ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0372.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: School governance; General education innovation; School Autonomy.
Online: 30 June 2020 (11:49:23 CEST)
Innovation in general education governance is one of the development trends not only in Vietnam but also in the world. This is also an important measure to change and improve the quality of education, especially expand autonomy of high schools and universities. The paper focuses on some main contents: overview of general education; the experiences of some countries in the implementation of the school administration model towards the school autonomy model so that give lessons for Vietnam’s education can be learned in the context of development conditions nowadays. The results in this work would be used to classify the schools into the various groups. The data also analysts on decision-making capability, on what we called an “index of school autonomy”, expressed the possible level of school-level decision-making.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0371.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: General education; Basic education; School governance; Secondary education.
Online: 30 June 2020 (11:45:45 CEST)
In Vietnam, general education includes primary education, lower secondary education (the period of basic education) and upper secondary education (the period of vocational orientation education). In particular, primary education is compulsory for all children from 6 to 14 years old, is implemented in 5 school years, from first grade to fifth grade. The age of students entering first grade is six years old. Primary education aims to help students form the initial foundations for proper and long-term development of morality, intelligence, physicality, aesthetics and basic skills for students to continue high school. Secondary education is conducted in four school years, from grade six to grade nine. Students entering sixth grade must have an elementary school diploma. Secondary education aims to help students consolidate and develop the results of primary education; have basic secondary education and initial knowledge about technology and career to continue high school, vocational high school, vocational training or enter a working life. High school education is conducted in 3 school years, from grade ten to grade twelve. Students entering tenth grade must have a junior high school diploma. High school education is aimed at helping students consolidate and develop the outcomes of lower secondary education, complete high school education and common knowledge about technology and career guidance for further college education, college, professional secondary school, apprenticeship or enter the working life. Thus, the term general education is a term with broad connotation including primary education, lower secondary education (basic education period) and upper secondary education (education period) career orientation. Within the scope of this research, we use the term school governance used to mean a mode of action, which is directed toward the goal of being accomplished effectively, by and through others. Governance activities are indispensable activities that arise when people work together to accomplish goals.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: school health; child/adolescent health; health education; health promotion; school nutrition; school health; policy
Online: 22 April 2019 (11:57:43 CEST)
Supporting the implementation of school food and nutrition policies (SFNPs) is an international priority to encourage healthier eating among children and youth. Schools are an important intervention setting to promote childhood nutrition, and many jurisdictions have adopted policies, guidelines, and programs to modify the school nutrition environment and promote healthier eating. The purpose of this study was to explore the association between perceived adequacy and capacity for SFNP implementation on food availability and policy adherence in the province of Nova Scotia (NS), Canada, one of the first regions in Canada to launch a comprehensive SFNP. A cross sectional online survey was conducted in 2014-15 to provide a current-state of policy implementation and adherence. Adequacy and capacity for food policy implementation was used to assess policy adherence through the availability of prohibited ‘minimum’ nutrition foods. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted on a selected of available foods and ‘slow’ and ‘quick’ service food composition measures were dichotomized for food availability. Schools with above perceived average adequacy and capacity for policy implementation had more than three times (3.62) greater odds of adhering to a lunch policy, while schools that adhered to a snack and lunch policy had 52% and 82% lower odds of serving quick service foods, respectively. This study identified the need for appropriate adequacy and capacity for policy implementation to ensure policy adherence and improve the school food environment. These findings highlight the potential of SFNPs to have a positive impact on childhood nutrition, but adequately supporting their implementation is critical to ensure their impact.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0462.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: adolescents; dating violence; school social climate; school social support
Online: 22 October 2020 (12:07:46 CEST)
(1) To analyse the potential association between school social support CECSCE and school social climate CASSS and experiences of dating violence among adolescents in Europe; (2) Cross-sectional design. We recruited 1,555 participants age 13-16 from secondary schools in Spain, Italy, Romania, Portugal, Poland and UK. The analysis in this text concerns student with dating experience (n=993) (57.2% of girls and 66.5% of boys). The association of the exposure to physical and/ or sexual dating violence, control dating violence and fear was measured by calculating the prevalence ratios (PR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI), estimated by Poisson regression models with robust variance. All the models were adjusted by country and by sociodemografic variables; (3) The results show that the average values of all types of social support are significantly lower in young people who have suffered any type of dating violence or were scared of their partner. The likelihood of suffering physical and/or sexual dating violence decreased when CECSCE increased [PR (CI95%): 0.96 (0.92; 0.99)]. In the same way, the likelihood of fear decreased when CASSS classmates increased [PR (CI95%): 0.98 (0.96; 0.99)]; (4) There is an association between school social support and school social climate and experiences of dating violence among adolescents in Europe. Our results suggest that in the prevention of dating violence, building a supportive climate at schools and building / using the support of peers and teachers should be important.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0006.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: Covid-19; School Closure; Elementary School; Emotional Symptoms; Japan
Online: 2 June 2020 (14:58:33 CEST)
In Japan, schools were suddenly closed all over the country with one month left at the end of the school year to prevent the spread of new coronavirus infections. Although previous studies have shown that quarantine and isolation have a negative impact on mental health, the impact of school closure on children's mental health is not clear. This study examined mental health indicators, such as emotional symptoms, in addition to behavior during school closure and anxiety after school resumes, among children in three primary schools for which survey data existed in December before school closure. No cases of infection have been confirmed in the area where the school was located at the time of the survey. As a result, anxiety about whether they would be able to return to their normal routine after school resumed was associated with mental health. In addition, there was a worsening of emotional symptoms in those who were in medium group of school adjustment as of December.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0523.v1
Online: 26 October 2020 (12:24:42 CET)
Introduction: Enrolment in school in India does not necessarily translate into attendance, and absenteeism is an early indicator of lower levels of academic performance and school dropout and has its origins in early life. EAG states of India already have some of the lowest school enrolment rates; therefore, it becomes necessary to keep the children in school by curtailing absenteeism to reduce the dropout rates. Objective: This study attempts to understand the factors which affect absenteeism and chronic absenteeism in EAG states. Data and Analysis: This study uses IHDS-II (2012) data for children 8-11 years of age currently enrolled in primary school. Bivariate analysis and logistic regression analysis are done. Results: The results show that children were more likely to be absent when experiencing morbidity (OR:1.9, 95% CI 1.6-2.3) got a beating in school (OR:1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.6) and repeating grade morbidity (OR:1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.1). Children were more likely to be chronically absent due to morbidity (OR:1.6, 95% CI 1.3-1.8) and getting beating (OR:1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.6) in school. Fathers schooling of more than five years and the increased time spent by the children in doing homework, parents' involvement in school and performance in Maths reduced their odds of absenteeism and chronic absenteeism. Conclusions: The increased involvement of parents and conducive school learning environment in school could encourage children to take an interest in school activities, prevent the children from being absent which can have curtail dropping out of primary school to some extent.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0299.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: vocational interests; interests inventory; high-school students; middle-school students
Online: 20 December 2021 (09:50:31 CET)
Vocational interest inventories are widely used by career counselors to help individuals to make career choices. The most common approach to assess vocational interests is based on verbal or textual stimuli. However, some of them are based on pictorials to overcome reading limits and provide additional information about the working environment and the activities related to a particular job. This article aims to present two studies on the development and first validation of the Multilingual Iconographic Professional Interest Inventory (MIPII) on two samples, one composed of 792 high-school students, and one composed of 366 middle school students. The inventory aimed to assesses the vocational interests of people over 19 areas by illustrations representing 95 jobs, five for each one, combined with their title in six different languages (Arabic, German, English, Spanish, French and Italian in this order). Both illustrations and titles are provided separately in the male and female version on the same page.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0287.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: Transition decisions; Secondary School; School tracks; Revealed students’ preferences; Satisfaction; Quantitative method; Optimization
Online: 13 August 2021 (08:33:25 CEST)
This study aims to better understand students who attend the Basic Vocational Training Cycles (FPB) regarding the measures to ensure diversity. This quantitative research project approximates the perception of students concerning their passage through their previous studies and their satisfaction and goals after finishing the school year. The sample con-sists of 352 students from Cordoba (Spain). A questionnaire has been used which follows the CIPP model. After the exploratory factor analysis was completed with the different groups of items and their descriptive analysis, various tests were carried out to consider the hypotheses (Pearson's correlation (r), one-factor analysis of variance and repeated ANOVA measures). The results indicate that the educational interest of the students is ac-ademic and professional. Likewise, there is no relationship detected between the appear-ance of socio-professional goals and average academic levels and the attributions with re-spect to repetitions of previous courses, although these goals vary depending on the satis-faction shown by the students with respect to the cycles. We conclude that the course of the FPB influences the adoption of decisions regarding academic-professional projects.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0193.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: piezoelectric tiles; school; sustainability; prototype
Online: 13 January 2022 (14:00:01 CET)
With the depletion of natural resources, it has become a topic of great concern to address the unsustainable way of life. In this study, we investigate the use of piezoelectric material - to generate electricity in schools. The use of these piezoelectric materials in floor tiles could enable us to generate energy from the footsteps of the children in school. The goal is to be able to power lights and fans in classrooms and reduce the consumption of conventional electricity - produced through the combustion of coal and other natural resources. The primary method of research is to develop a prototype with different choices of material and configurations of piezoelectric transducers to maximize power generation in a typical school setting. The results showed that the energy generated from one step needs to be improved by a factor of 100 for a typical classroom to generate enough power for a light and a fan. The research found that current technology although promising is incapable of producing enough power via piezoelectric tiles in a school setting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0390.v1
Online: 18 August 2020 (12:07:32 CEST)
Background: Ongoing Primary and Secondary Education Development Program (PEDP & SEDP) has led to increase in enrollment of children in schools. This created a high demand for facilities such as classroom, chairs, laboratories, latrines and water supply. Water and latrines did not receive equal attention like others. National strategic plan for School Water Sanitation and Hygiene (SWASH) 2012-2017 was to address such challenges with objectives to improve SWASH by 2017. Hence this study aimed to evaluate the implementation of SWASH program in Ukerewe. Methodology: A cross sectional survey was done among 42 schools in the district with 40 schools being government owned. Systematic random sampling was used and data were collected using a structured interview which was pre-tested and amended prior to conducting fieldwork. UNICEF, WASH in Schools Monitoring Package observational check-list was used to assess sanitation facilities. Results: Findings from this study showed the latrine-hole to student ratio was 1:71 with only 31.3% of the latrines being in good clean condition and about half (59.5%) of the schools have no facilities for washing hands. For the schools with hand washing facilities only 21.4% have an effective hand washing practice (presence of soap and water). The most common source of water used was lake water (35.7%) with (42.9%) having water storage facilities. Conclusion: The study shows that most of the objectives of national strategic plan are yet to be implemented at Ukerewe. There is a need for minor repairs to complete new construction of SWASH facilities in Ukerewe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0447.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic; school closures; school-aged children; physical activity; screen time; sleep; Hong Kong
Online: 29 July 2022 (03:57:32 CEST)
Despite concerns about the negative effects of social distancing and prolonged school closures on children’s lifestyle and physical activity (PA) during the COVID-19 pandemic, robust evidence is lacking on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on children’s wellbeing and daily life. This study aimed to examine changes in the PA levels, sleep patterns and screen time of school-aged children during the different phases of COVID-19 outbreak in Hong Kong using a repeated cross-sectional design. School students (Grades 1 to 12) were asked to report their daily electronic device usage and to fill in a sleep dairy recording their daily sleep and wake-up time. They were equipped with a PA monitor, Actigraph wGT3X-BT, to obtain objective data on their PA levels and sleep patterns. Students were recruited before the pandemic (Sep 2019 – Jan 2020; n=577), during school closures (Mar 2020 – Apr 2020; n=146), and after schools partially reopened (Oct 2020 – Jul 2021; n=227). Our results indicated lower PA levels, longer sleep duration, and longer screen time among participants recruited during school closures than those recruited before the COVID-19 outbreak. Primary school students were found to sleep on average for an extra hour during school closures. Our findings illustrate the impact of social distancing policies during the COVID-19 pandemic on the sleep pattern, screen time, and PA level in school-aged children in Hong Kong. Professionals should reinforce the importance of maintaining a physically active lifestyle, good sleep hygiene, and healthy use of electronic devices to parents and school-aged children during the COVID-19 Pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0418.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: COVID-19; vaccination; adolescents; parents; school
Online: 27 July 2022 (10:00:43 CEST)
Objectives: This study assessed the associations between parent intent to have their child receive COVID-19 vaccination, and demographic factors and various child activities including attendance at in-person education or childcare. Methods: Persons undergoing COVID-19 testing residing in Minnesota and Los Angeles County, California with children aged <12 years completed anonymous internet-based surveys between May 10 and September 6, 2021 to assess factors associated with intention to vaccinate their child. Factors influencing parents’ decision to have their child attend in person school or childcare were examined. Estimated adjusted odds rations (AORs, 95% CI) were computed between parents’ intentions regarding children’s COVID-19 vaccination and participation in school and extra-curricular activities using multinomial logistic regression. Results: Compared to parents intending to vaccinate their children (n=4,686 [77.2%]), those undecided (n=874 [14.4%] or without intention to vaccinate (n=508 [8.4%]) tended to be younger, non-White, less educated and themselves not vaccinated against COVID-19. Their children more commonly participated in sports (aOR:1.51 1.17-1.95) and in-person faith or community activities (aOR:4.71 (3.62-6.11). They further indicated that additional information regarding vaccine safety and effectiveness would influence their decision. COVID-19 mitigation measures were the most common factors influencing parents’ decision to have their child attend in-person class or childcare. Conclusions: Several demographic and socioeconomic factors are associated with parents’ decision whether to vaccinate their <12-year-old children for COVID-19. Child participation in in-person activities was associated with parents’ intentions not to vaccinate. Tailored communications may be useful to inform parents’ decisions regarding safety and effectiveness of vaccination.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0274.v1
Online: 11 February 2021 (10:21:35 CET)
As medical schools cope with the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic, a new cohort of students will be admitted in the fall. Administrators are again challenged to make unprecedented enrollment decisions without standardized exams. This challenge provides unique opportunities to support holistic admissions but also abruptly bypasses a process that has been employed since 1928. This article highlights key factors that are being considered during current medical school admission cycles, including limited opportunities to take standardized exams, heightened student anxiety, and potential exam alternatives. These factors are framed and discussed within the context of the medical college admission test (MCAT) exam.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0498.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: children; resilience; disaster; behavior; school; factor
Online: 25 January 2021 (13:10:04 CET)
Annually, millions of people (including children) across the world face minor to severe impact from natural or human-induced disasters. Diverse models have been conceptualized and adopted at global scale to increase resiliency of children from disasters focusing on preparedness, response and recover. As children spend most of their lives at school or at home, this paper discusses on factors contributing towards improving or degrading resiliency of children from disasters. Giving low priority to institutional resilience, this paper highlights the behavioral aspects of children which becomes their strength on demonstrating appropriate practices to mitigate disaster risks on self at school, home and community. While doing so, attributes from Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behavior has been linked with the components of resilience to explain the causative factors. Adopting desk review, this paper describes behavioral attributes of children and emphasizes on need of having multi-dimensional framework to enhance resiliency of children.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0069.v3
Online: 18 May 2018 (05:54:20 CEST)
The aim of this research is to determine the factors that may prevent high school students from participating in recreational activities and to investigate whether these factors differ within the scope of various variables. This study consisted of total 1459 (681 women and 778 men) student volunteers who educated in high school level. Sampling method was preferred for easy sampling. The face-to-face survey method was used to collect the data. The "Leisure Constraints Scale" developed by Alexandris and Carroll (1997) and adapted to Turkish by Gürbüz, Öncü, and Emir (2012) was used to determine the factors that might prevent individuals from participating in leisure activities. The data obtained for the research were first transferred to the computer and then analyzed by SPSS packet program. The error margin level in the study was taken as p<0.05. The cronbach alpha of the study was found to be 0.91. As a result, it was found that women participated in the leisure time more than men. It was also observed that the participants met with more leisure constrain in Turkey's eastern regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0055.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: religious, children, Reading books, school, Iran
