks for responding to economic disruption: risk mitigation, systemic recovery, and economic resilience. Specifically, by reviewing extant literature in economics, communication, and other disciplines, we argue that current approaches to understanding resilience in economics largely fail to address ongoing and emergent disruptions to the economic and social world. In response to these issues, we work to synthesize economic frameworks and the communication theory of resilience to forward a new way of examining the overlapping questions of economic resilience related to metatheoretical commitments, analytic contexts, and implications for theory, method, and practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0567.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: Nurses; Leadership; COVID-19; Management; Communication
Online: 30 November 2021 (12:14:55 CET)
Purpose: To evaluate nursing leaders' perception towards communication and relationship management competencies while using digital platforms during the COVID-19 pandemic. Background: Communication and relationship management competencies among nursing leaders will ensure healthcare models are successfully implemented. Nursing leaders can achieve effective leadership by mastering these competencies leading to an overall improvement in the quality of nursing care. However, digital platforms have been rapidly evolving in the healthcare ecosystem and have been significant during the battle with COVID-19. It is crucial to ensure that nursing leaders can use digital platforms to communicate and practice efficient management in their op-erations, especially during a crisis when their services are vital. Design: Descriptive, comparative study. Methods: The study was conducted between February to March 2021. A 5-item Linkert-type questionnaire was adopted from the American Organization for Nursing Executives (2005) and was sent to identified nursing leaders in Hamad Medical Corporation through the official email. Results: Two hundred fifty nurse leaders were invited to participate, but only 116 responded positively, translating to a response rate of 46.4%. The male participants represented a larger proportion of 64.10%, while the female was 35.90%. Regarding the questionnaire, the Cronbach alpha was α ˃ 0.987, indicating that all items revealed a sufficient level of internal consistency. The respondents had a minimum of 0 and a maximum of 52.6n in the communication and relationship management items. Influencing behavior, relationship management, and effective communica-tion had the lowest scores, which indicate low competency. The F value in ANOVA analysis was close to 1.0, implying that the null hypothesis is true. The significance value is <0.5 implying that there is a difference in response on effective communication proficiency of nurse leaders. Conclusions: Digital platforms are communication tools that are widely adopted to engage and reach nurses on numerous topics. Nurse leaders should capitalize on their benefits and generate critical discussions. The continued need to research nursing leadership competencies is critical as healthcare continues to change and evolve. Educational institutions and healthcare organizations must understand that nursing leaders should strive for professional development and knowledge acquisition to improve their communication and management.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0194.v1
Online: 9 August 2021 (12:41:06 CEST)
Purpose: We present a theoretical framework that formalizes and defines the constructs of communicative congruence and communicative dysphoria that is rooted within a comprehensive and mechanistic theory of personality. Background: Voice therapists have likely encountered a patient who states that a therapeutic target voice “isn’t me.” The ability to accurately convey a person’s sense of self, or identity, through their voice, speech, and communication behaviors seems to have high relevance to both patients and clinicians alike. However, to date, we lack a mechanistic theoretical framework through which to understand and interrogate the phenomenon of congruence between one’s communication behaviors and their sense of self. Results: We review the initial notion of congruence, first proposed by Carl Rogers. We then review several theories on selfhood, identity, and personality. After reviewing these theories, we explain how our proposed constructs fit within our chosen theory, the Cybernetic Big Five Theory of Personality. We then discuss similarities and differences to a similarly named construct, the Vocal Congruence Scale. Next, we review how these constructs may come to bear on an existing theory relevant to voice therapy, the Trans Theoretical Model of Health Behavior Change. Finally, we state testable hypotheses for future exploration, which we hope will establish a foundation for future investigations into communicative congruence. Conclusion: To our knowledge, the present paper is the first to explicitly define communicative congruence and communicative dysphoria. We embed these constructs within a comprehensive and mechanistic theory of personality and, in doing so, hope to provide a rigorous and comprehensive theoretical framework that will allow us to test and better understand these proposed constructs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0205.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: communication; childbirth; satisfaction; quality of care
Online: 11 January 2021 (17:46:12 CET)
The study aims to identify the difference in communication needs of women giving birth and women during puerperium. An additional goal includes the analysis of the experience and communication needs through the context of a woman's approach to childbirth. The study is a prospective, cross-sectional, self-report survey. 521 women between 5 and 10 days after birth participated in the study. Women perceived information provided by the medical staff as the most helpful aspect of verbal communication both during labour and puerperium. Maintaining eye contact with the medical staff was perceived as the most helpful aspect of non-verbal communication. Women were more satisfied with communication during labour and birth than in the maternity ward and those after non-instrumental childbirth were more satisfied with communication compared to the instrumental birth group. Women perceiving childbirth as the natural, physiological process considered verbal and non-verbal communication during and after childbirth as less helpful than women perceiving birth as more risky and requiring interventions. The results of the study emphasize the importance of verbal and non-verbal communication during birth and puerperium and different communication needs during labour and early postpartum. It also showed that women who perceive labour as a physiological process seem to be less dependent on the communication with the medical staff than women who accept medical interventions during labour and birth as necessary.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0612.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Communication Skills; Dentist; Patient; Attitudes; Learning
Online: 29 October 2020 (12:46:09 CET)
The aim of the study was to determine the attitude of dentist toward learning communication skills and to recognize the factors influencing attitude toward learning communication skills. A cross-sectional study using a self-administered, 26-item, adapted Communication Skills Attitude Scale (CSAS) was carried out among dentist working in a public sector hospital in Qatar. Overall, two scores could be ascertained from the adapted CSAS: the mean positive attitude score (PAS) and negative attitude score (NAS). Non-parametric tests for statistical significance were utilized to assess relation between PAS and NAS scores and demographics. Fifty-nine dentists completed the survey giving an overall response rate of 53.6%. The mean (SD) PAS and NAS scores were 3.98 (SD=0.54) and 3.26 (SD=0.49) respectively. Female dentist was more positive towards learning communication skills than male. No statistically significant correlation was found between both PAS and NAS scores and respondents’ age. Dentists’ had both positive and negative attitudes towards learning communication skills. Considering the high NAS scores, it is recommended to introduce communication skills formal training sessions
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0519.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: personality; emotional aspects; communication; work activity
Online: 21 November 2018 (07:06:12 CET)
One of the trends in current research in psychology explores how personal variables can determine a person’s communication style. Our objective was to find out the moderating effect of Mood in the relationship between the five big personality traits and an aggressive verbal communication style risk factor from work activity in a sample of nursing professionals. This study is a quantitative descriptive design. The final sample was 596 nurses with a range of 22 to 56 years. An ad hoc questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic data, the 10-item Big Five Inventory, the Communication Styles Inventory, and the Brief Emotional Intelligence Inventory for Senior Citizens. This study showed that for nursing professionals, the “Agreeableness”, “Conscientiousness” and “Neuroticism” traits have a close relationship with aggressive verbal communication. Even though Mood moderates this relationship, it is only significant for those individuals with high scores in “Neuroticism”. Because personality dimensions are considered relatively stable over time and consistent from one situation to another, organizations should hold workshops and other types of practical activities to train workers in communication skills and Emotional Intelligence in order to promote employee health and that of their patients and avoid risk factor from work activity in nursing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0120.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: discourse; communication; media; anthropology; political philosophy
Online: 10 April 2018 (08:50:45 CEST)
In order to clarify some more concepts, we start by classifying some forms of populism and visualize them as precursors of totalitarianism. It goes without saying that media control or at least media domination (especially in this recent age of digitalization) becomes important within this context, because the Turing galaxy follows essentially the development of the Gutenberg galaxy, but at the same time, quite different from the latter, it multiplies, enhances, and accelerates anonymous data pressure that alters the quality of the ongoing discourse. This is what we would like to discuss here in more detail by also asking for a possibly anthropological principle that underlies these developments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0612.v2
Subject: Keywords: Academic journals; Growth of knowledge; Non-peer review; Paradigm change; Peer review; Scholarly communication; Science communication; Simplicity
Online: 30 August 2021 (12:02:53 CEST)
This article challenges the assumption that journals and peer review are essential for developing, evaluating and disseminating scientific and other academic knowledge. It suggests a more flexible ecosystem, and examines some of the possibilities this might facilitate. The market for academic outputs should be opened up by encouraging the separation of the dissemination service from the evaluation service. Publishing research in subject-specific journals encourages compartmentalising research into rigid categories. The dissemination of knowledge would be better served by an open access, web-based repository system encompassing all disciplines. There would then be a role for organisations to assess the items in this repository to help users find relevant, high-quality work. There could be a variety of such organisations which could enable reviews from peers to be supplemented with evaluation by non-peers from a variety of different perspectives: user reviews, statistical reviews, reviews from the perspective of different disciplines, and so on. This should reduce the inevitably conservative influence of relying on two or three peers, and make the evaluation system more critical, multi-dimensional and responsive to the requirements of different audience groups, changing circumstances, and new ideas. Non-peer review might make it easier to challenge dominant paradigms, and expanding the potential audience beyond a narrow group of peers might encourage the criterion of simplicity to be taken more seriously - which is essential if human knowledge is to continue to progress.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0144.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: V2X; Connected Vehicles; Communication; Environmental; Safety; Transportation
Online: 11 January 2022 (13:08:32 CET)
With the rapid development of communication technology, connected vehicles (CV) have the potential, through the sharing of data, to enhance vehicle safety and reduce vehicle energy consumption and emissions. Numerous research efforts have been conducted to quantify the impacts of CV applications, assuming instant and accurate communication among vehicles, devices, pedestrians, infrastructure, the network, the cloud, and the grid, collectively known as V2X (vehicle-to-everything). The use of cellular vehicle-to-everything (C-V2X), to share data is emerging as an efficient means to achieve this objective. C-V2X releases 14 and 15 utilize the 4G LTE technology and release 16 utilizes the new 5G new radio (NR) technology. C-V2X can function without network infrastructure coverage and has a better communication range, improved latency, and greater data rates compared to older technologies. Such highly efficient interchange of information among all participating parts in a CV environment will not only provide timely data to enhance the capacity of the transportation system but can also be used to develop applications that enhance vehicle safety and minimize negative environmental impacts. However, before the full benefits of CV can be achieved, there is a need to thoroughly investigate the effectiveness, strengths, and weaknesses of different CV applications, the communication protocols, the varied results with different CV market penetration rates (MPRs), the interaction of CVs and human driven vehicles, the integration of multiple applications, and the errors and latencies associated with data communication. This paper reviews existing literature on the environmental, mobility and safety impacts of CV applications, identifies the gaps in our current research of CVs and recommends future research directions. The results of this paper will help shape the future research direction for CV applications to realize their full potential benefits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0198.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Availability, underground mining, radio communication system, influence
Online: 10 May 2021 (14:21:02 CEST)
Radio communication system in an underground mine is one of the very essential systems for the underground mine. It is required that the radio communication system must be reliable from the starting to construct the underground mine to the closure of the mine. However, underground mine radio communication systems reliability is required to be tested on an active radio communication system in a real environment. In the study was suggested a new research methodology that is studied reliability using dynamic system modeling on Vensim software instead of traditional method to study the reliability of radio communication systems calculating large-scale differential equations. In other words, we suggest a new research methodology. The Motorola Dimetra (TETRA) radio communication system's availability readiness information was used to simulate the reliability of the underground mine radio communication system probability of reliability using Vensim software for system dynamic modeling.Also, the factors that affect the reliability of underground mining radio communication systems was studied. The study was determined factors that affect the underground mine radio communication system from the following risks. The study was in the examples of the Oyu Tolgoi underground mine. The factors that affect the reliable operation of the underground mine radio communication system were determined using the failure statistics of TETRA radio communication system in the Oyu Tolgoi mine in 2015-2018.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0419.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: study participation; communication; survey; general research results
Online: 15 April 2021 (14:48:49 CEST)
