REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0340.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Digital Biomarkers; Digital Phenotyping; Wearables; Sensors; Livestock
Online: 14 May 2021 (14:08:40 CEST)
Currently, large volumes of data are being collected on farms using multimodal sensor technol-ogies. These sensors measure the activity, housing conditions, feed intake, and health of farm animals. With traditional methods, the data from farm animals and their environment can be collected intermittently. However, with the advancement of wearable and non-invasive sensing tools, these measurements can be made in real-time for continuous quantitation relating to clinical biomarkers, resilience indicators, and behavioral predictors. The digital phenotyping of humans has drawn enormous attention recently due to its medical significance, but much research is still needed for the digital phenotyping of farm animals. Implications from human studies show great promise for the application of digital phenotyping technology in modern livestock farming, but these technologies must be directly applied to animals to understand their true capacities. Due to species-specific traits, certain technologies required to assess phenotypes need to be tailored ef-ficiently and accurately. Such devices allow for the collection of information that can better inform farmers on aspects of animal welfare and production that need improvement. By explicitly ad-dressing farm animals’ individual physiological and mental (affective states) needs, sensor-based digital phenotyping has the potential to serve as an effective intervention platform. Future re-search is warranted for the design and development of digital phenotyping technology platforms that create shared data standards, metrics, and repositories.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0332.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Digital Phenotyping; Broiler Industry; Poultry Production; Digital Twins; Broiler Genomics; Multi-modal Digital Phenotyping Platform; Animal Health Monitoring; Production Resilience
Online: 5 July 2023 (12:39:13 CEST)
In response to escalating global demand for poultry, the industry grapples with an array of intricate challenges, from enhancing productivity to improving animal welfare and attenuating environmental impacts. This comprehensive review explores the transformative potential of digital phenotyping, an emergent technological innovation at the cusp of dramatically reshaping broiler production. The central aim of this study is to critically examine digital phenotyping as a pivotal solution to these multidimensional industry conundrums. Our investigation spotlights the profound implications of 'digital twins' in the burgeoning field of broiler genomics, where the production of exact digital counterparts of physical entities accelerates genomics research and its practical applications. Further, this review probes into the ongoing advancements in the research and development of a context-sensitive, multimodal digital phenotyping platform, custom-built to monitor broiler health. I critically evaluate this platform's potential in revolutionizing health monitoring, fortifying the resilience of broiler production, and fostering a harmonious balance between productivity and sustainability. Subsequently, the paper provides a rigorous assessment of the unique challenges that may surface during the integration of digital phenotyping within the industry. These span from technical and economic impediments to ethical deliberations, thus offering a comprehensive perspective. The paper concludes by highlighting the game-changing potential of digital phenotyping in the broiler industry and identifying potential future directions for the field, underlining the significance of continued research and development in unlocking digital phenotyping's full potential. In doing so, it charts a course towards a more robust, sustainable, and productive broiler industry. The insights garnered from this study hold substantial value for a broad spectrum of stakeholders in the broiler industry, setting the stage for an imminent technological evolution in poultry production.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0950.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: genebank; digital phenotyping; RDA-Genebank; Nagoya Protocol
Online: 12 May 2023 (13:31:37 CEST)
The National Agrobiodiversity Center under the Rural Development Administration (RDA) in Jeonju, Republic of Korea, is the largest international genebank of Korea. The National Agrobi-odiversity Center has continuously been making efforts to introduce overseas genetic resources to its collection and has currently grown into a world-class PGR holding genebank. Currently, several steps are undertaken to, improve the accessibility of the collection to national as well as international researchers, improve data available on the resources and amend the passport in-formation of the accessions. With the implementation of the Nagoya Protocol, the origin of ge-netic resources is being highlighted as an important input in the passport information of germplasms. The RDA-Genebank actively responds to the Nagoya Protocol by supplementing passport data of resources lacking information on the origin of germplasm. In addition, a large number of conserved resources are continuously multiplied, and agronomic traits are investi-gated concurrently. With the traditional methods of characterization of the germplasm requiring a significant amount of time and effort, we have intiated high-throughput phenotyping using digital techniques to improve our germplasm data. Primarily, we have started adding seed phenotype information followed by measuring root phenotypes which are stored under agro-nomic traits. This may be the initial step for a germplasm center to use large-scale high-throughput techniques for their collection. In this shortcommunication, we aim to provide an introduction to the RDA- Genebank, adopted international standards, and establishment of high throughput phenotyping techniques for improvement of passport information.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0116.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Biomass partitioning; Digital root phenotyping; Image analysis; Rhizotron; Root architecture; Root phenes; RootSnap
Online: 5 August 2022 (04:23:44 CEST)
Citron watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) is an extremely drought-tolerant cucurbit crop widely grown in sub-Saharan Africa in arid and semi-arid environments characterized by drought. The species is a C3 xerophyte used for multiple purposes, including intercropping with maize and has a deep taproot system. The deep taproot system plays a key role in the species’ adaptation to dry conditions. Understanding root system development of this crop could be useful in identifying traits for breeding water-use efficient and drought-tolerant varieties. This study compared root system architecture of citron watermelon accessions under water-stress conditions. Nine selected and drought-tolerant citron watermelon accessions were grown under non-stress (NS) and water stress (WS) conditions using the root rhizotron procedure in a glasshouse. The following root system architecture (RSA) traits were measured, namely: root system width (RSW), root system depth (RSD), convex hull area (CHA), total root length (TRL), root branch count (RBC), total root volume (TRV), leaf area (LA), leaf number (LN), first seminal root length (FSRL), seminal root angle (SRA), root dry mass (RDM), shoot dry mass (SDM), root–shoot mass ratio (RSM), root mass ratio (RMR), shoot mass ratio (SMR) and root tissue density (RTD). The data collected on RSA traits were subjected to the analysis of variance (ANOVA), correlation and principal component analyses. ANOVA revealed a significant (p < 0.05) accession × water stress interaction effect for studied RSA traits. Under WS, RDM exhibited significant and positive correlations with RSM (r = 0.65), RMR (r = 0.66), RSD (r = 0.66), TRL (r = 0.60), RBC (r = 0.72), FSRL (r = 0.73) and LN (r = 0.70). Principal component analysis revealed high loading scores for the following RSA traits: RSW (0.89), RSD (0.97), TRL (0.99), TRV (0.90), TRL (0.99), RMR (0.96) and RDM (0.76). In conclusion, the study has shown that the identified RSA traits could be useful in crop improvement programmes for citron watermelon genotypes with enhanced drought adaptation for improved yield performance under drought-prone environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0975.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Museology Keywords: digital citizenship; digital culture; digital literacy; digital museums; global citizenship; participatory design
Online: 26 April 2023 (09:54:50 CEST)
In the paper, we explore the notion of global digital citizenship, particularly with respect to museums and cultural heritage organizations. In this perspectives study, we explore current examples of how museums can adapt to the tenets of global digital citizenship necessary to navigate and participate in increasingly interconnected digital worlds and culture, and to collectively address global challenges.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0616.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: digital transformation; digital maturity; esports businesses; digital resilience; thematic analysis
Online: 11 July 2023 (03:03:03 CEST)
