ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1705.v1
Subject: Engineering, Safety, Risk, Reliability And Quality Keywords: transformer; self-supervised learning; autoencoder; remaining useful life prediction; bidirectional LSTM; turbofan engine
Online: 27 November 2023 (13:22:46 CET)
Estimating the Remaining Useful Life (RUL) of aircraft engines holds a pivotal role in enhancing safety, optimizing operations, and promoting sustainability, thus being a crucial component of modern aviation management. Precise RUL predictions offer valuable insights into an engine’s condition, enabling informed decisions regarding maintenance and crew scheduling. In this context, we propose a novel RUL prediction approach in this paper, harnessing the power of Bi-directional LSTM and Transformer architectures, known for their success in sequence modeling, such as natural languages. We adopt the encoder part of the full Transformer as the backbone of our framework, integrating it with a self-supervised denoising autoencoder that utilizes Bidirectional LSTM for improved feature extraction. Within our framework, a sequence of multivariate time series sensor measurements serves as the input, initially processed by the Bidirectional LSTM autoencoder to extract essential features. Subsequently, these feature values are fed into our Transformer encoder backbone for RUL prediction. Notably, our approach simultaneously trains the autoencoder and Transformer encoder, different from the naive sequential training method. Through a series of numerical experiments carried out on the C-MAPSS datasets, we demonstrate that the efficacy of our proposed models either surpasses or stands on par with that of other existing methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2038.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: PHM; radiator; vibration, anomaly detection; machine learning; PCA; deep learning; LSTM autoencoder; GMM
Online: 29 September 2023 (05:01:34 CEST)
Radiator reliability is crucial in environments characterized by high temperatures and friction, where prompt interventions are often required to prevent system failures. This study introduces a proactive approach to radiator fault diagnosis, leveraging the integration of Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) and Long-Short Term Memory (LSTM) autoencoders. Vibration signals from radiators were systematically collected through randomized durability vibration bench tests, resulting in four operating states—two normal, one unknown, and one faulty. Time-domain statistical features of these signals were extracted and subjected to Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to facilitate efficient data interpretation. Subsequently, this study discusses the comparative effectiveness of GMM and LSTM in fault detection. GMMs are deployed for initial fault classification, leveraging their clustering capabilities, while LSTM autoencoders excel in capturing time-dependent sequences, facilitating advanced anomaly detection for previously unencountered faults. This alignment offers a potent and adaptable solution for radiator fault diagnosis, particularly in challenging high-temperature or high-friction environments. Consequently, the proposed methodology not only provides a robust framework for early-stage fault diagnosis but also effectively balances diagnostic capabilities during operation. Additionally, this study presents the foundation for advancing reliability life assessment in accelerated life testing, achieved through dynamic threshold adjustments using both the absolute log-likelihood distribution of the GMM and the reconstruction error distribution of the LSTM autoencoder model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0062.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Security Systems Keywords: anomaly detection; vehicular network; Controller Area Network; LSTM-Autoencoder model; intrusion detection system; Vehicular IoT
Online: 4 July 2023 (03:09:54 CEST)
The CAN protocol is widely adopted for in-vehicle networks due to its cost efficiency and reliable transmission. However, despite its popularity, the protocol lacks built-in security mechanisms, making it vulnerable to various attacks such as flooding, fuzzing, and DoS. These attacks can exploit vulnerabilities and disrupt the normal behavior of the in-vehicle network. One of the main reasons for these security concerns is that the protocol relies on broadcast frames for communication between ECUs within the network. To tackle this issue, this paper presents an intrusion detection system that leverages multiple LSTM-Autoencoders. The proposed system utilizes diverse features, including transmission interval and payload value changes, to capture various characteristics of normal network behavior. By analyzing different types of features separately using the LSTM-Autoencoder model, the system effectively detects anomalies. In our evaluation, we conducted experiments using real vehicle network traffic, and the results demonstrated the system's high precision with a 99% detection rate in identifying anomalies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0058.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Deep Learning; LSTM Autoencoder; Supervised Learning, Hydraulic Test Rig; Sensor Faults; Component Faults
Online: 2 December 2020 (11:08:40 CET)
Anomaly occurrences in hydraulic machinery may lead to massive systems shut down, jeopardizing the safety of the machinery and its surrounding human operator(s) and environment, and the severe economic implications succeeding the faults and their associated damage. Hydraulics are mostly placed in ruthless environments, where they are consistently vulnerable to many faults. Hence, not only the machines and their components are prone to anomalies, but also the sensors attached to them, which monitor and report their health and behavioral changes. In this work, a comprehensive applicational analysis of anomalies in hydraulic systems extracted from a hydraulic test rig is thoroughly achieved. Firstly, we provided a combination of a new architecture of LSTM autoencoders and supervised machine and deep learning methodologies to perform two separate stages of fault detection and diagnosis. The two phases are condensed by: the detection phase using the LSTM autoencoder. Followed by the fault diagnosis phase represented by the classification schema. The previously mentioned framework is applied to both component and sensor faults in hydraulic systems, deployed in the form of two in-depth applicational experiments. Moreover, a thorough literature review of the past decade related work for the two stages separately is successfully conducted in this paper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1747.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Space And Planetary Science Keywords: machine learning; Dst index; LSTM; EMD-LSTM; prediction
Online: 26 September 2023 (11:29:55 CEST)
The Dst index is the geomagnetic storm index used to measure the energy level of geomagnetic storms, and the prediction of this index is of great significance for the geomagnetic storm study and the solar activity. In contrast to traditional numerical modelling techniques, machine learning, which has emerged in decades ago based on rapidly developing computer hardware and software and artificial intelligence methods, has been unprecedentedly developed in geophysics, especially solar-terrestrial space physics. This study chooses two machine learning models, the LSTM (Long-Short Time Memory, LSTM) and EMD-LSTM model (Empirical Mode Decomposition, EMD), to model and predict the Dst index. By building the Dst index data series from 2018-2023, two models were built to fit and predict the data. Firstly, we evaluated the influences of the learning rate and the amount of training data on the prediction accuracy of the LSTM model, and finally, 10-3 was thought as the optimal learning rate; secondly, the two models were used to predict the Dst index in the solar active and quiet periods, respectively, and the RMSE (Root Mean Square Error) of the LSTM model in the active period is 7.34 nT, the CC (correlation coefficient) is 0.96, those of the quiet period are 2.64nT and 0.97; the RMSE and r of EMD-LSTM model are 8.87nT and 0.93 in active time and 3.29nT and 0.95 in the quiet time. Finally, the prediction accuracy of the LSTM model in short time period is slightly better than the EMD-LSTM model. However, there will be a problem of prediction lag, which the EMD-LSTM model can then solve, and can better predict the geomagnetic storm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0157.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: LSTM-ARX model; MPC; water tank system; LSTM-CNN-ARX model
Online: 2 June 2023 (08:33:51 CEST)
Industrial process control systems commonly exhibit features of time-varying, strong coupling, and strong nonlinearity. Obtaining accurate mathematical models of these nonlinear systems and achieving satisfactory control performance is still a challenging task. In this paper, data-driven modeling techniques and deep learning methods are used to accurately capture a category of smooth nonlinear system’s spatiotemporal features. The operating point of these systems may change over time, and their nonlinear characteristics can be locally linearized. We established the LSTM-CNN-ARX model by utilizing a fusion of long short-term memory (LSTM) network and convolutional neural network (CNN) to fit the coefficients of the state-dependent exogenous variable autoregressive (SD-ARX) model. Compared to other models, the hybrid LSTM-CNN-ARX model is more effective in capturing the nonlinear system’s spatiotemporal characteristics due to its incorporating the strengths of LSTM for learning temporal characteristics and CNN for capturing spatial characteristics. The model-based predictive control (MPC) strategy, namely LSTM-CNN-ARX-MPC, is developed by utilizing the model's local linear and global nonlinear features. The control comparison experiments conducted on a water tank system (WTS) show the effectiveness of the developed models and MPC methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0297.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: breast cancer; predictive model; stacked GRU-LSTM-BRNN; LSTM; GRU; RNN
Online: 24 June 2020 (18:02:03 CEST)
Breast Cancer diagnosis is one of the most studied problems in the medical domain. In the medical domain, cancer diagnosis has been studied extensively which instantiates the need of early prediction of cancer disease. For obtaining advance prediction, health records are exploited and given as input to an automated system. This paper focuses on constructing an automated system by employing deep learning based recurrent neural network models. A stacked GRU-LSTM-BRNN is proposed in this paper that accepts health records of a patient for determining possibility of being affected by breast cancer. Proposed model is compared against other baseline classifiers such as stacked Simple-RNN model, stacked LSTM-RNN model, stacked GRU-RNN model. Comparative results obtained in this study indicate that stacked GRU-LSTM-BRNN yield better classification performance for predictions related to breast cancer disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0316.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: LSTM; GRU; Cryptocurrency, Artificial Intelligence
Online: 6 October 2023 (11:06:19 CEST)
Predicting the prices of cryptocurrency owing to its volatility, instability, and other factors has been challenging; investors and traders especially in Nigeria have been on a constant look for a more reliable way of knowing market trends and prices and while there has been so many research conducted using deep learning, the results for which has fall short of what investors could called a strong predictor. This research reviewed the results of many works that had been done and proposed two types of recurrent neural network (RNNs) namely Long Short-Term Memory and Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU) for predicting the future prices of two of the most common crypto assets namely Bitcoin (BTC) and Ethereum (ETH), these two were selected based on their popularity, the volume traded and their market capitalization. The experiment was conducted in a GPU Jupyter Notebook environment and the performance of our experiment was evaluated on a test set using root mean square error (RMSE) and based on its values, the LSTM presented a better performance with rsme scores of 654.66, and 80.30 respectively for BTC and ETH as compared to GRU. The paper proceeds further to compare the results of this experiment with other related works and we discovered that its performance is a great improvement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0141.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Soil moisture prediction; LSTM; PSO
Online: 8 December 2022 (02:28:04 CET)
Soil moisture is an important factor affecting the plant growth. For a long time, the convenience, timeliness and accuracy of soil moisture monitoring have been limited due to the backward of observation methods and equipment. Therefore, the quantitative prediction of soil moisture has become a difficult problem. Aiming at the problems of high erection cost, easily damaged sensors and low measurement accuracy of the existing fixed sensor soil moisture monitoring system, a soil moisture prediction model based on the long short term memory neural network (LSTM) integrating the particle swarm optimization (PSO) (PSO-LSTM) is designed and implemented. The hyperparameters of the LSTM network can be obtained based on the excellent global search ability of the PSO algorithm. According to the meteorological data and soil moisture data of Haidian Park in 2019, the long short term memory(LSTM) neural network based prediction model is constructed with input vectors of surface temperature, average temperature, evaporation, sunshine hours, precipitation and average wind speed, and the output vector of soil relative humidity. The results show that compared with the back propagation(BP) neural network, the Elman neural network and the LSTM neural network, the proposed PSO-LSTM model has higher prediction performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0515.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: LSTM; convolution; regularization; stock market
Online: 20 April 2021 (21:12:17 CEST)
Many studies in the current literature annotate patterns in stock prices and use computer vision models to learn and recognize these patterns from stock price-action chart images. Additionally, current literature also use Long Short-Term Memory Networks to predict prices from continuous dollar amount data. In this study, we combine the two techniques. We annotate the consolidation breakouts for a given stock price data, and we use continuous stock price data to predict consolidation breakouts. Unlike computer vision models that look at the image of a stock price action, we explore using the convolution operation on raw dollar values to predict consolidation breakouts under a supervised learning problem setting. Unlike LSTMs that predict stock prices given continuous stock data, we use the continuous stock data to classify a given price window as breakout or not. Finally, we do a regularization study to see the effect of L1, L2, and Elastic Net regularization. We hope that combining regression and classification shed more light on stock market prediction studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1248.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: AI; Energy Price Forecasting; LSTM; DNN
Online: 20 November 2023 (14:03:57 CET)
In the quest for sustainable energy solutions, predicting electricity prices for renewable energy sources plays a pivotal role in efficient resource allocation and decision-making. This article presents a novel approach to forecasting electricity prices for renewable energy sources using deep learning models, leveraging historical data from the Power System Operator (PSE). The proposed methodology encompasses data collection, preprocessing, feature engineering, model selection, training, and evaluation. By harnessing the power of recurrent neural networks (RNNs) and other advanced deep learning architectures, the model captures intricate temporal relationships, weather patterns, and demand fluctuations that impact renewable energy prices. The study demonstrates the applicability of this approach through empirical analysis, showcasing its potential to enhance energy market predictions and aid in the transition to more sustainable energy systems. The outcomes underscore the importance of accurate renewable energy price predictions in fostering informed decision-making and facilitating the integration of renewable sources into the energy landscape. As governments worldwide prioritize renewable energy adoption, this research contributes to the arsenal of tools driving the evolution towards a cleaner and more resilient energy future.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1089.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: SDN; machine learning; algorithms; GRU-LSTM
Online: 15 August 2023 (09:40:34 CEST)
Recent SDN advances address traditional network management challenges through centralized control and plane separation. SDN prevents breaches using a centralized controller but introduces risks. The controller can be a single point of failure. Thus, an OpenFlow Controller's flow-based anomaly detection enhances SDN security. Our research explored two OpenFlow intrusion detection methods. The first employed machine learning, NSL-KDD dataset, and feature selection, yielding 82% accuracy with random forest. The second combined deep neural networks with GRU-LSTM, achieving 88% accuracy using ANOVA F-Test and feature elimination. Experiments highlighted deep learning as superior for OpenFlow intrusion detection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0070.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: encoder; decoder; seq2seq; LSTM; RNN; chatbots
Online: 3 March 2023 (10:08:32 CET)