There is a need for multimodal strategies to keep research participants informed about study results. Our aim was to characterize preferences of genomic research participants from two institutions along four dimensions of general research result updates: content, timing, mechanism, and frequency. Methods: We conducted a web-based cross-sectional survey that was administered from 6-25-2018 to 12-5-2018. Results: 397 participants completed the survey, most of whom (96%) expressed a desire to receive research updates. Preferences with high endorsement included: update content (brief descriptions of major findings, descriptions of purpose and goals, and educational material); update timing (when the research is completed, when findings are reviewed, when findings are published, and when the study status changes); update mechanism (email with updates, and email newsletter); and update frequency (every three months). Hierarchical cluster analyses based on the four update preferences identified four profiles of participants with similar preference patterns. Very few participants in the largest profile were comfortable with budgeting less money for research activities so that researchers have money to set up services to send research result updates to study participants. Conclusion: This work provides evidence of a need for funders to incentivize researchers to communicate results to participants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0122.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: satellite communication, antenna optimization, high gain antenna
Online: 3 March 2021 (09:59:04 CET)
Patch antennas are compact, less complex, planar structures and therefore, widely used in small satellite missions for telecommand, data link, and intersatellite link, particularly in S- band and X- band. Improved performance of these patch antennas in terms of gain and compactness will di-rectly affect the communication efficiency of small satellite missions. Especially the coming IoT (Internet of Things) constellations require high gain and efficient antenna arrays. An optimization of single patch antenna elements is an important cornerstone for the missions. Therefore, the ef-fects of various antenna enhancement techniques, such as slotted ground plane, resistor and ca-pacitor integration, parasitic patch elements, are analyzed. These techniques were applied on a rectangular patch antenna with parameter variation to identify the optimal performances with respect to bandwidth, operating frequency, gain, polarization, and power flow. Finally, the techniques were combined to obtain an optimized antenna in terms of gain and compactness. The results were compared to a slotted reference antenna. For the scenario of a 2.4 GHz patch antenna, a gain optimization of 27 % (from 7.09 to 8.14 dBi) or size reduction of 52 % (from 96.04 to 46.2 cm²) could be achieved. Overall, our study revealed an effective way to increase the patch antenna performance, which can directly contribute to more efficient communication links and design of antenna arrays.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0309.v1
Online: 12 February 2021 (14:50:09 CET)
This article aims to understand the role of tacit knowledge in call center organizations with the objective of understanding how call center representatives use tacit knowledge in their job roles and functions. Extant literature has focused on explicit knowledge but the research on tacit knowledge is still underdeveloped. The complexities and difficulties of the call center job role and the usage and transfer of knowledge is reviewed. Also, it takes into considerations past literature on tacit knowledge, how these respondents employ tacit knowledge in efficiently handling customers, responding to their queries, and engaging this form of knowledge in problem solving. The article concludes with discussion and implications for call center organizations and responders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0536.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: 5G; IoT; SAM Model; Vehicular Communication Systems
Online: 23 July 2020 (08:07:58 CEST)
Network slicing is a promising technology for 5G networks in which operators can sell customized services to different tenants at various prices and Quality of Services (QoS) demands. Thus, the latest 4th Generation (4G) and upcoming 5th Generation (5G) mobile technologies are expected to offer massive connectivity and management of high volume of data traffic in the presence of immense interferences from mobile networks of IoT devices. Further, it will face challenges of congestion and overload of data traffic due to the humongous number of IoT devices. Nevertheless, these devices are likely to demand high throughput, low latency, and high level of reliability especially for critical real-time applications such as in Vehicular Communication System (VCS). To address these issues in 5G mobile networks, this paper proposes a Slice Allocation Management (SAM) Model based on the critical services of smart systems such as VCS to satisfy QoS demands. The proposed model aims at providing dedicated slices on the basis of service requirements such as expected throughput and latency for VCS. To ensure such performance and provide data traffic priorities of IoT devices in the uplink of Relay Nodes (RNs) cells in the 5G mobile networks, we have sliced the Radio Access Networks (RAN), along with the assignment of the nearest Mobile Edge Computing (MEC) with isolated slices based on the priorities for each IoT nodes to reduce latency level. The proposed model was simulated and validated using the OPNET simulator. The results obtained demonstrate that SAM Model is able to achieve improvement of end to end delays and uplink throughputs of the networks in high-density networks of IoT devices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0254.v2
Online: 17 April 2019 (10:53:57 CEST)
The Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1996 require community water systems in the United States to send consumers Consumer Confidence Reports (CCRs). CCRs contain information on detected contaminants and required educational information about drinking water. The authors of this study developed a survey to evaluate how utilities track consumer feedback, understanding, and the role of the CCR in shaping consumer perceptions about water quality. Responses from this survey indicate it is common for utilities to indirectly track the effectiveness of their CCRs, but few utilities indicated directly evaluating consumer understanding or the effect of CCRs on consumer perceptions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0030.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Contractor; Electronic Sales; Information revolution and Communication
Online: 4 March 2019 (10:05:58 CET)
Recently, during the last century, Communication & Information revolution caused an essential dynamic in society, especially in legal issues, This dynamic development of information data through this web, it has an essential effect upon the way of civil treatment, which then called "electronic agreements". The industrial and technological development lad to obvious changes in producing processes either for goods or services and then its distributing methods, through using modern media channels, but this factor has a negative side because there is no legal protection for the contractors. This fact leads to the necessity of publishing certain conditions to protect consumers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0303.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Linguistics Keywords: Discourse; Sociolinguistics; Ethnography of Communication; Hymes’ Model
Online: 17 September 2018 (11:12:20 CEST)
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of discoursal approach on Iranian intermediate EFL learners’ reading comprehension ability. Quick Placement Test (QPT) was used to select 60 intermediate EFL learners as the participants of this study. Then, they were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. Each consisted of 30 learners. Prior to the treatment, the participants of both groups were given a pretest to ensure their reading comprehension. The experimental group was exposed to the Hymes’ model. In the control group the researcher used placebo for teaching reading skill. Then a posttest was administered to both groups. An Independent samples t-test between posttests of the study and a paired-samples t-test between the pretest and posttest of the groups of the study were run. The results of the study revealed and emphasized that the Hymes’ model improved the learners’ reading comprehension.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0392.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: underwater acoustic communication; parametric technique; self-demodulation
Online: 28 May 2018 (09:42:15 CEST)
This paper presents a study of different types of parametric signals with application to underwater acoustic communications. In all the signals, the carrier frequency is 200 kHz, which corresponds to the resonance frequency of the transducer under study and different modulations are presented and compared. In this sense, we study modulations with parametric sine sweeps (4 to 40 kHz) that represent binary codes (zeros and ones), getting closer to the application in acoustic communications. The different properties of the transmitting signals in terms of bit rate, directivity, efficiency and power needed are discussed as well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0192.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: connexin 43; gap junctions; cancer; intercellular communication; breast cancer; cell signaling; tunneling nanotubes; cell–cell communication; tumor microtubes
Online: 9 September 2020 (03:09:50 CEST)
Connexin 43 (Cx43) forms gap junctions that mediate the direct intercellular diffusion of ions and small molecules between adjacent cells. Cx43 displays both pro- and anti-tumorigenic properties, but the mechanisms underlying these characteristics are not fully understood. Tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) are long and thin membrane projections that connect cells, facilitating the exchange of not only small molecules, but also larger proteins, organelles, bacteria, and viruses. Typically, TNTs exhibit increased formation under conditions of cellular stress and are more prominent in cancer cells, where they are generally thought to be pro-metastatic and to provide growth and survival advantages. Cx43 has been described in TNTs, where it is thought to regulate small molecule diffusion through gap junctions. Here, we developed a high-fidelity CRISPR/Cas9 system to knockout (KO) Cx43. We found that loss of Cx43 expression was associated with significantly reduced TNT length and number in breast cancer cell lines. Notably, secreted factors present in conditioned medium stimulated TNTs more potently when derived from Cx43-expressing cells than from KO cells. Moreover, TNT formation was significantly induced by inhibition of several key cancer signaling pathways that both regulate Cx43 and are regulated by Cx43, including RhoA kinase (ROCK), protein kinase A (PKA), focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and p38. Intriguingly, drug-induced stimulation of TNTs was more potent in Cx43 KO cells than in wild-type cells. In conclusion, this work describes a novel non-canonical role for Cx43 in regulating TNTs, identifies key cancer signaling pathways that regulate TNTs in this setting, and provides mechanistic insight into a pro-tumorigenic role of Cx43 in cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0033.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: augmentative and alternative communication; assistive technologies; sensing modalities; signal processing; voice communication; machine learning; mobile health; speech disability
Online: 4 March 2019 (10:14:44 CET)
High-tech augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) methods are on a constant rise; however, the interaction between the user and the assistive technology is still challenged for an optimal user experience centered around the desired activity. This review presents a range of signal sensing and acquisition methods utilized in conjunction with the existing high-tech AAC platforms for speech disabled individuals, including imaging methods, touch-enabled systems, mechanical and electro-mechanical access, breath-activated methods, and brain computer interfaces (BCI). The listed AAC sensing modalities are compared in terms of ease of access, affordability, complexity, portability, and typical conversational speeds. A revelation of the associated AAC signal processing, encoding, and retrieval highlights the roles of machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL) in the development of intelligent AAC solutions. The demands and the affordability of most systems were found to hinder the scale of usage of high-tech AAC. Further research is indeed needed for the development of intelligent AAC applications reducing the associated costs and enhancing the portability of the solutions for a real user’s environment. The consolidation of natural language processing with current solutions also needs to be further explored for the amelioration of the conversational speeds. The recommendations for prospective advances in coming high-tech AAC are addressed in terms of developments to support mobile health communicative applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0283.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy; Misinformation; Government Actions; Communication
Online: 21 March 2022 (10:29:33 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the adverse consequences created by an infodemic specifically on compliance with public health guidance and vaccine uptake. COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy is a complex construct that is related to health beliefs, misinformation exposure, and perceptions of governmental institutions. This study draws on theoretical models and current data on the COVID-19 infodemic to explore the association between perceived risk of COVID-19, levels of misinformation endorsement, and opinions about the government response on vaccine uptake. We surveyed a sample of 2,697 respondents from the US, Canada, and Italy using a mobile platform between 21-28 May, 2021. Using multivariate regression, we found that country of residence, risk perception of contracting and spreading COVID-19, perception of government response and transparency, and misinformation endorsement was associated with the odds of vaccine hesitancy. Higher perceived risk was associated with lower odds of hesitancy, while lower perceptions of government response, and higher misinformation endorsement were associated with higher hesitancy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0160.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Bio-Sensing; inter-symbol interference; molecular communication; synchronisation
Online: 11 March 2022 (04:43:21 CET)
Molecular communication (MC) is a promising bio-inspired paradigm for exchanging molecule information among nanomachines. This paper proposes a synchronisation-assist photolysis MC system that aims to transmit the bio-sensing signal of the tumour microenvironment, facilitated by mitigating redundant molecules for improved bit error rate (BER) performance. Benefits from bio-compatible MC, biosensors could transmit bio-sensing signals of the tumour in $vivo$ instead of converting them to electrical signals. Due to diffusion motion's slow and stochastic nature, inter-symbol interference (ISI), resulting from previous symbols' residual information molecules, inevitably occurs in diffusion-based MC. ISI is one of the challenges in diffusion-based MC, which significantly impacts signal detection. Inspired by on-off keying (OOK) modulation, the proposed modulation implements a switch of molecules and light alternatively. The light emitted is triggered by a synchronisation signal, and the photolysis reactions could reduce the redundant molecules. An expression for the relevant channel impulse response (CIR) is derived from a hybrid channel model of diffusion and photolysis-reaction. This paper implements the maximum posterior estimation scheme to find the optimal decision threshold and analysis the BER performance in terms of different time intervals of the system. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the proposed method can improve the channel capacity and BER performance. We believe that our work may pave the way for MC application in bio-sensing.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0164.v1
Subject: Keywords: Blockchain, Internet of Things, Security, Privacy, Wireless Communication.