Digital transformation has become the top priority for 80% of sports companies worldwide, but statistics show that between 70% and 95% of all digital transformation projects fail due to signif-icant and varied challenges that sports companies face during the process of digital transfor-mation. This is because strategy, not digital technology, drives digital transformation, and suc-cess is unlikely without a mature digital transformation model. Moreover, the digital transfor-mation model of developing and emerging markets is not the same and cannot be adopted as a blueprint. Therefore, the aim of this research was to propose a framework for the digital trans-formation maturity of esports businesses in developing and emerging markets. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a sample of 15 stakeholders of esports businesses in Iran. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the interviews, and three main perspectives were identified: (1) enablers, (2) digital resilience and capabilities, and (3) digital transformation ma-turity stages. The enablers were formed by six sub-themes, including governance and leader-ship, strategy, culture and skills, innovation, technology, and data. Digital resilience and capa-bilities were formed by four sub-themes, including business model and ecosystem, digital cus-tomer experience, digital employee experience, and digital processes. Additionally, it was found that digital transformation maturity stages are based on four stages of digital beginners, digital followers, digital conservatives, and digital leaders. The findings indicate that moving towards digital transformation and achieving digital resilience in esports businesses will be impossible without synergy between enablers and digital resilience and capabilities. This framework can be useful for esports businesses to evaluate their current digital status and effectively guide them towards a desirable digital status. Furthermore, esports businesses can prioritize their efforts and resources for digital transformation by focusing on targeted capabilities and enablers and ensure more effective and efficient allocation of resources towards digital transformation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0340.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Digital Transformation; SME; Digital Orientation; Digital Capability; Financial Performance; Mediation Analysis
Online: 24 January 2022 (10:25:48 CET)
The COVID-19 crisis has emphasized the importance of digital transformation of SMEs and has served as an accelerator. Digital transformation empowers SMEs to rethink the way they make decisions and apply technology in meaningful and sustainable ways. The purpose of this study is to explore the role of digital transformation, fostered by COVID-19, and its potential contribution to the sustainability of SMEs. This paper examines a new conceptual framework designed on resource-based theory perspectives by using a survey data of 246 SMEs in Latvia and employing mediation analysis. The main findings of the study are that digital orientation and digital capability have direct positive effects on digital transformation; higher levels of digital orientation and capability, mediated by digital transformation, lead to higher revenue; as well as a more sophisticated business model in the case of digital orientation. Even if we cannot confirm that higher digital capability, mediated by digital transformation, leads to a more sophisticated business model, we found statistically significant direct effects from digital capability to digital transformation and from digital transformation to business model. These findings can be useful for policymakers, managers and practitioners to clarify how digital orientation, digital capability intermediated through digital transformation affect sustainability of SMEs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1718.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: digital transformation; small and medium enterprises (SMEs); digital maturity; digital transformation strategy
Online: 26 September 2023 (05:31:22 CEST)
Proposed study aims to investigate the digital transformation of Greek small and medium enterprises (SMEs), with a particular focus on their digital maturity and the strategic and organizational factors contributing to digital transformation. The research issue of digital transformation is attracting considerable interest among academics and business practicians since COVID-19 accelerated the procedure of implementing Industry’s 4.0 principles all over global economies. Quantitative research on 147 Greek SMEs revealed most important issues on how these businesses implement digital transformation, factors accelerating or decelerating the process, barriers and expected outcomes. Research enlights how SMEs face the transition to digital business and reveals the factors that can facilitate the whole process. Results can be valuable for stakeholders enabled to digital transformation process from both business and academic point of view, while there exist aspects that can contribute to policy makers / motivation developers in state’s level as well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2132.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Area Studies Keywords: digital village; rural households; subjective well-being; digital transformation; rural digital economy
Online: 30 May 2023 (11:45:40 CEST)
With the advancement of the economy and society, policymakers acknowledge the significance of improving rural households' well-being as a crucial factor in promoting sustainable economic and social development. Based on the matching data of China Household Finance Survey and Digital Rural County Index, this study empirically examines the effect and mechanisms of digital village construction on subjective well-being of rural households. The results revealed that digital village construction has a significant improvement in their subjective well-being. The impact of digital village construction is particularly significant in rural areas located in the western regions of China, as well as among households possessing higher levels of human capital. The process through which digital village construction enhances the subjective well-being of rural households involves the augmentation of household income, the promotion of non-farm employment opportunities, and the enhancement of rural governance. This study provides robust micro-empirical evidence highlighting the positive welfare effects of digital rural construction. This study provides insights into the digital village construction within the happiness economy framework, offering a new perspective. The imperative to strengthen rural digital infrastructure and improve farmers' proficiency in modern information skills is a strategic policy aimed at enhancing well-being of rural households.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0169.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Software Keywords: digital platforms; digital auction; livestock systems; Zimbabwe
Online: 10 May 2020 (14:51:38 CEST)
Livestock contribute towards household food security in rural communities through income generation and provision of animal-source food. However, livestock system are fragile for example, in Zimbabwe, communities face challenges such as fewer buyers, poor infrastructure, and information asymmetry when selling livestock. Emerging digital platforms promise opportunities to address these challenge but only anecdotal evidence exist. This paper uses data from Beitbridge to explore the potential of digital platforms to revitalise the livestock auction system. Study findings show that digital platforms are designed with affordances which can help overcome challenges within the livestock system. However, these digital platforms are also fraught with hidden complexities such as power dynamics. Thus, despite digital platforms’ affordances, their design inherently extends beyond technical functions. Therefore, there is an urgent need for discussions exploring the contrast between affordances and complexities to enable target users to make informed decisions on the adoption and use of digital platforms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0466.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: metaverse; corporate digital responsibility; CDR; regulation; digital technologies
Online: 7 September 2023 (11:16:55 CEST)
"Metaverse" as a term came to the fore in 2021 when Facebook rebranded its corporate identity to Meta, and signaled its intention to invest at least $10 billion in developing the concepts and related products that year. However, there is still little consensus in defining what constitutes the metaverse, although there is a widespread, though not universal, agreement that it will bring a wide range of benefits across society. More specifically, the advent, and continuing evolution, of the metaverse has strategic and operational implications for, and impacts on, industry and business at large. Adopting an inductive, interpretivist approach, this exploratory research article presents case examples of the guidance on the responsible development of the metaverse provided by two IT business services companies. The article identifies the major risks and responsibilities associated with the metaverse and assesses how companies might address these responsibilities. Very little research has been published in this area and this article attempts to make a small contribution to filling this gap in the literature. The article finds that responsibilities are largely in line with those currently associated with corporate digital responsibility, and concludes that the strategic impact and extent of regulatory change will depend on the nature of the metaverse that materialises in the forthcoming decade.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1115.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Film, Radio And Television Keywords: media; digital media; entertainment; paradigm shift; digital age
Online: 15 June 2023 (09:40:35 CEST)