Chatbots are extensively needed in customer services to handle customer inquiries, such as tracking orders or providing information about products and services. One of the most reliable implementations of chatbots is using the common architectures of LSTM networks named Seq2Seq networks. The networks are using an encoder and a decoder. Seq2Seq chatbot is a type of chat system that is professional enough to pass the Turing test. The Turing test is a way of deciding the accuracy of the machine by examining its response, it should appear like a human response. In this research, we will introduce a novel architecture that can pass the Turing test. The seq2seq Accuracy is improved by making incremental training to the chatbot. The new proposal provides higher accuracy and high similarity to human chat responses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0196.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Speech Rehabilitation; Speech Quality Assessment; LSTM
Online: 13 December 2021 (10:10:36 CET)
The article considers an approach to the problem of assessing the quality of speech during speech rehabilitation as a classification problem. For this, a classifier is built on the basis of an LSTM neural network for dividing speech signals into two classes: before the operation and immediately after. At the same time, speech before the operation is the standard to which it is necessary to approach in the process of rehabilitation. The metric of belonging of the evaluated signal to the reference class acts as an assessment of speech. An experimental assessment of rehabilitation sessions and a comparison of the resulting assessments with expert assessments of phrasal intelligibility were carried out.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0241.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy And Astrophysics Keywords: recurrent neural networks; LSTM; lightcurves; simulation; variability
Online: 31 August 2023 (10:08:17 CEST)
With an explosion of data in the nearly every domain, from physical and environmental sciences to econometrics and even social science, we have entered a golden era of time-domain data science. In addition to ever increasing data volumes and varieties of time-series, there's a plethora of techniques available to analyses them. Unsurprisingly, machine learning approaches are very popular. In environmental sciences (ranging from climate studies to space weather/solar physics), machine learning (ML )and deep learning (DL) approaches complement the traditional data assimilation approaches. In solar and astrophysics, multiwavelength time-series or lightcurves along with observations of other messengers like gravitational waves provide a treasure trove of time-domain data for ML/DL approaches for modeling and forecasting. In this regard, deep learning algorithms such as recurrent neural networks (RNNs) should prove extremely powerful for forecasting as it has in several other domains. Such methods agnostic of the physics can only predict transient flares that are represented in the original distribution trained on (eg. coloured noise fluctuations) and not special, isolated episodes (eg. a one-off outburst like a major coronal mass ejection) potentially distinguishing them. Therefore it is vital to test robustness of these techniques ; here we attempt to make a small contribution to this by exploring sensitivity of RNNs with some rudimentary experiments. We test the performance of a very successful class of RNNs, the Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) algorithms with simulated lightcurves. As an example, we focus on univariate forecasting of time-series (or lightcurves) characteristic certain variable astrophysical objects (eg. active galactic nuclei or AGN). Specifically, we explore the sensitivity of training and test losses to key parameters of the LSTM network and data characteristics namely gaps and complexity measured in terms of number of Fourier components. We find that typically, the performances of LSTMs are better for pink or flicker noise type sources. The key parameters on which performance is dependent are batch size for LSTM and the gap percentage of the lightcurves. While a batch size of $10-30$ seems optimal, the most optimal test and train losses are under $10 \%$ of missing data for both periodic and random gaps in pink noise. The performance is far worse for red noise. This compromises detectability of transients. Thus, we show that generative models (time-series simulations) are excellent guides for use of RNN-LSTMs in building forecasting systems
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1070.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Algorithm; GA; PSO; PSO-LSTM; Search Space
Online: 16 May 2023 (03:26:57 CEST)
The deployment of a Static Synchronous Compensator within a microgrid can facilitate voltage and reactive power regulation, leading to enhanced stability and reliability. Within a microgrid setting, a STATCOM can effectively balance power supply and demand, and mitigate voltage fluctuations caused by the intermittent nature of renewable energy sources. To ensure the successful integration of a STATCOM within a microgrid, coordinating the control system with other Distributed Energy Resources, especially when multiple control strategies are employed, can be a challenging task. Therefore, a meticulously designed control system is indispensable to guarantee the microgrid’s efficient and effective operation. The use of GA in LSTM tuning can accelerate the process of finding optimal hyperparameters for a specific task, obviating the necessity for time-consuming and computationally expensive grid search or manual tuning. This method can be particularly advantageous when handling large data sets and complex models. In this paper, an attempt has been made to model the STATCOM to communicate with the microgrid tuned using LSTM-GA for effective calculation of real and reactive power support during grid disturbances.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0579.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Deep learning, Cognitive, LSTM, Neural network, Ngrams
Online: 26 November 2018 (10:06:05 CET)
Cognitive neuroscience is the study of how the human brain functions on tasks like decision making, language, perception and reasoning. Deep learning is a class of machine learning algorithms that use neural networks. They are designed to model the responses of neurons in the human brain. Learning can be supervised or unsupervised. Ngram token models are used extensively in language prediction. Ngrams are probabilistic models that are used in predicting the next word or token. They are a statistical model of word sequences or tokens and are called Language Models or Lms. Ngrams are essential in creating language prediction models. We are exploring a broader sandbox ecosystems enabling for AI. Specifically, around Deep learning applications on unstructured content form on the web.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1191.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: prophet; LSTM; GRU; meteorological data; electricity consumption forecasting
Online: 19 September 2023 (08:33:08 CEST)
This study proposes a short- and medium-term electricity consumption prediction algorithm by combining the GRU model suitable for long-term forecasting and the Prophet model suitable for seasonality and event handling. (1) Manufacturing Company B's Electricity consumption data and meteorological data in Naju, Jeollanam-do, South Korea are collected and preprocessed. (2) The preprocessed data proposes the Prophet model in the first step for seasonality and event handling prediction. (3) In the second step, seven multivariate data are experimented with GRU. Specifically, the seven multivariate data consist of six meteorological data and the residuals between the predicted data from the proposed Prophet model in Step 1 and the observed data. These are utilized to predict electricity consumption at 15-minute intervals. (4) Electricity consumption is predicted for short-term (2 days and 7 days) and medium-term (15 days and 30 days) scenarios. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms the conventional Prophet model by more than 23 times and the modified GRU model by more than 2 times in terms of MAPE.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0149.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: machine learning; LSTM+1DCNN architecture; neural network; torque
Online: 2 August 2023 (05:15:15 CEST)
: Innovative solutions are now being researched to manage the ever-increasing amount of data required to optimize the performance of internal combustion engines. Machine Learning ap-proaches have shown to be a valuable tool for signal prediction due to their real-time and cost-effective deployment. Among them, the architecture consisting of Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) and one-dimensional Convolutional Neural Networks (1DCNN) has emerged as a highly promising and effective option for replacing the role of physical sensors. The architecture com-bines the capacity of LSTM to detect patterns and relationships in smaller segments of the signal with the ability of 1DCNN to detect patterns and relationships in larger segments of the signal. The purpose of this work is to assess the feasibility of substituting a physical device dedicated to calculating the torque supplied by a spark-ignition engine. The suggested architecture was trained and tested using signals from the field during a test campaign conducted under transient operating conditions. The results reveal that LSTM+1DCNN is particularly well suited for signal prediction with considerable variability. It constantly outperforms other architectures used for comparison, with average error percentages of less than 2%, proving the architecture's ability to replace physical sensors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1204.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: ABSA; word embedding; Bi-LSTM; attention; character embedding
Online: 18 July 2023 (09:47:17 CEST)
Nowadays people express their opinions on social media. Also provides product reviews on eCommerce websites and responds to various news as comments. It is necessary to know the polarity and aspect of various posts and comments for business, education and security. Aspect-based sentiment analysis (ABSA) predicts text category and polarity. In this paper, we proposed a deep learning framework Deep-ABSA for aspect-based sentiment analysis from Bangla texts. Our proposed framework is a multi-channel architecture. We implemented the word embedding, Bi-LSTM with the attention mechanism for one channel. And for another channel, we adopted the character-embedded convolutional neural network. Finally, we concatenated both channels for adjoining the features of each channel. We obtained an adequate performance from our proposed framework for aspect term analysis from Bangla sentences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1705.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: GNSS; Deep Learning; Time Series Prediction; VMD; LSTM
Online: 25 June 2023 (03:34:01 CEST)
GNSS time series prediction plays a significant role in monitoring crustal plate motion, landslide detection, and maintenance of the global coordinate framework. Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM), a deep learning model has been widely applied in the field of high-precision time series prediction especially when combined with Variational Mode Decomposition (VMD) to form the VMD-LSTM hybrid model. To further improve the prediction accuracy of the VMD-LSTM model, this paper proposes a dual variational modal decomposition long short-term memory (DVMD-LSTM) model to effectively handle the noise in GNSS time series prediction. This model extracts fluctuation features from the residual terms obtained after VMD decomposition to reduce the prediction errors associated with residual terms in the VMD-LSTM model. Daily E, N, and U coordinate data recorded at multiple GNSS stations between 2000 and 2022 are used to validate the performance of the proposed DVMD-LSTM model. The experimental results demonstrate that compared to the VMD-LSTM model, the DVMD-LSTM model achieves significant improvements in prediction performance across all measurement stations. The average RMSE is reduced by 9.86%, and the average MAE is reduced by 9.44%. Furthermore, the average accuracy of the optimal noise model for the predicted results is improved by 36.50%, and the average speed accuracy of the predicted results is enhanced by 33.02%. These findings collectively attest to the superior predictive capabilities of the DVMD-LSTM model, thereby enhancing the reliability of the predicted results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1537.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Deep learning; Predictions; Time Series; LSTM, Multivariate; Univariate
Online: 21 June 2023 (11:13:49 CEST)
Time series (TS)-based predictions are made by examining the behaviour of historical data to forecast future values. Multiple industries; such as stock market trading, power load forecasting, medical monitoring, and intrusion detection; frequently use it. Several variables; such as the performance of other markets as well as the economic situation of a country which affect its market performance; significantly affect the prediction of stock market prices. Therefore, this present study uses numerous variables; such as the opening, lowest, highest, and closing prices; to predict the indices of the stock market of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Successfully accomplishing an investment goal largely depends on choosing the right stocks to buy, sell, or maintain. The project's output is the projected closing prices (regression) over the next seven days, which helps investors make the best decisions. This present study used exponential smoothing (ES) to remove noise from the input data obtained from the Saudi Stock Exchange, or Tadawul, before using a multivariate long short-term memory (LSTM) deep learning (DL) algorithm to forecast stock market prices. The proposed multivariate LSTMDL model had satisfactory prediction rates of 97.49% and 92.19% for the univariate model. Therefore, it can be used to effectively predict stock market prices. The results also indicate that DL as well as multiple sources of information can be used to accurately predict stock markets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1460.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: 6G; IoV; AI; edge computing; QoS; CNN; LSTM
Online: 22 May 2023 (04:41:28 CEST)
A full connected world is expected to gain in the 6th generation mobile network (6G). As a typi-cal fully connected scenario, the internet of vehicle (IoV) enables intelligent vehicle operations via artificial intelligence (AI) and edge computing technologies. In the future of vehicular net-works, wide variety of services need powerful computing resources and higher quality of ser-vice (QoS). Existing resources are insufficient to match these requirements. Aim to this problem, An intelligent service offloading framework is provided. Based on the framework, an Algorithm of Improved Gradient Descent (AIGD) is created to accelerate the speed of iteration. So, the con-vergence of convolutional neural network (CNN) based on AIGD is able to be accelerated too. Then, an Algorithm of convolutional long short-term memory (CN_LSTM) Based Traffic Predic-tion (ACLBTP) is designed to gain the predicted number of vehicles belonged to the edge node. At last, an Algorithm of Service Offloading Based on CN_LSTM (ASOBCL) is conducted to of-fload these services to the vehicles belonged to the edge node. In ASOBCL, sorting technique is adopted to speed up the offloading work. Simulation results demonstrate the fact that the pre-diction strategy designed in this paper has high accuracy. The low offloading time and main-taining stable load balance is gained via running ASOBCL. Low offloading time means short response time. And, the QoS is guaranteed. So, these strategies designed in this paper are effec-tive and valuable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0229.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: PV Power Prediction; Mode Decomposition; NARX; LSTM; LightGBM
Online: 4 May 2023 (08:16:05 CEST)
Photovoltaic(PV) power generation is highly nonlinear and stochastic. Accurate prediction of PV power generation plays a crucial role in grid connection as well as the operation and scheduling of power plants. To predict the PV power combination model, this paper suggests a method based on Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD), Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD), Complete Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition with Adaptive Noise (CEEMDAN), Nonlinear Auto-Regressive Neural Networks with Exogenous Input (NARXNN), Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) Neural Network, and Light Gradient Boosting Machine (LightGBM) algorithms. To attempt to reduce the non-smoothness of PV power, the weather variable features with the greatest effect on PV power are first identified by correlation analysis. Following this, the PV power modal decomposition is split and reorganized into a new feature matrix. Finally， a NARX is used to obtain preliminary PV power components and residual vector features， and the PV power is predicted by combining three models of LightGBM， LSTM, and NARX and then the final prediction results are obtained by combining the PV power prediction results using error inverse method weighted optimization. The prediction results demonstrate that the model put forth in this paper outperforms those of other models and validate the model's validity by utilizing real measurement data from Andre Agassi College in the United States.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0033.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Artificial Intelligence; Low Power Systems; Power Management; LSTM
Online: 2 September 2021 (08:03:24 CEST)