Online: 7 June 2021 (10:50:54 CEST)
In the age of next-generation computer, the role of the cloud, the internet and smart devices will become stronger. These days we all know the word smart well. This word is often used in our daily lives. The Internet of Things (IoT) will generate a variety of information from a variety of resources. It can store big data in the cloud. Fog computing acts as a signal between cloud and IoT. Fog extensions in this framework apply to material under IoT. IoT devices are called Fog nodes, which can be accessed anywhere within the network range. A blockchain is a novel way of recording in a secure sequence. Creating a new framework in the development of Internet of Things is one of the critical problems of wireless communication where solving such a problem can lead to continued growth in the use and popularity of IoT. Proposed research creates a framework for providing a framework for middleware on the internet of smart devices network for the internet of things using blockchains technology. Our great offering connects new research that integrates blockchains into the Internet of Things and provides secure Internet connection for smart devices. Blockchain (BC) Internet of Things (IoT) is a new technology that works with low-level, distributed, public and real-time leaders to maintain transactions between IoT sites. A blockchain is a series of blocks, each block being linked to its previous blocks. All blocks have cryptographic hash code, previous block hash, and its data. Transactions in BC are the basic components used to transfer data between IoT nodes. IoT nodes are a variety of portable but smart devices with embedded sensors, actuators, systems and the ability to communicate with other IoT nodes. The role of BC in IoT is to provide a process for processing secure data records using IoT nodes. BC is a protected technology that can be used publicly and openly. IoT requires this type of technology to allow secure communication between IoT nodes in different environments. Events in BC can be tracked and monitored by anyone who is certified to communicate within IoT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0074.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: D2D communication; mmWave; machine-learning applications; 5G; B5G
Online: 5 January 2021 (10:42:40 CET)
Device-to-device (D2D) communication is a promising paradigm for the fifth generation 2 (5G) and beyond 5G (B5G) networks. Although D2D communication provides several benefits, 3 including limited interference, energy efficiency, reduced delay, and network overhead, it faces a lot 4 of technical challenges such as network architecture, and neighbor discovery, etc. The complexity 5 of configuring D2D links and managing their interference, especially when using millimeter-wave 6 (mmWave), inspire researchers to leverage different machine-learning (ML) techniques to address 7 these problems towards boosting the performance of D2D networks. In this paper, a comprehensive 8 survey about recent research activities on D2D networks will be explored with putting more 9 emphasis on utilizing mmWave and ML methods. After exploring existing D2D research directions 10 accompanied with their existing conventional solutions, we will show how different ML techniques 11 can be applied to enhance the D2D networks performance over using conventional ways. Then, still 12 open research directions in ML applications on D2D networks will be investigated including their 13 essential needs. A case study of applying multi-armed bandit (MAB) as an efficient online ML tool 14 to enhance the performance of neighbor discovery and selection (NDS) in mmWave D2D networks 15 will be presented. This case study will put emphasis on the high potency of using ML solutions 16 over using the conventional non-ML based methods for highly improving the average throughput 17 performance of mmWave NDS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0570.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: Environmental Communication; Environmental preservation; Folk media; Guna community
Online: 23 November 2020 (09:20:58 CET)
This study focused on the assessment of folk media aimed at Environmental Communication (EC) in the Guna Community and suggested the dominant Guna Community folk media for environmental communication and preservation to conserve Mount Guna. Guna Mount is the home of different biodiversity and the tower of water, but it is becoming degraded. Folk media are operative in environmental communication and preservation. They have the power to transmitted environmental messages that incorporate cultural values, beliefs, and attitudes with societal needs. Folk media are locally oriented, easily accessible, flexible, portable, inclusive, and relatively inexpensive. A qualitative research approach was employed for this research. Ethnographic research design, snowball, and purposive sampling techniques were used to select the respondents. The researchers were gathered the data through in-depth interviews, focus group discussion, and observation. For this survey, 16 FGDs, 45 individual in-depth interviews, and participant observation were employed. Guna community has unique and indigenous folk media that use as a source of entertainment, information, and education. Their folk music, songs, dances, campfire storytelling, traditional motifs, fairs, and festivals, and folk poems are the dominants. Using folk media for operative ecology preservation is vital in the form of EC that inspires and develops positive behavior in the community by educating about environmentalism in the method of facilitating environmental issues incorporating the latest message. Finally, we recommended some folk media for developmental activities that use inform of advocacy regarding recommended reasons
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0342.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: Undergraduate research experience; diversity; equity; inclusion; science communication
Online: 12 November 2020 (11:31:22 CET)
Ecology is working to face its colonial roots and institutional inequities. As we build more diverse, equitable, and inclusive (DEI) institutions we must work to support new ecologists by empowering them with the knowledge and tools to succeed. Undergraduate research experiences (UREs) are critical for a student’s professional and interpersonal skill development and key for recruiting more diverse groups of students to ecology. Here, we highlight DEI dimensions of a URE in ecology, acknowledge safety considerations for field ecology, including harassment and assault, and provide tools to support the URE. This is written primarily for all URE students and secondarily for their advisors. We welcome students from underrepresented groups and encourage allyship from students from non-underrepresented groups. After reading this paper, we hope that all students feel more confident and excited about their URE and that advisors see how to improve DEI in their lab.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0309.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: electronic communication; serving documents; public authority; administrative proceedings
Online: 10 November 2020 (12:18:20 CET)
On 14 March 2020 the state of epidemic threat was introduced in Poland applicable until 20 March 2020 when the state of epidemic was introduced in the territory of the Republic of Poland. The situation associated with the growing number of SARS-CoV-2 infections forced ongoing monitoring of the epidemic situation, which entailed an introduction of a number of restrictions and solutions intended to isolate the infected persons on the one hand, and to minimize the risk of development of an epidemic in Poland on the other. Activity of the Polish legislator is also essential, which tried to introduce solutions that would correspond with current expectations and needs. In this paper, the author points to the issues of communication with a public authority by specific reflections on the principles of serving documents on beneficiaries of EU programs under which they were awarded funding for their implementation. The author points to the dynamics of the legislator’s work in this respect by analyzing the rules for serving documents by a public authority on beneficiaries who are public entities and those who are not.
Subject: Keywords: undergraduate, research, COVID-19, CUREs, interest, communication, identity
Online: 24 September 2020 (18:14:34 CEST)
Course-based Undergraduate Research Experiences (CUREs) provide active and authentic scientific involvement to tens of thousands of students each year. Through this process, CUREs offer the benefits of increased learning outcomes, improved equity, and increased retention in STEM. During the COVID-19 pandemic, however, research and teaching labs have limited capacity. Some universities are closed for in-person learning altogether, and others are likely to face emergency shut-downs throughout the year. In this setting, the inability to conduct experiments limits a core aspect of CUREs. Without experimentation as a basis for student engagement, interest, and broader relevance, true course-based research this year becomes a major challenge. We suggest that this limitation provides a moment to enhance CUREs with research-enriching learning activities that are obtainable while away from the bench. In this essay we outline a variety of these student-centered activities and review their benefits in terms of student interest, learning, and equity. While useful during emergency teaching transitions during COVID-19, we make the case that these new evidence-based practices for CUREs will also be helpful for the enrichment of research-based learning beyond the current crisis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0461.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: information and communication technology; mobile phones; dependence; youth
Online: 29 February 2020 (09:41:22 CET)
The use of mobile devices facilitates access to knowledge and is at the base of the education of the future. Although the digital society has contributed a number of benefits, however, it has also been associated with worrying behaviours. The study design consisted of a quantitative approach that was descriptive, inferential and ex post-facto in nature. Its purpose was to better understand the opinion of young people regarding mobile phone use and describe dependence deriving from regular use. The sample was formed of 420 students from the Faculty of Education at the University of Granada. Results indicate that mobile phone use has displaced use of other technologies such as the television, and is associated with communication and recreational activities. In addition, a profile was identified for young people at greater risk of developing a dependence on their mobile devices. This profile constituted females, mobile phone users with recreational motives and individuals who exceeded mobile phone use by more than six hours a day. To improve the educational use of mobile phone, prevention and intervention plans must be designed which ensure correct management of this device, taking advantage of the benefits it offers whilst avoiding problems derived from inappropriate use.
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: inter-vehicle communication; content-centric network; cache miss
Online: 7 December 2019 (15:45:30 CET)
Recently, inter-vehicle communication, which helps to avoid collision accidents (by driving safety support system) and facilitate self-driving (by dissemination of road and traffic information), has attracted much attention. In this paper, in order to efficiently collect road / traffic information in the request / response manner, first a basic method, Content-centric network (CCN) for Vehicular network (CV), is proposed, which applies CCN cache function to inter-vehicle communication. Content naming and routing, which take vehicle mobility into account, are investigated. On this basis, the CV method is extended (named as ECV) to avoid the cache miss problem caused by vehicle movement, and is further enhanced (named as ECV+) to more efficiently exploit cache buffer in vehicles, caching content according to a probability decided by channel usage rate. Extensive evaluations on network simulator Scenargie, with realistic open street map, confirm that the CV method and its extensions (ECV, ECV+) effectively reduce the average number of hops of data packets (by up to 47%, 63%, 83% respectively) and greatly improve the content acquisition success rate (by up to 356%, 444%, 689%, respectively), compared to the method without cache mechanism.
Online: 28 May 2019 (17:44:06 CEST)
Blockchain (BC) in the Internet of Things (IoT) is a novel technology that acts with decentralized, distributed, public and real-time ledger to store transactions among IoT nodes. A blockchain is a series of blocks, each block is linked to its previous blocks. Every block has the cryptographic hash code, previous block hash, and its data. The transactions in BC are the basic units that are used to transfer data between IoT nodes. The IoT nodes are different kind of physical but smart devices with embedded sensors, actuators, programs and able to communicate with other IoT nodes. The role of BC in IoT is to provide a procedure to process secured records of data through IoT nodes. BC is a secured technology that can be used publicly and openly. IoT requires this kind of technology to allow secure communication among IoT nodes in heterogeneous environment. The transactions in BC could be traced and explored through anyone who are authenticated to communicate within the IoT. The BC in IoT may help to improve the communication security. In this paper, I explored this approach, its opportunities and challenges.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Validation; communication; questionnaire; healthcare attention; patient satisfaction; nursing.