The advent of the digital age has brought about significant transformations in the entertainment industry, challenging traditional paradigms and redefining the ways in which content is created, distributed, and consumed. This research paper critically reviews the paradigm shift occurring in the entertainment industry, focusing on the implications of digital technologies, the rise of online platforms, changing consumer behavior, and the impact on various stakeholders. By analyzing relevant literature, industry reports, and case studies, this paper aims to comprehensively understand the challenges and opportunities presented by the digital age and assess its impact on the entertainment industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0442.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Digital transformation; digital strategy; corporate culture; leadership; performance
Online: 25 January 2023 (04:10:26 CET)
Digital transformation of companies is often referred to as a future track and a strategic path towards ensuring the survival and sustainability of companies. In this paper, we aim to outline this transformation process in Tunisian companies and identify its driving factors and finally explain its key success factors. To this end, we examine a sample of 70 companies operating in all economic sectors. The results indicate that such a digital strategy has a significant and a positive effect on the success of digital transformation of companies. Leadership has an effect at a low level of digital maturity. On the other hand, corporate culture does not have a significant effect on digital transformation. These results contribute to explaining this emerging phenomenon by focusing on the driving factors as well as the factors that contribute to its success.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0298.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Digital Twin; digital thread; framework; shipyard; industry 4.0
Online: 12 December 2020 (11:53:13 CET)
This paper provides an overview of the current state-of-the-art digital twin and digital thread technology in industrial operations. Both are transformational technologies that have the advantage of improving the efficiency of current design and manufacturing. Digital twin is an important element of the Industry 4.0 digitalization process; however, the huge amount of data that are generated and collected by digital twin offer challenges in handling, processing and storage. The paper aims to report on the development of a new framework that combines the digital twin and digital thread for better data management in order to drive innovation, improve the production process and performance, and to ensure continuity and traceability of information. The digital twin/thread framework incorporated behavior simulation and physical control components, in which these two components rely on the connectivity between the twin and thread for information flow and exchange to drive innovation. The twin/thread framework encompasses specifications that include organizational architecture layout, security, user access, cloud computing set-up, and hardware and software requirements. It is envisaged that the framework will be applicable to enhancing optimization of operational processes and traceability of information in the physical world, especially in Industry Shipyard 4.0.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0070.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: digital devices; digital media; toddler; children; language abilities
Online: 3 August 2020 (11:39:57 CEST)
Background: Over the past decade, the use of digital tools has grown and research evidence suggests that traditional media and new media offer both benefits and health risks for young children. The abilities to understand and use language represent two of the most important competencies developed during the first 3 years of life through the interaction of the child with people, objects, events, and other environmental factors. The main goal of our study is to evaluate the relationship between digital devices use and language abilities in children between 8-36 month, considering also the influence of several variables. Materials and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional observational study on 260 healthy children (140 males = 54%) aged between 8-36 months (mean=23.5±7.18 months). All the parents completed a self-report questionnaire investigating the use of digital devices by their children, and a standardized questionnaire for the assessment of language skills (MacArthur). Multiple linear regression was used to evaluate the relationship between different variables. Subsequent moderation analysis were performed to verify the influence of other factors. Results: W found a statistically significant negative correlation between the total daily time of exposure to digital devices and the Actions and Gestures Quotient (ß=-0.397) in children between 8-17 months, and between the total daily time of exposure to digital devices and Language Quotient (ß=-0.224) in children between 18-36 months. Sex, level of education/job of parents, modality of use/content of digital device do not significantly affect these relationships. Conclusion: In our study we found that a longer time of exposure to digital devices was related to lower mimic-gestural skills in children from 8-17 months and to lower language skills in children between 18-36 months, regardless of age, sex, socio-economic status, content and modality of use. Further studies are needed to confirm and better understand this relationship, but parents and pediatricians are advised to limit the use of digital devices by children and encourage the social interaction to support the learning of language and communication skills in this age group.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0285.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: common framework for digital competence of teachers; digital competence; digital communication; digital content creation; informational literacy; problem solving; safety; teacher training
Online: 20 July 2018 (05:43:03 CEST)
Digital competence is one of the 8 key competences for life-long learning developed by the European Commission, and is requisite for personal fulfilment and development, active citizenship, social inclusion and employment in the knowledge society. To accompany young learners in the development of the competence, and to guarantee optimal implementation of ICTs, it is necessary that teachers are, in turn, literate. We had 43 Secondary School teachers in initial training to assess their own level of competence in the 21 sub-competences in 5 areas identified by the DIGCOMP project, using the rubrics provided in the Common Framework for Digital Competence of Teachers (Spanish Ministry of Education). Overall, pre-service teachers' conceptions about their level of Digital Competence was low (Initial). Students scored highest in Information, which refers mostly to the operations they performed while being students. Secondly, in Safety and Communication, excluding Protection of Digital Data and Preservation of the Digital Identity. Lowest values were achieved in Content Creation and Problem Solving, the dimensions most closely related with the inclusion of ICTs to transform teaching-learning processes. The knowledge or skills they exhibit are largely self-taught and, so, we perceive an urgent need to purposefully incorporate relational and didactic aspects of ICT integration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0095.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Mobile learning; mobile pedagogy, EdTech; digital immigrant; digital literacy
Online: 6 February 2023 (09:46:03 CET)
The sudden outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic challenged education systems worldwide to quickly pivot their teaching-learning processes from in-person to virtual modes in order to control the spread of the virus. In a short period of time, teachers were forced to adopt new remote teaching methods to ensure the continuation of education. This paper examines how teachers in Pakistan leveraged mobile technology as an alternative teaching strategy to provide access to education during these unprecedented times. Through in-depth individual interviews with selected teachers, the study explores the potential of mobile technology to transform traditional teaching methods into interactive learning environments. The findings highlight the importance of embracing new pedagogical possibilities offered by mobile technology and the need for effective teacher professional development in the post-pandemic era. The study offers valuable insights into how mobile technology can be effectively utilized in education, even in the most challenging circumstances.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0393.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Digital health; Telehealth; Saudi Arabia; Artificial Intelligence; Digital Technology
Online: 22 September 2021 (22:36:43 CEST)
COVID-19 poses a significant burden to healthcare systems. Healthcare organisations with a better health innovation infrastructure have faced a reduced burden and achieved success in curbing COVID-19. In Saudi Arabia, digital technologies have played a vital role in fighting SARS-CoV-2 transmission. In this paper, we aimed to summarise the experience of optimising digital health technologies in Saudi Arabia as well as discuss capabilities and opportunities during and beyond the COVID-19 pandemic. A literature review was conducted up to September 2021 to retrieve peer-reviewed articles that critique the use of digital health technology platforms (DHTPs) in Saudi Arabia during the COVID-19 outbreak. A small but significant body of literature examined the digital response to the COVID-19 pandemic in Saudi Arabia. Health officials succeeded in optimising and maintaining a strategy to mitigate the spread of the virus via different digital technologies, such as mobile health applications, artificial intelligence, and machine learning. The quick digital response in Saudi Arabia was facilitated by governmental support and considering users and technology determinants. Future research must concentrate on establishing and updating the guidelines for using DHTPs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0268.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: narrative-digital approach; literary education; ICT; digital narrative; storytelling