Computer systems that operate in remote locations such as satellites, remote weather stations and autonomous robots are highly limited in the availability of energy for their operation. This work aims to employ artificial intelligence algorithms in energy management in order to obtain the maximum energy yield and the prediction of energy availability to the system. The work presents the main types of algorithms used in artificial intelligence and presents the creation of a prototype that will operate as a low power system powered by batteries and a small solar plate, the prototype will perform inferences on the LSTM neural network algorithm in order to predict the future availability of energy, consequently the management system will carry out the energy distribution in order to obtain the maximum operation of the prototype without total discharge of the batteries. So that the artificial intelligence system could be embedded in the prototype, the TensorFlow Lite framework was used, which allows the inference to be carried out in devices with low consumption and limited processing power.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0376.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: artificial neural network; deep learning; LSTM; speech processing
Online: 31 October 2019 (16:40:30 CET)
Speech signals are degraded in real-life environments, product of background noise or other factors. The processing of such signals for voice recognition and voice analysis systems presents important challenges. One of the conditions that make adverse quality difficult to handle in those systems is reverberation, produced by sound wave reflections that travel from the source to the microphone in multiple directions.To enhance signals in such adverse conditions, several deep learning-based methods have been proposed and proven to be effective. Recently, recurrent neural networks, especially those with long and short-term memory (LSTM), have presented surprising results in tasks related to time-dependent processing of signals, such as speech. One of the most challenging aspects of LSTM networks is the high computational cost of the training procedure, which has limited extended experimentation in several cases. In this work, we present a proposal to evaluate the hybrid models of neural networks to learn different reverberation conditions without any previous information. The results show that some combination of LSTM and perceptron layers produce good results in comparison to those from pure LSTM networks, given a fixed number of layers. The evaluation has been made based on quality measurements of the signal's spectrum, training time of the networks and statistical validation of results. Results help to affirm the fact that hybrid networks represent an important solution for speech signal enhancement, with advantages in efficiency, but without a significan drop in quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0163.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: traffic flow forecasting; cluster computing; LSTM neural networks
Online: 8 August 2018 (08:50:09 CEST)
Accurate and fast traffic flow forecasting is vital in intelligent transportation system because many of the advanced features in intelligent transportation systems are based on it. However, existing methods have poor performance regarding accuracy and computational efficiency in long-term traffic flow forecasting under big data. Hence, we propose an improved Long short-term memory (LSTM) Network and its cluster computing implementation in this paper to address the above challenge. We propose a singular point probability LSTM (SDLSTM) algorithm. The method discards the units of the network according to the singular point probability during the training process and amends the SDLSTM by Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average Model (ARIMA) to achieve the accurate prediction of 24-hour traffic flow data. Furthermore, the paper designs a scheme for implementing this method through cluster computing to shorten the calculation time and improve the system's operating speed. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that SDLSTM gains a higher accuracy rate and better stability in the long-term traffic flow forecasting compared with previous methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0258.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: audio classification; multi-resolution analysis; LSTM; auto-ml
Online: 19 July 2018 (05:53:20 CEST)
We describe a multi-resolution approach for audio classification and illustrate its application to the open data set for environmental sound classification. The proposed approach utilizes a multi-resolution based ensemble consisting of targeted feature extraction of approximation (coarse scale) and detail (fine scale) portions of the signal under the action of multiple transforms. This is paired with an automatic machine learning engine for algorithm and parameter selection and the LSTM algorithm, capable of mapping several sequences of features to a predicted class membership probability distribution. Initial results show an improvement in multi-class classification accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0345.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Deep learning; solar radiation forecasting; model prediction; solar energy; multi climates data; generalizability; sustainability; Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM); Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU); Convolutional Neural Network (CNN); Hybrid CNN-Bidirectional LSTM; LSTM Autoencoder
Online: 18 August 2022 (10:59:18 CEST)
The sustainability of the planet and its inhabitants is in dire danger and is among the highest priorities on global agendas such as the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the United Nations (UN). Solar energy -- among other clean, renewable, and sustainable energies -- is seen as essential for environmental, social, and economic sustainability. Predicting solar energy accurately is critical to increasing reliability and stability, and reducing the risks and costs of the energy systems and markets. Researchers have come a long way in developing cutting-edge solar energy forecasting methods. However, these methods are far from optimal in terms of their accuracies, generalizability, benchmarking, and other requirements. Particularly, no single method performs well across all climates and weathers due to the large variations in meteorological data. This paper proposes SENERGY (an acronym for Sustainable Energy), a novel deep learning-based auto-selective approach and tool that, instead of generalising a specific model for all climates, predicts the best performing deep learning model for GHI forecasting in terms of forecasting error. The approach is based on carefully devised deep learning methods and feature sets through an extensive analysis of deep learning forecasting and classification methods using ten meteorological datasets from three continents. We analyse the tool in great detail through a range of metrics and methods for performance analysis, visualization, and comparison of solar forecasting methods. SENERGY outperforms existing methods in all performance metrics including Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Mean Absolute Error (MAE), Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE), Forecast Skills (FS), Relative Forecasting Error, and the normalised versions of these metrics. The proposed auto-selective approach can be extended to other research problems such as wind energy forecasting and predict forecasting models based on different criteria (in addition to the minimum forecasting error used in this paper) such as the energy required or speed of model execution, different input features, different optimisations of the same models, or other user preferences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0755.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: diabetes; CGM; hypoglycemia; hyperglycemia; prediction; ARIMA; logistic regression; LSTM
Online: 12 September 2023 (16:53:51 CEST)
Background: Novel technologies like continuous glucose monitor (CGM) systems are improving diabetes management by means of real-time sensor glucose levels, retrospective course of glucose and trend arrows. Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM) offers real-time alerts for (prognostic) hypo- and hyperglycemia, fast dropping or increasing glucose, and hence improving glycaemia under unstable conditions like during meals, physical activity and exercise management. Complex CGM systems challenge people with diabetes and health care professionals in interpreting rapid changes, sensor delay (~10-minute difference between interstitial and plasma glucose), and malfunctions. Enhanced prediction models are necessary for optimal insulin dosing, daily activities, and especially for future fully closed-loop systems. Methods: The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of three different predictive models for glucose responses: 1) an autoregressive integrated moving average model (ARIMA), 2) logistic regression, 3)and long short-term memory networks (LSTM), in predicting glucose levels after 15 minutes and one hour. We compared and evaluated the performance of these models in predicting hypoglycemia (<70 mg/dL), euglycemia (70-180 mg/dL), and hyperglycemia (>180 mg/dL). In more detail, by assessing metrics such as precision, recall, F1-score, and accuracy, we specifically assessed which model provided the most accurate and reliable predictions for glucose levels Results: As expected, ARIMA showed the worst accuracy especially predicting hypoglycaemia withing 1-hour (7.3%). The accuracy of the logistic regression model, predicting hypoglycemia during the first 15 min was higher (98%), comparing to LSTM (88%). However, the LSTM model (87%) exceeded the accuracy of hypoglycemia prediction of the logistic regression (83%) during an hour prognosis. The same pattern observed in hyperglycemia - ARIMA model (60%, 1 hour), logistic regression (96%, 15 minutes) and LSTM (85%, 1 hour) Conclusions: These findings suggest that different models may have varying strengths and weaknesses in predicting glucose levels, and the choice of model should be carefully considered based on the specific requirements and context of the clinical application. The logistic regression model was more accurate for the next 15 minutes, especially predicting hypoglycemia. However, the LSTM model exceeded logistic regression for the next one hour prediction. Future research could explore hybrid models or ensemble approaches that combine the strengths of multiple models to further improve the accuracy and reliability of glucose predictions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1565.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: nitrogen oxide retrieval; 2DCNN-LSTM; machine learning; factor interpretability
Online: 23 August 2023 (07:42:22 CEST)
With the advancement of urbanization in China, effective control of pollutant emissions and air quality have become important goals in current environmental management. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), as a precursor of tropospheric ozone and fine particulate matter, plays a significant role in atmospheric chemistry research and air pollution control. However, the uneven ground monitoring stations and low temporal resolution of polar-orbiting satellites set challenges for accurately assessing near-surface NO2. To address this issue, a spatiotemporal refined NO2 retrieval model was established for China using the geostationary satellite Himawari-8. The spatiotemporal characteristics of NO2 were analyzed and its contribution factors were explored. Firstly, seven Himawari-8 channels sensitive to NO2 were selected by using the forward feature selection based on information entropy. Subsequently, a 2DCNN-LSTM network model was constructed, incorporating the selected channels and meteorological variables as retrieval factors to estimate hourly NO2 in China from March 2018 to February 2020 (with a resolution of 0.05°, per hour). The performance evaluation demonstrated that the full-channel 2DCNN-LSTM model had good fitting capability and robustness (R2=0.74, RMSE=10.93), and further improvements were achieved after channel selection (R2=0.87, RMSE=6.84). The 10-fold cross-validation results indicated that the R2 between retrieval and measured values was above 0.85, the MAE was within 5.60, and the RMSE was within 7.90. R2 varied between 0.85 and 0.90, showing better validation at mid-day (R2=0.89) and in spring and fall transition seasons (R2 =0.88 and R2 =0.90). To investigate the cooperative effect of meteorological factors and other air pollutants on NO2, statistical methods (Beta coefficients) were used to test the factor interpretability. Meteorological factors as well as other pollutants were analyzed. From a statistical perspective, PM2.5, Boundary Layer Height, and O3 were found to have the largest impacts on near-surface NO2, with each standard deviation change in these factors leading to 0.28, 0.24, and 0.23 in standard deviations of near-surface NO2, respectively. Findings of the study contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the spatiotemporal distribution of NO2 and provide a scientific basis for formulating targeted air pollution policies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1167.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Water quality; suspended sediment; discharge; LSTM; deep neural network
Online: 17 May 2023 (02:20:22 CEST)
The intrinsic non-linearity and complexity of suspended sediment dynamics, which are impacted by the geographical variability of basin parameters and temporal climatic patterns, make it difficult to estimate suspended sediment concentration (SSC) accurately in hydrological processes. Deep neural networks (DNNs), a cutting-edge modeling method that can capture the innate non-linearity in hydrological systems, have emerged as a solution to this problem. Using primary data on discharge, SSC, and turbidity, the long short-term memory method of DNNs was employed in this study to simulate the discharge-suspended sediment connection for the Esopus Creek, NY, USA as the first objective. To develop effective modeling strategies, multiple scenarios of feature selection, including combinations of discharge, turbidity and SSC for preceding days, were considered. Secondly, the variations in SSC and discharge between the three USGS gages along Esopus Creek that were upper stream, lower stream, and downstream, adjacent to the pourpoint were analyzed. Statistical metrics and scenarios of feature importance were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the DNN-based models. The study shows that among 24 DNN approaches feature selection is crucial in simulating the daily SSC, and discharge and presenting novel research directions for utilizing machine learning algorithms in water quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0498.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Black-box models; Neural networks; LSTM; oxygen concentration modeling
Online: 8 May 2023 (09:49:20 CEST)
Activated sludge process is a well known method to treat municipal and industrial waste water. In this complex process, the oxygen concentration in the reactors plays a critical role in the plant efficiency. This paper proposes the use of a Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) network to identify an input-output model suitable for the design of an oxygen concentration controller. The model is identified from easy-accessible measures collected from a real plant. This dataset covers almost a month. The performances achieved with the proposed LSTM model are compared with the ones obtained with a standard AutoRegressive model with eXogenous input (ARX). Both models catch the oscillation and the overall behaviour (ARX ρ=0.833 , LSTM ρ=0.921), but, while the ARX model fails in reaching the correct amplitude (FIT=41.20%), the LSTM presents satisfactory performance (FIT=60.56%).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0132.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: cross country skiing; IMU; wearable sensors; LSTM; neural network
Online: 11 October 2022 (03:04:09 CEST)
Objective: The aim of this study was to provide a new machine learning method to determine temporal events and inner-cycle parameters (e.g., cycle, poles and skis contact and swing time) in cross-country roller ski skating on the field, using a single deported inertial measurement unit (IMU). Methods: The developed method is based on long short-term memory neural networks to detect poles and skis initial and final contact with the ground during the cyclic movements. Eleven athletes skied four laps of 2.5 km at low and high intensity using skis with two different rolling coefficients. They were equipped with IMUs attached to the upper back, lower back and to the sternum. Data from force insoles and force poles were used as reference system. Results: The IMU placed on the upper back provided the best results, as the LSTM network was able to determine the temporal events with an accuracy ranging from 49 to 55 ms and the corresponding inner-cycles parameters were calculated with a precision of 63 to 68 ms. The method detected 95% of the events for the poles and 87% of the events for the skis. Conclusion: The proposed LSTM method provides a promising tool for assessing temporal events and inner-cycle phases in roller ski skating showing the potential of using a deported IMU to estimate different spatio-temporal parameters of human locomotion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0147.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: SARIMA; Artificial Neural Networks (ANN); LSTM; hybrid methodologies; prediction
Online: 11 May 2022 (05:50:41 CEST)