Online: 25 March 2019 (10:40:45 CET)
Background: Healthcare attention is sometimes considered purely technical, but communication has proven to be closely related to clinical results and patient satisfaction. Therefore, evaluation of communication in the scope of healthcare is a priority. The purpose of this study was to validate and adapt, if necessary, the Spanish version of the Communication Styles Inventory (CSI) in a sample of nursing professionals. (2) Methods: The sample was made up of 2313 nursing professionals selected at random from various medical centers in Spain, and is therefore a sample actively employed at the time data were acquired. We started out from the Communication Style Inventory, a questionnaire for evaluating the predominance of certain individual communication behaviors on six scales (expressiveness, preciseness, verbal aggressiveness, questioningness, emotionality and impression manipulativeness). (3) Results: Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the model proposed showed god fit indices. The reliability of the model shown by the Cronbach’s alpha of α=.81 was adequate, and so was single-level and aggregate consistency. Finally, in the analysis of variance by type of contract, configural, metric and scalar invariance was acceptable, but not strict invariance. (4) Conclusions: This instrument progresses in measuring non-technical attributes, such as communication styles, in nursing personnel.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0365.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library & Information Science Keywords: Traditional; Communication; Media; Rural; Information Service Delivery; Adolescent
Online: 19 July 2018 (15:25:56 CEST)
This research work examined the various communication media used in the rural areas for the purpose of conveying messages to Adolescents in the selected communities in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria - Woji, Rumuigbo, Rumuola, Rumuokwuta and Elelenwo communities. The Taro Yammane Statistical formula for determination of sample size was used in drawing a sample of 363 respondents from a population of 3,630 Adolescents. The simple random sampling method was used in the distribution of the questionnaire to target respondents in the selected communities. Two hundred and eighty two (282) copies of the questionnaire were returned valid, and data from them was analysed and interpreted with the use of frequency tables and percentages. The result shows that traditional communication media is still relevant in the dissemination of information to rural dwellers in general and to Adolescents in particular. The agencies that make use of these media are; village authority, age groups, etc. The research work recommend among others that the government and rural dwellers should hold our traditional and cultural values in high esteem through the use of these media, harmonizing the use of traditional communication media and modern media for effective rural information service delivery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0152.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: Attitudes; Behaviour; Communication; Information; Prompts; Policy; Recycling; Waste
Online: 15 August 2016 (11:34:39 CEST)
Recycling information can be complex and often confusing which may subsequently reduce the participations in any waste recycling schemes. As a result, this research explored the roles as well as the importance of a holistic approach in designing recycling information using 15 expert-based in-depth interviews. The rationale was to offer a better understanding of what constitutes waste, recycling, and how recycling information should be designed and presented to make recycling more attractive/convenient. Based on the research participants’ perceptions with supports from the existing studies, this research sub-categorised recycling information into three different themes, termed the “WWW” of recycling information components. As a result, these components (or attributes) were extensively described (using findings of semi-structured interviews) to elicit pragmatic guidance for practitioners, policy-makers, and other stakeholders in designing structured communication or information strategies that may simplify and subsequently increase waste-recycling practices. The policy implications of holistic information in enhancing recycling are further discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0424.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Linguistics Keywords: emotional speech processing; communication channel; emotion category; task type
Online: 27 October 2022 (08:04:59 CEST)
How language mediates emotional perception and experience is poorly understood. The present event-related potential (ERP) study examined the explicit and implicit processing of emotional speech to differentiate the relative influences of communication channel, emotion category and task type in the prosodic salience effect. Thirty participants (15 women) were presented with spoken words denoting happiness, sadness and neutrality in either the prosodic or semantic channel. They were asked to judge the emotional content (explicit task) and speakers’ gender (implicit task) of the stimuli. Results indicated that emotional prosody (relative to semantics) triggered larger N100 and P200 amplitudes with greater delta, theta and alpha inter-trial phase coherence (ITPC) values in the corresponding early time windows, and continued to produce larger LPC amplitudes and faster responses during late stages of higher-order cognitive processing. The relative salience of prosodic and semantics was modulated by emotion and task, though such modulatory effects varied across different processing stages. The prosodic salience effect was reduced for sadness processing and in the implicit task during early auditory processing and decision-making but reduced for happiness processing in the explicit task during conscious emotion processing. Additionally, across-trial synchronization of delta, theta and alpha bands predicted the ERP components with higher ITPC values significantly associated with stronger N100, P200 and LPC enhancement. These findings reveal the neurocognitive dynamics of emotional speech processing with prosodic salience tied to stage-dependent emotion- and task-specific effects, which can reveal insights to research reconciling language and emotion processing from cross-linguistic/cultural and clinical perspectives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0079.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: evidence-based practice; spiritual care; communication skills; path analysis
Online: 3 November 2021 (10:54:36 CET)
Decision-making using evidence-based practice (EBP) is generally universally accepted by nurses. Such acceptance may affect the personnel’s behaviour towards patients, which is also demonstrated by taking into consideration the patient’s preferences, including the patient’s spiritual needs, in the care plan. The provision of such care requires the development of an attitude of approval and an adequate level of communicative competence, which will enable the actual implementation of the EBP. The purpose of our study was to assess the perception of spirituality and the nurse’s role in providing spiritual care, as well as the perception of the significance of communication skills in the approval of EBP in professional practice. A multi-centre cross-section study was conducted on a population of 1176 participants (459 undergraduate (Bachelor programme, BP) and 717 postgraduate students (Master programme, MP)) from 10 medical universities in Poland. Three tools were used in the study to evaluate the participants’ approach: Evidence-Based Practice Competence Questionnaire (EBP-COQ), The Spirituality and Spiritual Care Rating Scale (SSCRS), and Communication Skills Attitude Scale (CSAS). Structural equation modelling was used for the analysis. An analysis of structural equations revealed the presence of positive relationships of the attitude to spiritual care and the role of communicative competences with the approach to EBP regardless of the cohort. A significant difference was found related to the influence of age on the attitude toward learning communicative competences. The approval in this respect was observed to decrease with age in the MP group. Increasing approval of EBP requires strengthening the approach to activity-centred spiritual care, with the simultaneous development of a positive attitude towards learning communicative competences. The model reveals the need to integrate a humanistic approach with EBP, which can be achieved by planning different interventions in different groups of recipients: nurses, academic teachers and students.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0429.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: COVID-19; perceived risk; communication; psychophysical strain; longitudinal study.
Online: 28 October 2021 (09:58:00 CEST)
The perceived risk of being infected at work (PRIW) with COVID-19 represents a potential risk factor for workers during the current COVID-19 pandemic. In line with the job demands-resources (JD-R) model applied to safety at work, in this longitudinal study we propose that PRIW can be conceptualized as a job demand, whereas communication (i.e., the exchange of good-quality information across team members) can be conceived as a job resource. Accordingly, we hypothesized that PRIW at Time 1 (T1) would positively predict psychophysical strain at Time 2 (i.e., four months later). Furthermore, we hypothesized that communication at T1 would negatively predict psychophysical strain at T2. Overall, 297 workers took part in the study. The hypothesized relationships were tested using multiple regression analysis. Results supported our predictions: PRIW positively predicted psychophysical strain over time, whereas communication negatively predicted psychophysical strain over time. Also, results did not change after controlling for age, gender, and type of contract. Overall, this study suggests that PRIW and communication can be considered as a risk and a protective factor for work-related stress, respectively. Hence, to promote more sustainable working conditions, interventions should encourage organizations to optimize the balance between job demands and job resources related to COVID-19.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0109.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: Leptin, Animal Communication, Electric Fish, Singing Mice, Metabolism, Energetics
Online: 5 April 2021 (12:11:15 CEST)
Animal communication signals are regulated by multiple hormonal axes that ensure appropriate signal targeting, timing, and information content. The regulatory roles of steroid hormones and many peptide hormones are well understood and documented across a wide range of vertebrate taxa. Two recent studies have reported a novel function for leptin, a peptide hormone central to energy balance regulation: regulating communication signals of weakly electric fish and singing mice. With only limited evidence available at this time, a key question is just how widespread leptinergic regulation of communication signals is within and across taxa. A second important question is what features of communication signals are subject to leptinergic regulation. Here we consider the functional significance of leptinergic regulation of animal communication signals in the context of both direct and indirect signal metabolic costs. Direct costs arise from metabolic investment in signal production, while indirect costs arise from the predation and social conflict consequences of the signal’s information content. We propose a preliminary conceptual framework for predicting which species will exhibit leptinergic regulation of their communication signals and which signal features leptin will regulate. This framework suggests a number of directly testable predictions within and across taxa. Accounting for additional factors such as life history and reproductive strategies will likely require modification or elaboration of this model.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0043.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Other Keywords: Epilepsy, Theatre, Neurology, Cultural History, Drama, Engagement, Medical Communication
Online: 2 April 2021 (11:12:17 CEST)
The theatre has a tremendous ability to influence public discourse and shape societal opinions. And medical conditions can provide writers with a rich scope for plot development and characters with challenges to overcome. In particular, the neurological condition epilepsy has many possibilities with historical beliefs that people were possessed by gods and devils and the sudden, disabling seizures characteristic of the condition. But used unsympathetically, it can promote misunderstanding within audiences, resulting in discrimination for people with the condition. This review looks back at how epilepsy has been portrayed throughout history. How the Greeks portrayed epilepsy as a punishment from the gods. Then later, how Shakespeare utilised epilepsy to suggest characters as uncontrollable. However, we finish on a message of hope as modern writers look to collaboration to ensure accurate and honest portrayals of epilepsy, improving public understanding and removing many of the stigmas that have dogged the condition.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: communication; patient safety; obstetrics; midwifery; intervention; training; interprofessional; learning
Online: 24 December 2020 (07:59:04 CET)
(1) Background: Obstetric work requires good communication, which can be trained in interventions targeting health care providers and pregnant women/ patients. This systematic review aims to aggregate the current state of research on communication interventions in obstetrics. (2) Methods: Using the PICOS scheme, studies published in peer-reviewed journals in English or German between 2000 and 2020 were searched. Out of 7,018 results, 71 studies were included in this synthesis and evaluated using the Oxford Level of Evidence Scale. (3) Results: 63 studies, including a communication component, revealed a positive effect on different proximal outcomes (i.e., communication skills). Three studies evaluating the effect of communication training on distal performance indicators (i.e., patient safety) proved to be beneficial to some extent. Most studies included different groups at the same time; those addressing health care providers were more common than those with students (61 vs. 12). Expectant mothers were targeted only in 9 studies. Overall, the evidence level of studies was low (only 11 RCTs), with 24 studies evidence level of I-II, 35 of III, and 10 of IV. (4) Conclusions: Communication training should be applied more often to improve communication of staff, students, and pregnant women, and thereby improve patient safety.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: data transmission; erasure communication channel; adaptive coding; satellite formation
Online: 3 November 2020 (12:39:08 CET)
The paper deals with the navigation data exchange between two satellites moving in a swarm. It is focused on reduction of the inter-satellite demanded communication channel capacity taking into account dynamics of the satellites relative motion and possible erasing in the channel the navigation data. The feedback control law is designed ensuring regulation of the relative satellites motion. The adaptive binary coding/decoding procedure for the satellites navigation data transmission over the limited capacity communication channel is proposed and studied for the cases of ideal and erasure channels. Dependence of the regulation time on the data transmission rate is numerically evaluated. Results of the numerical study of the closed-loop system performance and accuracy of the data transmission algorithm on the communication channel bitrate and erasure probability are obtained based on the extensive simulations. These results provide dependence of the required load of the communication channel on the desired quality of the regulation process. It is shown that both data transmission error and regulation time depend inversely proportional on the communication rate, and that for the significantly high data transmission rate erasure of data in the channel with probability up to 0.3 does not make an effect on the regulation time.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0095.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: health; climate change; communication; health promotion; health education; perception
Online: 5 October 2020 (14:31:37 CEST)
The negative implications of climate change for human health are now well-established. Yet these have not been fully considered into climate change communication strategies. Research suggests that reorienting climate change communication with a health frame could be a useful communication strategy. We conducted a long-term and broad overview of existing scientific literature in order to summarize the state of research activity in this area, by extent and by nature. The methodology is based on a scoping review of scientific articles published on climate change communication and health between 1990 and mid-2016 indexed in the PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science databases. The screened citations were reviewed for inclusion and data were extracted and coded in order to conduct quantitative (e.g. frequencies) and qualitative (i.e. content analysis) analyses.Out of 2,866 identified published papers, only 24 articles were eligible for analyses. The main themes identified were effective communication of climate change (n=10, 41.7%), the role of health professionals (n=10, 41.7%) and the perception of climate change (n=4, 16.7%). We identified a large proportion of secondary research articles (n= 15, 62.5%) including reviews (n=5, 20.8%) and opinion articles (n=10, 41.7%). A significant share - 37.57% (n=9) - of the identified articles were classified as original research articles, suggesting that the number of publications in this area - particularly original research - has not grown rapidly.This scoping review identified several themes including effective communication of climate change, the role of health professionals, and the perception of climate change in the selected articles on the subject. The research literature on the communication of climate change and health is relatively recent and emerging: the first articles on the subject were published from 2008 onward only.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0132.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: risk perception; coronavirus; covid-19; risk communication; global health