Online: 12 July 2021 (14:19:26 CEST)
The article considers the peculiarities of practical implementation of the narrative-digital approach in the process of studying disciplines of literary cycle at philological faculties. The authors emphasize that the key to the effective transition to distance and combined forms of studying is creation of a productive national information and didactic space, with involvement of IT and appropriate level of training of all participants in the pedagogical process. Under these conditions, the application of the narrative-digital approach is promising, which in literary education of philologists is based on interdisciplinary interactive basis, which combines possibilities of narrative methods with computer technology. The integration of digital technologies into philological field causes a number of methodological difficulties, requires all subjects of educational activity to develop digital skills that are not related to professional humanities knowledge, but meet the requirements of trained competitive and highly qualified specialists. The authors conducted a sociological study on the readiness of students of philological specialties of pedagogical universities to implement the narrative-digital approach to educational practice. Research provides optimal software that allows you to implement this approach in practice, offers a selection of didactic tasks, substantiates feasibility of their use in classes of different types.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0017.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Digital Surface Model, Digital Terrain Model, Steep edge detection
Online: 2 July 2018 (16:42:05 CEST)
In this paper we will present a simplified approach for extracting the ground level – a digital terrain model (DTM) – from the surface provided in a digital surface model (DSM). Most existing algorithms try to find the ground values in a digital surface model. Our approach works the opposite direction by detecting probable above ground areas. The main advantage of our approach is the possibility to use it with incomplete DSMs containing much no data values which can be e.g. occlusions in the calculated DSM. A smoothing or filling of such original derived DSMs will destroy much information which is very useful for deriving a ground surface from the DSM. Since the presented approach needs steep edges to detect potential high objects it will fail on smoothed and filled DSMs. After presenting the algorithm it will be applied to a test area in Salzburg and compared to a terrain model freely available from the Austrian government.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0283.v1
Online: 19 January 2022 (16:10:02 CET)
The digital transition processes have demonstrated an enormous capacity to develop and implement sustainable solutions, which allow solving several problems such as poverty, high rates of species extinction and lack of equal opportunity. However, little attention is paid to the connection between the digital transition and sustainability. Thus, a systematic review of the bibliometric literature was developed to fill this knowledge gap and demonstrate the potential contributions of the digital transition to environmental, economic and social sustainability aspects. In environmental sustainability, the digital transition involves the application of technologies such as AI, big data analytics, IoT, and mobile technologies that are used to develop and implement sustainability solutions in areas such as sustainable urban development, sustainable production and pollution control. In economic sustainability, emerging digital technologies can drive transformation into the more sustainable circular economy, the digital sharing economy, and establish sustainable manufacturing and infrastructure design. In the digital transition to social sustainability, the studies analyzed demonstrate the need for multidimensional policy perspectives to address the current digital divide. For effective management of the digital transition that achieves sustainability goals, the study discusses alternative approaches that include innovation through experimentation, and dynamic and sustainable advantages achievable through temporary benefits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0868.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Digital Transformation; Digital Competences; Professional Training; Public Services; Human Capital.
Online: 13 June 2023 (04:24:30 CEST)
Digital transformation can become a complex process when workers have insufficient skills, which makes training in the digital field essential. Herein, we intended to relate digital literacy perceived by workers with their training needs for the Portuguese public sector context. Additionally, based in the Human capital theory, we also investigate which professional/demographic characteristics increase training propensity in digital fields. Through an online questionnaire, a dataset with information on 573 workers was obtained. Data analysis was made by using a probabilistic regression model and additional statistical techniques. The results revealed that workers with higher levels of education and higher professional skills have higher probability of participating in training in the digital field. On average, workers reveal low levels of digital knowledge and low participation in training in the digital fields, but the majority present a willingness to participate in future training sessions, especially in the fields of Dataset management, Cybersecurity and Communication systems. This study provides information on training in the digital field of workers in the public sector, which is essential for public organizations to better prepare for digital transformation. Additionally, it contributes to a very recent literature on digital learning, and it can be extended to other contexts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0242.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: COVID-19; mathematics; digital tools; digital skills; teacher; e-learning
Online: 14 March 2023 (03:42:56 CET)
This qualitative study explores the implementation and conformation process of digital devices in teaching and learning before, during, and after the COVID-19 pandemic in Nepal. Using Rogers' Diffusion of Innovation Theory as a framework, the study examines the adoption and adaptation of digital devices by in-service secondary mathematics teachers (n=62) and their perceptions and preferences towards instructional modality. The findings suggest that despite the increased reliance on digital devices during the pandemic, there is a less likelihood of using them in face-to-face classrooms in developing countries like Nepal. The adoption of online learning has not yet reached the confirmation stage, even after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Prior to the pandemic, online learning was not widely implemented or confirmed by teachers in developing countries societies. The study also provides important insights into the challenges and opportunities of using digital devices in post-COVID-19 classrooms, and its implications for policymakers and educators in Nepal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0446.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: COVID-19; Digital Divide; Online Learning; Multi-level Digital Divide
Online: 30 June 2021 (12:28:15 CEST)
The devastating COVID-19 pandemic forced academia to go virtual. Educational institutions around the world have stressed online learning programs in the aftermath of the pandemic. However, because of insufficient access to ICT, a substantial number of students failed to harness the opportunity of online learning. This study explores the latent digital divide exhibited during the COVID-19 pandemic while online learning activities are emphasized among Bangladeshi students. It also investigates the digital divide exposure and the significant underlying drivers of the divide. A cross-sectional survey was employed to collect quantitative data mixed with open-ended questions to collect qualitative information from the student community. The findings revealed that despite the majority of students have physical access to ICT but only 32.5% of students could attend online classes seamlessly, 34.1% of the students reported the data prices as the critical barrier, and 39.8% of students identified the poor network infrastructure is the significant barrier for them to participate in online learning activities. Although most students possess physical access to the device and the Internet, they face the first-level digital divide due to the quality of access and maintaining subscriptions. Consequently, they fail to take advantage of physical access, resulting in the third-level digital divide (Utility Gap) and submerging them into a digital divide cycle. This paper aimed to explore the underlying issues of the digital divide among Bangladeshi students to assist relevant stakeholders (e.g., the Bangladesh government, Educational Institutions, Researchers) in providing the necessary insights and theoretical understanding to arrange adequate support for students to undertake conducive online learning activities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0572.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Digital Smile Design; digital dentistry; dentistry software; dentistry design software
Online: 21 April 2021 (11:46:39 CEST)