Online: 18 July 2016 (10:48:05 CEST)
Transmission of values and religious concepts to children is one of the most important issues in the third millennium and it has drawn varied and different views among experts and scholars in the world. Research specialized in religious literature for children and adolescents create new capacities in the presentation of religious concepts to the group. Plans have been considered to transfer values and religious concepts in the curricula of primary school children in the group in Iran. It is one of the topics that the authors note to the introduction of the minutiae of religion in the first three elementary grades. In this study, the collection and analysis methods providing content related to the minutiae of religion in reading books the first till third sections of the years 2013-2015. In addition, the plan includes aspects of other branches of religion in these books on information collected from text books that collected and classified. The result is that "definitely good and forbidding the evil" and "prayer" have the highest frequency of applications in the selected books. Further branches made of branches of religion in these books, represents the values of religious, moral and social as well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0351.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: family-school; home-school; parent engagement; family engagement; parent involvement; recruitment; prevention; intervention; mental health; partnership
Online: 12 March 2021 (20:10:14 CET)
Parent education programs, offered via family-school partnerships, offer an effective means for promoting the mental health and educational functioning of children and adolescents at a whole-of-school level. However, these programs often have low uptake. This study aimed to identify strategies for increasing the uptake of parent education programs within preschool and school settings. A three-round Delphi procedure was employed to obtain expert consensus on strategies that are important and feasible in educational settings. First, thirty experts rated statements identified from the literature and a stakeholder forum. Next, experts re-appraised statements, including new statements generated from the first round. Ninety statements were endorsed by ≥ 80% of the experts. Primary themes include strategies for program selection, strategies for increasing the accessibility of programs and the understanding of educational staff on parent engagement and child mental health, strategies for program development, promotion, and delivery, as well as strategies for increasing parent and community engagement. This study offers a set of consensus strategies for improving the uptake of parent education programs within family-school partnership.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0208.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: behaviour change; digital intervention; COVID-19; school
Online: 15 March 2022 (11:05:30 CET)
The rapid transmission of COVID-19 in school communities has been a major concern. To ensure that mitigation systems were in place and support was available, a digital intervention to encourage and facilitate infection control behaviours was rapidly adapted and optimised for implementation as a whole school intervention. Using the person-based approach, ‘Germ Defence’ was iteratively adapted, guided by relevant literature, co-production with Patient and Public Involvement representatives, and think aloud interviews with forty-five school students, staff, and parents. Suggested infection control behaviours deemed feasible and acceptable by the majority of participants included handwashing/hand-sanitising and wearing a face covering in certain contexts such as crowded public spaces. Promoting a sense of collective responsibility was reported to increase motivation for the adoption of these behaviours. However, acceptability and willingness to implement recommended behaviours seemed to be influenced by participants’ perceptions of risk. Barriers to the implementation of recommended behaviours in school and at home primarily related to childcare needs and physical space. We conclude that it was possible to rapidly adapt Germ Defence to provide an acceptable resource to help mitigate against infection transmission within and from school settings. Adapted content was considered acceptable, persuasive, and accessible.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0093.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: children; face masks; school; cognitive impairment; concentration
Online: 6 December 2021 (17:31:38 CET)
In the current Sars-CoV-2 pandemic, wearing a face mask was mandatory and is still desired during school lessons. There are no controlled studies in children to date indicating an effect on cognitive performance wearing face masks. In a randomized controlled trial, we analysed the influence of face masks on cognitive performance of pupils during regular school lessons. Pupils (n=133, 5th to 7th grade) were randomized by alternating allocation into control (with masks, n=65) and intervention groups (without mask, n=68). After two school lessons with (control) and without (intervention) face masks in class all pupils performed digital tests for cognitive performance regarding attention and executive functions (Switch, CORSI block tapping, 2-back and flanker task). Overall, there were no significant differences in cognitive performance between both groups, masks vs. no masks. Wearing face masks has no significant influence on attention and executive functions of pupils and can still be recommended during school lessons.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0257.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: health education; secondary school; physical education teacher
Online: 18 October 2021 (15:42:33 CEST)
Preparation of students for adult life also includes the area of health care. Health education is part of the core curriculum of Polish schools. The leading role of the health educator is assumed by the physical education teacher, but many other educational tasks are carried out by all school staff. The present study attempts to answer the question: How is health education implemented at school? The research project was carried out among students of various colleges in the city of Szczecin in Poland. At the same time, similar studies were conducted among students from other university in other cities. The research method was a diagnostic survey, with the main assessment tool being the ‘Questionnaire for Assessment of Implementation of Physical Education at Secondary School’ by Krystyna Górna-Łukasik from the Jerzy Kukuczka Academy of Physical Education in Katowice. On the basis of the study results, an attempt was made to determine the forms and methods of work and the involvement of various types of teachers in health education. The statistical analysis sought correlations between the students' opinions about the ways in which the curriculum content was implemented, university majors, and PE teachers’ sex.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0636.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: motivation; self-regulated learning; transition; secondary school
Online: 26 September 2020 (13:40:55 CEST)
Transition from primary to secondary school is more successful when students’ learning is consistent. Students are also more likely to enjoy the school, engage with learning, and have a high academic achievement in the secondary school when they feel motivated. This is a critical aspect especially in cases when global pandemics situations allow only the online schooling opportunity. Students that are away from school lack the traditional sources of motivation and self-regulated learning skills, thus research is needed to identify other important factors that can be developed in remote settings. The aim of this study was to find out how students perceive their experience with the transition from primary to secondary school and how such a transition influences students’ self-regulated learning (SRL) and motivation. Self-reported data were collected during the COVID-19 breakout from a total of N=80, 6th and 7th grade students aged 12-14 years old. Results showed that students had a successful transition, especially when they are supported by their parents and teachers. Next, Bivariate Pearson Correlation analysis indicated that students’ perceptions about their experience with the transition from primary to secondary school and their self-regulated learning and motivation are significantly correlated. No gender differences were found among all main study variables.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0087.v2
Online: 27 July 2020 (08:38:04 CEST)
South America has become the new epicenter of the coronavirus, especially in Brazil where the disease continues to spread exponentially across the country. This text aims to analyze the psychosocial factors of Covid-19 on back to school strategies in Brazil from a bioecological perspective. At the microsystem level, the population is experiencing different levels of stress and fear; at the mesosystem level, changes in routines, separation from family and friends, and closure of schools; and at the macrosystem level, national guidelines to control the pandemic, institutional standards on a national and international scale. Therefore, the main focus for the success of school return must be in the prevention of contagion and with physical and psychological health, and should not only consider the demands of curricula, financial or administrative management. For this reason, it is paramount that greater female representativeness is increased in decision-making levels of the meso and macrosystem, regarding the resumption of school and academic activities in the pandemic period, since the number of female leaders in decision-making, is still insufficient.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0253.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Disasters, Preparedness, Lembang Fault, Community Base, School
Online: 27 February 2019 (11:55:21 CET)
This research was conducted on the Maribaya Timur school community in Lembang Subdistrict, West Bandung Regency, Indonesia, which is an active community in the area that is threatened by the potential for earthquake disasters due to the active Lembang fault. Disaster risk reduction efforts are pursued through increasing school-based preparedness that involves members of the school community, surrounding communities and various institutions that are associated with reducing the risk of school-based earthquake. Increasing preparedness against earthquakes focuses more on aspects of capacity building of school communities in reducing disaster risk, while aspects of vulnerability and threats have not been the focus of disaster risk reduction. The steps taken refer to the element of preparedness by aligning with the conditions, needs and potential that exist in the school community. Theoretically, if the school community has preparedness to face an earthquake disaster, the risk of earthquake disaster in the school community will be reduced so that it can minimize losses, victims and suffering that will be caused by the earthquake disaster.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0005.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Other Keywords: School manager; knowledge management practices; Organizational processes
Online: 1 October 2018 (11:38:31 CEST)
Knowledge management gains space within the school organization and can contribute satisfactorily to the quality of teaching. In everyday life the school manager intuitively uses knowledge management practices without exploiting the potentials they offer or allow. In this context, the purpose of this work is to identify the level of implementation of knowledge management practices aimed at structuring the organizational processes used by the public school manager. The methodology adopted was exploratory, with a qualitative and quantitative approach. For data collection, an already validated instrument with twenty-seven questions was used. Respondents to the questionnaires, one hundred and eleven managers of the basic education schools that make up the public school system in a city in the northwestern region of Paraná, Southern Brazil. In analyzing the results, it was only at this point that we investigated only those practices that were related to the structuring of organizational processes. This decision is justified because of the responsibilities of the school manager in the execution of his work. The results indicated that the school in its daily life, makes use of practices of Knowledge Management related to the structuring of the organizational processes and that many are already applied by the managers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0329.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: school connectedness; substance abuse; LGBTQ youth; bullying
Online: 26 April 2018 (04:47:30 CEST)
Transgender youth experience elevated levels of victimization and may therefore report greater drug use than their cisgender peers, yet little is known about protective factors like school belonging that may mediate this relationship. Further, scant research has explored the experiences of youth at the intersection of transgender identity and youth of color status or low socioeconomic status, especially with respect to these multiple minority statuses’ associations with peer victimization, drug use, and school belonging. Using data from the California Healthy Kids Survey, the current study employs structural equation modeling to explore the relationships among school belonging, peer victimization, and drug use for transgender youth. Findings indicate that school belonging does mediate the pathway between peer victimization and drug use for transgender youth and that although youth of color experience greater victimization, they do not engage in greater drug use than their white transgender peers. Based on these results, those concerned with the healthy futures of transgender youth should advocate for more open and affirming school climates that engender a sense of belonging and treat transgender youth with dignity and fairness.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0114.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: WASH; school; developing countries; costing; financing; cost
Online: 16 March 2017 (09:28:52 CET)
Despite the success of recent efforts to increase access to improved water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) globally, approximately one-third of schools around the world still lack adequate WASH services. A lack of WASH in schools can lead to the spread of preventable disease and increase school absences, especially among women. Inadequate financing and budgeting has been named as a key barrier for integrating successful and sustainable WASH programs into school settings. For this reason, the purpose of this review is to describe the current knowledge around the costs of WASH components as well as financing models that could be applied to WASH in schools. Results show a lack of information around WASH costing, particularly around software elements as well as there is a lack of data overall for WASH in school settings as compared to community WASH. This review also identifies several key considerations when designing WASH budgets or selecting financing mechanisms. Findings may be used to advise future WASH in school programs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0113.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: pedestrian; traffic; ultrafine particles; school; children; exposure
Online: 26 October 2016 (10:31:30 CEST)
Walking School Buses (WSBs) provide a safe alternative to being driven to school. Children benefit from the contribution the exercise provides towards their daily exercise target, it gives children practical experience with respect to road safety and helps to relieve traffic congestion around the entrance to their school. Walking routes are designed largely based in road safety considerations, catchment need and the availability of parent support. However, little attention is given to the air pollution exposure experienced by children during their journey to school, despite the commuting microenvironment being an important contributor to a child’s daily air pollution exposure. This study aims to quantify the air pollution exposure experienced by children walking to school and those being driven by car. A school was chosen in Bradford, UK. Three adult participants carried out the journey to and from school each carrying a P-Trak ultrafine particle (UFP) count monitor. One participant travelled the journey to school by car while the other two walked, each on opposite sides of the road for the majority of the journey. Data collection was carried out over a period of two weeks, for a total of five journeys to school in the morning and five on the way home at the end of the school day. Results of the study suggest that car commuters experience lower levels of air pollution dose due to lower exposures and reduced commute times. The largest reductions in exposure for pedestrians can be achieved by avoiding close proximity to traffic queuing up to intersections, and, where possible, walking on the side of the road opposite the traffic, especially during the morning commuting period. Major intersections should also be avoided as they were associated with peak exposures. Steps to ensure that the phasing of lights is optimized to minimize pedestrian waiting time would also help reduce exposures. If possible, busy roads should be avoided altogether. By the careful design of WSB routes, taking into account air pollution, children will be able to experience the benefits that walking to school brings while minimizing their air pollution exposure during their commute to and from school.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0496.v1
Subject: Keywords: School feeding programme; Osun Elementary School Feeding and Health Programme (O-MEALS); enrolment and retention; rural pupils; primary schools
Online: 26 November 2021 (10:08:06 CET)
School Feeding Programmes are social safety net interventions providing educational and health benefits to vulnerable children in developing countries. This study assessed the impact of Osun Elementary School Feeding and Health Programme (O-MEALS) on the enrolment and retention of rural primary schools in Osun State. Multi stage sampling technique was used to select 188 respondents while data was collected through interview schedule. Percentages, Chi-square, PPMC and T-test were used for data analysis. Findings revealed that over half (51.6%) of the respondents were male, aged 9.38 ± 1.84 years and majority (83.0%) had a family size of 6-10 people. Food incentives (=1.25), health challenge (=0.69), and peer influence (=0.67) were major factors affecting school attendance. More than half (53.2%) of the respondents had unfavourable perception towards the school feeding programme. Results showed a significant difference between pupils’ enrolment (t = 5.332, p = 0.006) and retention rate (t = 58.386, p = 0.000) before and after the commencement of O-MEALS. Furthermore, pupils’ enrolment and retention (r = 0.993, p = 0.001) after the commencement of O-MEALS was significantly related. Food incentive was a major factor affecting school attendance, which fostered an improvement in the poor enrolment and retention previously experienced. Since a good number of the pupils possessed unfavourably perception towards the school feeding programme, it was recommended that effective monitoring be established to checkmate food vendors’ activities in delivering quality and satisfactory services. Likewise, the Government’s policies on school restructuring and levy, which had proved counterproductive, should be reviewed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0590.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Physical education; COVID-19; primary school; self-efficacy; work engagement; school closure; classroom teachers; digital competence; online teaching; lockdown
Online: 26 July 2021 (15:41:22 CEST)
This study aimed to evaluate whether primary school classroom teachers reported changes in physical education teaching self-efficacy (SE-PE) and work engagement (WE) during the first COVID-19 wave. Six-hundred-twenty-two classroom teachers filled in an online questionnaire on SE-PE and WE, referring to before and during the lockdown, and on perceived digital competence. While controlling for perceived digital competence, a mixed between-within Repeated Measures Multivariate Analysis of Covariance (RM-MANCOVA) was performed, with a two-time (before vs. during the lockdown) and three age-categories (≤40 vs. 41-50 vs. ≥51 years) factorial design. The RM-MANCOVA revealed that perceived digital competence significantly adjusted teachers’ SE-PE and WE values (p<0.001). The analysis yielded a significant multivariate main effect by time (p< 0.001) and by time × age-categories (p=0.001). Follow-up univariate ANCOVA showed significant differences by time in teachers’ SE-PE (p<0.001) and WE (p < 0.001), with a reduction of both values from before to during the lockdown. A Bonferroni post hoc pairwise comparisons showed teachers’ SE-PE significantly decreased in all age categories (p<0.001). The present findings confirm the importance of promoting SE-PE among primary school teachers, regardless of the crisis due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Teachers’ self-efficacy and WE are essential to master the challenges of PE teaching.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0214.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: rural environment; sustainability; educational projects; representation; school geography.