Online: 7 May 2020 (15:12:32 CEST)
The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is shaking the foundations of public health governance all over the world. Researchers are challenged by informing and supporting authorities on acquired knowledge and practical implications. This commentary applies established theories of risk perception research to COVID-19 and reflects on the role of risk perceptions in these unprecedented times. Moreover, it calls for utilizing the knowledge on risk perception to improve health risk communication, build trust and contribute to a collaborating governance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0468.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: unmanned underwater vehicle; broadband radio communication; surface electromagnetic wave
Online: 31 March 2020 (23:08:38 CEST)
This paper presents several novel designs of underwater portable radio antennas operating in the 2 MHz, 50 MHz and 2.4 GHz bands and efficient for launching surface electromagnetic waves at the seawater/air interface. The antenna operation is enabled by an impedance matching antenna enclosure, which is filled with de-ionized water. Enhanced coupling to surface electromagnetic waves is based on the field enhancement at the antenna tip. These design features allow us to reduce antenna dimensions and improve the coupling of electromagnetic energy to the surrounding saltwater medium. Since surface wave propagation length far exceeds the skin depth of conventional radio waves at the same frequency, this technique is useful for broadband underwater wireless communication over distances, which far exceed the skin depth in seawater. We conclude that the developed broadband underwater radio communication technique will be useful in networking of unmanned underwater vehicles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0038.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: communication skills; standardized patients; gender; checklist; competence assessment; OSCE
Online: 3 April 2019 (10:22:49 CEST)
Background: The present study analyzes the evaluation of communication skills by standardized patients (SPs) and medical evaluators (Es) in an OSCE setting. Methods: The OSCE involved 189 sixth-year medical students, as well as 34 SPs and 63 Es. Communications skills were evaluated in 8 stations, simultaneously by SPs and Es. The SPs were actors who had been trained in the clinical case and who acted in accordance with a standardized script in a simulated clinical situation. The evaluators, also standardized, were Resident Doctors or staff Doctors from the Hospital Services involved. Results: The global scores awarded to students for communication skills were very similar in both groups, although the score awarded by Es was significantly higher, and a direct relationship was also observed between the mean scores awarded by both groups. Evaluators awarded significantly higher scores than SPs in 7 out of the 10 items on the checklist. Female medical students also scored significantly higher than their male counterparts in many items, including external appearance, listening, cordiality, optimism, interest, expression and empathy. Conclusions: Our data indicate that SPs and Es evaluated communication skills in a similar manner in an OSCE setting, a finding which suggests that health-related professionals can be used as an alternative to SPs, thus helping to lower economic costs. Our study also confirms a gender difference (in favor of women) in the evaluation of communications skills by both groups.Our data indicate that SPs and Es evaluated communication skills in a similar manner in an OSCE setting, a finding which suggests that health-related professionals can be used as an alternative to SPs, thus helping to lower economic costs. Our study also confirms a gender difference (in favor of women) in the evaluation of communications skills by both groups.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0090.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: Bell’s Theorem, No-communication theorem, Entanglement swapping, Schmidt decomposition
Online: 9 January 2019 (16:28:41 CET)
This paper is in response to a critique of the author’s earlier papers on the matter of a non-local communication system by Ghirardi. The setup has merit for not apparently falling for the usual pitfalls of putative communication schemes, as espoused by the No-communication theorem (NCT) - that of non-factorisability. The enquiry occurred from the investigation of two interferometer based communication systems: one two-photon entanglement, the other single-photon path entanglement. Both systems have two parties: a sender (“Alice”) who transmits or absorbs her particle and a receiver (“Bob”) who has an interferometer, which can discern a pure or mixed state, ahead of his detector. Ghirardi used the density matrix and found that the system wasn’t factorisable; this was seen as a fulfilment of the NCT. We revisit the analysis and say quite simply that Ghirardi is mistaken. The system is rendered factorisable by a Schmidt decomposition and entanglement swapping to “which path information” of the interferometer; also one must consider the joint evolution before taking the partial trace. Ghirardi’s misuse, by the inapplicability of the NCT in this situation, renders this general prohibitive bar incomplete or entirely wrong.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0420.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: communication model, volcanic eruption, contingency planning, risk management, Sinabung
Online: 23 August 2018 (16:06:15 CEST)
This study aims to find a communication model of contingency plan for disaster risk management of Sinabung Volcano eruption, in North Sumatera. The object of the research is communication and coordination across the government, non-government organization, and community. This study used planning theory, the concept of communication planning, and types of disaster management plan as tools for analysing. Descriptive qualitative is used as the method. Data collection was obtained from the focus group discussion (FGD), in-depth interviews, observation, and study documentation. There are three stages in descriptive qualitative research that is data reduction, data presentation, and conclusion. An analysis was conducted qualitatively on the program and competence actors. The results found the communication model of disaster risk management through documents of contingency planning to overcome the threat of Mount Sinabung eruption. During the emergency response period a core model was used to reduce the impact of the Mount Sinabung eruption. The contingency plan becomes the Karo District Government’s document. This document were authorized by an authorized official and is ready to be applied to the Emergency Response Operation Plan. Plans for emergency response operations are carried out based on information regarding damage and the need to obtain results of a quick review. Contingency plans are submitted to the legislature for political commitment and support and budget allocation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0345.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: economic development; natural disasters; information/communication technology; cell phone
Online: 22 June 2018 (05:55:05 CEST)
A global revolution in information and communication technologies (ICT) has occurred over the past few decades, emerging first in industrialized countries and then in developing countries. While researchers have examined many facets of the ICT revolution, relatively little work has systematically examined the degree to which ICT has reduced natural disaster vulnerability. In this article we use cross-country data over the 1980-2013 period to estimate the relationship between newly-emerging cell phone access/use and disaster-induced fatalities. Our estimates suggest that a one-standard-deviation increase in cell phone usage reduces disaster fatalities by nearly one half. The estimated effect increases to almost three quarters for geologic events where people are typically afflicted without warning. The largest marginal benefit from cell phones in terms of saving lives come from events where there is typically no warning, thus many are caught by surprise; cell phones are used to call for help and coordinate assistance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0098.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: MicroRNA; cancer associated fibroblasts; cell-cell communication; transformation; epigenetic
Online: 28 February 2017 (10:29:27 CET)
Tumor microenvironment including cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) has developed as an important target for understanding tumor progression, clinical prognosis and treatment responses of cancer. Cancer cells appear to transform normal fibroblasts (NF) into CAFs involving direct cell-cell communication and epigenetic regulations. This review summarizes the current understanding on miR involvement in cancer cell – tumor environment/stroma communication, transformation of NFs into CAFs, their involved targets and signaling pathways in these interactions; and clinical relevance of CAF-related miR expression profiles. There is evidence that miRs have very similar roles in activating hepatic (HSC) and pancreatic stellate cells (PSC) as part of precancerous fibrotic diseases. In summary, deregulated miRs affect various intracellular functional complexes, such as transcriptional factors, extracellular matrix, cytoskeleton, EMT/MET regulation, soluble factors, tyrosine kinase and G-protein signaling, apoptosis and cell cycle & differentiation, but also formation and composition of the extracellular microenvironment. These processes result in the clinical appearance of desmoplasia involving CAFs and fibrosis characterized by deregulated stellate cells. In addition, modulated release of soluble factors can act as (auto)activating feedback loop for transition of NFs into their pathological counterparts. Furthermore, epigenetic communication between CAFs and cancer cells may confer to cancer specific functional readouts and transition of NF into their pathological counterparts. MiR related epigenetic regulation with many similarities should be considered as key factor in development of cancer and fibrosis specific environment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0092.v2
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: communication standards; cyber security; intrusion detection system; smart grid; topology control; Wireless sensor networks
Online: 27 October 2016 (11:26:10 CEST)
An existing power grid is going through a massive transformation. Smart grid technology is a radical approach for improvisation in prevailing power grid. Integration of electrical and communication infrastructure is inevitable for the deployment of Smart grid network. Smart grid technology is characterized by full duplex communication, automatic metering infrastructure, renewable energy integration, distribution automation and complete monitoring and control of entire power grid. Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are small micro electrical mechanical systems which are accomplished to collect and communicate the data from surroundings. WSNs can be used for monitoring and control of smart grid assets. Security of wireless sensor based communication network is a major concern for researchers and developers. The limited processing capabilities of wireless sensor networks make them more vulnerable to cyber-attacks. The countermeasures against cyber-attacks must be less complex with an ability to offer confidentiality, data readiness and integrity. The address oriented design and development approach for usual communication network requires a paradigm shift to design data oriented WSN architecture. WSN security is an inevitable part of smart grid cyber security. This paper is expected to serve as a comprehensive assessment and analysis of communication standards, cyber security issues and solutions for WSN based smart grid infrastructure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0170.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: migration; female genital mutilation; sexual health; reproductive health; communication
Online: 18 August 2016 (05:30:20 CEST)
Objectives: Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a significant public health problem. It is estimated around 14,700 women affected by FGM live in Switzerland, primarily among women with a history of migration. Our qualitative research investigated the sexual health of immigrant women living with FGM in Switzerland, describing their own perception of health, reproductive life and sexuality. Methods: We conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with a group of eight immigrant women of African origin living in Switzerland with Type III FGM (infibulation). Results: Seven of the women were from Somalia and one from Ivory Coast. All of the Somali women were mothers and married (two separated), and the Ivorian woman was a single mother. The women in our study reported a low level of sexual satisfaction and reproductive health. They affirmed their desire to improve, or at least change, their condition. Although they rarely talk with their husbands about sexual subject matter, they would like to include them more and improve dialogue. Conclusions: Specific socio-sexual management is recommended when caring for immigrant women living with FGM in order to respond to their specific health care needs. Multidisciplinary approaches may be able to offer more comprehensive health care, including facilitated communication to improve dialogue between women and health care professionals, and eventually between women and their husbands in discussing sexual matter.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0009.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Radiation & Radiography Keywords: Antennas; Communication systems; Electromagnetic analysis; Measurements; Radio propagation; Waveguides
Online: 8 July 2016 (03:44:51 CEST)
In this research paper, design and development of pyramidal horn antenna for J-band application is reported. It is particularly designed for 17 dB gain and half beam width about 25 degrees at 6.93 GHz. Horn aperture, horn axial length and distance from the throat of the antenna to aperture are the main design constraints which are calculated and used for the antenna design and simulation. Beam width in E-plane and H-plane horn is calculated and it is 19.18 dB and 22.86 dB respectively. The reported antenna design shows good performance for J-band in radiometry, satellite, and radar applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0184.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: pharmacy; patient communication; pharmacy communications; interpersonal communications; automated telemarketing telephone calls; telephone messages; automated messages; communication theory; customer relation management; CRM; pharmacy practice
Online: 16 April 2018 (04:31:24 CEST)
Pharmacy personnel often answer telephones to respond to pharmacy customers (subjects) who received messages from automated systems. This research examines the communication process in terms of how users interact and engage with pharmacies after receiving automated messages. No study has directly addressed automated telephone calls and subjects’ interactions. The purpose of this study is to test the interpersonal communication (IC) process of uncertainty in subjects in receipt of automated telephone calls from pharmacies. Subjects completed a survey of validated scales for Satisfaction (S); Relevance (R); Quality (Q); Need for Cognitive Closure (NFC). Relationships between S, R, Q, NFC, and subject preference to an automated telephone call (ATC) were analyzed to determine whether subjects contacting pharmacies display information seeking behavior. This research demonstrates that seeking information occurs if subjects: are dissatisfied with the content of the ATC; perceive that the Q of the ATC is high; perceive that the Q of ATC is high, and like receiving the ATC or with high NFC, and do not like receiving ATCs. Other interactions presented complexities amongst uncertainty and tolerance of NFC within the IC process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0347.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Fluids & Plasmas Keywords: Submesoscale; Turbulence; Frontogenesis; Energy cascade; Mutual communication; Ocean density fronts
Online: 18 November 2022 (03:21:03 CET)
We present large eddy simulations of a mid-latitude open ocean front using a modified state of the art computational fluid dynamics code. We investigate the energy and information fluxes at the submesoscale/small-scale range in the absence of any atmospheric forcing. We find submesoscale conditions (Ro∼1, Ri∼1) near surface, within baroclinic structures related with partially imbalanced frontogenetic activity. Near surface, the simulations show a significant scale coupling on scales larger than ∼103(m). This is manifested as a strong direct energy cascade and intense mutual communication between scales, where the latter was evaluated using an estimator based on Mutual Information Theory. At scales smaller than ∼103(m) the results show near-zero energy flux, however, at this scale range, the estimator of mutual communication still shows values corresponding with a significant level of communication between them. This fact motivates to investigate the nature of the self-organized turbulent motion at this scale range with weak energetic coupling but where communication between scales is still significant and to inquire into the existence of synchronization or functional relationships between scales with emphasis on eventual underlying non-local processes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0145.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Leishmania; co-infections; mixed infections; co-culture; hybrid; intercellular communication
Online: 8 August 2022 (10:20:49 CEST)