Without impacting the dental sciences, breakthroughs in technology and applications could not be accomplished. In the advancement of technology and information technology, dentistry and dental materials have been fully active, so much so that they have revolutionized dental techniques. Material & methods; We want to produce the first series of articles in this review on the use of digital techniques and software, such as Smile Concept Digital. The goal is to gather all the findings on the use of this program and to highlight the fields of use. The analysis included forty-nine articles, the latter discussing the use of Digital Smile Design and the area of use. The research aims to classify the dental fields are using "digitization." Change is constant in this field and will be increasing Interest in dentistry by recommending the speed and reliability of outcomes for care planning. Conclusion: As seen in the study, the digital workflow facilitates recovery that is reliable both from an aesthetic and functional point of view. The current area of use of Digital Smile Design techniques in the different branches of medicine and dentistry as well as knowledge have emerged from this research
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0047.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Industry 4.0; Digitalization; Digital production; Digital Twin, 5G,innovative management
Online: 1 February 2021 (14:43:28 CET)
Purpose- This study seeks to investigate the collaboration between Digitalization and traditional manufacturing industry and investigate, how digitalized management brings new chances and challenges of management. Design/methodology/approach – The author designed a content analytical study researching the role of digitalization in traditional manufacturing industries. The article presents a selective but systematical review of recent digitalization trend and digital twin to be applied for innovative management in Industry 4.0 era. Findings– Digitalization is highly correlated with traditional manufactory in Industry 4.0 era. The study brings a new outlook on the next wave of Digitalization and review of associated challenges and opportunities for management and innovation in traditional manufacturing industries. Research limitations/implications – The research focuses on two branches of traditional industries only: machine tools building and metalworking industries. Future research needs to examine other traditional industries. The research is limited to 2 high related traditional manufacturing industries, machine tools and metalworking industry. Practical implications – The study and application of digitalization should be highly recommended and launched in traditional manufacturing industries. Universities, institutes and vocational schools should update, optimize their courses systems according to prediction of future industry. Originality/value – The paper enhances understanding about the collaboration between digitalization and traditional manufacturing industry. This paper analyzes an important issue the digitalization serves traditional industries. It is unique in its broad analysis of the related terms – Digitalization, Machines 4.0, Industry 4.0 and innovative management in Industry 4.0 era.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0620.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Digital twin; Precision Livestock Farming; digitosome; Digital cohort; animal farming
Online: 29 January 2021 (12:48:12 CET)
Digital twin technology is already improving efficiencies and reducing costs across multiple industries and sectors. As the earliest adopters, space technology and manufacturing sectors have made the most sophisticated gains with automobile and natural resource extraction industries following close behind with recent investments in digital twin technology. The application of digital twins within the livestock farming sector is the next frontier. The possibilities that this technology may fuel are nearly endless as digital twins can be used to improve large-scale precision livestock farming practices, machinery and equipment usage, and the health and well-being of a wide variety of farm animals. Currently, many pioneers of digital twins in livestock farming are already applying sophisticated AI technology to monitor both animals and environment around the clock, which leads to a better understanding of animal behavior and distress, disease control and prevention, and smarter business decisions for the farmer. Mental and emotional states of animals can be monitored using recognition technology that examines facial features such as ear postures and eye white regions. Used with modeling, simulation and augmented reality technologies, digital twins can help farmers build more energy-efficient housing structures, predict heat cycles for breeding, discourage negative behaviors of livestock, and potentially much more. As with all disruptive technological advances, the implementation of digital twin technology will demand a thorough cost and benefit analysis by individual farms. Digital twin application will need to overcome challenges and accept limitations that arise. However, regardless of these issues, the potential of digital twins promises to revolutionize livestock farming in the future.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0159.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: circular economy; industry 4.0; data; 9R’s; digital technologies; digital intelligence
Online: 8 August 2018 (05:31:47 CEST)
The Circular Economy has been of growing significance within academic, policymaking and industry groups. Latest developments in the field of Circular Economy has led to an expansion of CE studies focused on interrogating CE as a paradigm, its relationship with sustainability and concepts and definitions of the Circular Economy. Research has also identified the significant potential of applying circular approaches to areas of the economy, including manufacturing and Industry 4.0, which, with data, is enabling latest the advances in digital technologies. This is the first review paper to integrate the fields of CE and digital technologies resulting in a framework which provides directions for policymakers and guidance for future research. To achieve this, we conduct a systematic literature review of the empirical literature related to digital technologies, industry 4.0 and circular approaches, from the point of the 9 Rs. The systematic literature review (SLR) is based on peer-reviewed articles published between 2000-2018. The findings reveal that while research on the circular economy has been on an annual rise, research on digital technologies enabled circular economy is still relatively an untouched area of research across all nine (9) circular approaches. As such this is an area rife for further research. This paper also presents illustrative charts and graphs to summarize the current trends in circular economy research in manufacturing. From this, a framework for future circular economy research for manufacturing for digital technologies is proposed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0763.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Organizational culture; digital transformation; digital culture; innovation; organizational change; innovation culture
Online: 12 September 2023 (08:40:27 CEST)
Based on a literature review, a framework for digital organizational culture with a focus on innovation is proposed. This digital organizational culture becomes relevant today since digital transformation requires an appetite for risk and a willingness to undertake, aspects that are strengthened by an environment and atmosphere that motivate individuals to generate new ideas. The proposal begins with a diagnosis of the existing organizational culture, which allows identifying the differences between the components of the current organizational culture and the innovation-oriented digital organizational culture. Through this diagnosis, the gaps that need to be addressed to achieve a digital organizational culture with innovative characteristics are identified. In addition, specific recommendations are proposed to carry out this transformation. In the process, the assumptions underlying the current typology of the company's organizational culture are highlighted. The importance of integrating creativity, risk readiness, and entrepreneurial willingness into the digital organizational culture aimed at innovation is emphasized. These elements are essential to create an environment
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1758.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Digital Twin; DT; Product Lifecycle Quality; PLQ; Digital Twin Certified; DTC
Online: 25 May 2023 (07:46:34 CEST)
Quality products are a main focus for manufacturers. Product users only determine a product is a quality product if it performs in operation to the user’s perceived standard. Product manufactures need to take a product lifecycle quality (PLQ) perspective of quality and not simply focus on manufacturing quality control, which is more accurately specification control. Manufacturing is the key phase where products take their physical form. There are increasing costs and decreasing risk of different physical quality strategies. The information provided using digital twins and virtual testing promises to be both low risk and cost and has the potential to predict what the customer will experience in operation by testing products passively with data and actively with simulation to destruction. Digital Twin Certified (DTC) is proposed as the methodology for accomplishing this. DTC will be especially important for the adoption of additive manufacturing.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0531.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: Insurtech; Insurance; Digital Transformation
Online: 10 July 2023 (11:30:51 CEST)