Online: 14 October 2022 (13:48:13 CEST)
Rural environment has experienced changes as a result of Covid-19, which encourage the introduction of sustainability in education. However, the representation of rurality in school geography and in the 2030 Agenda are factors that continue to present rurality as a concept opposed to urban spaces. The objective was to investigate the perception that the student has about the rural environment from an instrument and his drawings to understand if the explanation of it allows to introduce elements related to sustainability in educational projects. The quantitative research approach allows analyzing the psychometric properties of an instrument to measure the perception of the rural environment of a sample of 300 fifteen-year-old students from Brazil, Colombia and Spain. Those school knowledges that idealize rurality warn of the pedagogical difficulties to promote the teaching of rurality from sustainability criteria and condition the formation of students from a citizenship committed to social problems. This study is important because it diagnoses the elements that intervene in the teaching of rurality from school geography and provides some suggestions to include sustainability in educational projects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0148.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: oveweight; obesity; public policy; nutrition education; malnutrition; school
Online: 12 September 2022 (12:26:50 CEST)
Being overweight or obese is a public health problem. This work evaluated a food and nutrition education (EAN) intervention against overweight schoolchildren in four schools in the West Panama Province. A quasi-experimental before-and-after study that implemented a 34-week EAN intervention through workshops with didactic material to 403 children between 8 and 13 years old. The knowledge and attitude survey was used as an evaluation tool before and after the educational intervention. The prevalence of excess weight (40%) did not report differences after the intervention. No differences were reported in the median level of attitude, although higher levels of knowledge were reported in students of both sexes. EAN in schoolchildren can be effective in acquiring knowledge and maintaining a positive attitude towards food.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0057.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: ultra-processed products; school feeding; nutrient profiling model
Online: 3 December 2021 (14:57:38 CET)
Unhealthy diet is an important health problem in the region of the Americas, and Uruguay does not escape this reality. Nutritional problems in Uruguayan school-age children are overweight and obesity. Caloric intake is excessive for 60% of children and 28% of calories come from ultra-processed products (UPP) [CODICEN 2021] [MIDES 2020) (Köncke, Toledo, 2021). In 2018, an evaluation of food intake was conducted in a representative sample of public schools in the city of Montevideo. Food and preparations were categorized according to the NOVA system, later they were analyzed according to the Pan American Health Oganization nutrient profile model (PAHO NPM). Only 0.52% of children consumed exclusively natural foods, unprocessed, minimally processed or culinary ingredients. Twenty-five percent of children consumed ≥ 4 products categorized with excessive content of free sugars, total fat or saturated fat according to the PAHO NPM; in the case of excessive sodium this was 40%. In general, children who included products with excessive free sugars, sodium or saturated fat in their diet exceeded the limits established by PAHO and as a result their diet is of poorer nutritional quality compared to children who did not consume such products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0154.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: sports participation; junior middle school students; prosocial behavior
Online: 8 September 2021 (14:21:00 CEST)
Based on the 2014-2015 China Education Panel Survey (CEPS) and using the propensity score matching method, we studied the causal relationship between physical exercise and prosocial behavior of junior middle school students in China. Ordinary least squares regression and propensity score matching estimation results showed that participation in physical exercise significantly increases students’ prosocial behavior by more than 0.2 standard points. The results of this study were tested and found to be robust.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0115.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Health Status; National Survey; KSA; School Health; Students
Online: 7 September 2021 (09:59:44 CEST)
The Ministry of Health (MOH) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) established a National School-based Screening Program (NSBSP) for health screening of school-going children. Students from specific grades were systematically screened for several health problems including obesity, visual and auditory problems, dental cavities, scoliosis, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of these health problems among primary school students based on secondary data obtained from the NSBSP. We included 444,259 screened school children from the 1st and 4th grades of 50% of the selected schools (both private and public) across the KSA during the academic year 2018-2019. Among them, the most prevalent health problems identified were dental cavities (38.7%), eye refractory errors (10.9%), and overweight and obesity (10.5%); the less prevalent problems included ADHD (2.81%), auditory problems (0.6%), and scoliosis (0.48%). A greater prevalence of most health problems was observed in girls than boys. The NSBSP successfully aided the detection of health conditions with high and low prevalence among primary school students in the KSA, and thus, identification of health problems of specific concern. Implementation of effective school health services for the prevention, early detection, diagnosis, and treatment of these health problems is imperative.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0580.v1
Online: 26 July 2021 (14:24:29 CEST)
Covid-19 restrictions impacted many people’s daily lives through infection, fear of infection and the implementation of restrictions on movement. Restrictions and fear of contamination impacted physical activity patterns activity and increased mental health issues globally across a variety of ages. This re-issue of a questionnaire sought to examine the impact of Covid-19 restrictions on frequency of physical activity, participation in sports, wellbeing and symptoms of anxiety and depression in Irish adolescents. 3,021 adolescents from 61 post-primary schools in the Republic of Ireland completed questionnaires. Consistent with a previous issue of the questionnaire, a minority of adolescents were found to meet the WHO’s physical activity guidelines (11.6% of males and 5.2% of females) although there were large decreases in 1st year males and females. Adolescents reporting elevated symptoms of depression increased from 39% to 46% with almost 3 in 5 females reporting symptoms of depression ranging from mild to extreme. Highest levels of wellbeing were found in adolescents who participated in 3 or more sports, although there was an 8% reduction in the amount of adolescents who participated in 3 or more sports. There were no changes in physical activity levels overall, despite changes within sub-groups and patterns of physical activity. There was a clear increase in symptoms of depression, with females impacted more than males. Previously active individuals were more likely to increase activity and therefore report higher levels of mental health while those who were less active were more likely to decrease activity and report lower mental health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0338.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: parental warmth; gratitude; prosocial behavior; school climate; adolescent
Online: 14 June 2021 (09:09:26 CEST)
Parental warmth plays an important role in the development of adolescents’ physical and mental health. There are numerous empirical studies indicating a relationship between parental warmth and prosocial behavior among adolescents, although the underlying mechanisms of this association remain unclear. Adopting a longitudinal design across two time points, the present study proposes a moderated mediation model to explore the mediating role of gratitude and the moderating role of the school climate between parental warmth and prosocial behavior. The sample consisted of 943 participants (483 boys and 451 girls) who participated in the second assessment and completed questionnaires assessing gratitude, school climate, and prosocial behavior in April 2019. Their parents participated in the first assessment and completed a questionnaire pertaining to parental warmth in October 2018. After controlling for the gender and age of the adolescents, the results showed that the positive association between parental warmth and prosocial behavior is mediated by gratitude, and school climate does play a moderating role in the second half of the mediating path. Specifically, the school climate can play a protective role in adolescents with low levels of gratitude. For adolescents with less gratitude, a strong school climate can promote more prosocial behaviors and can effectively alleviate the negative prediction of low levels of gratitude. This study provides a theoretical explanation for the generation of adolescents’ prosocial behavior, and provides theoretical guidance for the interventions of schools and parents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0126.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: municipality; profession; school leaders; retention and working conditions
Online: 4 June 2021 (08:23:20 CEST)
This article reports on the findings of a research project examining how to create a profession that is attractive and fulfilling for new and existing school leaders in two different municipalities in Sweden. The project set out to explore how work environments, career structures, salaries, and working conditions can contribute to attracting, retaining, and motivating school leaders to stay longer in the profession. To realise this objective, the study adopted a qualitative research design. Data was collected by carrying out semi-structured interviews with a sample of five school leaders in two different municipalities to investigate their experiences and views of the profession. The findings demonstrate that school leaders’ working conditions play a more critical role in their decisions to stay or leave the profession than financial compensation. The study also shows an unequal allocation of resources, both in terms of support functions and the limited time available for in-service education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0290.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: creativity; high ability; scientific creativity; secondary school students
Online: 12 April 2021 (12:34:19 CEST)
Abstract: Abstract: The objective of this article is to analyze the dimensions of creativity concerning students with high abilities. Firstly a review of the most relevant scientific contributions on creativity is carried out. Next the dimensions of creativity in secondary school students who have been previously identified as high- ability students are analyzed. Those abilities associated to di-vergent thinking were assessed by means of the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking . The flu-ency, flexibility and originality dimensions were assessed with the Scientific-Creative Thinking Test (TPCC, ). The results obtained evidence that high-ability students achieve greater scores in both the figurative creativity and scientific-creativity dimensions. A significant relationship between creativity and high ability can therefore be established. This study is of an exploratory nature and the results obtained contribute to develop future studies in application of its findings in the teaching-learning process..