Leishmania parasites present astonishing adaptative abilities that represent a matter of life or death within disparate environments during the heteroxenous parasite life cycle. From an evolutionary perspective, organisms develop methods of overcoming such challenges. Strategies that extend beyond the genetic diversity have been discussed and include variability between parasite cells during the infections of their hosts. The occurrence of Leishmania subpopulation fluctuations with variable structural genomic contents demonstrates that a single strain might shelter the variability required to overcome inconsistent environments. Such intrastrain variability provides parasites with an extraordinary ability to adapt and thus survive and propagate. However, different perspectives on this evolution have been proposed. Strains or species living in the same environment can cooperate but also compete. These interactions might increase the replication rate of some parasites but cause the loss of more aggressive competitors for others. Adaptive responses to intra- and interspecific competition can evolve as a fixed strategy (replication is adapted to the average genetic complexity of infections) or an optional strategy (replication varies according to the genetic complexity of the current infection). This review highlights the complexity of interspecies and intrastrain interactions among Leishmania parasites as well as the different factors that influence this interplay.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0625.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: COVD-19; moral distress; healthcare worker; mental health; communication; leadership
Online: 28 July 2021 (10:45:50 CEST)
Background: Sudden changes in clinical practice and the altered ability to care for patients due to the COVID-19 pandemic have been associated with moral distress and mental health concerns in healthcare workers internationally. This study aimed to investigate the severity, prevalence, and predictors of moral distress experienced by Australian healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A nationwide, voluntary, anonymous, single time-point, online survey of self-identified frontline healthcare workers was conducted between 27th August and 23rd October 2020. Participants were recruited through health organisations, professional associations or colleges, universities, government contacts, and national media. Results: 7846 complete responses were received from nurses (39.4%), doctors (31.1%), allied health staff (16.7%) or other roles (6.7%). Many participants reported moral distress related to resource scarcity (58.3%), wearing PPE (31.7%) limiting their ability to care for patients, exclusion of family going against their values (60.2%), and fear of letting co-workers down if they were infected (55.0%). Many personal and workplace predictors of moral distress were identified, with those working in certain frontline areas, metropolitan locations, and with prior mental health diagnoses at particular risk of distress. Moral distress was associated with an increased risk of adverse mental health outcomes. Feeling appreciated by the community mitigated this risk in healthcare workers. Conclusions: Safeguarding healthcare workforces during crises is important for both patient safety and workforce longevity. Targeted interventions are required to prevent or minimise moral distress and associated mental health concerns in healthcare workers during COVID-19 and other crises.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0587.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Photonic crystal; polarizer; multiplexer; polarization extinction ratio; communication channels; heterostructure
Online: 26 July 2021 (15:04:30 CEST)
Herein, we offer a numerical study on the devising of a unique 2D-heterostructure Photonic crystal (PC) that can split two orthogonally polarized light waves. The analysis is performed via a two-dimensional finite element method (2D-FEM) by utilizing COMSOL Multiphysics software. The device consists of two discrete designs of PC formation. The first PC formation is optimized so that it permits both TE and TM-polarization of light to transmit through it. Whereas the second PC formation possesses a Photonic Bandgap (PBG) only for TE-polarized light. These two formations are combined at an angle of 45 degrees, resulting in a reflection of self-collimated TE-polarized light at an angle of 90 degrees owing to the PBG present in the second PC formation. While permitting the self-collimated TM-polarized light wave to travel uninterrupted. The proposed device has a small footprint of ~10.5 μm2 offering low transmission loss and high polarization extinction ratio which makes it an ideal candidate to be employed as an on-chip polarization division multiplexing system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0761.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: communication; olfaction; scent-marking; gas chromatography–mass spectrometry; Eulemur coronatus
Online: 31 May 2021 (12:09:44 CEST)
Primates are traditionally considered to have a poor sense of smell. However, olfaction is important for non-human primates as demonstrated by conspicuous scent-marking behaviours in lemurs. We studied two family groups (N=4) of crowned lemurs (Eulemur coronatus) housed at Colchester and Twycross zoos (UK) by combining behavioural observations and chemical analyses of scent-marks. We recorded observations of olfactory behaviours for 201 h using instantaneous scan sampling. We investigated the volatile compounds of ano-genital odour secretions using solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Males scent-marked most frequently, displaying ano-genital marking for allomarking, head marking for countermarking and wrist marking in specific areas of the enclosure. Females displayed ano-genital marking predominantly on feeding devices. We detected a total of 38 volatile components in all male ano-genital scent-marks and 26 in all female samples of ano-genital odour secretions, including a series of esters, aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, terpenes, volatile fatty acids and hydrocarbons that have been identified in odour profiles of other primates. In conclusion, we found sexual dimorphism in crowned lemurs. Male head and wrist marking behaviours might play defensive territorial functions, while ano-genital marking would be related to socio-sexual communication as chemical mate-guarding. Female ano-genital marking might be involved in resource defense.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0448.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: preprint; citations; scholarly communication; open science; peer review; impact factor
Online: 16 April 2021 (16:45:49 CEST)
Preprints are regularly cited in peer reviewed journal articles, books and conference paper. Are preprint citations somehow less important than citations to peer reviewed research papers? This study investigates citation patterns between 2017 and 2020 for preprints published in three preprint servers, one specializing in biology (bioRxiv), one in chemistry (ChemRxiv), and another hosting preprints in all disciplines (Research Square). As evaluation of scholarship continues to largely rely on citation-based metrics, this analysis and its outcomes will be useful to inform new research-based education in today’s scholarly communication.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0027.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: science; policy making; systems models; communication; case studies; water management
Online: 1 March 2021 (14:07:43 CET)
Clearly policy makers should consider the impacts of any decisions they might make before making them. Science can provide estimates of various economic, ecologic, environmental, and even social impacts of alternative policies, impacts that determine how effective any particular policy will be. These impact estimates can be used to compare and evaluate alternative policies in the search for identifying the best one to implement. Among all scientists providing inputs to policy making processes are analysts who develop and apply models that provide these estimated impacts and, possibly, their probabilities of occurrence. But just producing them is not a guarantee that they will be considered by policy makers. This paper discusses ways scientists, including systems analysts, can effectively contribute to and inform those involved in making water management decisions. Brief descriptions of a variety of past and on-going water management policy making processes illustrate both some successes and failures of science informing policy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0070.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: flexible antenna; wireless communication systems; OLED; transparent conductive fabric; VeilShield
Online: 2 November 2020 (19:40:09 CET)
In this work, a new flexible antenna integrated with OLED light sources is presented for WiMAX wireless communication systems. The proposed antenna was placed on a 100% polyester base with a thickness of 1.5 mm and achieved a high gain. We evaluated and tested its performance, including reflection coefficient, radiation pattern and gain. The flexible and simple patch antenna has been designed to operate at 3.5 GHz for WiMAX wireless communication systems with a gain value of 5.38 dB. This article proves the applicability of the proposed material for the integration of flexible antennas in OLEDs while maintaining gain performance similar to conventional flat antennas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0148.v1
Subject: Keywords: Husband Consent; Family Planning; Spousal Communication; Young Mothers; Peri-Urban
Online: 6 September 2020 (16:15:15 CEST)
Men are perceived as significant barriers to the uptake of contraception in some communities, and lack of spousal communication regarding contraception is evident in some studies conducted in South-West and Northern Nigeria. The objective is to identify and discuss how husband consent to family planning (FP) and spousal communication influence family planning use among peri-urban dwellers in Nigeria. The study was limited to the primary dataset collected among young mothers that resides in peri-urban between the age of 15-30 years in South West, Nigeria. The result showed that the use of family planning was high among the respondents whose husband give consent to the use of family planning, and respondents who had appropriate spousal communication. Similarly, respondents whose spouse asks questions or whose husband advises on communication are likely to use FP. On the other hand, respondents whose husband didn’t give consent, respondents with inappropriate communication with the spouse, respondents whose spouses didn’t give advice, and those whose spouses didn’t ask questions are less likely to use FP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0170.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: internet of things; smart grids; protocol communication; interoperability; CoAP; OSGP
Online: 16 January 2020 (11:41:25 CET)
The evolution and miniaturization of the technologies for processing, storage, and communication have enabled computer systems to process a high volume of information and make decisions without human intervention. Within this context, several systems architectures and models have gained prominences, such as the Internet of Things (IoT) and Smart Grids (SGs). SGs use communication protocols to exchange information, among which the Open Smart Grid Protocol (OSGP) stands out. In contrast, this protocol does not have integration support with IoT systems that use some already consolidated communication protocols, such as the Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP). Thus, this work develops the integration of the protocols OSGP and CoAP to allow the communication between conventional IoT systems and systems dedicated to SGs. Results demonstrate the effectiveness of this integration, with the minimum impact on the flow of commands and data, making possible the use of the developed CoAP-OSGP Interface for Internet of Things (COIIoT).
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: effective communication; community pharmacy; pharmacist’s role; modern society; modern services; on-line pharmacy; pharmacy educational methodologies; communication skills improvement; pharmacist’s professionalism; efficient consultancy service
Online: 15 November 2019 (03:33:33 CET)
Ever since pharmacy has become a profession, pharmacist's role has been continuously subjected to changes due to specific influences from historical, socio-economic, political, and scientific context. Nowadays the classic perception of pharmaceutical profession in Community Pharmacy is facing worldwide extinction due to many factors. Modern services, such as online, mail-order, and telephone-order pharmacies are increasingly gaining ground thanks to their ability to facilitate customer demand. However, at the same time, they are endangering “face-to-face” contact, affecting the building of customer loyalty based on direct “human” interaction, and consequently reducing pharmacists to mere commercial figures. Communication is in fact emphasized as the essential element to build a solid and appropriate interpersonal relationship with the client, to make the consultancy process effective, and to strengthen pharmacist's professionalism in community pharmacy. The aim of this work is to analyze pharmacist’s role in modern society by pinpointing the factors affecting pharmacy profession practice. Specific purpose will be improving both the academic training of future professionals and their capacity to approach public relations through a deepened study and practice of behavioral, communication, educational, and sociological methodologies and techniques that would allow the development of more effective communication skills useful for providing an efficient consultancy service.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0336.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: health literacy; patient health engagement model; Health Care Climate Questionnaire; patient autonomy; PHE-s; Patient Health Engagement Scale; health communication; patient centered communication; patient engagement
Online: 28 January 2020 (10:29:43 CET)
Individuals with low health literacy (HL) are known to have poorer health outcomes and to have higher mortality rates compared to individuals with higher HL: hence, the improvement of HL is a key outcome in modern healthcare systems. Healthcare providers are therefore asked to support patients’ literacy skills by encouraging the implementation of autonomy-supportive patient centered communication (PCC), which in turn requires the enhancement of patient engagement. Our main hypothesis is that the well-known relationship between autonomy-supportive PCC and HL is mediated by patient engagement which is known to play a role in HL promotion and that is related to PCC as well. The purpose of this study was to formulate a hypothetical structural equation model (SEM) linking PCC to patient engagement and HL. A cross-sectional survey design was employed involving 1007 Italian chronic patients. The hypothetical model was tested using SEM to verify the hypothesized mediation of patient engagement between PCC and HL. Results show that the theoretical model has a good fit indexes and that patient engagement fully mediates the relationship between PCC and HL. This finding suggests healthcare systems to implement a new paradigm where patients are supported to play an autonomous role in their own healthcare.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0250.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: Management; telework; communication; human resource management; business; digitalization; Covid-19 pandemic
Online: 15 August 2022 (05:57:07 CEST)
In the context of the pandemic caused by Covid-19, an important aspect that was affected and changed was the way people communicate. Communication efficiency can be improved by using modern technologies, for example: mobile devices, digital audio and video platforms, text platforms, social media and more. For further economic success, digital skills are needed not only for executives, but also for managers, in order to be able to lead teams and avoid situations of stress and tension in the virtual environment. This scientific paper includes a primary research of how the pandemic affected the communication at the workplace. For this a qualitative analysis was first performed, in which the interview was used as a working tool. Next, on the basis of a questionnaire, a hypothesis was formulated and validated afterwards through multiple linear regression. This research highlighted the particularly important role of communication and, in this context, the role of the remote team leader. In order to keep the team motivated and interested in the virtual environment, the manager must use modern tools to motivate, support and express his appreciation when the team, respectively the members of his team, achieve their goals successfully.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0133.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: bone formation; BMP-2; FGF-2; beta-TCP; osteoblast-osteoclast communication
Online: 9 March 2022 (10:58:33 CET)
It is very difficult to repair large bone defects, especially when they have a complex shape. We have developed a new technique to make a desired copy of rabbit bones. A rabbit distal femur was scanned by computed tomography (CT), and a rectangular-shaped beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) block with 75% porosity was automatically machined using milling tools into a half-scale copy of the distal femur based on the CT data. The β-TCP block was seeded with bone morphogenetic protein-2 and bone marrow cells obtained from the femur and implanted on the periosteum of the femur. At 10 weeks after implantation, most of the β-TCP block had been replaced by bone and a complete copy of the distal femur was reconstructed. Our findings indicate that this technique will be useful in the clinical setting. We also report the representative clinical results of treatment with β-TCP graft in patients with bone defects since 1989.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0074.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: 5G, Resource allocation, Resource distribution, Congestion, 5G communication, Comprehensive, Review, Systematic.