The insurance sector has undergone a transformative shift with the emergence of Insurtech, integrating technological innovations into the industry. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the impact of Insurtech on the insurance sector, focusing on the case study of Lemonade. By placing the study in the context of the broader insurance landscape, the review explores the significance and relevance of this transformation. The article analyzes Lemonade's unique business model and its departure from traditional insurance practices. Furthermore, it examines the implications of Lemonade's approach on the industry and the challenges it faces. Through this analysis, the review sheds light on how Insurtech and the transformation of the insurance sector are redefining insurance services and consumer experiences. The future implications of these trends for insurance companies, consumers, and the industry as a whole are also explored. In summary, this review provides valuable insights into the transformative power of Insurtech, emphasizing the importance of technological advancements and innovative approaches in shaping the future of the insurance sector.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0330.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: digital marketing; sustainable development
Online: 6 July 2023 (10:38:41 CEST)
A Digital marketing allows brands to disseminate information in a targeted way towards their clients and consumers, making bidirectional communication and interactions between organizations and audiences feasible. This reality not only allows companies to pass on messages about sustainability associated with processes and products with the aim of launching trends and shaping behaviour, but also allows consumers to share their experiences, needs, preferences and expectations. In this sense, the techniques used in the context of digital marketing make it possible not only to communicate products and services but also to show that brands are working to be more sustainable and to disseminate new sustainable trends that help to change consumer mindsets. This research paper employs a Systematic Literature Review with Bibliometric Analysis (SLBA) methodology to explore and synthesize data about how digital marketing can be used to promote and communicate sustainability. In this study, the results show that digital marketing strategies contribute to promoting sustainable development by encouraging sustainable consumption patterns. This scenario is possible by understanding consumer behavior, communicating key messages through the best channels and effectively evaluating green marketing campaigns on consumer attitudes and purchasing decisions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1822.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Hyperautomation, Digital Transformation, Government
Online: 26 June 2023 (14:08:34 CEST)
Este artigo apresenta o processo de implementação da Hiperautomação no setor público brasileiro, especialmente no âmbito da Procuradoria Geral do Estado de Pernambuco. Devido à atual economia competitiva, a demanda por soluções inteligentes e confiáveis está aumentando. Para atender a essa necessidade, tecnologias inovadoras que abordem a complexidade inerente à transformação digital são desejáveis. Assim, as organizações públicas têm buscado aplicar a automação de processos para atender às necessidades dos cidadãos por um serviço mais eficiente e eficaz. No entanto, podemos observar que a automação pura e direta é apenas parte do processo de transformação. Algumas das razões que explicam a necessidade de ir além da automação de processos e alcançar a hiperautomação é a abundância de dados de várias fontes e tipos. Tudo deve estar dentro dos padrões legais, ressaltando que toda tecnologia deve estar alinhada com transparência e auditabilidade para ser incorporada com segurança. Para a experimentação, foi utilizado o método de pesquisa-ação com a aplicação da Hiperautomação, visando aumentar a arrecadação e a economia do Estado na Procuradoria Geral do Estado de Pernambuco.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0465.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: new digital economy; sustainability
Online: 8 May 2023 (08:18:28 CEST)
This study aims to analyze the interconnection between the concepts of digital economy and sustainability. These concepts have become popular due to awareness of climate change and increased development and adoption of technologies. Researchers, business leaders and policymakers are exploring the many ways digital technologies can be used to address sustainability issues. Using a systematic literature review with a bibliometric analysis, we examined a sample of 92 studies indexed in SCOPUS to identify research activity on this topic through April 2023. We found that 2022 had the highest number of peer-reviewed papers on the subject, with 31 publications. During the research, we also identified multiple opportunities for this interconnection, such as developing renewable energy and sustainable technological solutions, smart cities and sustainable urbanization, and sustainable consumption. These opportunities enabled by digital technologies allow companies to adopt sustainable business strategies and develop sustainable products. Despite these opportunities, the digital economy presents several challenges that can hinder efforts to achieve sustainability goals, such as increased e-waste, high energy consumption and rising carbon emissions, digital divide, job insecurity, growing monopolies, and data protection. These issues must be addressed to enable optimal use of the opportunities presented in the digital economy to promote sustainability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0378.v1
Online: 21 November 2022 (06:45:03 CET)
During most of the lifespan of the Venetian republic, doges or presidents were elected for life. However, a long tenure was a rare event, which effectively resulted in term limits, as has already been deported by several authors. In this paper we examine these tenures and its evolution during the existence of the Venetian republic, trying to prove Smith et al. thesis, but also the event or events that effectively caused that limitation by design. Finally, we will discuss for the causes of this limitation and its effective consequences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0208.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: digital filter; watershed; hydrology
Online: 18 July 2019 (09:11:22 CEST)
The runoff coefficient (C) represents the relationship between the surface runoff volume and the precipitated volume. It is used in engineering projects for flood estimation methods. Although C values are tabulated and consecrated in hydrological engineering, as if they were constant, they may not correspond to the reality, because in the same catchment, they can vary according to the intensity, temporal and spatial distribution of precipitation events, humidity conditions, and ground cover. This study had the objective of analyzing extreme events of precipitation and the corresponding flows to obtain experimental runoff coefficients (C) and compare them with the tabulated values. The study was conducted in four experimental catchments in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, with different land uses and soils. The runoff coefficients (C) were obtained from the analysis of hydrograms and using a digital filter, which allowed the separation of the direct runoff, of the total flow. When analyzing flow and precipitation data in different seasons of the year, selecting events of the floods of catchments and separating the flows, we observed a variation of the flow coefficient values, different from those obtained from tables.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1197.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Digital Age; Digital Era; Evolution of Pen and Paper; Screens and Keyboards
Online: 17 May 2023 (05:39:28 CEST)
Delve into the ebb and flow of human ingenuity as the researcher traces the evolution of writing from papyrus to pixels. Discover how humble instruments like quill pens and typewriters have propelled human into the digital frontier, forever reshaping the art of expression in the modern age. This article examines the evolution of writing tools from traditional pen and paper to digital writing in the modern age. It explores the development of writing materials such as papyrus, parchment, and paper, as well as the invention of writing tools including quill pens, fountain pens, and typewriters. The rise of digital writing tools, including word processing software and smartphones, is also discussed, along with their benefits such as increased efficiency and productivity, enhanced collaboration and sharing capabilities, and greater accessibility and flexibility. However, the article also highlights the challenges of writing in the digital age, including the impact of digital distractions on writing focus and quality, the issue of online plagiarism and copyright infringement, and the potential loss of traditional writing skills. The article concludes with recommendations for educators, school administrators, students, and researchers to strike a balance between digital and traditional writing practices, to embrace digital writing tools while preserving traditional writing skills, and to understand the importance of the evolution of writing. The theoretical frameworks of Social Construction of Technology (SCOT) Theory, Media Ecology Theory, and Activity Theory are also discussed in relation to the evolution of writing tools. Overall, this article provides valuable insights into the history, benefits, and challenges of writing in the digital age, as well as suggestions for navigating the future of writing and its tools.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0051.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Museology Keywords: art and technology; digital culture; digital identity; human behavior; interdisciplinary studies; museums.; computational culture; cultural conflict; digital heritage; cultural heritage
Online: 4 January 2023 (03:16:12 CET)