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0378.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: rabies; school children; knowledge; attitude; practice; education; Bhutan
Online: 19 January 2021 (12:42:55 CET)
Rabies is endemic in southern Bhutan and children were reported to be the most frequent victims. We surveyed the knowledge, attitude, and practices on rabies among school children in three schools located in southern Bhutan. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were performed to analyze the level of knowledge and variation of perception towards rabies among secondary school children. A total of 701 students (57.9% female, 42.1% male) had participated in the survey of which 98.2% heard about rabies. Most of the students demonstrated a good level of knowledge (59.7%) and a favorable perception towards rabies (57.7%). Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed the importance of previous rabies awareness campaign increasing the likelihood of positive knowledge about rabies at the individual student and the school level. Similarly, higher grades of students’, employed mothers of the students, and students from villages were associated with more favorable perceptions. Overall, our study in rabies endemic areas of Southern Bhutan showed that most of the students have good knowledge and favorable perception towards rabies. However, we identified several knowledge gaps. Therefore, efforts should be made to address the knowledge gaps through regular awareness programs by actively engaging key stakeholders such as school-teachers and parents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0068.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, General Humanities Keywords: humanistic values; principal's leadership; a character school environment
Online: 2 November 2020 (19:21:43 CET)
This research described the fundamental inspiration behind the implementation of a humanistic approach to the principal's leadership and the steps of the principal's humanistic approach that have an impact on optimizing the implementation of the program for strengthening character education. This research used a qualitative approach, a case study design. The data collection was performed through in-depth interviews, participant observation, and documentation studies to achieve the research objectives. Data analysis used a modified analytic analysis method. The level of credibility, transferability, dependability, and confirmability was the basis of data validity. The research findings explained that personal excellence (integrity, wholeness, and self-authenticity) and the humanistic spirituality of inspirational figures inspired the principal’s humanistic approach. In addition, the application of the principal's humanistic approach had adequate impacts on optimizing the implementation of a program for strengthening character education and influenced the strengthening of the student's character. Through the principal's humanistic approach, school becomes an environment for empowering the character of the students.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0346.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: mental health; COVID-19; school-going children; lockdown
Online: 22 July 2020 (07:43:01 CEST)
During this epidemic of COVID-19, children are in need of much concentration and profound love of the senior family members. Although the measures taken by the organizations are necessary to prevent the spread of the novel coronavirus, they may be causing widespread mental health issues, including depression and loneliness. Therefore, it is imperative that parents have to spend the lion-share of time with children while listening to them cordially. Parents can participate in sports with them to help them stay fit so that they can enjoy commemorating moments. However, in this additional time, the parents can also make them habituated to practice the rules of health, so does social distancing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0178.v4
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: nutrition; children; greenhouse gas emissions; school meals; sustainability; Agenda 2030
Online: 8 July 2019 (14:52:09 CEST)
There is great potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) from public sector meals. This paper aimed to develop a strategy for reducing GHGE in the Swedish school food supply without compromising nutritional adequacy, affordability, and cultural acceptability. Amounts, prices and GHGE-values for all foods and drinks supplied to three schools over one year were gathered. The amounts were optimized by linear programming. Four nutritionally adequate models were developed: Model 1 minimized GHGE while constraining relative deviation (RD) from observed food supply; Model 2 minimized total RD while imposing stepwise GHGE reductions; Model 3 additionally constrained RD for individual foods to an upper and lower limit; and Model 4 further controlled how ratios between food groups could deviate. Models 1 and 2 reduced GHGE by up to 95% but omitted entire food categories or increased the supply of some individual foods by more than 800% and were deemed unfeasible. Model 3 reduced GHGE by up to 60%, excluded no foods, avoided high RDs of individual foods, but resulted in large changes in food group ratios. Model 4 limited changes in food group ratios but resulted in a higher number of foods deviating from the observed supply and limited the potential of reducing GHGE. Cost was reduced in almost all solutions. An omnivorous, nutritionally adequate, and affordable school food supply, with considerably lower GHGE is achievable with moderate changes to the observed food supply. Trade-offs will always have to be made between achieving GHGE reductions and preserving similarity to the current supply.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0081.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: empowerment; innovation culture; inclusive leadership; innovation capacity; school
Online: 6 June 2018 (10:07:23 CEST)
This paper has two objectives: the first, to analyze the mediating effect of teacher empowerment between innovation culture and innovation capacity, and between inclusive leadership and innovation capacity; the second, to analyze the moderating effects of the school context on the innovation capacity. Data were collected in a representative sample of secondary schools in Valencia, Spain. The research model adopted is structural equation modeling, using the partial least squares (PLS) technique. The model has confirmed that teacher empowerment mediates between innovation culture and innovation capacity and between inclusive leadership and the innovation capacity. It is found that the educational context does not moderate the relationships in the proposed analysis model. This paper emphasizes the role of teacher empowerment in educational innovation and extends the knowledge of culture and leadership in the school organization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0278.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: knowledge; food consumption behaviors; hematocrit level; school-age children
Online: 19 October 2022 (10:06:28 CEST)
Anemia is a significant public health problem among children, especially school-age children because their body quickly produces red blood cells to provide sufficient blood volume with plasma expansion to maintain blood concentration. This research aimed to study the anemia situation, knowledge about anemia, food consumption behaviors, and the association between knowledge, food consumption behaviors, and hematocrit level among school-age children in primary school, in Thasala district, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province. This is a descriptive study among 408 students, Grades 4 to 6, aged 9-12 years. Research instruments included the demographic data of the children and their knowledge about anemia, food consumption behaviors, and hematocrit assessment. Data were analyzed using descriptive, Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient, and logistic regression statistics. The results revealed that 23.2% of the samples had anemia, whereas 22.22% had mild anemia and 0.98% had moderate anemia. The children knew about anemia, where the mean score was at a moderate level (Mean= 6.63; SD= 2.51) out of 10. The mean score on food consumption behaviors was in the moderate level (Mean= 17.49; SD= 3.68) out of 24. There were significantly positive correlations between the knowledge about anemia and the hematocrit level at a moderate level (r= 0.45, p< 0.001). Correlation analysis revealed moderate food consumption behaviors with the hematocrit level (r= 0.40, p< 0.001). When confirm with Logistic regression found that knowledge about anemia (OR = 9.15, 95% CI: 4.57-18.34), and food consumption behaviors (OR = 19.09, 95% CI: 9.71-37.53) were significantly associated with the hematocrit level. Conclusions: This study showed that knowledge and appropriate food consumption behaviors are associated with hematocrit levels. Enhancing knowledge about anemia and food consumption behaviors may be reduced the prevalence of anemia in school-age children. The health care providers in primary care should be encouraged children to have health education and eat sufficient food.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0352.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: Education program; school students; knowledge; attitude; practice; choking person
Online: 28 March 2022 (03:17:55 CEST)
Choking and foreign body aspiration are significant causes of mortality and morbidity in young youngsters. This study aimed to investigate the effects of education programs on school students ' knowledge, attitude, and practice towards a choking person. This quasi-experimental study with a pretest-posttest control group design included a total of 282 school students. The students were divided into an intervention group (n = 141) and a control group (n = 141). After both groups completed the pretest, the intervention group received an education program on first aid for a choking person. Then, both groups were subjected to a posttest at the end of the program. The descriptive and inferential statistics analyzed the data. There were no significant differences between the two groups within the study parameters at the pretest (P = > 0.05). However, at posttest, a significant difference was observed in the knowledge (p = 0.001), attitude (p = 0.024), and practice (p = 0.001) of the intervention group compared to the control group. The intervention group showed significant improvement in the students’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding first aid for a choking person. We suggest a continuous training program to improve the competency of first aid for a choking person.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0132.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, General Psychology Keywords: child; play; risky play; adventurous play; school; qualitative synthesis
Online: 6 July 2021 (11:27:45 CEST)
Adventurous play, defined as exciting, thrilling play where children are able to take age-appropriate risks has been associated with a wide range of positive outcomes. Despite this, it remains unclear what factors might aid or hinder schools in offering adventurous play opportu-nities. The purpose of this systematic review is to synthesise findings from qualitative studies on the perceived barriers and facilitators of adventurous play in schools. A total of nine studies were included in the final synthesis. The review used two synthesis strategies: a meta-aggregative syn-thesis and narrative synthesis. Findings were similar across the two syntheses, highlighting that key barriers and facilitators were: adults’ perceptions of children; adults’ attitudes and beliefs about adventurous play and concerns pertaining to health; and, safety and concerns about legis-lation. Based on the findings of the review, recommendations for policy and practice as provided to support adventurous play in schools.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0079.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: online laboratories; virtual laboratories; Covid-19; simulations; science; school
Online: 5 July 2021 (08:16:17 CEST)
The Covid-19 pandemic has resulted in the closure of schools at every level, globally, forcing education to move online. Meeting the needs of students online for Science Lab classes, in particular, is a challenge since the physical labs are not available to the teachers or students. OLabs is a virtual Science Lab providing a complete learning environment of theory, experimental procedures, videos, animations, simulations, and assessments that capture real lab experiences with the relevant pedagogy. This study looks at the acquisition and behaviors of users, on the OLabs platform, during pre and Covid-19 times. Using Google Analytics, we observe that, during the pandemic time, users increasingly adopted OLabs as a new learning pedagogy for performing experiments as indicated by parameters like the number of users; the number of unique pages viewed per session; time spent on viewing content; bounce rate; and preference for content types such as theory, simulations, videos, and animations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0091.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: Sports injury, health-seeking behaviour, junior school footballers, Bangladesh
Online: 6 May 2021 (14:52:41 CEST)
Globally, football as a sport has recorded the highest rate of injury morbidity compared with other sports due to the high degree of contact between the players. Coaches play an important role in reducing injuries among the players. The objective of this study was to explore the pattern of football-related sports injuries among junior high school footballers in Dhaka, Bangladesh. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted between January 2019 to March 2019 in 20 junior high schools in Dhaka Metropolitan city. We observed 368 boys in the age range of 10 to 18 years old. A pre-structured questionnaire was provided to six trained junior physiotherapists to conduct the face-to-face interview with the boys in the school setting. Most students were from middle-income families. The injury prevalence of defenders was the most (157, 42.7%) followed by mid-fielders (132, 35.94%), forwards (63, 17.1%), and goalkeepers (16, 4.3%). Tackling was the main cause of injury in 21.1% of cases followed by foul play in 19.1% of the cases. In July, there were more injuries (69.0%) and associated muscle strain. Injured footballers did not visit sports physiotherapists as much as they did other health profession and the association was significant. When considering scientific knowledge, students were aware of fitness, flexibility & endurance (25.5%), sports massage (24.5%), the relation of body structure with sports Injury (21.2%), warm-up and/or cool down (19.6%). Based on the study, it was seen that students had no scientific knowledge of sports. As sports is a key activity for school-going children, comprehensive sports injury preventive knowledge is needed for students and sports teachers and coaches. Access to sports physiotherapists is also needed to prevent and manage sports injury at the field level and for rehabilitation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0144.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: sexual education; affective education; health education; school; qualitative research.
Online: 4 February 2021 (15:30:56 CET)
Sexual education is a part of the teaching-learning process that addresses cognitive, psychological, physical and social aspects of sexuality. The purpose of sexual education is to provide people with knowledge, abilities, attitudes and values that will help them to have good sexual health, well-being and dignity. The objective of this study was to explore the experiences and opinions of primary school teachers regarding Sexual Education in school. A descriptive qualitative study was designed based on content analysis. Twelve open-ended interviews with primary school teachers were carried out, followed by inductive data analysis using ATLAS.ti software. Two key themes emerged from the analysis: ‘In search of a comprehensive approach to Sexual Education’ and ‘Barriers to Sexual Education in schools: From the lack of training to fear of the families’. We conclude that despite the efforts to implement a comprehensive approach to Sexual Education that recognises sexuality as a right, primary school teachers face difficulties in delivering Sexual Education in schools due to a lack of training and the fear that parents will reject their children being spoken to about sexuality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0064.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: pedagogical model; physical education; school contents; methodology; psychology; motivation
Online: 1 February 2021 (17:30:38 CET)
The aim was to implement a value-promoting program (Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility, TPSR) and to assess its impact on students. Method: The program was applied for 8 months with 257 students from three secondary school centres (151 boys and 106 girls) with a mean of 15.97 years old (SD = 2.31). They were in three groups, 67 students (control group), 90 students receiving at least 60% of the total teaching time the value-promoting program (experimental group for global education, EG-GE) and 100 students (experimental group only for physical education, EG-PE). As main results improvements were found in the EG-GE for responsibility, psychological mediator index, self-determination index, resilience, climate and prosocial behaviours. In the EG-PE improved were observed in the self-determination index, classroom climate and prosocial behaviours. Female students and from EG-GE improve much more than males and from EG-PE. The outcomes in psychological variables can be higher if TPSR is applied to the whole subjects apart from physical education. These results are even more pronounced for female students in personal and social responsibility. It is worth highlighting the importance of coordinating educational institutions to facilitate the involvement of the greatest number of teachers.
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: psychological basic needs; autonomous motivation; education; school; teenagers; children
Online: 5 January 2021 (11:53:46 CET)
The Self-determination theory and The Vallerand's Hierarchical Model has been studied with different types of social factors that can bring different consequences. The purpose of this work was if responsibility and social climate could predict the social and prosocial behaviors and vio-lence. For this, 429 students (M = 11.46, SD = 1.92) participated in this study answering a ques-tionnaire with five variables: school climate, responsibility, motivation, satisfaction of psycholog-ical needs, prosocial and antisocial behaviors and violence. The main results saw that the most part of variables were correlated positive and directly except with antisocial behaviors and vio-lence. On the other hand, prediction model (X2 = 584.145 (98); RMSEA = 0.104 [90% CI = 0.096, 0.112]; TLI = 0.849; CFI = 0.894) showed that responsibility and school climate can predict psy-chological basic needs and these needs, can improve the autonomous motivation and finally have positive consequences improving prosocial behaviors and reducing antisocial behaviors and vio-lence. In conclusion, school climate and responsibility can improve positive consequences to the classroom, specifically, prosocial behaviors and reducing violence and antisocial behaviors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0570.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Out of school activities (OSA); students' needs for movement.