The choice of holiday destinations is highly depended on climate considerations. Nowadays, since the effects of climate crisis are being increasingly felt, the need of accurate weather and climate services for hotels is crucial. Such a service could be beneficial for both the future planning of tourists’ activities and destinations and for hotel managers as it could help in decision making about the planning and expansion of the touristic season, due to a prediction of higher temperatures for a longer time span, thus causing increased revenue for companies in the local touristic sector. The aim of this work is to calculate predictions on climatic variables using statistical techniques as well as Artificial Intelligence (AI) for a specific area of interest utilising data from in situ meteorological station, and produce valuable and reliable localised predictions with the most cost-effective method possible. This investigation will answer the question of the most suitable prediction method for time series data from a single meteorological station that is deployed in a specific location. As a result, an accurate representation of the microclimate in a specific are is achieved. To achieve this high accuracy in situ measurements and prediction techniques are used. As prediction techniques, Seasonal Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA), AI techniques like the Long-Short-Term-Memory (LSTM) Neural Network and hybrid combinations of the two are used. Variables of interest are divided in the easier to predict temperature and humidity that are more periodic and less chaotic, and the wind speed as an example of a more stochastic variable with no known seasonality and patterns. Our results show that the examined Hybrid methodology performs the best at temperature and wind speed forecasts, closely followed by the SARIMA whereas LSTM perform better overall at the humidity forecast, even after the correction of the Hybrid to the SARIMA model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0518.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: aquaculture water quality; dissolved oxygen (DO); forecasting; EEMD; LSTM
Online: 22 September 2020 (10:02:09 CEST)
Dissolved Oxygen (DO) concentration is a vital parameter that indicates water quality. DO short term forecasting using time series analysis on data collected from an aquaculture pond is presented here. This can provide data support for an early warning system for an improved management of the aquaculture farm. The conventional forecasting approaches are commonly characterized by low accuracy and poor generalization problems. In this article, we present a novel hybrid DO concentration forecasting method with ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) based LSTM (Long short-term memory) neural network (NN). With this method, first, the sensor data integrity is improved through linear interpolation and moving average filtering methods of data preprocessing. Next, the EEMD algorithm is applied to decompose the original sensor data into multiple intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). Finally, the feature selection is used to carefully select IMFs that are strongly correlated with the original sensor data and integrate both into inputs for the NN. The hybrid EEMD-based LSTM forecasting model is then constructed. Performance of this proposed model in training and validation sets was compared with the observed real sensor data. To obtain the exact evaluation accuracy of the forecasted results of the hybrid EEMD-based LSTM forecasting model, three statistical performance indices were adopted: MAE, MSE, and RMSE. Results presented for short term (12-hour period) and long term (1-month period) give a strong indication of suitability of this method for forecasting DO values.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1727.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: Tail water level prediction; Backwater effect; LSTM; Xiangjiaba hydropower station
Online: 26 September 2023 (07:08:44 CEST)
Accurate forecast of tail water level (TWL) is of great importance for the safe and economic operation and management of hydropower stations. The predictive performance is significantly influenced by the backwater effect of downstream hydropower stations and tributaries, but the explicit quantification method of the backwater effect is lacked. In this study, a deep learning model based forecasting framework for TWL predictions is established and applied to forecast TWL of Xiangjiaba (XJB) hydropower stations, which is influenced by the backwater effect of downstream tributaries including Hengjiang River (HJR) and Minjiang River (MJR). Firstly, the lag time of the backwater effect of HJR and MJR is analyzed based on the permutation importance. The results demonstrate that the lag time of backwater effect on the TWL of XJB is 5-7 hours for the HJR and 1-2 hours for the MJR. Then, the runoff thresholds of the HJR and MJR for impacting the TWL of the XJB station are obtained by scenario comparison, and the results show that the thresholds of HJR and MJR are 700 m3/s and 7000 m3/s respectively. Finally, the deep learning methods based TWL forecasting model is established based on the lag time and threshold analysis. The model is used to forecast the TWL in future 48 hours. The results show that the forecasting model has a good predictive performance with 98.22% of absolute errors less than 20 cm. The mean absolute error over the validation dataset is 5.27 cm and the maximum absolute error is 63.35 cm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0714.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: EEG; epileptic seizure; entropy; deep learning; LSTM; BiLSTM; GRU; classification
Online: 12 September 2023 (10:12:33 CEST)
One of the most prevalent brain diseases, epilepsy is characterized by recurring seizures that happen quite frequently. During seizures, a patient suffers uncontrollable muscle contractions that cause loss of motion and balance, which could lead to harm or even death. Establishing an automatic method for warning patients about impending seizures requires extensive research. It is possible to anticipate seizures by analyzing the Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal from the scalp region of the human brain. Time domain-based features such as Hurst exponent (Hur), Tsallis Entropy (TsEn), improved permutation entropy (impe), and amplitude-aware permutation entropy (AAPE) were extracted from EEG signals. In order to diagnose epileptic seizure children from normal children automatically, this study conducted two sessions, in the first session, the extracted features from the EEG dataset were classified using three machine learning (ML)-based models including support vector machine (SVM), K nearest neighbor (KNN), or decision tree (DT), while in the second session, the dataset was classified using three deep learning (DL)-based recurrent neural network (RNN) classifiers including a gated recurrent unit (GRU), long short-term memory (LSTM), and bidirectional (BiLSTM). The EEG dataset obtained from the Neurology Clinic at the Ibn-Rushd Training Hospital. In this regard, detailed explanations and research from the time domain and entropy characteristics show that using GRU, LSTM, and BiLSTM RNN deep learning classifiers on the All−time−entropy fusion feature improves the final classification results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0156.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: deep learning; feature attribution; gaussian noise; LSTM; precipitation prediction; RMSE
Online: 5 September 2023 (03:03:04 CEST)
This paper explores the use of different deep learning models for predicting precipitation in 56 meteorological stations in Jilin Province, China. The models used include Stacked-LSTM, Transformer, and SVR, and Gaussian noise is added to the data to improve their robustness. Results show that the Stacked-LSTM model performs the best, achieving high prediction accuracy and stability. The study also conducts variable attribution analysis using LightGBM and finds that temperature, dew point, precipitation in previous days, and air pressure are the most important factors affecting precipitation prediction, which is consistent with traditional meteorological theory. The paper provides detailed information on the data processing, model training, and parameter settings, which can serve as a reference for future precipitation prediction tasks. The findings suggest that adding Gaussian noise to the dataset can improve the model's generalization ability, especially for predicting days with zero precipitation. Overall, this study provides useful insights into the application of deep learning models in precipitation prediction and can contribute to the development of meteorological forecasting and applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1727.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: grain yield prediction; remote sensing image; deep learning; CBAM; LSTM
Online: 25 May 2023 (03:41:51 CEST)
Grain yield prediction affects policy making in various aspects such as agricultural production planning, food security assurance, and adjustment of foreign trade. Accurately predicting grain yield is of great significance in ensuring global food security. This paper is based on the MODIS remote sensing image data products from 2010 to 2020, and adds band information such as vegetation index and temperature to form composite remote sensing data as a data set. Aiming at the lack of models for large-scale forecasting and the need for human intervention in traditional models, this paper proposes a grain production estimation model based on deep learning. First, image cropping and yield mapping techniques are used to process the data to generate training samples. Then the channel and spatial attention mechanism (Convolutional Block Attention Module, CBAM) is added for extracting spatial information in different remote sensing bands to improve the efficiency of the model. Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) neural networks is also added to obtain feature information in the time dimension. Finally, a national-scale grain yield prediction model is constructed. The proposed model was tested on data from 2018 to 2020 showing an average R2 of 0.940 and an average RMSE of 80,020 tons, indicating that it can predict Chinese grain yield better. The model proposed in this paper extracts grain yield information directly from the composite remote sensing data, and solves the problem of small-scale research and imprecise yield prediction in an end-to-end manner.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0247.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Speech emotion recognition; one-dimensional neural network; LSTM; CNN; MFCCs
Online: 4 May 2023 (09:45:11 CEST)
In recent years, with the popularity of smart mobile devices, the interaction between devices and users, especially in the form of voice interaction, has become increasingly important. If smart devices can understand more users' emotional states through voice data, more customized services can be provided for users. This paper proposes a novel machine learning model for speech emotion recognition, which combines convolutional neural networks (CNN), long short-term memory neural networks (LSTM), and deep neural networks (DNN), called CLDNN. To make the designed system can recognize the audio signal closer to the human auditory system does, this article uses the Mel frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) of audio data as the input of the machine learning model. First, the MFCCs of the voice signal is extracted as the input of the model, and the feature values of the data are calculated using several local feature learning blocks (LFLB) composed of one-dimensional CNN. Because the audio signals are time-series data, the feature values obtained from LFLBs then input into LSTM layer to enhance the learning on time-series level. Finally, fully connected layers are used for classification and prediction. Three databases RAVDESS, EMO-DB and IEMOCAP are used for the experiments in this paper. The experimental results show that the proposed method can improve the accuracy compared to other related researches in speech emotion recognition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0144.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: COVID-19; Machine learning; Demand Forecasting; Neural network; LSTM
Online: 10 April 2023 (04:27:16 CEST)
Accurate demand forecasting plays a critical role in most furniture businesses’ operational, tactical, and strategic decisions, as the demand in the furniture business is considered seasonal and becomes more complex in crises. In this work, a neural network model using the Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) method was developed to forecast the demand for specific product groups. LSTM is a leading deep learning model for time series prediction, particularly seasonal, multi-item, and non-linear situations. The developed model was used to predict the demand based on old data before the Covid-19 pandemic and recent data of the first months of the pandemic as a fast response to the crisis. In addition, a comparison study was conducted between the developed model and the traditional planning inventory used by furniture businesses that provided us with the data. The results showed that the Covid-19 pandemic significantly impacted demand forecasting. Also, the fast response to Covid-19 pandemic has slightly increased the model performance. Finally, the comparison study demonstrated that our model is robust and better than the traditional demand forecasting method. Therefore, the developed model may help the business improve inventory and production planning to create a more flexible supply chain.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0031.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: LSTM; GMDH; ANFIS; Ensemble Learning Models; Wavelet; Time Series Forecasting
Online: 2 August 2022 (03:50:14 CEST)
To improve the monitoring of the electrical power grid it is necessary to evaluate the influence of contamination in relation to leakage current and its progression to a disruptive discharge. In this paper, insulators were tested in a saline chamber to simulate the increase of salt contamination on their surface, and to evaluate the supportability of these components. From the time series forecasting of the leakage current, it is possible to evaluate the development of the fault before a flashover occurs. Choosing which method to use is always a difficult task since some models may have higher computational effort. In this paper, for a complete evaluation, the long short-term memory (LSTM), group method of data handling (GMDH), adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), bootstrap aggregation (bagging), sequential learning (boosting), random subspace, and stacked generalization (stacking) ensemble learning models are analyzed. A review and comparison of these well-established methods for time series forecasting is performed. From the results of the best structure of the model, the hyperparameters are evaluated and the Wavelet transform is used to obtain an enhanced model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0368.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: hand gesture classification; transfer learning; three-dimensional convolutional; LSTM network
Online: 27 June 2022 (13:36:40 CEST)
This paper introduces a multi-class hand gesture recognition model developed to identify a set of defined hand gesture sequences in two-dimensional RGB video recordings. The work presents an action detection classifier that looks at both appearance and spatiotemporal parameters of consecutive frames. The classifier utilizes a convolutional-based network combined with a long-short-term memory unit. To leverage the need for a large-scale dataset, the model uses an available dataset to then adopt a technique known as transfer learning to fine-tune the model on the hand gestures of relevance. Validation curves performed over a batch size of 64 indicate an accuracy of 93.95% (± 0.37) with a mean Jaccard index of 0.812 (± 0.105) for 22 participants. The presented model illustrates the possibility of training a model with a small set of data (113,410 fully labelled frames). The proposed pipeline embraces a small-sized architecture that could facilitate its adoption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0244.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Attention mechanism; CHMM; LSTM; Multi-modal fusion; Human behavior recognition
Online: 14 December 2021 (15:09:15 CET)
The multi-modal data fusion method based on IA-net and CHMM technical proposed is designed to solve the problem that the incompleteness of target behavior information in complex family environment leads to the low accuracy of human behavior recognition.The two improved neural networks(STA-ResNet50、STA-GoogleNet)are combined with LSTM to form two IA-Nets respectively to extract RGB and skeleton modal behavior features in video. The two modal feature sequences are input CHMM to construct the probability fusion model of multi-modal behavior recognition.The experimental results show that the human behavior recognition model proposed in this paper has higher accuracy than the previous fusion methods on HMDB51 and UCF101 datasets. New contributions: attention mechanism is introduced to improve the efficiency of video target feature extraction and utilization. A skeleton based feature extraction framework is proposed, which can be used for human behavior recognition in complex environment. In the field of human behavior recognition, probability theory and neural network are cleverly combined and applied, which provides a new method for multi-modal information fusion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0073.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: contextual keyword extraction; BERT; word embedding; LSTM; transformers; Deep Learning
Online: 6 August 2019 (09:17:36 CEST)
In this paper we propose a novel self-supervised approach of keywords and keyphrases retrieval and extraction by an end-to-end deep learning approach, which is trained by contextually self-labelled corpus. Our proposed approach is novel to use contextual and semantic features to extract the keywords and has outperformed the state of the art. Through the experiment the proposed approach has been proved to be better in both semantic meaning and quality than the existing popular algorithms of keyword extraction. In addition, we propose to use contextual features from bidirectional transformers to automatically label short-sentence corpus with keywords and keyphrases to build the ground truth. This process avoids the human time to label the keywords and do not need any prior knowledge. To the best of our knowledge, our published dataset in this paper is a fine domain-independent corpus of short sentences with labelled keywords and keyphrases in the NLP community.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1957.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: machine learning; hybrid models; svm; LSTM; GRU; Stock market; CNN; Tensorflow
Online: 31 October 2023 (02:59:40 CET)