This paper looks at key elements of global culture that are driving a new paradigm shift in museums causing them to question their raison d'être, their design and physical space, recognizing the need to accommodate visitor interaction and participation, and to reprioritize institutional outcomes and goals reexamining their priorities. As heritage sharing in online spaces reaches across national, political, and social boundaries on platforms and networks, this has been driven by museum engagement with Internet life during the pandemic. Museum relationships and interactions with communities both local and global, continue to challenge core values and precepts, leading to radical changes in how museums define their roles and responsibilities. In this new cultural landscape, museums are responding to human digital identity in a tidal wave of human interactions on the Internet, from social media to online sharing of images and videos. This is revealing shared perspectives on cultural conflict as being tied to freedom of expression of one’s heritage embedded in digital identity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0473.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Precision livestock farming; Digital livestock farming; Smart farming; Societal impacts; Data ownership; Open access; Sustainability; Animal ethics; Digital divide; Digital agriculture
Online: 27 February 2023 (10:16:27 CET)
The emergence of precision and digital livestock farming presents an opportunity for sustainable animal farming practices that enhance animal welfare and health. However, this transformation of modern animal farming through digital technology has several implications for the technological, social, economic, and environmental aspects of farming. It is crucial to analyze the ethical considerations associated with the digitalization of modern animal farming, particularly in the context of human-animal relationships and potential objectification. This analysis can help develop frameworks for improving animal welfare and promoting sustainability in animal farming.One of the primary ethical concerns of digital livestock farming is the potential for a digital divide between farmers who have access to advanced technologies and those who do not. This could lead to a disparity in animal welfare and health outcomes for different groups of animals. Additionally, the use of artificial intelligence in digital livestock farming may lead to a loss of personal connection between farmers and animals, which could impact the animal's well-being. Another ethical concern of digital livestock farming is the potential for objectification of animals as mere data points. The use of sensors and other monitoring technologies can provide valuable data on animal health and behavior, but it is important to remember that animals are sentient beings with complex emotional and social needs. The use of digital technologies should not lead to neglect of animal welfare or a lack of human responsibility towards animals.Furthermore, social context becomes essential while integrating technologies in the livestock farming to overcome ethics. By considering the cultural and societal norms of different communities, we can ensure that the use of digital technologies does not undermine these values. To address these ethical challenges, the development of standards and codes of conduct for the adoption and implementation of digital livestock farming tools and platforms can help ensure that animal welfare and sustainability are prioritized. This can help alleviate the privacy concerns of stakeholders and improve sustainability in animal farming practices. Additionally, the use of virtual and augmented reality technologies can provide a way to enhance human-animal interactions and provide more personalized care to animals, further promoting animal welfare.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1652.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: digital economy; perspective area; components; fourth industrial revolution; digital analytics architecture; smart Bangladesh
Online: 25 July 2023 (05:33:28 CEST)
This study aims to determine the present and future scopes of the digital economy in Bangladesh to build a developed and prosperous country by 2041. Simultaneously, it analyses the components of the Digital Economy from numerous perspectives from contributing to Bangladeshi economy with an adaptation of the 4th Industrial Revolution and emerging technologies. In the methodology section, qualitative approach is conducted to determine the research objectives where secondary data is used. Around 100 papers are collected and 51 articles are used for conducting this study. The findings of the study are to present the current state of the digital economy which is developing trends that contribute to national GDP for the adaptation of the 4IR for the transformation of smart Bangladesh. From the conceptual implication, companies and individuals are aware of the digital economy, which would lessen digital divide and create a strong link between technology and the economy. Furthermore, establishing customer confidence and trust would be a big issue for Bangladesh's digital platform economy in the future days. From a practical standpoint, IT industries and commercial organizations would have to deal with emerging 4IR and its technologies. The job market would also be expanded in a variety of areas, which would ultimately benefit the national economy. According to the study's conclusions, the digital economy is predicted to expand its commercial and corporate opportunities. Future research might be extended based on qualitative approach towards a digital Bangladesh and create a better developing economy.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0129.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Digital Design; Digital Architecture; Image Processing; Machine learning; FPGA; Dedicated Design; Image Processor
Online: 14 April 2022 (05:09:47 CEST)
Many dedicated designs for real-time operations provide functionality on fixed-sized operators, but where speed, scalability, and flexibility are required, extensive research is demanded. Dedicated designs can provide real-time processing for many applications. This paper presents an FPGA-based design of a general image processor. The proposed design is based on a fixed-point representation of binary numbers. The proposed design provides a mechanism to manage matrices on-chip along with matrix arithmetic. The matrices are represented with simple identifiers and microinstruction that assist in the computation of many operations which are useful for solving complex problems. The design was successfully implemented and tested using VHDL language. The proposed design is an efficient architecture as a standalone processor with all embedding computational resources necessary for an embedded image processing application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0139.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Digital Manufacturing; Sensors; Machine Learning; Industry 4.0; Optical; Cotton Lint; Industrial Digital Technologies
Online: 5 August 2021 (10:55:26 CEST)
Egyptian cotton is one of the most important commodities to the Egyptian economy and is renowned globally for its quality, which is currently graded by manual inspection. This has several drawbacks including significant labour requirement, low inspection efficiency, and influence from inspection conditions such as light and human subjectivity. This current work uses a low-cost colour vision system, combined with machine learning to predict the cotton lint grade of the cultivars Giza 86, 97, 90, 94 and 96. Unsupervised and supervised machine learning approaches were explored and compared. Three different supervised learning algorithms were evaluated: linear discriminant analysis, decision trees and ensemble modelling. The highest accuracy models (77.3-98.2%) used an ensemble modelling technique to classify samples within the Egyptian cotton grades: Fully Good, Good, Fully Good Fair, Good Fair and Fully Fair. The unsupervised learning technique k-means showed that human error is more likely to occur when classifying lint belonging to the higher quality grades and underlined the need for an intelligent system to replace manual inspection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0325.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: active RC-filter; digital tuning elements; digital potentiometer; digital-to-analog converter, low-pass filter; band-pass filter; inverting amplifier; voltage regulator
Online: 12 April 2021 (21:22:45 CEST)
The most popular schemes of digital potentiometers (DP) and digital-to-analog converters (DAC) are considered. DP and DAC use how elements of parameter adjustment of active RC-filters. The circuits of the DAC on the Kelvin-Varley divider, the Kelvin divider based on the R-2R matrix, and the architecture of the DAC with a segmented circuit are shown. The internal structure of DP an Analog Devices and Intersil company is shown, and also the DP switching circuits in a tunable low-pass filter and a band-pass filter, a programmable inverting amplifier and a voltage regulator are presented.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0463.v1
Online: 26 December 2022 (02:51:41 CET)
Core-shell particles are heterogenous micro- or nanoparticles with solid, liquid or gas core encapsulated by a protective solid shell. The unique composition of core and shell materials imparts smart properties to the particles. Core-shell particles are gaining increasing attention as tuneable and versatile carriers for pharmaceutical and biomedical applications including targeted drug delivery, controlled drug release, and biosensing. This review first provides an overview of fabrication methods for core-shell particles, followed by a brief discussion on their application and a detailed analysis on manipulation including assembly, sorting, and triggered release. We compile current methodologies employed for manipulation of core-shell particles and demonstrate how existing methods of assembly and sorting micro/nanospheres can be adopted or modified for core-shell particles. Various triggered release approaches for diagnostics and drug delivery are also discussed in detail.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0238.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: homomorphic; digital signature; IoT; authentication