Online: 23 December 2020 (07:24:19 CET)
This study aims to introduce out of school activities (OSA) to high school PJOK teachers in Padang Pariaman District, West Sumatra Province, Indonesia. As is known, OSA is an alternative for students in fulfilling their movement needs, especially during the COVID 19 pandemic. Currently, students mostly stay at home, such as studying from home, to doing activities from home. So that there is minimal possibility of carrying out the movement activities recommended by WHO. The research method used is action research. This method gets a problem, then arranges problem-solving, conducts treatment, and finally evaluates. The research results show no teachers who have ever carried out of school activities (OSA); understanding, implementation, and evaluation are also not understood by the teachers. After being given the treatment, the teachers became more aware and understood about out of school activities, starting from understanding, implementing to evaluating what had to be done.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0048.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: attentional functions; primary school; KiTAP; healthy children; gender; delays
Online: 2 November 2018 (10:25:44 CET)
This research revealed the children with difficulties in attentional functions in healthy children attending primary school and aimed to identify the possible socio-demographic factors such as child’s age, gender and school’s grade that could influence attentive performance. The participants were 105 children aged 6-10 years (M age=8.6; SD=1.04), 57 females, attending primary schools. Family economic condition attested mostly at a medium level (63.5%) and parents had more frequently 13 years of schooling. The computerized test KiTAP was administered to children to assess attentional functions. Results showed higher frequency of omissions and false alarms and a reduced speed in Alertness, Go/No go and Sustained Attention tasks comparing to Italian norms. A series of hierarchical regression analyses were run with school grade, gender and current age as independent variables and mean reaction times (and standard deviation), number of omissions and of false alarms as dependent ones. Results showed male gender and attending a lower primary school grade impacting on lower attentional performance in several subtests. Females showed the best performances in distractibility and impulsive reaction tendencies tests, while higher school grade positively influenced the divided and sustained attention. These results could be useful to identify children with major attentional difficulties and some recommendations for futures studies and implement attention empowerment programmes were proposed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0066.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: Career development; career conceptions; career education; middle school; educational intervention
Online: 3 November 2022 (03:21:35 CET)
Several studies confirmed the importance of career education interventions since childhood. This study aimed at testing a career education intervention designed for middle school students, conducted, after a specific training on Social Cognitive Career Theory, by students’ teachers. The career conceptions were assessed in both experimental and control groups through the Conceptions of Career Choice and Attainment protocol before and after career education intervention. Result showed that. starting from the same level and increased their conceptions after the intervention. Experimental group increase, in a statistically significant way, more than the control group.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0332.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: Innovation in teaching; Electromagnetic induction; High school students; Qualitative methods
Online: 24 June 2022 (07:43:23 CEST)
We present here a five hours experimentation of a didactical path about the electromagnetic induction addressed to students of the last year of an Italian scientific high school and oriented to better understand the physical origin of the induced electromotive force. The expression of the induced electromotive force as the sum of the term linked to the time variation of the magnetic field and of the motional one has been obtained in a detailed way, still suitable for presentation at high school. Many examples have been proposed to the students in order to clarify the conceptual physical knots. The students’ responses to a 6-questions multiple choice questionnaire have been analyzed. It emerged that our approach is concretely feasible although we find the well-known difficulties in calculating flux and circulation of a vector field. Furthermore, it emerged that an integral approach to the problem masks the understanding of the nature of the forces acting locally on the charges. Hence our proposal of a “redefinition” of the induced electric field in terms of the magnetic vector potential is also presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0219.v3
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: Questionnaire; back health; assessment; cross-cultural adaptation; adolescents; secondary school
Online: 22 December 2020 (16:03:09 CET)
The prevalence of back pain (BP) among children and adolescents has increased over recent years. Some authors advocate promoting back-health education in the school setting. It is therefore important to adopt a uniform suite of assessment instruments to measure the various constructs. The present study aimed to perform a cultural adaptation of a validated measurement instrument (BackPEI), beginning with a translation and cultural adaptation phase, followed by a second phase to test reliability using a test-retest design. The translation and cross-cultural adaptation were performed based on the guidelines. Reliability was tested by applying the questionnaire to 224 secondary school students, at two different times with a 7-day interval between the tests. In general, the Spanish version presented adequate agreement for questions 1–20, with only question 9 achieving a low Kappa range of .312 [-.152- .189]. The question about pain intensity did not show differences between the averages for the test (4.72 ± 2.33) and re-test (4.58 ± 2.37) (p = .333), and the responses for these two tests were highly correlated (ICC= .951 [.928- .966]; p= .0001). Psychometric testing indicated that the Spanish version of the BackPEI is well-adapted and reliable, based on the test-retest design, providing similar results to the original Brazilian version.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0242.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Working Student; Mathematics; Strategic Intervention Materials, SIM; Classroom; School Management
Online: 6 November 2020 (10:47:55 CET)
: The performance of the students in academics depends on many different factors. One of these factors is the economic status of their families. Education in public schools, though it is free, some parents cannot afford to send their children to school due to financial constraints. Education as a free is every individual's right in society, but it becomes a privilege because of a lack of financial support. This research work is a comparative study of students' or learners' performance in mathematics among students from working and non-working. This research article's ultimate objective is to investigate and compare a significant difference in their performance in the subject mathematics. The research methodology utilizes a t-test to analyze and synthesize primary data sources collected via interview and academic records, and diverse literature on the study area. However, the research findings revealed no significant difference in the two groups (the working and non-working group of learners). Therefore, it is recommended that secondary schools should be provided with adequate books and facilities and faculty school interventions and programs and promote the usage of SIM or Strategic Intervention Materials for learning and memory enhancement among learners.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0256.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: nhanes; foodservice; nutrition assessment; dietary reference intakes; school lunch program
Online: 22 October 2019 (10:31:57 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to select target nutrients to be included in the nutritional standards of school lunches in Korea. The dietary intake data of children and adolescents aged 6-17 years old from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Ⅵ were analyzed for eight groups based on gender and age (6-8, 9-11, 12-14, and 15-17 years old). First, the usual intake of the 3,091 subjects was estimated and assessed to identify nutrients with insufficient or excessive intake prevalence. Along with the nutrients identified by the assessment, the energy and nutrients prioritized in the meal planning procedure of the 2015 Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans were the initial candidates: energy, the percentages of energy from carbohydrates, protein, and fat, vitamin A, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin C, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, and iron. Phosphorus was excluded due to little evidence of clinical symptoms caused by insufficient intake. Sodium was excluded because reliable data on added salt were not available among the school lunch recipes in Korea. Therefore, energy, the percentages of energy from carbohydrates, protein, and fat, vitamin A, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin C, calcium, and iron were selected to be included in the nutritional standards of school lunches in Korea.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0060.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: School coexistence; cyberbullying; education; family; victims; prevention; management; training; perceptions
Online: 2 November 2018 (13:12:16 CET)
The present work analyzes university students' perceptions on cyberbullying. More specifically, the main objective was to understand the level of concern displayed by young students in teacher training programs regarding cyberbullying; our analysis includes their degree of self-confidence and their commitment when faced with this problem, their self-reported training on the subject, and the measures they consider adequate to approach it in the educational context. Using a survey research design, 408 students from Early Childhood Education, Primary Education Degrees, and the Master’s Degree in Secondary Education, and Vocational Training from national public universities participated. The results shed light upon the coexistence of three differentiated profiles of teachers in training when faced with cyberbullying. However, although there is clear evidence of the high level of concern regarding this problem in every case, they placed more importance on raising awareness of the issue with families, prevention, management and training as basic pillars for re-directing the worrisome reality experienced in educational centers. The need to include these contents in the initial training of future education professionals, for overcoming cyberbullying, and the importance of collaborative work between parents and educators are the conclusions of this research study that are in agreement with other studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0449.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: STEM education; problem-solving; thinking types; space science at school; CanSat
Online: 31 January 2022 (11:11:31 CET)
Research has shown that hands-on projects promote stem education, namely, via problem-solving. CanSat, literally 'satellite in a can', is a stem educational project promoted by the European Space Agency. This paper addresses this issue by researching this STEM project, which demonstrates how problem-solving can be achieved in secondary-level students within the framework of the CanSat. We use qualitative techniques of data collection and analysis. The results showed that students use sophisticated thinking strategies to process information within this interdisciplinary project: (a) cognitive testing, cognitive organization, cognitive regulation, and monitoring, in addition to computer language and physical–mathematical calculations, are cognitive and metacognitive behavior strategies revealed in the CanSat; (b) problem-solving was suggested as a specific model, where students’ higher cognitive and metacognitive ordering processes deepen in project development; (c) computational, lateral, or divergent and convergent thinking were detected as thinking types of students associated with and mobilized in the course of problem-solving, The findings of this research have practical implications for STEM education in space science. Hands-on projects using problem-solving are an essential strategy to promote STEM education. Additionally, they are a starting point to promote meaningful learning and new thinking types.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0247.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: high school baseball; health; heatwave; heatstroke; sustainability; environment; gender difference; Japan
Online: 14 December 2021 (18:35:09 CET)
A summer high school baseball tournament is held every mid-summer in Koshien Stadium. “Koshien Baseball” is very popular in Japan; however, it faces the problem of extremely high temperatures during games. Thus, high school players are threatened by the harsh environment. For this reason, Internet surveys were conducted twice to purposefully engage the same individuals. Then, information on their views regarding the Koshien tournament before and after the provision of information regarding environmental change in Japan was gathered. Using data, this study examined how their views changed after having the information. Compared with the view before, it was found that (1) respondents were more likely to agree that the management rule of the Koshien tournaments should be altered to protect player’s health, and (2) the impact of providing information is larger for female respondents, young people, and highly educated respondents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0007.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: Social robot; mobile app; e-learning; language education; kindergarden, pre-school
Online: 1 September 2021 (11:46:18 CEST)
We transformed the existing learning program Language Shower, which is used in some Norwegian day-care centers in the Grorud district of Oslo municipality, into a digital solution using an app for smartphone or tablet with the option for further enhancement of presentation by a NAO robot. The solution was tested in several iterations and multiple day-care centers over several weeks. Measurements of the children’s progress across learning sessions indicate a positive impact of the program using a robot as compared to the program without robot. In-situ observations and interviews with day care center staff confirmed the solution’s many advantages, but also revealed some important areas for improvement. In particular, the speech recognition needs to be more flexible and robust, and special measures have to be in place to handle children speaking simultaneously.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0449.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Suicidal ideation; suicide plans; suicide attempts; middle school students; Sierra Leone
Online: 17 November 2020 (12:25:51 CET)
Background: The study aimed to assess the prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation, plans and attempts among middle school students in Sierra Leone. Method: Data from 2,798 adolescents (15 years of median age) that responded to the cross-sectional “2017 Sierra Leone Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS)” were analysed. Results: The prevalence of past 12-month suicidal ideation was 14.2%, suicide plans 16.0%, and suicide attempts 19.1%. In adjusted logistic regression analysis, worry-induced sleep disturbance (Adjusted Odds Ratio-AOR: 1.84, 95% Confidence Interval-CI: 1.32-2.57), bullied (AOR: 2.90, 95% CI: 1.77-4.74), trouble from alcohol use (AOR: 1.90, 95% CI: 1.03-3.50), and leisure-time sedentary behaviour (AOR: 2.42, 95% CI: 1.18-4.98) were associated with suicidal ideation. Bullied (AOR: 2.40, 95% CI: 1.46-3.95) and current cannabis use (AOR: 2.48, 95% CI: 1.51-4.09) were associated with suicide plans in the past 12 months. No close friends (AOR: 2.63, 95% CI: 1.46-4.72) loneliness (AOR: 1.69, 95% CI: 1.08-2.66), bullied (AOR: 2.33, 95% CI: 1.66-3.28), trouble from alcohol use (AOR: 4.01, 95% CI: 2.25-7.13) and current cannabis use (AOR: 2.93, 95% CI: 1.37-6.25) were positively and school attendance (AOR: 0.62, 95% CI: 0.42-0.92) negatively associated with suicide attempts in the past 12 months. Conclusion: Almost one in five students had made suicide attempts in the past 12 months and several associated variables were discovered that can assist in designing interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0149.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: Smartphone Addiction; Middle School Students; Smartphone Usage Types; Depression; Parenting Attitude
Online: 6 September 2020 (16:27:01 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between smartphone addiction of middle school students and smartphone usage types, depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), stress, interpersonal problems, and parenting attitude. This study was also performed with the aim of verifying the relationships among depression, ADHD, perceived stress, interpersonal problems, and parenting attitude, which are predictors of smartphone addiction. The subjects of this study were 487 local middle school students (234 males and 253 females). The measurement instruments used were the smartphone addiction scale, depression scale (PHQ-9), ADHD scale (K-ARS), perceived stress scale (PSS), interpersonal problem scale (KIIP-SC), and the parenting attitude scale. This study identified the relationships between the variables with correlation analysis and examined the predictors of smartphone addiction with hierarchical multiple regression analysis. According to the study results, the factors that influenced smartphone addiction were gender, stress, and interpersonal problems. In addition, when the confounding variables of smartphone addiction were controlled to examine the effects of smartphone usage types on smartphone addiction, social media use and music/videos were found to have a positively significant effect on smartphone addiction while study had a negatively significant effect. The order of the usage types with the highest influence on smartphone addiction was enjoying music/videos, social media use, and study. This suggests that selective intervention depending on the main smartphone usage type can be effective.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0106.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: Academic performance; Involvement of Parents; Debre Berhan General Secondary School; Ethiopia
Online: 7 June 2020 (16:16:44 CEST)
Education plays an essential role in the acquisition of knowledge and skills. School is the place where children’ attitudes, interests, and habits are developed. More involved and supportive a parent is towards their adolescent the higher self-esteem they will gain allowing the adolescent to feel confident and focused during school. Parents therefore enroll their children in schools that can give them expected quality of lives. The main core objective for this study was to determine the parental influence on students’ academic performance - A case study of Debre Berhan General Secondary School. A total of 118 students were included in the present study using simple random sampling technique from the total students (2367). Cross-sectional design was appropriate for this study. Primary source of data was employed collected from students. Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied. For statistical analysis SPSS 20 was used at 5% level of signiﬁcance. Descriptive statistics results indicate that the average mark of students was with minimum and maximum value of 47 and 94 respectively. Multiple regression models showed that Income level, Rate of money given to satisfy basic and educational materials, Parent’s occupation, Family size, Parent’s educational level, and Parent’s way of giving motivation were found to be a significant effect on academic performance of students at 5% level of significance at study area. However, sex of students, age of students and grade level of students were not found to be significant effect to academic performance at study area. Overall model is statistically significance for the data. All the assumption of regression analysis was satisfied. Normality, Constant variance, absence of multicolinearity, linearity and absence of autocorrelation were satisfied due to formal tests and diagnostic plots. Study recommended the need for programs related to improvement of mother and father education for caring child in appropriate success of their education and also parents should allocate time to visit schools and establish good relationship and discussion about their children’s academic progress in according to way of motivation to learn actively in school.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0058.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); school closure; time series analysis; Japan
Online: 6 April 2020 (13:11:12 CEST)
Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic are causing significant damages to many nations. For mitigating its risk, Japan’s Prime Minister called on all elementary, junior high and high schools nationwide to close beginning March 1, 2020. However, its effectiveness in decreasing disease burden has not been investigated. Methods: We used daily data on the report of COVID-19 and coronavirus infection incidence in Japan until March 31, 2020. Time series analysis were conducted using Bayesian method. Local linear trend models with interventional effect were constructed for number of newly reported cases of COVID-19, including asymptomatic infections. We considered that the effects of intervention start to appear 9 days after the school closure; i.e., on March 9. Results: The intervention of school closure did not appear to decrease the incidence of coronavirus infection. If the effectiveness of school closure began on March 9, mean coefficient α for effectiveness of the measure was calculated to be 0.08 (95% credible interval -0.36 to 0.65), and the actual reported cases were more than predicted, yet with rather wide credible interval. Sensitivity analyses using different dates also showed similar results. Conclusions: School closure carried out in Japan did not show the effectiveness to mitigate the transmission of novel coronavirus infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0015.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: school sports facility; assessment; t-sne; fuzzy c mean; unsupervised learning