Online: 3 August 2021 (11:31:27 CEST)
Fifth Generation (5G) communication technology is intended to offer higher data rates, outstanding user exposure, power consumption, and extremely short latency. Such cellular networks will implement a diverse multi-layer model comprising of device-to-device networks, macro-cells, and dissimilar categories of small-cells to assist customers with desired quality-of-service (QoS). This multi-layer model affects several studies that confront utilizing interference management and resource allocation in 5G networks. With the growing need and the lack of resources, the resource distribution problem desires to be focused capably to accomplish the traffic and to enhance network working. One of the utmost serious problems is to alleviate the jamming from the network in support of having a better QoS. However, there are limited review papers written on resource distribution, there is no particularize and organized review carry out in 5G resource allocation. Hence, this article covers and evaluates the argument using a classification of existing developing resource allocation schemes in 5G thoroughly by classifying the schemes to enhance the service quality. This survey comprises the discussion based on metrics used to evaluate the performance. It would also permit ahead beyond evidence on resource allocation methods in 5G and empowers the scholars to meet the present research areas to focus on.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0010.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: digital teaching competence; information and communication technology; blended-learning; COVID-19.
Online: 1 July 2021 (11:06:33 CEST)
The education system has become even more complex following the global pandemic, which saw face-to-face teaching transition to virtual teaching. To cope with this abrupt transition, it is essential that teachers had a sufficient level of digital teaching competence. This article aims to increase awareness of teachers' self-perception of their digital teaching competences in the educational field. Specifically, this study explores Spanish secondary school teachers’ knowledge and use of different ICT tools by evaluating their competence based on different areas proposed by The National Institute of Technology and Professional Development (Instituto Nacional de Tecnologías Educativas y de Formación del Profesorado, INTEF), Madrid, Spain. From the results of the questionnaires, we have determined that teachers consider themselves to have an upper intermediate level of digital teaching competence, although there are still shortcomings that need to be addressed in order to improve this level of competence, and its true integration in the teaching–learning process.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0486.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Machine Learning; Next Generation; Contact Aware; Communication System; Machine-type Communications
Online: 18 March 2021 (13:20:00 CET)
Machine Learning (ML) and Artificial Intelligence(AI) have revolutionized almost all fields that are linked to the acquisition of intelligent behavior in the real world. It is an attractive alternative for a researcher of artificial intelligence. Contrary to rule-based programming, ML is an algorithmic approach in which learning comes from existing data. The more data we have these computer systems look at, we say we’re ‘training’ the computer system, and as the computers begin to identify patterns in the data, identify abnormalities in the data from these abnormalities we improve the system architect according to the requirement. This article introduces the use of comprehensive concepts of machine learning, in general, particular, and their potential applications in communications. Furthermore, the current state and futuristic potentials of enabling universal communication with implications of machine learning methods have been explained. In this review paper, we offer a comprehensive talk on distinctive methods/techniques of information analytics, artificial intelligence (AI), and machine learning (ML) moved forward the contact aware communication system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0248.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: D2D; 5G Cellular Networks; Real-Time Traffic; C2D Communication; Traffic Interference
Online: 9 March 2021 (09:46:01 CET)
In this paper, we propose a multi-zone service control scheme to maximize the performance of each service zone when a large number of cellular service zones and D2D (Device-to-Device) service zones are composed to 5G cellular network. This paper also improves performance of service zone by dividing traffic into real-time traffic and non-real-time traffic in order to minimize traffic interference. Real-time traffic and non-real-time traffic have a significant impact on communication performance. We propose a new self-detection traffic interference control technique to improve the QoS and throughput of D2D and C2D communication in a cellular network, STICS (Self-detecting Traffic Interference Control Scheme). The proposed STICS scheme distinguishes between short-term traffic congestion process and long-term traffic congestion process according to traffic characteristics to detect and control traffic. When the proposed scheme is applied to the 5G-based cellular network environment, it is expected that the traffic type will be efficiently classified by self-detecting the traffic according to the flow. Such classified traffic is less sensitive to communication between the D2D and C2D links, thereby reducing traffic overload. We evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme through simulation and show that the proposed scheme is more efficient than other comparison schemes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0535.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Connected vehicles; C-V2X; V2V; INTEGRATION software; traffic simulation; communication modeling
Online: 23 February 2021 (19:38:56 CET)
The transportation system has evolved into a complex cyber-physical system with the introduction of wireless communication and the emergence of connected travelers and connected automated vehicles. Such applications create an urgent need to develop high-fidelity transportation modeling tools that capture the mutual interaction of the communication and transportation systems. This paper addresses this need by developing a high-fidelity, large-scale dynamic and integrated traffic and direct cellullar vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure (collectively known as V2X) modeling tool. The unique contributions of this work are (1) we developed a scalable analytical communication model that captures packet movement at the millisecond level; (2) we coupled the communication and traffic simulation models in real-time to develop a fully integrated dynamic connected vehicle modeling tool; and (3) we developed scalable approaches that adjust the frequency of model coupling depending on the number of concurrent vehicles in the network. The proposed scalable modeling framework is demonstrated by running on the Los Angeles downtown network considering the morning peak hour traffic demand (145,000 vehicles), running faster than real-time on a regular personal computer (1.5 hours to run 1.86 hours of simulation time). Spatiotemporal estimates of packet delivery ratios for downtown Los Angeles are presented. This novel modeling framework provides a breakthrough in the development of urgently needed tools for large-scale testing of Direct C-V2X enabled applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0342.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: cluster based routing; FLOC clustering method; weighting algorithm; intra-cluster communication
Online: 25 November 2020 (14:46:02 CET)
Cluster-based routing in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks is considered one of the convenient methods of routing. The existence of Cluster Head (CH) in a group of nodes for data forwarding improves the performance of routing in terms of routing overhead and power consumption. In this paper, a clustering algorithm using hierarchical routing for mobile ad hoc networks is proposed. In the proposed method, first, clusters are formed by the FLOC clustering method with low overlapping. Then, according to the most important network criteria, including hop count, noise ratio, distance, remaining energy, and link expiration time, head clusters are selected based on the weighting algorithm. To transfer data in the proposed method, two types of communication are used, e.g., inter-cluster communication and intra-cluster communication in which the shortest path to the target cluster is selected. The proposed P-METHOD technique is based on hierarchy and clustering as well as using a weighted algorithm that reduces delay in data transmission on the network. Moreover, P-METHOD is evaluated here via extensive simulations carried out in NS-2. The simulation results indicate that the MANET network performance metrics are improved in terms of average throughput, Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR), delay, residual energy, and lifetime.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0487.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Twitter; data reliability; risk communication; data mining; Google Cloud Vision API
Online: 22 August 2020 (02:32:40 CEST)
While Twitter has been touted to provide up-to-date information about hazard events, the reliability of tweets is still a concern. Our previous publication extracted relevant tweets containing information about the 2013 Colorado flood event and its impacts. Using the relevant tweets, this research further examined the reliability (accuracy and trueness) of the tweets by examining the text and image content and comparing them to other publicly available data sources. Both manual identification of text information and automated (Google Cloud Vision API) extraction of images were implemented to balance accurate information verification and efficient processing time. The results showed that both the text and images contained useful information about damaged/flooded roads/street networks. This information will help emergency response coordination efforts and informed allocation of resources when enough tweets contain geocoordinates or locations/venue names. This research will help identify reliable crowdsourced risk information to enable near-real time emergency response through better use of crowdsourced risk communication platforms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0502.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: COVID-19; contact tracing; privacy concern; secure communication; healthcare data; blockchain
Online: 22 July 2020 (06:19:47 CEST)
Contact tracing has become an indispensable tool of various extensive measures to control the spread of COVID-19 pandemic due to novel coronavirus. This essential tool helps to identify, isolate and quarantine the contacted persons of a COVID-19 patient. However, the existing contact tracing applications developed by various countries, health organizations to trace down the contacts after identifying a COVID-19 patient suffers from several security and privacy concerns. In this work, we have identified those security and privacy issues of several leading contact tracing applications and proposed a blockchain-based framework to overcome the major security and privacy challenges imposed by the applications. We have discussed the security and privacy measures that are achieved by the proposed framework to show the effectiveness against the security and privacy issues raised by the existing mobile contact tracing applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0007.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: mistrust; communication; appreciative inquiry; extra-curricular activities; medical student; mental health
Online: 2 July 2020 (13:07:51 CEST)
Students’ anxiety due to the COVID-19 pandemic was expressed by some medical students in the form of anger and mistrust. This study aims to explore the reasons for mistrust between students and faculty among medical schools in Egypt that have flared during the COVID-19 pandemic. This is a three-phase exploratory qualitative study depending on thematic emergence from appreciative interviews (AI) sessions. Students are revealed to be very well-educated regarding contemporary medical education concepts. The most important factors from the student perspective were the presence of a well-designed assessment system aligned with the learning outcomes and teaching methodologies and the presence of extracurricular activities and soft skills, respectively. A balanced student life respecting their mental health was found important to increase trust. A roadmap to breaking the mistrust must be planned on several pivots: curriculum structure, extracurricular life, communication strategies, and identifying student roles in their learning and in decision making.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0170.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: context-aware; UAV-assisted networks; communication probability; cache content; potential game
Online: 10 September 2018 (12:45:40 CEST)
This paper investigates the problem of the optimal arrangement for both UAVs’ caching contents and service locations in UAV-assisted networks based on the context awareness, which considers the influence between users and environment. In the existing work, users within the coverage of UAVs are considered to be served perfectly, which ignores the communication probability caused by line-of-sight (LOS) and non- line-of-sight (NLOS) links. However, the links are related to UAV deployment. Moreover, the transmission overhead should be taken into account. To balance the tradeoff between these two factors, we design the ratio of users’ probability and transmission overhead as the performance measure mechanism to evaluate the performance of UAV-assisted networks. Then, we formulate the objective for maximizing the performance of UAV-assisted networks as a UAV-assisted caching game. It is proved that the game is an exact potential game with the performance of UAV-assisted networks serving as the potential function. Next, we propose the log-linear caching algorithm (LCA) to achieve the Nash equilibrium (NE). Finally, related simulation results reflect the great performance of the proposed algorithm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0424.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: aggregator; demand response; distributed energy resource; information communication technology; SWOT; PEST
Online: 24 August 2018 (05:27:20 CEST)
The world is progressing towards a more advanced society where end-consumers have access to local renewable-based generation and advanced forms of information and technology. Hence, it is in a current state of transition between the traditional approach to power generation and distribution, where end-consumers of electricity have typically been inactive in their involvement with energy markets and a new approach that integrates their active participation. This new approach includes the use of distributed energy resources (DER) such as renewable-based generations and demand response (DR), which are being rapidly adopted by end-consumers, where incentives are strong. This paper presents the role of DR aggregator to effectively integrate DER technologies as a new source of energy capacity, into the electricity networks using information communication technology and industry knowledge. This framework based on DR aggregators will facilitate renewable energy integration and customer engagement in electricity market efficiently. To this aim, advantages and disadvantages of DR aggregators are discussed in this paper from political, economic, social and technological (PEST) point of views. Based on this analysis, a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis for a typical DR aggregator is presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0230.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: interdisciplinary communication; early architectural design stage; procedural information; generative modeling; dashboard