Stock market prediction is a challenging task to perform, as we know the fluctuations that take place in the market makes it versatile and hard to predict the prices. In this research, we have explored the power of usage of hybrid ensemble algorithms to improve the predictive accuracy in the stock market forecasting. Our research comprises construction and evaluation of diverse hybrid models using different algorithms. The methodology presented in the paper involves comprehensive data preparation, feature engineering, and model normalization. Evaluating the different hybrid models, one stands out distinctly: LSTM (long short-term memory networks) + GRU (Gated recurrent units) + Conv1D (one-dimensional convolutional layer) hybrid. It illustrated its potential to revolutionize decision-making tools for investors and financial analysts in stock market analytics. The harmonious integration of algorithms not only underscores the effectiveness of hybrid modeling but also beckons for further exploration within the ever-evolving domain of predictive modeling, driven by the pursuit of precision and accuracy. This model shows a remarkable accuracy metrics including a Mean Absolute Error (MAE) of 0.95, a Mean Squared Error (MSE) of 2.1222, a Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) of 1.52, and a R-squared (R2) score of 0.9982.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1457.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: sea level change; deep learning; time series prediction; VMD; EEMD; LSTM
Online: 24 October 2023 (04:06:59 CEST)
Changes in sea level exhibit nonlinearity, nonstationarity, and multivariable characteristics, making traditional time series forecasting methods less effective in producing satisfactory results. To enhance the accuracy of the predictions of changes in sea level, this study introduced an improved VMD–EEMD–LSTM hybrid model. This model decomposes satellite altimetry data from near the Dutch coast using VMD, resulting in components of the Intrinsic Mode Function (IMF) with various frequencies and a residual sequence. EEMD further dissects the residual sequence obtained from VMD into second-order components. These IMFs decomposed by VMD and EEMD are utilized as features in the LSTM model for making predictions, culminating in the final forecasted results. The experimental results demonstrated significant improvements in the predictive performance compared with the VMD–LSTM model. The RMSE (root mean square error) decreased by an average of 58.68%, the MAE (mean absolute error) reduced by an average of 59.96%, and the R2 (coefficient of determination) increased by an average of 49.85% compared with the VMD–LSTM model. In comparison with the EEMD–LSTM model, the RMSE decreased by an average of 26.95%, the MAE decreased by an average of 28.00%, and the R2 increased by an average of 6.53%. The VMD–EEMD–LSTM model exhibited significantly improved predictive performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0398.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: river discharge; hydro informatics; water resource; data-driven; deep learning; LSTM
Online: 26 September 2022 (11:30:24 CEST)
River flow prediction is a pivotal task in the field of water resource management during the era of rapid climate change. The highly dynamic and evolving nature of the climatic variables e.g., precipitation has a significant impact on the temporal distribution of the river discharge in recent days making the discharge forecasting even more complicated for diversified water-related issues e.g., flood prediction and irrigation planning. To predict the discharge, various physics-based numerical models are used using numerous hydrologic parameters. Extensive lab-based investigation and calibration are required to reduce the uncertainty involved in those parameters. However, in the age of data-driven predictions, several deep learning algorithms showed satisfactory performance in dealing with sequential data. In this research, Long Short-term Memory (LSTM) neural network regression model is trained using over 80 years of daily data to forecast the discharge time series up to 3 days ahead of time. The performance of the model is found satisfactory through the comparison of the predicted data with the observed data, visualization of the distribution of the errors and Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) value of 0.09. Higher performance is achieved through the increase in the number of epochs and hyper parameter tuning. This model can be transferred to other locations with proper feature engineering and optimization to perform univariate predictive analysis and potentially be used to perform real-time river discharge prediction.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: motion capture; neural networks; reconstruction; gap filling; FFNN; LSTM; BILSTM; GRU
Online: 3 August 2021 (11:52:46 CEST)
Optical motion capture is a mature contemporary technique for the acquisition of motion data, alas it is non-error-free. Due to technical limitations and occlusions of markers, gaps might occur in such recordings. The article reviews various neural network architectures applied for gap filling problem in motion capture sequences within FBM framework providing the representation for body kinematic structure. The results are compared with interpolation and matrix completion methods. We found out, that for longer sequences simple linear feedforward neural networks can outperform the other, sophisticated architectures. We were also able to identify, that acceleration and monotonicity of input sequence are the parameters that have a notable impact on the obtained results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0011.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Transformer; spike; neural decoding; CNN; RNN; LSTM; deep learning; information; neuroscience
Online: 2 August 2021 (09:51:43 CEST)
Neural decoding from spiking activity is an essential tool for understanding the information encoded in population neurons, especially in applications like brain-computer interface (BCI). Various quantitative methods have been proposed and have shown superiorities under different scenarios respectively. From the machine learning perspective, the decoding task is to map the high-dimensional spatial & temporal neuronal activity to the low-dimensional physical quantities (e.g., velocity, position). Because of the complex interactions and the abundant dynamics among neural circuits, good decoding algorithms usually have the capability of capturing flexible spatiotemporal structures embedded in the input feature space. Recently, the Transformer-based models are widely used in processing natural languages and images due to its superior performances in handling long-range and global dependencies. Hence, in this work we examine the potential applications of Transformers in neural decoding and introduce two Transformer-based models. Besides adapting the Transformer to neuronal data, we also propose a data augmentation method for overcoming the data shortage issue. We test our models on three experimental datasets and their performances are comparable to the previous state-of-the-art (SOTA) RNN-based methods. In addition, Transformer-based models show increased decoding performances when the input sequences are longer, while LSTM-based models deteriorate quickly. Our research suggests that Transformer-based models are important additions to the existing neural decoding solutions, especially for large datasets with long temporal dependencies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0051.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: NLP, news media, bias, neural networking, LSTM, information retrieval, filter bubble
Online: 6 June 2019 (13:15:28 CEST)
An article's tone and framing not only influence an audience's perception of a story but may also reveal attributes of author identity and bias. Building upon prior media, psychological, and machine learning research, this neural network-based system detects those writing characteristics in ten news agencies' reporting, discovering patterns that, intentional or not, may reveal an agency's topical perspectives or common contextualization patterns. Specifically, learning linguistic markers of different organizations through a newly released open database, this probabilistic classifier predicts an article's publishing agency with 74% hidden test set accuracy given only a short snippet of text. The resulting model demonstrates how unintentional 'filter bubbles' can emerge in machine learning systems and, by comparing agencies' patterns and highlighting outlets' prototypical articles through an open source exemplar search engine, this paper offers new insight into news media bias.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0228.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Deep learning, LSTM, Machine learning, Post-filtering, Signal processing, Speech Synthesis
Online: 17 May 2019 (16:16:53 CEST)
Several researchers have contemplated deep learning-based post-filters to increase the quality of statistical parametric speech synthesis, which perform a mapping of the synthetic speech to the natural speech, considering the different parameters separately and trying to reduce the gap between them. The Long Short-term Memory (LSTM) Neural Networks have been applied successfully in this purpose, but there are still many aspects to improve in the results and in the process itself. In this paper, we introduce a new pre-training approach for the LSTM, with the objective of enhancing the quality of the synthesized speech, particularly in the spectrum, in a more efficient manner. Our approach begins with an auto-associative training of one LSTM network, which is used as an initialization for the post-filters. We show the advantages of this initialization for the enhancing of the Mel-Frequency Cepstral parameters of synthetic speech. Results show that the initialization succeeds in achieving better results in enhancing the statistical parametric speech spectrum in most cases when compared to the common random initialization approach of the networks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0975.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Load Forecasting; Long Short Term Memory; Temporal Convolution Networks; Multilayer Perceptron; Convolutional Neural Networks; CNN-LSTM; Convolutional LSTM Encoder- Decoder; Evaluation Metrics; Power Sector; Data Analysis
Online: 15 May 2023 (04:39:19 CEST)
Nowadays, power sector is an area that gather great scientific interest, due to events such as the increase in electricity prices in the wholesale energy market and new investments due to technological development in various sectors. These new challenges have in turn created new needs, such as the accurate prediction of the electrical load of the end users. On the occasion of the new challenges, Artificial Neural Networks approaches have become increasingly popular due to their ability to adopt efficiently to time-series predictions. In this paper, it is presented the development of a model which, through an automated process, will provide an accurate prediction of electrical load for the island of Thira in Greece. Through an automated application, deep learning load forecasting models have been created, such as Multilayer Perceptron, Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM), Convolutional Neural Network One Dimensional (CNN-1D), CNN-LSTM, Temporal Convolutional Network (TCN) and a proposed hybrid model called Convolutional LSTM Encoder-Decoder. The results in terms of prediction accuracy show satisfactory performances for all models, with the proposed hybrid model achieving the best accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2119.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Grid resilience; Power outage prediction; Monte Carlo simulation; LSTM forecasting; Hybrid LSTM-PSO model; Battery State of Charge; Microgrid integration; Techno-economic analysis; Renewable energy; Energy independence
Online: 31 August 2023 (04:18:56 CEST)
This article presents a comprehensive study on enhancing grid resilience through advanced forecasting and optimization techniques in the context of power outages. Power outages pose significant challenges to modern societies, affecting various sectors such as industries, households, and critical infrastructures. The research combines statistical analysis, machine learning algorithms, and optimization methods to address this issue to develop a holistic approach for predicting and mitigating power outage events. The proposed methodology involves the use of Monte Carlo simulations in MATLAB for future outage prediction, Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) networks for forecasting solar irradiance and load profiles, and a hybrid LSTM-Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) model to improve accuracy. Furthermore, the role of Battery State of Charge (SoC) in enhancing system resilience is explored. The study also assesses the techno-economic advantages of a grid-tied microgrid integrated with solar panels and batteries over conventional grid systems. The results highlight the potential of the proposed approach in strengthening grid resilience, reducing downtime, and fostering sustainable energy utilization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1966.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: wind speed forecasting; deep learning; LSTM; GRU; wind energy; CEEMDAN; EMD; VMD
Online: 28 September 2023 (11:41:50 CEST)
Advancements in technology, policies, and cost reductions have led to rapid growth in wind power production. One of the major challenges in wind energy production is the instability of wind power generation due to weather changes. Efficient power grid management requires accurate power output forecasting. New wind energy forecasting methods based on deep learning are better than traditional methods, like numerical weather prediction, statistical models, and machine learning models. This is more true for short-term prediction. Since there is a relationship between methods, climates, and forecasting complexity, forecasting methods do not always perform the same depending on the climate and terrain of the data source. This paper proposes a novel model that combines the variational mode decomposition method with a long short-term memory model, developed for next-hour wind speed prediction in a hot desert climate, such as the climate in Saudi Arabia. We compared the proposed model performance to two other hybrid models, six deep learning models, and four machine learning models using different feature sets. Also, we tested the proposed model on data from different climates, Caracas and Toronto. The proposed model showed a forecast skill between 61% to 74% based on mean absolute error, 64% to 72% based on root mean square error, and 59% to 68% based on mean absolute percentage error for locations in Saudi Arabia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1206.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: rail transit short-term passenger flow prediction; LSTM; wavelet denoising analysis; SVR
Online: 16 August 2023 (11:08:42 CEST)
Urban rail transit offers advantages like high safety, energy efficiency, and environmental friendliness. With cities rapidly expanding, travelers are increasingly using rail systems, heightening demands for passenger capacity and efficiency while also pressuring these networks. Passenger flow forecasting is an essential part of transportation systems. Short-term passenger flow forecasting for rail transit can estimate future station volumes, providing valuable data to guide operations management and mitigate congestion. This paper investigates short-term forecasting for Suzhou's Shantang Street station. Shantang Street's high commercial presence and distinct weekday versus weekend ridership patterns make it an interesting test case. Wavelet denoising and LSTM modeling were combined to predict short-term flows, comparing the results to standalone LSTM and SVR approaches. This study illustrates that the adopted algorithms exhibit good performance for passenger prediction. The LSTM model with wavelet denoising proved most accurate, demonstrating applicability for short-term rail transit forecasting and practical significance.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0287.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Natural language processing; encrypted text; data privacy; cloud computing; Doc2Vec; XGBoost; LSTM
Online: 5 May 2023 (03:38:42 CEST)
With the increasing use of cloud-based services for training and deploying machine learning models, data privacy has become a major concern. This is particularly important for natural language processing (NLP) models, which often process sensitive information such as personal communications and confidential documents. In this study, we propose a method for training NLP models on encrypted text data to mitigate data privacy concerns while maintaining similar performance to models trained on non-encrypted data. We demonstrate our method using two different architectures, namely Doc2Vec+XGBoost and Doc2Vec+LSTM, and evaluate the models on the 20 Newsgroups dataset. Our results indicate that both encrypted and non-encrypted models achieve comparable performance, suggesting that our encryption method is effective in preserving data privacy without sacrificing model accuracy. In order to replicate our experiments, we have provided a Colab notebook at the following address: https://t.ly/lR-TP
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0430.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: IGBT; gate oxide layer degradation; feature fusion; performance prediction; CNN-LSTM network
Online: 17 April 2023 (09:13:59 CEST)