Online: 3 December 2019 (05:24:26 CET)
The aim of this study is (a) to develop, test, and employ a combined method of unsupervised machine learning to objectively assess the condition of sports facility in primary schools (PSSFC) and (b) examine the examine the geographical and typological association with PSSFC. Based on the Sixth National Sports Facility Census (NSFC), six PSSFC indicators (indoor and outdoor facility included) were selected as the measurements and decomposed by using the t-stochastic neighbor embedding (t-SNE). Thereafter, the Fuzzy C-mean (FCM) algorithm was used to cluster the same type of PSSFC with selecting the optimum numbers of evaluation level. Overall 845 primary schools in Shanghai, China were recruited and tested by this combined approach of unsupervised machine learning. In addition, the two-way analysis of covariance was used to examine the location and types of school associated with PSSFC variables in each level. The combined method was found to have acceptable reliability and good interpretability, differentiating PSSFC into five gradient levels. The characteristics of PSSFC differ by the location and school type of individual school. Our findings are conducive to the regionalized and personalized intervention and promotion on the children’s physical activity (PA) upon the practical situation of particular schools.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0560.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Antimicrobial Resistance, stewardship, community, school, students, e-bug, education, pharmacists, India
Online: 23 November 2018 (11:33:55 CET)
Abstract Introduction: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a recognised public health threat today globally. Though many active and passive stewardship strategies are employed to counter AMR clinically, educating school going children on AMR could be a futuristic cost-effective measure to minimize AMR development. We hypothesised NICE’s e-bug module to class VII school students on AMR determinants. Methodology: A prospective non-randomized intervention study on 327 students belonging to 9 schools of class VII around Manipal town, Udupi district, Karnataka state, India were included for the study. 10 questions on AMR determinants extracted from NICE’s e-bug program were quizzed in written as pre-test followed by an education intervention on the same questions followed by a post-test to end the session. Descriptive statistics to estimate epidemiological characteristics, Wilcoxon Signed Ranks and Kruskal-Wallis tests were applied to analyse statistical significance of pre/post-test performance scores for the 10 questions and between schools respectively Results: Students had inadequate knowledge on 7 AMR determinants (antimicrobial indication, its course, hand hygiene, fermentation, spread of infection, microbial multiplication and characteristics of microbe) when analysed for post-test performance (p<0.05). Comparison of post-test performance of 9 participating schools revealed statistical significance (p<0.05) for 3 questions (definition on antimicrobial, cover while cough/sneezing and microbial characteristics) Conclusion: Although students exhibited sub-optimal knowledge on few AMR determinants, they showed keenness to learn exhibited by their performance. Our findings and previous similar studies from Europe are suggestive of early pedagogic interventions on AMR through inclusion of such education modules in the curriculum could be potential tool for AMR prevention for future generations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0332.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: school meals; nutrition policies; food preferences; healthy meals; children; norway; qualitative methods
Online: 25 February 2022 (09:53:50 CET)
School meals can have a key function in promoting children’s health. However, simply providing a free school meal is not a guarantee that pupils will actually eat the food. The purpose of this study was to explore factors influencing pupils’ participation in free school meal schemes in Oslo The study has a qualitative research design, inspired by grounded theory. Data were collected through interviews with pupils, teachers and parents, and participant observations in two schools participating in a pilot project funded by Oslo Municipality. Line-by-line coding, memo writing and a constant comparative technique were used to analyse the data. One primary school and one lower-secondary school in different districts in Oslo that were implementing two different free school meal models. 39 pupils (5th–10th grade), 15 parents and 12 school employees were included. Four main factors related to pupils’ participation to free school meals emerged from the analysis: the popularity of the food served, the attraction to the nearby shopping centre, social aspects and predictability. To promote pupils’ participation in free school meal schemes, schools need to solve the challenges of balancing between healthy food and popular but often unhealthy food. Children and parents involvement, regularity of the meals provision, a good flow of information and the creation of a friendly eating environment are recommended
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0215.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: educational timetable; school timetabling; constraint satisfaction problem; optimisation; artificial bee colony algorithm
Online: 12 November 2021 (11:34:55 CET)
Although educational timetabling problems have been studied for decades, one type, the STP, has not developed as quickly as the other two types due to its diversity and complexity. Also, most of the STP research has only focused on the educators’ availabilities when studying the educator aspect, and the educators’ preferences and expertise have not been taken into consideration. This paper proposes a conceptual model for the school timetabling problem considering educators’ availabilities, preferences and expertise as a whole, and chooses a common real-world school timetabling scenario to study. A mathematical model is presented. A Virtual search space for dealing with the large search space is introduced, and the artificial bee colony algorithm is adapted and applied to the proposed model. The proposed approach is simulated with a random-generated large dataset. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach is able to solve the STP and handle a large dataset in an ordinary computer hardware environment, which significantly reduces computational costs. Compared to the traditional CP method, the proposed approach is more effective and can provide more satisfactory solutions in considering educators’ availabilities, preferences, and expertise levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0355.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: physical activity; self-determination theory; after-school period; physical fitness; sedentary time
Online: 18 January 2021 (15:11:08 CET)
Abstract: Increasing physical activity (PA) and personal and social values are two of the greatest demands in the current educational system. This study examined the effect of a hybrid pro-gramme based on the Personal and Social Responsibility Model and Gamification. A total of 58 students (13.89 years old, SD = 1.14) in two groups (Experimental and Control) participated dur-ing a complete academic year. Motivation, physical activity and sedentary behaviour were as-sessed though questionnaires. Physical fitness was evaluated using previously validated field tests. The results showed significant differences over time between EG and CG in afterschool physical activity (APA) at the weekend (p = 0.003), sedentary time (p = 0.04) and speed-agility (p = 0.04). There were no significant differences in motivation. Regarding the intervention, speed-agility (p = 0.000), strength (p = 0.000), agility (p = 0.000), cardiorespiratory fitness (p = 0.001), APA-weekend (p = 0.000), APA-week (p= 0.000) and sedentary time (p = 0.000) increased signifi-cantly in the EG. Speed-agility (p = 0.000), APA-weekend (p = 0.03) and sedentary time (p = 0.008) increased in the CG. The use of this hybrid program can be useful to produced improvements in physical fitness, physical activity and sedentary hevaviours. The use of a hybrid program based on teaching personal and social responsibility and gamification strategies, produced improvements in physical fitness, physical activity and sedentary behavior, but not in motivation variables. Further research is demanded in order to contrast this relevant findings due to the potential drawbacks and diversity found in the scientific literature among model-based practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0507.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: COVID-19; lockdown; online teaching; physical education; physical activity; teachers; secondary school
Online: 19 November 2020 (11:26:28 CET)
COVID-19 pandemic has drastically reduced physical activity (PA) behaviors of many people. Physical education (PE) is considered one of the privileged instruments to promote youths’ PA. We aimed to investigate the effects of lockdown on PE teachers’ behaviors promoting their students’ out-of-school PA and differences between three European countries. 1146 PE teachers (59.5% females) from France, Italy, and Turkey answered an online questionnaire about guiding students to engage in out-of-school PA, helping them to set PA goals, encouraging in self-monitoring PA, the pedagogical formats of these behaviors and feedback asked to students. RM-MANCOVAs were performed with a 2 Time (before and during the lockdown) × 3Country (France, Italy, Turkey) × 2 Gender factorial design, using teaching years and perceived health as covariates. A significant multivariate main effect Time×Country×Gender (p<.001) was reported for the behaviors promoting students’ PA, with French and Italian teachers increasing some behaviors, while Turkish teachers showing opposite trends. Significant multivariate main effects Time×Country were found for formats supporting the behaviors (p < .001) and for asked feedback formats (p<.001). The massive contextual change imposed by lockdown caused different reactions in teachers from the three countries. Findings are informative for PA promotion and PE teachers’ education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0479.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: suboptimal health status; associated factors; high school students; Shanxi; Guangzhou; Tibet; China
Online: 20 September 2020 (14:50:30 CEST)
Suboptimal health status (SHS) is a state between health and disease, has several associated factors, although, its underlying mechanism is still unclear. This study aimed to investigate the status of SHS and its associated factors of high school students in three areas of China (Shanxi, Guangzhou, and Tibet). A multidimensional sub-health questionnaire of adolescent (MSQA) is used to evaluate SHS. Among 1461 respondents, females proportion 56.47% was higher than males 43.53% where SHS was higher in Shanxi followed by Tibet and then Guangzhou. The rural area, grade, lack of sleep, home visit in a week, lack of exercise, a heavy burden of study, smoking, drinking, and fewer friends were the risk factors of SHS, while, families living status, seeking help and extroversion were the protective factors. SHS is significantly associated with different influencing factors. For comprehensive prevention and control measures, reduce the risk factors and enhance the protective factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0335.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: knowledge; attitude; practice; children’s oral health practice; school going children; rural area
Online: 21 May 2020 (04:01:10 CEST)
Introduction: Oral health knowledge, beliefs and attitudes of parents have a direct influence on their child’s oral health maintenance, dietary habits and encourage healthy behaviors. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, and attitude of parents with regards to the oral health practice of their children and its associated factors. Methods: A self -administered structured questionnaire was administered to parents or guardians of learners aged 5 to 12 years at a low socio-economic rural primary school in the uGu district, KwaZulu Natal, South Africa to collect demographic variables, knowledge of dental health, use of toothbrush, use of toothpaste, dietary practices and dental visits; practice with respect to dental care and attitudes towards oral health. The questionnaire was translated from English to IsiZulu was used. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to assess the association between parent’s sociodemographic factors with their oral health knowledge and practice scores. Results: One hundred and forty four completed survey instruments were received with an eighty percent (118) representation of mothers. Ninety five percent of the parents (136) had a positive attitude towards oral health with 86% (124) of the children brushed their tongue and 89% (128) of the children brushed their teeth happily. The mean knowledge score was 70% with a median of 72%. Children were significantly more likely to brush their tongues (AOR: 3.20 95% CI: 1.06-9.66) and were more likely to be happier when brushing their teeth (AOR: 4.65 95% CI: 1.41-15.38) when the caregivers were their mothers, and when parents had an above average knowledge score (AOR: 1.86 95% CI: 0.72-4.85) and had positive attitudes (AOR: 3.20 95%CI: 0.46-22.00). Conclusion: To reduce the gaps in knowledge, oral health promotion should be integrated into all point of care contact with parents at health facilities, increased community awareness and advertising campaigns as well as a more focused school health oral program that addresses primary prevention, screening and appropriate referrals to health facilities
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0312.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: child; fruit; vegetables; school health services; public policy; environment and public health
Online: 29 August 2019 (17:03:20 CEST)
The School Fruit and Vegetables Scheme (SFVS) implemented by the European Union during 2009/10 aims to improve the diet of school children and to support agricultural markets and environmental sustainability. The objective of this study was to characterize the SFVS implementation in Spain (2009-2017). A descriptive, longitudinal, observational and retrospective study was carried out based on document analysis of annual strategies of the SFVS. We studied the average budget for the EU, the number of students enrolled, the cost of the SFVS by student and by day, the duration of the SFVS, the quantity of fruits and vegetables (FV) per student, the variety of FV, the inclusion of local, seasonal and organic foods, and the education activities (EA). The results were studied by autonomous community (AC). The budget increased from 7.4 million euros in 2009/10 to 14.4 in 2016/17. Since 2014/15, the increase came from EU funds, the number of students increased from 18% in 2009 to 20% in 2016. The quantity of FV went from 2,579 to 4,000 tons, duration increased from 9.8 to 19.6 days and the variety of fruits and vegetables increased from 20 to 21 and from 5 to 6 respectively. In AC there were important variations in EA, in the number of enrolled students (7.4% to 45.6%), in the cost per student (2.3€ to 28€) and in the duration in days (5.6 to 70 days). The inclusion of local, seasonal and organic foods was identified in 5 of the 8 years studied. The development and reach of the SFVS in Spain is still insufficient to influence dietary patterns and health in the school population. However, the SFVS has generated an economic market for agricultural production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0233.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: primary and middle school teachers; justice; organizational justice; salary satisfaction; turnover intention; China
Online: 15 July 2022 (12:45:37 CEST)
Primary and middle school teachers are a critical part of China’s foundational education; teacher turnover heavily affects the stable development of foundational education. In this study, interviews with 20 teachers found that relatively low income, high work pressure, unfair distribution, and difficulty in achieving promotion to higher professional titles are the main reasons for teacher turnover intention. This study investigates 485 primary and middle school teachers from Zhejiang and Jiangsu provinces. We found that primary and middle school teachers reported intense feelings of unfairness about their distribution of income. Their salary satisfaction was low, and the ratio of turnover intention was high. The main reasons for teachers’ high turnover intentions were low income, high pressure from work, unfair distribution, and the difficulty of achieving professional title promotion. To lower teachers’ turnover intentions, China should raise teachers’ income appropriately and increase the number of teachers with high professional titles. Schools should improve procedural, distributive, and interactive justice. Teachers should adjust their income references and perceptions of fairness. This situation can be effectively resolved only if all parties work hard to make positive changes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0517.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Neurofeedback; Learning Disorders; Working Memory; School-age Children; EEG Power Spectrum; Source Localization
Online: 21 May 2021 (09:53:46 CEST)
Learning disorders (LD) are diagnosed in children impaired in the academic skills of reading, writing and/or mathematics. Children with LD usually show a slower resting-state electroencephalogram (EEG), with EEG patterns corresponding to a neurodevelopmental lag. LD-children also show a consistent cognitive impairment in working memory (WM), including an abnormal task-related EEG with an overall slower EEG activity of more delta and theta power, and less gamma activity in posterior sites; task-related EEG patterns considered indices of an inefficient neural resource management. Neurofeedback (NFB) treatments aimed at normalizing the resting-state EEG of LD-children have shown improvements in cognitive-behavioral indices and diminished EEG abnormalities. Given the typical findings of a WM impairment in LD-children; we aimed to explore the effects of a NFB treatment in the WM of children with LD, by analyzing the WM-related EEG power-spectrum. We recruited 18 children with LD (8-10 years old). They performed a Sternberg-type WM-task synchronized with an EEG of 19 leads (10-20 system) twice in pre-post treatment conditions. They went through either 30 sessions of a NFB treatment (NFB-group, n= 10); or through 30 sessions of a placebo-sham treatment (Sham-group, n= 8). We analyzed the before-after treatment group differences for the behavioral performance and the WM-related power-spectrum. The NFB group showed faster response times in the WM-task post-treatment. They also showed an increased gamma power at posterior sites and a decreased beta power. We explain these findings in terms of NFB improving the maintenance of memory representations coupled with a reduction of anxiety.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0498.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Online Safety; Online Risk; Online Behaviors; Gender Disparities; High School Students; Social Media
Online: 19 March 2021 (11:15:59 CET)
In the last decade, readily available electronic devices have created unprecedented opportunities for teens to access a wide variety of information and media – both positive and negative – on the internet. Despite the increasing number of initiatives taking place worldwide intended to assess and mitigate the online risks encountered by children and adolescents, there is still a need for a better understanding of how adolescents use the internet and what consequences they may face. We conducted a cross sectional online survey of a convenience sample of 733 8th and 9th grade students in Utah. The survey contained eight questions regarding students’ exposure to three types of online risk scenarios: content risk, contact risk, and commercial risk. Independent variables included students’ online behaviors, use of social media and private messaging apps, and adult supervision of online activities. Logistic and negative binomial regression models indicated that female gender, social media use, and chatting with strangers were associated with exposure to multiple unsafe online scenarios. Our results provide critical information to practitioners involved in the development of educational initiatives by building a profile of potentially risky online behaviors and allow them to tailor their initiatives to meet the needs of more vulnerable populations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0606.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: life satisfaction; depression; self-esteem; stigma; out of school youth; structural equation modeling
Online: 27 August 2020 (09:02:07 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to assess the extent to which self-esteem and depression mediated the influence of internalized stigma on life satisfaction among Korean out-of-school youths. Cross-sectional data on 318 youths provided information on perceived stigma, self-esteem, depression, life satisfaction, and personal characteristics. A multinomial logistic regression analysis was followed by structured path analysis to investigate the mediation effects. Internalized stigma was negatively associated with life satisfaction. Self-esteem significantly mediated the influence of stigma on depression and the influence of depression on life satisfaction. Further, stigma directly and significantly influenced depression. This study demonstrated that self-esteem and depression were important to the relationship between internalized stigma and life satisfaction. Implications for possible policies and programs with the aim of helping out-of-school youths to integrate and lead successful satisfying lives are discussed.