Online: 14 June 2018 (10:33:18 CEST)
The purpose of interdisciplinary communication during the early architectural design stage is to achieve the early integration of knowledge in different professional fields, which can help architects to choose correct design development strategies during the early architectural design stage. However, because there is too little information at the early design stage, and design solutions are still rapidly changing and developing, the uncertainties at this stage make it difficult for consultants in other disciplines to provide their views and analysis. In spite of this situation, the emergence of generative modeling is changing design procedures and methods of communication and cooperation for architectural teams, and has brought about a shift in the way architects transmit design information from "what" (declarative information) to "how" (procedural information). Generative modeling is like an aircraft's dashboard: It can provide a basis for interdisciplinary communication, provide interdisciplinary knowledge packages, and bring about a shift in interdisciplinary communication that will reduce the architectural team's communication needs and cost. This study uses a real design case to show the feasibility of generative modeling. Employing generative modeling as a basis, architects can enhance the efficiency of design change and multi-disciplinary communication during the early design stage, integrate specialized knowledge in relevant fields, use this knowledge to formulate design criteria for the next stage, and effectively transmit design decisions. As a consequence, the changes to the cost structure of design revisions and communication between different disciplines has initiated a paradigm shift toward multi-disciplinary communication in architectural design.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0391.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: acoustic communication; energy consumption; smart routing protocols; UWSN MAC; underwater mobility
Online: 28 May 2018 (09:02:31 CEST)
Underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSN) have recently been proposed as a way to monitor and explore the water depths' environments. Efficiently delivering the data is still a challenging problem in these networks because of the weaknesses in the acoustic transmission. To tackle such a problem, we propose a novel algorithm provides controlling mechanisms for critical long-term data forwarding underwater sensor networks, called Hop by Hop Power-Efficient Routing Protocol (Hn-PERP). The proposed Hn-PERP is a centralized full-control model that enhances the network's throughput and energy efficiency by a set of solutions depend on power monitoring in UWSN nodes. In particular, the model provides a guaranteed mechanism for scheduling and processing data transmission based on number of nodes, hops between the nodes, energy level and congestion within each node to minimize energy levels or power consumption by avoiding disconnected probability for any node, which in turn maximizing the network lifetime. Simulation results show that our proposed model is consistent with energy level and congestion, and is more accurate for enabling routing and data transmission. Therefore, the data packet delivery ratio and overall throughput also achieves robust scenarios of very sparse or/and weak networks, to keep on Performance stability in UWSN via adjusting hop-by-hop delay and energy consumption during packages delivery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0024.v1
Subject: Engineering, Construction Keywords: virtual information modeling; project management knowledge areas; construction projects; communication management.
Online: 2 May 2018 (11:40:14 CEST)
In the contemporary construction management, poor project performance, cost overrun, and low-quality construction have become a central point of attention for improving project performance including information, interaction and communication management. virtual design and construction and building information modelling play indispensable role in improving the project performance. The aim of this study is to propose a Virtual Information Modeling as a novel information and communication technology method with potential to overcome problems in the construction industry. Using one-sample t test with Kolmogorov-Smirnov approach, we analysed data collected from structured questionnaire survey involving project managers working at architecture, engineering and construction industries in Tehran, Iran. The results suggest that the most important benefits and challenges of using Virtual Information Modeling are related to the area of integration, and implementation of Virtual Information Modeling has the greatest impact on this area of project management knowledge. Thus, integration should be considered a top priority for construction companies implementing Virtual Information Modeling in their projects. Policymakers should understand that careful management of virtual information is essential for improving the performance of projects and enhancing the process efficiency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0435.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Keywords: molecular communication; microfluidics; intersymbol interference; carbon quantum dots; flow velocity; diffusion coefficient
Online: 27 December 2021 (15:45:11 CET)
The effect of the communication channel size on the transport and subsequent detection of chemical messengers is investigated on millimetric and micrometric channels. The transport of the information carriers, being characterized by an advective and a diffusive contribution, was simulated by varying the flow velocity and the diffusion coefficient. Then, to evaluate the information quality, the Intersymbol Interference (ISI) between two consecutive signals at a specific release delay was estimated. This allowed us to verify that operating under micrometric channel conditions has a larger flow velocity range to obtain completely separated successive signals and smaller release delays can be used between signals. The theoretical results were confirmed by developing a prototype molecular communication platform operating under microfluidic conditions, which enables communication through fluorescent nanoparticles, namely Carbon Quantum Dots (CQDs).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0177.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Sustainable wireless connectivity; Energy saving; UAV; Communication system; 5G; Positioning; Reinforcement learning
Online: 9 September 2021 (11:28:38 CEST)
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)-based communication system is a promising solution to meet coverage and capacity requirements of future wireless networks. However, UAV-enabled communications is constrained with its coverage, energy consumption, and flying regulations, and the number of works focusing on the sustainability aspect of UAV-assisted networking has been limited in the literature so far. In this paper, we propose a solution to this limitation; particularly, we design a $Q$-learning-based UAV positioning scheme for sustainable wireless connectivity considering key constraints, that are, altitude regulations, non-flight zones, and transmit power. The objective is to find the optimal position of the UAV base station (BS) and minimize the energy consumption while maximizing the number of users covered. Moreover, a weighting mechanism is developed, where the energy consumption and number of users covered can be prioritized according to network/battery conditions. The proposed Q-learning-based solution is compared to the baseline k-means clustering method, where the UAV BS is positioned at the centroid location that minimizes the cumulative distance between the UAV BS and the users. The results demonstrate that the proposed solution outperforms the baseline k-means clustering-based method in terms of the number of users covered while achieving the desired minimization of the energy consumption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0737.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: Disinformation; Responsibility in young people; Covid-19; Credibility; Social effects; Communication solutions.
Online: 30 June 2021 (13:05:53 CEST)
This paper analyzes the main variables which determines the relation between disinformation and the youth responsibility during the last stage of Covid-19 pandemic in Spain. The document presents relevant results on this subject. At the Introduction the reader will find the theoretical framework of the following concepts: disinformation, responsibility, credibility, and youth responsibility variables. The greatest interest, considering the authors specialization, falls in communication factors. The methods applied had been the reference review of the literature found about this subject, as well as a qualitative opinion research through discussion groups with young University students from Communication Schools in Madrid, both public and private. This recent study, held in June 2021, provide a very rich material for this paper. The main results and findings are the facts of being not satisfied with the information received about Covid-19; the knowledge about their most credible sources; the connection between information and responsibility, and some of the solutions said by youth to be more responsible in this context. As a conclusion, this paper confirms the first hypothesis of considering the disinformation as a variable which causes the lack of youth responsibility. Regarding the second hypothesis it is checked that young people consider communication as a solution for being more responsible.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0051.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: clinical instructor, clinical education, transcultural, intercultural communication, socio-culture and millennial generation
Online: 16 April 2021 (11:20:50 CEST)
Clinical education is a method that is applied to formal nurse education as a step to provide real and direct learning experiences in the nursing environment correctly and effectively. The success of education in a clinical setting certainly requires the support of teaching nurses (clinical instructors) who have credibility and competence in terms of knowledge, attitudes and skills and are actively involved in professional activities. The diversity of backgrounds of nurses and students, including patients, certainly contributes to a shift in paradigms and perspectives for the nursing environment both in education and in clinical settings in health services. Responding to this cultural diversity, it is important to prepare knowledge and understanding related to transcultural nursing issues, intercultural communication and clinical education which explores the socio-cultural elements in the implementation of staff, students and patients. Purpose: The purpose of this literature review is to identify the extent to which nurse educators play a role by including socio-cultural and transcultural aspects in efforts to develop the quality of education in clinical practice environments in the millennium era. Method: The method of writing this article uses 11 literature review, the publication year period 2019,2020 and 2021 with sources from 4 databases such as science Direct, Scopus, ProQues and Elsevier. The review guidelines used are based on Prisma and the Joanna Briggs Institutute. The level of eligibility is identified through the title, abstract, research methodology as well as the type of scholarly journal and full text. Results: The results of the reviews found are presented in a narrative form. The results of the review study found that there were 11 articles explaining the competence of clinical education based on the socio-cultural approach, which is an educational strategy in the clinical area that integrates transcultural elements of nursing, intercultural communication, collaboration, self-directed with the principles of openness, honesty, and mutual respect in the implementation of team interaction and collaboration. The development of interpersonal relationships is also an important role that educators must have in helping to introduce the nurse orientation process to the organizational environment and other professional teams so that the achievement of satisfaction with clinical education is able to improve the performance of nurses and students perfectly. Conclusion: Clinical education which is supported by the competence of nurse educators (clinical instructors) who have individual and professional competences has a role to play in improving clinical learning outcomes by both students and nurses with a socio-cultural and transcultural strategic approach that will create satisfaction with the achievement of clinical competence and performance effectively.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0085.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Cardiothoracic Surgery; Anesthesia Staffing Models; Outcomes; Operating Room Staffing; Handoffs; Quality; Communication
Online: 25 November 2020 (13:58:22 CET)
The operating room in a cardiothoracic surgical case is a complex environment, with multiple handoffs often required by staffing changes, and can be variable from program to program. This study was done to characterize what types of practitioners provide anesthesia during cardiac operations to determine the variability in this aspect of care. A survey was sent out via a list serve of members of the cardiac surgical team. Responses from 40 programs from a variety of countries showed variability across every dimension requested of the cardiac anesthesia team. Given that anesthesia is proven to have influence on the outcome of cardiac procedures, this study indicates the opportunity to further study how this variability influences outcomes, and to identify best practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0180.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: mHealth; Blockchain; Internet of Things; Smart devices; Communication; Smart Devices; Emerging Technologies
Online: 14 June 2020 (15:07:26 CEST)
The mHealth is a term that is used for mobile health supported by smart devices such as mobile phones, tablets, and wearable smart devices, etc. The smart devices strengthen the efficiency and effectiveness of interaction with patients, physicians, and specialists. Patients nowadays would like to be intimately involved in their diagnosis as well as to make more informed decisions concerning their care. It has begun to measure the success of the quality of treatment. This was a reason that patients trust mHealth to provide them with consistency in their communications with the physicians. Most wireless strategies do not measure up to this standard so that patient engagement ultimately ended up decreasing. The blockchain can boost mHealth through storing and sharing electronic data securely and transparently. It can enhance the accessibility of patient information in real-time. The Internet of Things (IoT) provides a unique identification number to every connected device such as mobile devices, medical devices, and wearable devices. This framework uses the blockchain and IoT technologies together to provide quick help to the patients, monitor remotely, reduce the cost and unnecessarily hospitalization physically and find the real diagnosis. In order to increase patient involvement, mHealth framework with blockchain and IoT technologies has built with the key objective of providing patients with full information on their treatment and diagnosis.