The problem of health status prediction of insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) gains a lot of attention in the field of health management of power electronic equipment. The performance degradation of IGBT gate oxide layer is one of the important failure modes. In view of failure mechanism analysis and easy implementation of monitoring circuit, this paper selects the gate leakage current of IGBT as the precursor parameter of gate oxide degradation, and uses time domain characteristic analysis, gray correlation degree, Mahalanobis distance, Kalman filter and other methods to carry out feature selection and fusion, and finally obtains a health indicator characterizing the degradation of IGBT gate oxide. Based on the Convolutional Neural Network and Long Short-Term Memory (CNN-LSTM) network, this paper constructs an IGBT gate oxide degradation prediction model, and performs experimental analysis on the dataset released by NASA-Ames Laboratory, and the average absolute error of performance degradation prediction is as low as 0.0216. Compared with Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM), Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), Support Vector Regression (SVR) and CNN-LSTM models, CNN-LSTM network has the highest prediction accuracy. These results show the feasibility of gate leakage current as a precursor parameter of IGBT gate oxide layer failure, as well as the accuracy and reliability of the CNN-LSTM prediction model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0471.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Deep learning; Convoluted Neural Networks; LSTM; MediaPipe; Google Cloud; Object detection; Classification
Online: 26 December 2022 (04:10:07 CET)
The Median American Sign Language Interpretation Software (ASL) Interpretation Software is a web application that is capable of interpreting American Sign Language in real-time, utilizing an internet connection and a primary web camera, complete with basic phrases and letters. Extensive use of Deep Learning and Neural Networks, specifically Convoluted Neural Networks, enables Median to interpret video inputs and generate accurate results directly displayed to the user in text format. The ultimate goal for Median is to have it act as a bridge between hearing people and members of the deaf community, allowing deaf people to communicate with non-signing people using American Sign Language. Furthermore, Median has been designed to benefit people who lack access to a human ASL Translator, as its format as a website allows it to be accessible anywhere at any time, giving increased availability over human interpreters. Median is designed to be a very versatile program with great potential for growth and expansion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0519.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Real-Time; Stormwater; Control Measure; Low-Cost; Machine Learning; Time-series; LSTM
Online: 16 December 2022 (05:21:32 CET)
The alteration of natural land cover to impervious surfaces during development increases stormwater runoff. Stormwater Control Measures (SCMs) are used to manage water quantity and enhance water quality by restoring the hydrologic cycle altered by development. Often, SCMs have an outflow pipe to handle overflows or to manage the release of water detained when infiltration is not possible. Traditionally, these are static controls (e.g. a small orifice is used to restrict the volume of outflow), however, these systems can be improved by instituting real-time controls (RTC). RTC improve the functionality of SCMs by dynamically controlling outflows to adjust to environmental conditions. A major impediment to the widespread implementation of RTC is the high cost of installation and operation. This study utilized machine learning methods to develop a forecasting approach for the implementation of low-cost RTC that were implemented on a programmable gate of the outlet structure of a multi-stage basin in southeastern Pennsylvania. The goals were to decrease the peak flow exiting the basin during rain events, increase the volume of water detained, decrease the number of overtopping events, maintain healthy vegetation in the basin, and protect the downstream vegetation from erosion. Multiple popular data science algorithms were evaluated including multiple linear regression and long short-term memory. These algorithms were used with a dataset, which consisted of four years of historical sensor data, collected in 5-minute intervals, to train models to predict water levels to optimize operations. The accuracy of 30 models with three different methods of handling missing values were compared. A long short-term memory model configured with a 30-minute lead time produced the best results. Having an approximate same lag time of 30 minutes for the contributing drainage area of the SCM provided a sufficient RTC functioning period to improve the performance of the outlet structure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0121.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: load profiles; electricity; heat; industry; correlation; machine learning; LSTM; prediction; anomaly detection
Online: 8 March 2022 (09:23:34 CET)
The accurate prediction of heat load profiles with a daily resolution is required for a broad range of applications such as potential studies, design, or predictive operation of heating systems. If the heat demand of a consumer is mainly caused by (production) processes independent of the ambient temperature, existing load profile prediction methods fail. To close this gap, this study develops two ex post machine learning models for the prediction of the heat demand with a daily resolution. The selected input features are commonly available to each consumer connected to public natural gas and electricity grids or operating an energy monitoring system: Ambient temperature, weekday, electricity consumption, and heat consumption of the last seven days directly before the predicted day. The study’s database covers electricity and natural gas consumption load profiles from 82 German consumers over a period of two years. Electricity and heat consumption correlate strongly with individual patterns for many consumers. Both, shallow and deep learning algorithms are evaluated. The highest accuracy is achieved by a Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) model with a median of R² of 0.94. The ex post model architecture makes the model suitable for automated anomaly detection in energy monitoring systems.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: mispricing; motives for mergers and acquisitions; M/B ratio decompositon; LSTM networks
Online: 3 March 2020 (11:02:16 CET)
This study uses a recently developed theory and technique to examine post-acquisition evidence as to the motives for mergers and acquisitions(M&As), and decomposed the M/B ratio into three components: firm-specific error, time-series sector error, and long-run value-to-book. We make a multidimensional grouping according to the frequency of M&As , payment method, proportion of shares acquired, M/B ratio before the merger and total assets of the acquirers before the merge. The results confirm that M&As involve multiple motives, such as market timing, industry and economic shocks, agency and hubris. Using a sample of 2,035 M&As in China, we find that 59% are related to market timing, 68% are related to agency and hubris, 21% are related to industry and economic shocks, 51% are related to multiple motives. Our empirical research finds that the main motives for M&As of listed companies in China are value-decreasing, which have negative impact on the acquirers‘ sustainable development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1109.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: Parkinson’s disease; Bi-LSTM with attention; in the wild detection; accelerometer; deep learning
Online: 15 August 2023 (08:21:28 CEST)
Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor and non-motor impairment with various implications on patients’ quality of life. Since currently available therapies are only symptomatic, identifying individuals with prodromal, preclinical or early-stage PD is crucial, as they would be ideal candidates for future disease-modifying therapies. Our analysis aims to develop a robust model for accurate PD detection using accelerometer data collected from PD and non-PD individuals with mild or no tremor during phone conversations. An open-access dataset comprising accelerometer recordings from 22 PD patients and 11 healthy controls (HC) was utilized. The data were pre-processed to extract relevant time, frequency and energy-related features, and a Bidirectional Long Short-Term Memory (Bi-LSTM) model with attention mechanism was employed for classification. The performance of the model was evaluated using 5-fold cross-validation, and metrics of accuracy, precision, recall, specificity, and f1-score were computed. The proposed model demonstrated high accuracy (98%), precision (99%), recall (98%), specificity (96%), and f1-score (98%) in accurately distinguishing PD patients from HC. Our findings indicate that the proposed model outperforms existing approaches and holds promise for detection of PD with subtle symptoms, like tremor, in the wild. Such symptoms can present in the early or even prodromal stage of the disease, and appropriate mobile-based applications may be a practical tool in real-life settings to alert individuals at risk to seek medical assistance or give patients feedback in monitoring their symptoms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0149.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Data Structures, Algorithms And Complexity Keywords: Optical Music Recognition; Historical Document Analysis; Medieval manuscripts; neume notation; CNN; LSTM; CTC
Online: 15 January 2020 (12:11:25 CET)
The automatic recognition of scanned Medieval manuscripts still represents a challenge due to degradation, non standard layouts, or notations. This paper focuses on the Medieval square notation developed around the 11th century which is composed of staff lines, clefs, accidentals, and neumes which are basically connected single notes. We present a novel approach to tackle the automatic transcription by applying CNN/LSTM networks that are trained using the segmentation-free CTC-loss-function which considerably facilitates the GT-production. For evaluation, we use three different manuscripts and achieve a dSAR of 86.0% on the most difficult book and 92.2% on the cleanest one. To further improve the results, we apply a neume dictionary during decoding which yields a relative improvement of about 5%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1329.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Epilepsy; seizure detection; EEG signals; LSTM; GRU; Convolutional Neural Networks; Deep Learning; Machine Learning
Online: 19 June 2023 (08:51:52 CEST)
Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder characterized by abnormal electrical activity in the brain, often leading to recurrent seizures. With approximately 50 million people worldwide affected by epilepsy, there is a pressing need for efficient and accurate methods to detect and diagnose seizures. Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals, which record the brain’s electrical activity, have emerged as a valuable tool in detecting epilepsy and other neurological disorders. Traditionally, the process of analyzing EEG signals for seizure detection has relied on manual inspection by experts, which is time-consuming, labor-intensive, and susceptible to human error. To address these limitations, researchers have turned to machine learning and deep learning techniques to automate the seizure detection process. In this work, we propose a novel method for epileptic seizure detection, leveraging the power of 1-D Convolutional layers in combination with Bidirectional Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) and Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU) and Average pooling Layer as a unit. The performance of the proposed model is verified on the Bonn dataset. Our proposed model offers significant advancements over existing approaches for the detection of epileptic seizures, particularly for 2, 3, 4, and 5-class classification tasks. To assess the robustness and generalizability of our proposed architecture, we employ 5-fold cross-validation. By dividing the dataset into five subsets and iteratively training and testing the model on different combinations of these subsets, we obtain robust performance measures, including accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed architecture in accurately detecting epileptic seizures from EEG signals by using EEG signals of varying lengths. The results indicate its potential as a reliable and efficient tool for automated seizure detection, paving the way for improved diagnosis and management of epilepsy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0335.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: NLP; NLU; Twitter; Sentiment Analysis; Opinion Mining; Nigeria; Election; Machine Learning; BERT; LSTM; SVM
Online: 20 March 2023 (02:52:52 CET)
Election outcomes have been predicted in the past with the help of various state-of-the-art language models. Sentiment analysis helps in establishing the opinions of the public about a particular subject, a popular experiment known as opinion mining. Twitter has grown in popularity and proven to be a key tool in mining people’s sentiments concerning election and other trending subjects of interest. The outcome of the just concluded Presidential election in Nigeria shifts the focus on Lagos State governorship election. In this study, we propose a Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT) model for the sentiment analysis of governorship election in Lagos State Nigeria using Twitter data. A total of 800,000 personal and public tweets were scraped from twitter concerning the three prominent contesting candidates using carefully selected search queries. The tweets were preprocessed to avoid noise and inconsistencies. The preprocessed tweets were passed into the pretrained and finetuned BERT model. The result was analyzed to establish the sentiments of the public about the candidates. The social networks of the candidates were also analyzed. The parameter-tuning yield different results with different learning rates (LR). Results showed that the learning rate at 1e-7 gave the best performance and that the smaller the learning rate, the higher the accuracy but the larger the epoch size, the higher the accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0238.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: NLP; NLU; Twitter; Sentiment Analysis; Opinion Mining; Nigeria; Election; Machine Learning; BERT; LSTM; SVM
Online: 17 October 2022 (12:01:42 CEST)
Introduction: Social media platforms such as Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, among others have been used as a tool for staging protests, opinion polls, campaign strategy, medium of agitation and a place of interest expression especially during elections. Past studies have established people’s opinion elections using social media posts. The advent of state-of-the-art algorithms for unstructured text processing implies tremendous progress in natural language processing and understanding. Aim: In this work, a Natural Language framework is designed to understand Nigeria 2023 presidential election based on public opinion using Twitter dataset. Methods: Raw datasets concerning discourse around Nigeria 2023 elections from Twitter of 2,059,113 18 dimensions were collected. Sentiment analysis was performed on the preprocessed dataset using three different machine learning models namely: Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) Recurrent Neural Network, Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT) and Linear Support Vector Classifier (LSVC) models. Personal tweet analysis of the three candidates provided insight on their campaign strategies and personalities while public tweet analysis established the public’s opinion about them. The performance of the models was also compared using accuracy, recall, false positive rate, precision and F-measure. Results: LSTM model gave an accuracy, precision, recall, AUC and f-measure of 88%, 82.7%, 87.2% , 87.6% and 82.9% respectively; the BERT model gave an accuracy, precision, recall, AUC and f-measure of 94%, 88.5%, 92.5%, 94.7% and 91.7% respectively while the LSVC model gave an accuracy, precision, recall, AUC and f-measure of 73%, 81.4%, 76.4%, 81.2% and 79.2% respectively. Conclusion: The experimental results show that sentiment analysis and other Natural Language Processing tasks can aid in the understanding of the social media space. Results also revealed the leverage of each aspirant towards winning the election. We conclude that sentiment analysis can form a general basis for generating insights for election and modeling election outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1345.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geography Keywords: area studied; BLFR model; BI-LSTM-CRF; improved heuristic disambiguation method; feature template; random forest
Online: 23 October 2023 (05:43:30 CEST)
Geospatial knowledge in massive academic papers can provide knowledge services such as location-based research hotspot analysis, spatio-temporal data aggregation, research results recommendation, etc. However, geospatial knowledge often exists implicitly in literature resources in unstructured form, which is difficult to be directly accessed and mined and utilized for rapid production of massive thematic maps. In this paper, we take the geospatial knowledge of the area studied as an example and introduce its extraction method in detail. An integrated feature template matching and random forest classification algorithm is proposed for accurately identifying research areas from the abstract texts of academic papers and producing thematic maps. Firstly, the precise recognition of geographical names is achieved step by step based on BiLSTM-CRF algorithm and improved heuristic disambiguation method; then, the area studied is extracted by the designed integrated feature recognition template of area studied using random forest classification algorithm, and a fast thematic map is designed for the knowledge of area studied, topic and literature. The experimental results show that the area studied recognition accuracy can reach 97%, the F-value is 96%, and the recall rate reaches 96%, achieving high accuracy and high efficiency of area studied extraction in text. Based on the geospatial knowledge, the thematic map can achieve the effect of fast map formation and accurate expression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0575.v3
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: Inner Speech; Imagined Speech; EEG Decoding; Brain-Computer Interface; BCI; LSTM; Wavelet Scattering Transformation; WST.