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: obesity; overweight; socioeconomic status; Health Behaviour of School-aged Children (HBSC) Study; trends
Online: 22 April 2019 (11:50:00 CEST)
The main objective of the study is to analyse time trends in excessive body weight (obesity, overweight) of Czech adolescents between 2002 and 2018 with regard to the socioeconomic status (SES) of adolescents’ families and to find SES-mediated correlates of adolescents’ obesity. A nationally representative sample of 29,879 adolescents (49.6% of them boys) aged 10.5-16.5 years was drawn from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children cross-sectional, self-reported questionnaire surveys conducted in 2002, 2006, 2010, 2014, and 2018 in the Czech Republic. Across the quadrennial surveys from 2002 to 2018, we observed a clear increase in the prevalence of excessive body weight (overweight/obesity) in all SES categories of adolescents, which was most striking (p < 0.05) in adolescents with low SES (boys: +5.2/+7.5 percent points (p.p.); girls +6.3/+2.4 p.p.). When all the survey cycles were compared, the highest prevalence of overweight/obesity was evident in the low-SES adolescents in 2018, both in girls (14.9%/5.1%) and boys (20.4%/12.0%). The lower odds of obesity were significantly (p < 0.05) associated with regular vigorous physical activity, participation in organized sport. An unreasonable increase in the prevalence of obesity in adolescents with low SES suggests that national health-related and sports programmes have the least impact on children from low-SES families.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0562.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: health equity; implementation; obesity; systematic review; CFIR; qualitative review; school-based interventions; children; facilitators
Online: 30 November 2022 (03:59:34 CET)
Background: Health inequity (HI) remains a major challenge in public health. Improving the health of children with low socioeconomic status (SES) can help to reduce overall HI in children. Childhood obesity is a global problem, entailing several adverse health effects. It is crucial to assess influencing factors for adoption, implementation and sustainment of interventions. This review aims to identify articles reporting about influencing factors for the implementation of school-based interventions promoting obesity prevention behaviors in children with low SES. It aims to critically appraise the articles’ quality, assess influencing factors, categorize and evaluate them, and to discuss possible implications. Methods: A systematic search was conducted in 7 databases with the following main inclusion criteria: 1) school-based interventions and 2) target group aged 5–14 years. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research, its five domains (intervention characteristics, inner setting, outer setting, characteristics of individuals, process) along with 39 constructs within these domains were used to deductively analyze the data. We grouped the articles with regard to the characteristics of the interventions in simple and complex interventions. For each domain, and for the groups of simple and complex interventions, the most commonly reported influencing factors are identified. Results: 6452 articles were screened, and 16 met all eligibility criteria. Included articles applied mixed methods (n=10), qualitative (n=5) and quantitative design (n=1). Of these, five were considered to report simple interventions and eleven were considered to report complex interventions. In total, 295 influencing factors were assessed. Aspects of the inner setting were reported in every study, aspects of the outer setting were the least reported domain, and in the group of simple interventions not reported at all. In the inner setting, most reported influencing factors were time (n=7), scheduling (n=6) and communication (n=6). Conclusion: This review found a wide range of influencing factors for implementation. Most important influencing factors need to be assessed for every setting. Including all stakeholders involved in the implementation process enhances the prioritization of the most important influencing factors for the specific setting. More empirical research and practical guidance are needed to promote obesity prevention behaviors among children with low SES.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0344.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: community-based transportation; para-transit; school going children; social security; participa-tory rural appraisal
Online: 28 February 2022 (02:57:13 CET)
Social safety, security, and comfort of school-going children during the travel time to school becomes a subject of anxiety to the parents and is a crucial issue in recent times. In this regard, community-based transport can be a significant way to address social security issues in travel at a reasonable cost and reduce the burden on private mode. In Dhaka city, school van service already exists but due to some sort of problems the service has not been proved an efficient and formal mode of transport for solving mobility problems. This study seeks to identify the existing problems and prospects of the school van service and provide a unique, healthy, safe, and reliable transport mode for children. Applying different tools of the Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) method, the problems and solutions have been drawn from the community. The recommendations of this study will help the school van services (a community-managed para-transit system) to be more functional in playing a vital role in solving the problems of short-distance travel. This service has great potentialities to be adopted in other trips such as trips to and from offices which will lessen the road congestion at the peak periods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0290.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: adolescents; alienation in PE class; school happiness; future healthy life expectancy; COVID-19 pandemic
Online: 16 September 2021 (13:55:44 CEST)
This study aims to investigate the changes in the structural relationship between alienation in physical education (PE) class, school happiness, and future healthy life expectancy in Korean adolescents after the COVID-19 pandemic. The data were collected from adolescents in the Republic of Korea using scales for these factors. The collected data were analyzed with frequency analysis, reliability analysis, validity analysis, independent t-test, and path analysis. The key results were as follows. First, there were partial changes in each of the parameters since the outbreak of COVID-19. Second, before the pandemic, alienation in PE class negatively affected school happiness, and school happiness positively affected future healthy life expectancy; however, alienation in PE class did not affect future healthy life expectancy showing a complete mediating effect. Third, during the pandemic, alienation in PE class negatively affected school happiness, and school happiness positively affected future healthy life expectancy; alienation in PE class negatively affected future healthy life expectancy, showing a partial mediating effect. These findings emphasize the importance and potential of school education, especially PE, in promoting happiness and healthy life in adolescents. We expect these findings to have practical implications for future research by presenting theoretical and empirical data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0632.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: school catering; sustainable food; public procurement; parents; children; food choices; involvement; Covid-19 pandemic.
Online: 28 June 2021 (09:52:59 CEST)
This paper describes a research project carried out in an Italian public school to assess whether parents were willing to take part in food procurement decisions, as well as their ability to accurately predict what foods children would pick at school lunch and their propensity to support sustainable food choices made by the school. The methodology included a questionnaire to 500 parents and an in-depth study of 138 child/parent pairs. The study comprised: (i) presentation of an innovative recipe in the weekly menu of the school canteen; (ii) meal observations of children’s intake at school lunch during the week of the menu modification; (iii) collection of both parents’ and children’s reports on their choices of recipes from the modified weekly menu. The results are commented in light of two important changes that have recently affected Italian public school food procurement: the opening of school canteens to lunches brought from home and the measures adopted since 2020 to contain the Covid-19 pandemic. Both events go in the direction of delegating to parents the multifaceted role of the school in the food arena. The article concludes that the results of the study should discourage this approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0443.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Cognitive & Experimental Psychology Keywords: learning disorders; working memory; school-age children; EEG power spectral density; source localization; sLORETA
Online: 18 September 2020 (18:54:54 CEST)
Learning disorders (LD) are diagnosed in children whose academic skills of reading, writing or mathematics are impaired and lagged according to their age, schooling and intelligence. Children with LD experience substantial working memory (WM) deficits, even more pronounced if more than one of the academic skills is affected. We compared the task-related EEG power spectral density of children with LD (n= 23), with a control group of children with good academic achievement (n= 22), during the performance of a WM task. sLoreta was used to estimate the current distribution at the sources, and 18 brain regions of interests (ROIs) were chosen with an extended version of the eigenvector centrality mapping technique. In this way, we lessen some drawbacks of the traditional EEG at the sensor space by an analysis at the brain sources level over data-driven selected ROIs. Results: The LD group showed fewer correct responses at the WM task, an overall slower EEG with more theta activity in all ROIs, less upper-alpha power at posterior areas, and less high-frequency beta activity in frontal areas. We explain these EEG patterns in LD children as indices of an inefficient neural resource management related with a delay in the neural development.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: body posture defects; the shape of anterior-posterior spinal curvatures; body composition; school-children
Online: 11 April 2020 (05:38:01 CEST)
The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between the shape of the anterior-posterior curvature of the spine and body composition in school-children. The study included 257 children, aged 11-12. Correct spinal curvature was established in 106 (41.08%) subjects. Other types included: decreased kyphosis and correct lordosis - 40 participants (15.50%), correct kyphosis and decreased lordosis - 24 individuals (9.30%), increased kyphosis and correct lordosis - 17 subjects (6.59%), correct kyphosis and increased lordosis - 22 children (8.53%), decreased kyphosis and decreased lordosis - 32 people (12.40%), decreased kyphosis and increased lordosis - 4 of the examined subjects (1.55%), increased kyphosis and lordosis - 13 people (5.04%). In addition, 134 (51.94%) demonstrated scoliotic posture and 8 (3.10%) scoliosis. There were significant relationships between the shape of the anterior-posterior curvatures and body composition in school-children. Those with a strong body build (predominance of mesomorphs) were generally characterised by the correct formation of these curvatures. In contrast, lean people (with the predominance of ectomorphic factors) were more likely to experience abnormalities. No correlations with body composition were observed in the group with scoliotic posture or scoliosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0007.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: ventilation; hybrid ventilation; indoor air quality; mycobiota; indoor air questionnaire; school building; Trichoderma citrinoviride
Online: 1 March 2018 (12:19:08 CET)
This paper describes a case study of ventilation as well as measured and perceived indoor air quality (IAQ) in a Finnish comprehensive school with a hybrid ventilation system and reported IAQ problems. An operational error was found when investigating the ventilation system that prevented air from coming into classrooms, except for short periods of high carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations. However, results indicated that hybrid ventilation system was able to provide adequate ventilation and sufficient IAQ once properly designed and maintained. After ventilation operation was improved, occupants reported less unpleasant odors and stuffy air. The amount of total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) and some single volatile organic compounds (VOCs) decreased. Indoor mycobiota was observed in settled dust in the classrooms, from which ventilation improvement eliminated the dominant, opportunistic human pathogen species Trichoderma citrinoviride found before improvement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0001.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: medical workforce shortage; rural and remote; recruitment and retention; sustainable rural medical workforce; medical school innitiatives.