Online: 15 May 2023 (05:43:54 CEST)
In this paper, we propose an imagined speech-based brain wave pattern recognition using deep learning. Multiple features were extracted concurrently from eight-channel Electroencephalography (EEG) signals. To obtain classifiable EEG data with fewer number of sensors, we placed the EEG sensors on carefully selected spots on the scalp. To decrease the dimensions and complexity of the EEG dataset and to avoid overfitting during the deep learning algorithm, we utilized the wavelet scattering transformation. A low-cost 8-channel EEG headset was used with MATLAB 2023a to acquire the EEG data. The Long-Short Term Memory Recurrent Neural Network (LSTM-RNN) was used to decode the identified EEG signals into four audio commands: Up, Down, Left, and Right. Wavelet scattering transformation was applied to extract the most stable features by passing the EEG dataset through a series of filtration processes. Filtration has been implemented for each individual command in the EEG datasets. The proposed imagined speech-based brain wave pattern recognition approach achieved a 92.50% overall classification accuracy. This accuracy is promising for designing a trustworthy imagined speech-based Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) future real-time systems. For better evaluation of the classification performance, other metrics were considered, and we obtained 92.74%, 92.50% and 92.62% for precision, recall, and F1-score, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0481.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Brain-Computer Interfaces, spectrogram-based convolutional neural network model(pCNN), Deep Learning, EEG, LSTM, RCNN
Online: 25 September 2018 (08:58:34 CEST)
Non-invasive, electroencephalography (EEG)-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) on motor imagery movements translate the subject’s motor intention into control signals through classifying the EEG patterns caused by different imagination tasks, e.g. hand movements. This type of BCI has been widely studied and used as an alternative mode of communication and environmental control for disabled patients, such as those suffering from a brainstem stroke or a spinal cord injury (SCI). Notwithstanding the success of traditional machine learning methods in classifying EEG signals, these methods still rely on hand-crafted features. The extraction of such features is a difficult task due to the high non-stationarity of EEG signals, which is a major cause for the stagnating progress in classification performance. Remarkable advances in deep learning methods allow end-to-end learning without any feature engineering, which could benefit BCI motor imagery applications. We developed three deep learning models: 1) a long short-term memory (LSTM); 2) a proposed spectrogram-based convolutional neural network model (pCNN); and 3) a recurrent convolutional neural network (RCNN), for decoding motor imagery movements directly from raw EEG signals without (manual) feature engineering. Results were evaluated on our own, publicly available, EEG data collected from 20 subjects and on an existing dataset known as 2b EEG dataset from "BCI Competition IV". Overall, better classification performance was achieved with deep learning models compared to state-of-the art machine learning techniques, which could chart a route ahead for developing new robust techniques for EEG signal decoding. We underpin this point by demonstrating the successful real-time control of a robotic arm using our CNN based BCI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0929.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: CNN-LSTM hybrid model; Lamb wave; data-driven approach; damage identification; structural health monitoring; machine learning
Online: 14 July 2023 (07:20:55 CEST)
Ultrasonic-guided lamb wave approach is an effective non-destructive testing (NDT) method used for detecting localized mechanical damage, corrosion, and welding defects experienced in metallic pipelines. Signal processing of the guided waves is often challenged due to the complexity of operational conditions and environments in the pipelines. Machine learning approaches in recent years, including convolutional neural networks (CNN) and long short-term memory (LSTM), have exhibited their advantages to overcome these challenges for signal process and data classification of complex systems, thus great potential for damage detection of critical oil/gas pipeline structures. In this study, a CNN-LSTM hybrid model is utilized for decoding ultrasonic guided waves for damage detection of metallic pipelines, and twenty-nine features are extracted as input to classify different types of defects from metallic pipes. The prediction capacity of the CNN-LSTM model is assessed by comparing it to the CNN and LSTM. The results demonstrate that the CNN-LSTM hybrid model exhibits much higher accuracy, with 94.8%, as compared to those of CNN and LSTM. Interestingly, the results also reveal that predetermined features, including time-, frequency-, and time-frequency domains, could significantly improve the robustness of the deep learning approaches, even though the deep learning approaches are often believed they include automated feature extraction, without the hand-crafted steps as the shallow learning do. Furthermore, the CNN-LSTM model displays higher performance when the noise level is relatively low (e.g., SNR=9 or higher), as compared to the other two models, but its prediction drops gradually with the increase of the noise.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0031.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Satellite Communication; Signal Propagation; Rain Attenuation; Urban area ground station; SNR, ITU-R; LSTM, Neural network
Online: 2 December 2021 (11:18:57 CET)
Free-space communication is a leading component in global communications. Its advantages relate to a broader signal spread, no wiring, and ease of engagement. Satellite communication services became recently attractive to mega-companies that foresee an excellent opportunity to connect disconnected remote regions, serve emerging machine-to-machine communication, Internet-of-things connectivity, and more. Satellite communication links suffer from arbitrary weather phenomena such as clouds, rain, snow, fog, and dust. In addition, when signals approach the ground station, it has to overcome buildings blocking the direct access to the ground station. Therefore, satellites commonly use redundant signal strength to ensure constant and continuous signal transmission, resulting in excess energy consumption, challenging the limited power capacity generated by solar energy or the fixed amount of fuel. This research proposes LTSM, an artificial recurrent neural network technology that provides a time-dependent prediction of the expected attenuation level due to rain and fog and the signal strength that remained after crossing physical obstacles surrounding the ground station. The satellite transmitter is calibrated accordingly. The satellite outgoing signal strength is based on the predicted signal strength to ensure it will remain strong enough for the ground station to process it. The instant calibration eliminates the excess use of energy resulting in energy savings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0605.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: deep learning; computed tomography; image classification; COVID-19; medical image analysis; pneumonia; CNN, LSTM, medical diagnosis
Online: 25 May 2021 (10:32:29 CEST)
Advancements in deep learning and availability of medical imaging data have led to use of CNN based architectures in disease diagnostic assisted systems. In spite of the abundant use of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) based tests in COVID-19 diagnosis, CT images offer an applicable supplement with its high sensitivity rates. Here, we study classification of COVID-19 pneumonia (CP) and non-COVID-19 pneumonia (NCP) in chest CT scans using efficient deep learning methods to be readily implemented by any hospital. We report our deep network framework design that encompasses Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) and bidirectional Long Short Term Memory (biLSTM) architectures. Our study achieved high specificity (CP: 98.3%, NCP: 96.2% Healthy: 89.3%) and high sensitivity (CP: 84.0%, NCP: 93.9% Healthy: 94.9%) in classifying COVID-19 pneumonia, non-COVID-19 pneumonia and healthy patients. Next, we provide visual explanations for the CNN predictions with gradient-weighted class activation mapping (Grad-CAM). The results provided a model explainability by showing that Ground Glass Opacities (GGO), indicators of COVID-19 pneumonia disease, were captured by our CNN network. Finally, we have implemented our approach in three hospitals proving its compatibility and efficiency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1202.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: speech emotion recognition; deep learning; Deep Belief Network; deep neural network; Convolutional Neural Network; LSTM; attention mechanism
Online: 19 September 2023 (08:24:22 CEST)
Speech Emotion Recognition (SER) is an interesting and difficult problem to handle. In this paper, we deal with it through the implementation of deep learning networks. We have designed and implemented six different deep learning networks, a Deep Belief Network (DBN), a simple deep neural network (SDNN), a LSTM network (LSTM), a LSTM network with the addition of an attention mechanism (LSTM-ATN), a Convolutional neural network (CNN), and a Convolutional neural network with the addition of an attention mechanism (CNN-ATN), having in mind, apart from solving the SER problem, to test the impact of attention mechanism to the results. Dropout and Batch Normalization techniques are also used to improve the generalization ability (prevention of overfitting) of the models as well as to speed up the training process. The Surrey Audio-Visual Expressed Emotion database (SAVEE), and the Ryerson Audio-Visual Database (RAVDESS) database were used for training and evaluation of our models. The results showed that networks with the addition of the attention mechanism did better than the others. Furthermore, they showed that CNN-ATN was the best among tested networks, achieving an accuracy of 74% for the SAVEE and 77% for the RAVDESS dataset, and exceeded existing state-of-the-art systems for the same datasets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1944.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Wi-Fi fingerprint; Calculate Movement Path; IoU(Intersection over Union); LSTM(Long Short-Term Memory); YOLO v2
Online: 29 August 2023 (09:55:28 CEST)
Recently, various applications of indoor location-based services using Wi-Fi fingerprint data have been studied. However, since fingerprint data collected at a specific location does not have continuous information between signals and correlation information between signals, path data cannot exist in principle. Therefore, most indoor positioning technologies are based on predicting the position of a stationary positioner at a specific location based on signal data collected at a specific location in the indoor space. Due to the discontinuous nature of these signals, they are unable to account for user movement. Therefore, there is a need for techniques to improve the accuracy of indoor positioning in moving situations. This paper proposes a method for enriching all data points with relevant information to obtain improved indoor positioning results and an improved technique for generating movement path data. The proposed technique generates relevant information with continuity by expressing data points as Bounding Boxes (BB) and subsequently clustering them using grid cells. Through the proposed method, we represented and expanded the indoor location data, which consists of data points, as BB. However, data points represented by BB do not have any adjacency information with each other, and as a result, it is not possible to create a movement path between neighboring BB. To solve the problem, we used clustering, a machine learning technique that categorizes data points into groups, to group BBs. This was done by constructing a YOLO (You Only Look Once) grid cell that included all BBs and clustered them into grid cells that were divided into specific regions through the suggestion phase. The clustering results align with the indoor structure of the building, indicating that the data points have been appropriately clustered. BBs inside a grid cell are contained within a moveable area and have related information. We also generated association information between neighboring grid cells through the proposal technique, and then generated path information that can be traveled between grid cells. In this paper, we use the movement path information generated from a dataset as training data for machine learning, and through this, we propose an enhanced indoor positioning technology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0113.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: software defined networking; random forest; gain ratio; gru-lstm; anova f-rfe; open flow controller; machine learning
Online: 10 November 2019 (14:27:32 CET)
Recent advancements in Software Defined Networking (SDN) makes it possible to overcome the management challenges of traditional network by logically centralizing control plane and decoupling it from forwarding plane. Through centralized controllers, SDN can prevent security breach, but it also brings in new threats and vulnerabilities. Central controller can be a single point of failure. Hence, flow-based anomaly detection system in OpenFlow Controller can secure SDN to a great extent. In this paper, we investigated two different approaches of flow-based intrusion detection system in OpenFlow Controller. The first of which is based on machine-learning algorithm where NSL-KDD dataset with feature selection ensures the accuracy of 82% with Random Forest classifier using Gain Ratio feature selection evaluator. In the later phase, the second approach is combined with Gated Recurrent Unit Long Short-Term Memory based intrusion detection model based on Deep Neural Network (DNN) where we applied an appropriate ANOVA F-Test and Recursive Feature Elimination feature selection method to improve the classifier performance and achieved an accuracy of 88%. Substantial experiments with comparative analysis clearly show that, deep learning would be a better choice for intrusion detection in OpenFlow Controller.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1558.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Analogy operation; chanwook park; 'decision to leave'; film criticism; korean film; language model; LSTM; similarity operation; word vector
Online: 24 November 2023 (11:28:04 CET)
This research presents a novel approach to film analysis, leveraging word vectors to objectively evaluate movie critiques. Focusing on Director Chanwook Park’s award-winning film, ’Decision to Leave’, the study employs word vectors derived from the movie’s script of Korean text. Traditional critiques often emphasize contrasting elements and themes, but their subjective nature poses challenges in objective validation. To address this, we trained a language model using LSTM on the film’s script, obtaining word vectors that capture the essence of the narrative. These vectors were then used to perform various text analyses, including similarity and analogy operation for the keywords suggested by the critiques. By comparing the semantic relationships in the critiques with those derived from the word vectors, we could objectively validate the critiques’ assertions. Furthermore, we visualized the word vectors in a two-dimensional space, confirming the spatial relationships of key terms highlighted in critiques. The study underscores the potential of word vectors in providing a more objective lens for film analysis, bridging the gap between traditional film criticism and data-driven insights.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0463.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: deep learning; LSTM; regression; ensemble learning; random forest, XGBoost; wearable devices; well-being; digital health; pervasive health; digital biomarkers
Online: 10 October 2023 (02:30:03 CEST)
Wearable devices have become ubiquitous, collecting rich temporal data that offers valuable insights into human activities, health monitoring, and behavior analysis. Leveraging this data, researchers have developed innovative approaches to classify and predict time-based patterns and events in human life. Time-based techniques allow the capture of intricate temporal dependencies, which is the nature of the data coming from wearable devices. This paper focuses on predicting well-being factors, such as stress, anxiety, positive and negative affect, on the Tesserae dataset collected from office workers. We examine the performance of different methodologies, including deep learning architectures, LSTM, ensemble techniques, Random Forest (RF) and XGBoost and compare their performances for time-based and non-time-based versions. In time-based versions, we investigate the effect of previous records of well-being factors on the upcoming ones. The overall results show that time-based LSTM performs the best among conventional (non-time-based) RF, XGBoost, and LSTM. The performance even increases when we consider a more extended previous period, in this case, 3 past-days rather than 1 past-day to predict the next day. Furthermore, we explore the corresponding biomarkers for each well-being factor using feature ranking. The obtained rankings are compatible with the psychological literature. In this work, we validated them based on device measurements rather than subjective survey responses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0390.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Three-phase DTC induction motor; simulation modeling; deep learning; Bi-LSTM; signal processing; time series forecasting; frequency domain; FFT