Online: 1 December 2022 (01:05:35 CET)
.Abstract: Indonesia, one of the Asia Pacific LMICs, has suffered from a chronic medical workforce shortage. However, there are limited published studies describing the approaches implemented by the Indonesian government regarding the recruitment and retention of the medical workforce. This case study aimed to understand the current practices for recruitment and retention of the medical workforce in Indonesian rural and remote provinces. We conducted a case study of the Maluku Province of Indonesia with document analysis and key informant interviews with officials responsible for medical workforce recruitment and retention. We used the WHO’s guidelines as an analytical matrix to examine the recruitment and retention practices under four domains, i) educational, ii) regulatory, iii) financial, and iv) professional and personal development, and classified them into University/Medical School level and Government/Non-government level. Our findings suggest that Indonesia has implemented most of the WHO-recommended medical workforce recruitment and retention strategies. However, implementation is still problematic; hence, the aim of establishing an adequate, sustainable medical workforce has not been reached. Nationwide government intervention in educational aspects is important to magnify the impact of the regional medical school initiatives. Relevant programs must be re-evaluated and re-enforced concerning significance, comprehensiveness and effectiveness for sustainable rural and remote medical workforce.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0048.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: information technologies (I.T); sign language; hearing impairment; traditional games; primary school teaching; inclusive education; physical education
Online: 2 November 2021 (11:54:47 CET)
This article propose a didactic, through games, tool based on information and communication technologies, in order to eliminate possible communication barriers and to promote the inclusion of students with hearing impairment in Physical Education classes. To this end, a dossier of traditional games has been developed. These are structured in turn into objectives, materials, organisation, graphic description and a QR code for each game. These codes are linked to different videos hosted on the YouTube platform, in which the explanation of the games, mentioned above, can be visualised graphically using sign language. The whole creative process is described in the article, as well as possible pedagogical applications of the use of the tools created for this purpose in other educational contexts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0736.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: middle school students, health perception, importance-performance analysis (IPA), online physical education class types, COVID-19
Online: 31 May 2021 (10:41:19 CEST)
This study aimed to assess the differences in the importance and performance of health awareness in Korean middle school students according to the types of online physical education classes they attended during the coronavirus disease-2019 pandemic. Overall, 583 participants were selected using a convenience sampling method; the data were obtained through an online survey using Google forms. Frequency analysis, reliability analysis, independent sample t-test, and importance-performance analysis were performed. First, the differences between importance and performance were found to be the most for sleep and physical activity management, and the least for disease and hygiene management. In addition, both the groups demonstrated higher importance and performance for hygiene and disease management. There were significant differences in the importance and performance of all the sub-factors. Second, hygiene, disease management, and mental health management were found in quadrant I in both the groups, while physical activity, sleep, and dietary habit management were in quadrant III. No factors were in quadrant II and IV.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0451.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: academic lessons; moderate-to-vigorous physical activity; MVPA; whole-school; physical activity; physically active learning; PAL
Online: 18 December 2020 (11:11:07 CET)
Background: A large majority of primary school pupils fail to achieve 30-minutes in-school moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The aim of this study was to investigate MVPA accumulation and subject frequency during academic lesson segments and the broader segmented school day. Methods: 122 children (42.6% boys; 9.9±0.3yrs) from six primary schools in North East England, wore uniaxial accelerometers for eight consecutive days. Subject frequency was assessed by teacher diaries. Multilevel models (children nested within schools) examined significant predictors of MVPA across each school-day segment (lesson one, break, lesson two, lunch, lesson three). Results: Pupils averaged 18.33±8.34 minutes of in-school MVPA and 90.2% failed to achieve the in-school 30-minute MVPA threshold. Across all school-day segments, MVPA accumulation was typically influenced at the individual level. Lesson one and two - dominated by Math and English - were less active than lesson three. Break and lunch were the most active segments. Conclusion: This study breaks new ground, revealing MVPA accumulation and subject frequency varies greatly during different academic lessons. Morning lessons were dominated by the inactive delivery of Math and English, whereas afternoon lessons involved a greater array of subject delivery that resulted in marginally higher levels of MVPA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0111.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS); Slovak school children; mental health; physical health; Columbia Impairment Scale; Behavioral Problem Index
Online: 7 May 2018 (09:23:27 CEST)
ETS exposure has been shown as an important environmental risk factor in vulnerable population groups. The aim of the project is to analyze the relationships among the ETS and behavior and health in 6−15-year-old children in Slovakia. The status of physical and mental health of children in relation to exposure to tobacco smoke was examined in the representative group of 1478 school children. The methods used, included anonymous questionnaires ﬁlled in by parents, Columbia Impairment Scale (CIS), Behavior Problem Index (BPI) and anthropometry. The prevalence of passive smoking is the highest in the capital (27%) and southern cities. Significant relationships have been confirmed between ETS and the age, socio-economic status, the incompleteness of the family, the level of mother's education and the significantly higher prevalence of respiratory diseases (26.7%).The relationships of ETS with emotional (CIS scores ≥16) and behavioral functions (BPI score ≥14) were significant in children exposed to mother‘s and father‘s smoking at home. In the multivariate analysis this association was not significant; the factors such as income and completeness of the family were dominant. The results confirmed the impact of ETS and social factors on health state and health behavior and could be the argumentation for legislative changes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0178.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Human Papillomavirus; vaccine refusal; hesitancy; women; school based; Health Belief Model; gynaecologist; general practitioner; survey; catch up
Online: 27 February 2018 (09:02:41 CET)
In Italy HPV vaccination was implemented for girls since 2007 but its coverage was lower than recommended level. Sicily is one of the Italian administrative regions with lower vaccination coverage, ranging in the birth cohorts 1996–1999 from 59% to 62%. Aim of the study was to investigate factors associated with refusal of anti-HPV vaccination among young adult women of Palermo, Italy. A cross-sectional study was conducted through the administration of a telephone questionnaire, consisting of 23 items on HPV infection and vaccination knowledge based on Health Belief Model framework. The eligible population were young women with at least a previous vaccination among all included in Sicilian Vaccination schedule, without starting or completing anti-HPV vaccination schedule. Overall, 141 young women were enrolled, of them 84.4% were unvaccinated and 15.6% had at least one dose of HPV vaccine. In multivariate analysis, factors associated with the failure to perform the HPV vaccination were degree as school level (OR = 10.2, p = 0.041), lower participation at school seminar on HPV (OR = 0.2, p = 0.047) and lower perception of anti-HPV vaccine benefits (OR = 0.4, p = 0.048). Public health educational program focusing and tailored on benefits perception of anti-HPV vaccine and HPV disease severity, especially if carried out at school, can improve HPV vaccination uptake.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0065.v1
Subject: Keywords: virtual reality; immersive learning; haptics; chemistry education; organic chemistry; hydrocarbons; middle school science; introductory chemistry; hands-on learning; gamification
Online: 5 April 2018 (05:59:19 CEST)
Human-Computer Interaction, including technology-aided instruction, is beginning to focus on virtual reality (VR) technology due to its ability to support immersive learning, teaching through simulation, and gamification of learning. These systems can deliver high-level multisensory learning experiences that are important in the teaching of many subjects, especially those involving abstract concepts or requiring spatial skills, such as organic chemistry. Haptic experiences with VR, however, remain a challenge. In addition, development have focused on general entertainment/gaming; VR systems in chemistry implement simulations of the chemistry laboratory and other advanced systems whereas those that support safe, game-like, immersive and multisensory learning of organic chemistry with haptics at pre-university education levels are scarce. We developed the VR Multisensory Classroom (VRMC) as an immersive learning environment within a VR head-mounted display, where learners employ hand movements to build hydrocarbon molecules and experience haptic feedback through gloves with built-in sensors and hand-tracking with the Leap Motion system. We report here the evaluation of the first prototype by learners from diverse backgrounds who reported on the ability of the VRMC to support high engagement, motivation, interest and organic chemistry learning as well as diverse learning styles. The VRMC is a novel VR classroom that supports immersive learning in molecular organic chemistry with haptics for multisensory learning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0455.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: Direct Behavior Rating 1; Test 2; Sensitivity over time 3; Rating 4; School 5; Classroom Behavior 6; Progress Monitoring 7
Online: 19 October 2018 (14:36:31 CEST)
Direct Behavior Rating (DBR) as a behavioral progress monitoring tool can be designed as longitudinal assessment with only short intervals between measurement points. The reliability of these instruments has been evaluated mostly in observational studies with small samples based on generalizability theory. However, for standardized use in the pedagogical field, a larger and broader sample is required in order to assess measurement invariance between different participant groups and over time. Therefore, we constructed a DBR with multiple items to measure the occurrence of specific externalizing and internalizing student classroom behaviors on a Likert scale (1 = never to 7 = always). In a pilot study, two trained raters observed 16 primary school students and rated the student behavior over all items with a satisfactory reliability. In the main study, 108 regular primary school students, 97 regular secondary school students and 14 students in a clinical setting were rated daily over one week (five measurement points). IRT analyses confirmed the instrument’s technical adequacy, and latent growth models demonstrated the instrument’s stability over time. Further development of the instrument and study designs to implement DBRs are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0111.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: helminthiasis dynamics in Ghana, preventive chemotherapy, school-aged children, high-risk adults, neglected tropical diseases, age-structure, infection risk, cost analysis
Online: 5 November 2018 (11:43:33 CET)
Soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH), a neglected tropical disease (NTD) remains a major health problem all over the world including Ghana, which has STH prevalence of 25.4%. To control the disease, the government of Ghana currently concentrates on implementing mass drug administration (MDA) efforts focusing only among school-aged children. However, various studies have suggested that focusing on only a specific group for MDA may not be cost-effective. Moreover, some adults such as teachers and school-workers spend large fraction of their time with children, who shed more parasite in environment due to unhygienic behavior, and thus have a higher risk of getting infected as compared to other adults. In this study we use a mathematical model to evaluate age-structured and risk-based policies for implementing MDA while capturing transmission dynamics of STH in Ghana. A cost model was developed that included various costs related to MDA to study cost-effectiveness of current policies of MDA in Ghana against novel policies to control STH in Ghana. We carry out analysis for five different scenarios— I: no MDA (baseline), II: current MDA policy (focusing children) in Ghana, III: MDA for different age groups (adults and children groups) for unlimited budget, IV: MDA for different age groups with limitations of number of individuals treated, and, V: MDA for different groups based on their risk of getting infected (adults school workers (high-risk group), adults non-school workers and children groups). Our results suggest that it might be more cost-effective to allocate treatment through MDA to at least some proportion of adults along with children. In case of unlimited budget, the best strategy in Scenario IV would be to treat approximately 22% of adults and approximately 45% of children. The most cost-effective among the 5 scenarios is suggested through scenario V, where high-risk adults group and children are provided MDA at higher level than low-risk adults. In conclusion, age-structured and risk-based allocation of treatment and resources is crucial to reducing STH load in developing countries.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: ME/CFS; education; medical school; teaching; long Covid; patient safety, NICE Guidelines, Health Act 1983, General Medical Council, GMC, Medical Schools Council, MSC, Long Covid.
Online: 16 March 2021 (12:16:27 CET)
Background and objectives: Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome ME/CFS is a common complex multi-system disease with a significant impact on the quality of life of patients and their families, yet the majority of ME/CFS patients go unrecognised or undiagnosed. For two decades the medical education establishment in the UK has been challenged to remedy these failings, but little has changed. This study was designed to ascertain the current UK medical school education on ME/CFS and to identify challenges and opportunities to inform the future of medical education. Materials and methods: A questionnaire, developed under the guidance of the Medical Schools Council, was sent to all 34 UK Medical Schools to collect data for the academic year 2018-2019. Results: Responses were provided by 22 out of a total of 34 medical schools (65%). 59% of respondents taught ME/CFS, led by specialists drawn from 6 medical disciplines. Teaching delivery was usually by lecture; however, discussion case studies and e-learning were used. 7 schools included questions on ME/CFS in their examinations and 3 schools reported likely clinical exposure to ME/CFS patients. 64% of respondents were interested in receiving further teaching aids in ME/CFS. None of the schools shared details of their teaching syllabus so it was not possible to ascertain what students were being taught. Conclusions: UK medical school teaching in ME/CFS is shown to be inadequate. Several medical disciplines, with known differences about the disease, need to set these aside to give greater clarity in teaching undergraduates so they can more easily recognise and diagnose ME/CFS. Improvements are proposed in ME/CFS medical education consistent with the international paradigm shift in biomedical understanding of this disease. Many medical schools (64% of respondents) acknowledge this need by expressing a strong appetite for the development of further teaching aids and materials. The GMC and MSC are called upon to use their considerable influence to bring about the appropriate changes to medical school curricula so future doctors can recognise, diagnose and treat ME/CFS. The GMC should also consider creating a registered speciality encompassing ME/CFS, post viral fatigue and Long Covid.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0803.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: educational concept; green business school; new green deal; interdisciplinary capacity and movement building; green failure; young generation collaboration network; prevent big ideas from failure, theory U, science and action-based research, design thinking
Online: 31 December 2020 (12:44:11 CET)
This article addresses the question why initiatives in the field of green business and sustainable development often fail. Therefore, it dismantles some typical patterns of failure and shows – as a case study – how these patterns can be challenged through an innovative educational concept: the green business and sustainable development school. The applied methodology is a real-life project that is designed through blended, interdisciplinary elements from business model canvas, Theory U, participation and design thinking. The results of the school initiative are discussed and evaluated by four distinctive stakeholder groups and outline the school’s supporting potential to overcome typical patterns of failure by the younger generation in the future. This article concludes with ideas to enhance the school concept reaching out to even more stakeholder-groups to increase its reliability and viability.
REVIEW | doi:10.3390/sci2030068
Subject: Keywords: COVID-19; pooling clinical trials; hyperinfection; steroids; treatment; targeted healthcare; population health management; cancer treatment; clinical research; clinical trials; developing vaccines; ranking and rating hospital quality; school closures; interventions for delirium; assessments of COVID-19 death inequities; regulatory safeguards; preventing child abuse and maltreatment; prevalence of health care worker burnout; nursing home ratings; challenging oncology practice; addressing racial; ethnic; social and economic divides; violence against sexual minority adolescents; primary tumors; metastasis; stages of cancer; reforming cancer clinical trials; supporting carers; protection and prevention; benign and malignant tumors; reforming cancer clinical trials; protection of healthcare personnel; comparing excess deaths in NYC; 1918 influenza pandemic; the possibility of full recovery from COVID-19; mental health impact of COVID-19 on young adults; ranking and rating nursing home quali
Online: 21 August 2020 (00:00:00 CEST)
The SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes the COVID-19 disease has wreaked havoc on the world community in terms of every imaginable parameter. The research output on COVID-19 has been nothing short of phenomenal, especially in the medical and biomedical sciences, where the search for a potential vaccine is being conducted in earnest. Much of the advanced research has been distributed in the leading medical journals, including the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), where the latest research is distributed on a daily basis. The purpose of this paper is to provide some perspectives on 44 interesting and highly topical research papers that have been published in JAMA, at the time of writing, within the past two weeks. The diverse topics include public health, general medicine, internal medicine, oncology, paediatrics, geriatrics, and biostatistics.