Online: 4 August 2023 (07:27:23 CEST)
Accurately predicting electrical signals of three-phase Direct Torque Control (DTC) induction motors is crucial for optimal motor performance and effective condition monitoring. However, multiple DTC motors’ complexity and operating conditions’ variations pose challenges for traditional prediction methods. To overcome these challenges, we propose an innovative approach that combines Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) to transform electrical motor simulation data and a Bi-directional Long Short-Term Memory (Bi-LSTM) network to forecast processed motor data. By transforming the DTC induction motor signals from the time domain to the frequency domain, we enhance the capability of learning models to capture subtle differences and generate various input features. The Bi-LSTM model effectively captures both forward and backward dependencies in time series data, enabling accurate prediction of electrical signals. We evaluate the proposed approach using our simulated dataset and compare the proposed method to a state-of-the-art model, the Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU), demonstrating its effectiveness in improving the accuracy and reliability of induction motor signals forecasting. The finding provides valuable insights for advancing motor control and operation in industrial applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0834.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: emotion recognition, auditory stimulation, EEG signals, convolutional neural network (CNN), long short term memory (LSTM), brain-computer interface (BCI)
Online: 13 July 2023 (04:53:51 CEST)
Emotions play a vital role in understanding human behavior and interpersonal relationships. The ability to recognize emotions through Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals offers an alternative to traditional methods, such as questionnaires, enabling the identification of emotional states in a non-intrusive manner. Automatic emotion recognition holds great potential, eliminating the need for clinical examinations or physical visits, thereby contributing significantly to the advancement of Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) technology. However, one of the key challenges lies in effectively selecting and extracting relevant features from the EEG signal to establish meaningful distinctions between different emotional states. The process of feature selection is often time-consuming and demanding. In this research, we propose a groundbreaking approach for automatically identifying three emotional states (positive, negative, and neutral) by leveraging auditory stimulation of EEG signals. Our novel method directly applies the raw EEG signal to a Convolutional Neural Network-Long Short Term Memory (CNN-LSTM) architecture, bypassing the conventional feature extraction and selection steps. This unconventional approach offers a significant departure from existing literature. Our proposed network architecture comprises ten convolutional layers, followed by three LSTM layers and two fully connected layers. Through extensive simulations and evaluations on 12 active channels, our algorithm demonstrates exceptional performance, achieving an accuracy of 97.42\% and 95.23\% for the binary classification of negative and positive emotions, as well as a Cohen's Kappa coefficient of 0.96 and 0.93 for the three-class classification (negative, neutral, and positive), respectively. These promising results highlight the efficacy of our novel methodology and its potential implications in advancing emotion recognition using EEG signals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0039.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Autonomous vehicles (A.V.); Anomaly Detection (A.D.); Deep Learning (DL), Symmetry; Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM); False Data Injection (FDI) Attacks
Online: 4 July 2022 (08:14:45 CEST)
Nowadays, technological advancement has transformed traditional vehicles into Au-tonomous Vehicles (A.V.s). In addition, in our daily lives, A.V.s play an important role since they are considered an essential component of smart cities. A.V. is an intelligent vehicle capable of main-taining safe driving by avoiding crashes caused by drivers. Unlike traditional vehicles, which are fully controlled and operated by humans, A.V.s collect information about the outside environment using sensors to ensure safe navigation. Furthermore, A.V.s reduce environmental impact because they usually use electricity to operate instead of fossil fuel, thus decreasing the greenhouse gasses. However, A.V.s could be threatened by cyberattacks, posing risks to human life. For example, re-searchers reported that Wi-Fi technology could be vulnerable to cyberattacks through Tesla and BMW AVs. Therefore, more research is needed to detect cyberattacks targeting the components of A.V.s to mitigate their negative consequences. This research will contribute to the security of A.V.s by detecting cyberattacks at the early stages. First, we inject False Data Injection (FDI) attacks into an A.V. simulation-based system developed by MathWorks. Inc. Second, we collect the dataset generated from the simulation model after integrating the cyberattack. Third, we implement an intelligent symmetrical anomaly detection method to identify FDI attacks targeting the control system of the A.V. through a compromised sensor. We use long short-term memory (LSTM) deep networks to detect FDI attacks in the early stage to ensure the stability of the operation of A.V.s. Our method classifies the collected dataset into two classifications: normal and anomaly data. The ex-perimental result shows that our proposed model's accuracy is 99.95%. To this end, the proposed model outperforms other state-of-the-art models in the same study area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0121.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: deep Kalman filter; simultaneous sensor integration and modelling (SSIM); GNSS/IMU integration; recurrent neural network; deep learning; long-short term memory (LSTM)
Online: 15 March 2018 (07:10:32 CET)
The Bayes filters, such as Kalman and particle filters, have been used in sensor fusion to integrate two sources of information and obtain the best estimate of the unknowns. Efficient integration of multiple sensors requires deep knowledge of their error sources and it is not trivial for complicated sensors, such as Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). Therefore, IMU error modelling and efficient integration of IMU and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) observations has remained a challenge. In this paper, we develop deep Kalman filter to model and remove IMU errors and consequently, improve the accuracy of IMU positioning. In other words, we add modelling step to the prediction and update steps of Kalman filter and the IMU error model is learned during integration. Therefore, our deep Kalman filter outperforms Kalman filter and reaches higher accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0491.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Short term load forecasting; STLF; deep learning; RNN; LSTM; GRU; machine learning; SVR; random forest; KNN; energy consumption; energy-intensive manufacturing; time series prediction; industry
Online: 21 September 2020 (04:19:45 CEST)
To minimise environmental impact, avoid regulatory penalties, and improve competitiveness, energy-intensive manufacturing firms require accurate forecasts of their energy consumption so that precautionary and mitigation measures can be taken. Deep learning is widely touted as a superior analytical technique to traditional artificial neural networks, machine learning, and other classical time series models due to its high dimensionality and problem solving capabilities. Despite this, research on its application in demand-side energy forecasting is limited. We compare two benchmarks (Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), and an existing manual technique used at the case site) against three deep learning models (simple Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN), Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM), and Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU)) and three machine learning models (Support Vector Regression (SVM), Random Forest, and K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN)) for short term load forecasting (STLF) using data from a Brazilian thermoplastic resin manufacturing plant. We use the grid search method to identify the best configurations for each model, and then use Diebold-Mariano testing to confirm the results. Results suggests that the legacy approach used at the case site is the worst performing, and that the GRU model outperformed all other models tested.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2095.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: cultural tourism (CT); multi‐quadratic‐long short term memory (MQ‐LSTM); social network sites (SNS); tourism recommendation (TR); geographic information system (GIS); Kriging interpolation‐based Chameleon (KIC)
Online: 1 November 2023 (02:31:44 CET)
Cultural Tourism (CT), which enhances the economic development of a region, aids a country in reinforcing its identities, enhancing cross-cultural understanding, and preserving the heritage culture of an area. Designing a proper tourism model assists the tourists in understanding the point of interest without the help of a local guide. However, owing to the need for the analysis of different factors, designing such a model is a complex process. Therefore, this article proposes a CT model for Riyadh for peak visitor time. Primarily, the map data and cultural event dataset are processed for location, such as grouping with Kriging Interpolation-based Chameleon (KIC), tree forming, and feature extraction. After that, the event dataset’s attributes are processed with word embedding. Meanwhile, the Social Network Sites (SNS) data like reviews and news are extracted with an external Application Programming Interface (API). The review data is processed with keyword extraction and word embedding, whereas the news data is processed with score value estimation. Lastly, the data are fused corresponding to a historical site and given to the Multi-Quadratic-Long Short Term Memory (MQ-LSTM) Recommendation System (RS); also, the recommended result with the map is stored in a database. Lastly, the database security is maintained with Locality Sensitive Hashing (LSH); moreover, by attaining higher performance values, the proposed model is experimentally verified.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0412.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Imaging; Machine learning; Deepfakes; Human pose estimation; Upper body languages; World leader; Deep learning; Computer vision; Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs); Long Short-term Memory(LSTM); machine learning; Forecasting
Online: 28 April 2021 (12:02:00 CEST)
Recent improvements in deepfake creation have made deepfake videos more realistic. Moreover, open-source software has made deepfake creation more accessible, which reduces the barrier to entry for deepfake creation. This could pose a threat to the people’s privacy. There is a potential danger if the deepfake creation techniques are used by people with an ulterior motive to produce deepfake videos of world leaders to disrupt the order of countries and the world. Therefore, research into the automatic detection of deepfaked media is essential for public security. In this work, we propose a deepfake detection method using upper body language analysis. Specifically, a many-to-one LSTM network was designed and trained as a classification model for deepfake detection. Different models were trained by varying the hyperparameters to build a final model with benchmark accuracy. We achieved 94.39% accuracy on the deepfake test set. The experimental results showed that upper body language can effectively detect deepfakes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0107.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Very short term load forecasting; VSTLF; Short term load forecasting; STLF; deep learning; RNN; LSTM; GRU; machine learning; SVR; random forest; extreme gradient boosting, energy consumption; ARIMA; time series prediction.
Online: 10 January 2022 (12:17:35 CET)
Commercial buildings are a significant consumer of energy worldwide. Logistics facilities, and specifically warehouses, are a common building type yet under-researched in the demand-side energy forecasting literature. Warehouses have an idiosyncratic profile when compared to other commercial and industrial buildings with a significant reliance on a small number of energy systems. As such, warehouse owners and operators are increasingly entering in to energy performance contracts with energy service companies (ESCOs) to minimise environmental impact, reduce costs, and improve competitiveness. ESCOs and warehouse owners and operators require accurate forecasts of their energy consumption so that precautionary and mitigation measures can be taken. This paper explores the performance of three machine learning models (Support Vector Regression (SVR), Random Forest, and Extreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost)), three deep learning models (Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN), Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM), and Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU)), and a classical time series model, Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) for predicting daily energy consumption. The dataset comprises 8,040 records generated over an 11-month period from January to November 2020 from a non-refrigerated logistics facility located in Ireland. The grid search method was used to identify the best configurations for each model. The proposed XGBoost models outperform other models for both very short load forecasting (VSTLF) and short term load forecasting (STLF); the ARIMA model performed the worst.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0152.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: deep learning; machine learning model; convolutional neural networks (CNN); recurrent neural networks (RNN); denoising autoencoder (DAE); deep belief networks (DBNs); long short-term memory (LSTM); review; survey; state of the art
Online: 13 August 2019 (09:32:09 CEST)
Deep learning (DL) algorithms have recently emerged from machine learning and soft computing techniques. Since then, several deep learning (DL) algorithms have been recently introduced to scientific communities and are applied in various application domains. Today the usage of DL has become essential due to their intelligence, efficient learning, accuracy and robustness in model building. However, in the scientific literature, a comprehensive list of DL algorithms has not been introduced yet. This paper provides a list of the most popular DL algorithms, along with their applications domains.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0254.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: deep learning; deep neural networks; recurrent LSTM models; attention layers; latent variable extraction; domain adaptation; yield and growth prediction in greenhouses; energy optimization in retail refrigerator systems; verification and recognition of expiry date in retail food packaging.
Online: 11 May 2021 (15:46:14 CEST)
This paper provides a review of an emerging field in the food processing sector, referring to efficient and safe food supply chains, ’from farm to fork’, as enabled by Artificial Intelligence (AI). Recent advances in machine and deep learning are used for effective food production, energy management and food labeling. Appropriate deep neural architectures are adopted and used for this purpose, including Fully Convolutional Networks, Long Short-Term Memories and Recurrent Neural Networks, Auto-Encoders and Attention mechanisms, Latent Variable extraction and clustering, as well as Domain Adaptation. Three experimental studies are presented, illustrating the ability of these AI methodologies to produce state-of-the-art performance in the whole food supply chain. In particular, these concern: (i) predicting plant growth and tomato yield in greenhouses, thus matching food production to market needs and reducing food waste or food unavailability; (ii) optimizing energy consumption across large networks of food retail refrigeration systems, through optimal selection of systems that can get shut-down and through prediction of the respective food de-freezing times, during peaks of power demand load; (iii) optical recognition and verification of food consumption expiry date in automatic inspection of retail packaged food, thus ensuring safety of food and people’s health.