Online: 18 February 2022 (17:04:53 CET)
In this paper, we address the problem of compatibility between digital signature schemes and in-network aggregation approaches. In the IoT world, the gateways alter the signed network flows when performing in-network aggregation. Therefore, existing conventional approaches are not suitable for verifying the authenticity of the original flows. This raises the need for energy-effective and secure schemes that enable the destination to validate aggregated network flows. In this regard, a lightweight homomorphic signature scheme is proposed which supports the implementation of aggregation procedures without affecting the verification process. We demonstrate the unforgeability and the privacy of our scheme. We also perform an analytical study of its energy-efficiency. The results suggest that the proposed scheme considerably decreases the processing overhead of the existing set-homomorphic signature schemes. Moreover, it does not add any communication overhead to traditional (non-homomorphic) signature schemes. This, in turn, improves the energy consumption by 30% compared to existing homomorphic signature techniques.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0734.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Digital citizenship; Twitter; e-participation
Online: 30 March 2021 (12:17:49 CEST)
(1) Background: Spain launched an official campaign, #EsteVirusLoParamosUnidos, to try and unite the efforts of the entire country through citizen cooperation to combat coronavirus. The research goal is to analyze the Twitter campaign’s repercussion on general citizen feeling. (2) Methods: The research is based on a composite design that triangulates from a theoretical model, a quantitative analysis and a qualitative analysis. (3) Results: Of the 7357 tweets in the sample, 72.32% were found to be retweets. Four content families were extracted: politics, education, messages to society and defense of occupational groups. The feelings expressed ranged along a continuum, from unity, admiration and support at one end to discontent and criticism regarding the health situation at the other. (4) Conclusions: The development of networked sociopolitical and technical measures that enable citizen participation facilitates the development of new patterns of interaction between governments and digital citizens, increasing citizens’ possibilities of influencing the public agenda and therefore strengthening citizen engagement vis-à-vis such situations.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Hardware And Architecture Keywords: Forensics, digital forensics, wearable, law
Online: 25 March 2019 (11:06:29 CET)
Digital Evidence is considered as an important type of evidence in many legal cases. Many legislations have dedicated laws to the collection, handling and admissibility of digital evidence. New technologies and new devices are rapidly being developed, which creates new sources of digital evidence. This presents a challenge to law enforcement agencies and digital investigators to stay up to date with the rapid development in the digital field. This paper discusses a relatively new source of digital evidence which is the evidence extracted from Wearable devices. A Fitbit fitness tracker is one of the most common wearable devices used by many people today. This paper presents a case study whereby data extracted from a Fitbit was used as a digital evidence. The admissibility and the challenges of using Wearables as digital evidence is also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1393.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: virtual worlds; video games; players statistics; COVID-19 lockdown; digital-real crossovers; digital society
Online: 20 September 2023 (11:08:42 CEST)
The expansion of Open World Video Games (OWVGs) has seen the emergence of multiple new fictional worlds. This type of video game is characterized by total immersion in a world built for the players entertainment. What videogames developers want when players enter an OWVG is that they could feel like if they were open a door to an entirely new world and leave the real world behind. These virtual worlds manifest as a complement, an alternative, or the successor to the physical universe, and in some way continue the philosophical tradition of possible worlds begun by Leibniz. Accustomed to ‘surviving’ in hostile environments, millions of people continued to improve their skills in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic while locked in their homes. Once the pandemic seems to start to be left behind, the paper analyzes the virtual worlds created by the video games and the relations between the pandemic and these fictional worlds.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1950.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: digital Implantology; computer-guided implant surgery; digital workflows; full-arch immediate loading; surgical template
Online: 29 August 2023 (11:57:29 CEST)
A maxillary totally edentulism was rehabilitated with one-piece implants starting from pre-existing totally removable denture. A 3D digital scan of the removable denture and upper and lower arches was performed. On this basis, a prototype with optimal esthetic and functional outcomes was re-alized and turned into a custom-made radiological stent with markers. The superimposition of STL and DICOM files allowed the virtual planning of one-piece implants ideal position. The stackable templates composed of a fixed component, namely base template, and removable components, were realized. The fixed component, once secured with anchor pins to the bone, was no longer removed. The removable components, screwed to the fixed component, were used to perform the implant surgery and the immediate prosthetic loading. A base template allowed for maintaining a fixed reference during the entire workflow, improving the transition between the digital project, the surgical procedure, and the prosthetic rehabilitation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1758.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: digital intelligence empowerment; moderate scale operation of tea farmers; digital literacy; UTAUT theory; improvement
Online: 25 August 2023 (09:19:02 CEST)
In the context of digital empowerment, the digital literacy level of tea farmers has a significant impact on the intelligent development and transformation of the tea industry. This study extends the original model of UTAUT theory by introducing Personal innovativeness theory and Self-efficacy theory, and constructs a new model to explore the influencing factors of moderate scale tea farmers' digital literacy improvement behavior. There are a total of 22 research hypotheses. Using structural equation modeling and collecting questionnaire data for analysis, the following research results were obtained: (1) Performance expectancy, social influence, effort expectancy, personal innovativeness and self-efficacy all significantly positively affect the willingness of tea farmers to improve their digital literacy, and then according to the path coefficient, in descending order, social influence (0.226)>self-efficacy (0.224)>effort expectancy (0.178)>performance expectancy (0.157)> personal innovativeness (0.155); (2) Facilitating condition and willingness to improve digital literacy have a significant positive impact on tea farmers' digital literacy improvement behavior，and then from the size of the path coefficient, the willingness to improve (0.271)>facilitating condition (0.106); (3) The willingness of tea farmers to improve their digital literacy plays a complete mediating role between personal innovativeness and self-efficacy on their digital literacy improvement behavior, and partially mediates between performance expectancy, social influence, and effort expectancy on their digital literacy improvement behavior, and according to the proportion of indirect effects, the order is effort expectancy (27%), performance expectancy (47%), and social influence (49%); (4) The gender and age of tea farmers have a significant positive moderating effect on the impact of performance expectancy on the willingness to improve digital literacy; age and experience have a significant positive moderating effect on the impact of effort expectancy on the willingness to improve digital literacy; the age of tea farmers has a significant positive moderating effect on the improvement of digital literacy behavior through facilitating condition. This study extends the applicability of the UTAUT theoretical model and proposes strategies to improve the digital literacy of tea farmers, providing practical guidance for tea farmers to improve their digital literacy and providing reference for research related to farmers' digital literacy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1283.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: digital heritage; sustainable tourism development; minor heritage sites; heritage enhancement; digital tools; social inclusion
Online: 18 May 2023 (07:11:02 CEST)
Digital technologies are becoming increasingly relevant in the processes of documenting, surveying, enhancing and preserving Cultural Heritage, also through applications that are increasingly optimized and oriented towards new data management and accessibility processes. This great potential can find significant levels of application in the tourism sector, seeking new strategies to access, discover, understand cultural assets. In this direction, many digital applications have already found interesting outcomes in the tourism sector, but there is large room for improvement in the applications for “minor”, small or neglected cultural sites, not included in conventional tourism routes, which play a key-role in social inclusion and territorial cohesion, and for the development of social, economic and environmental sustainability. The paper presents a conceptual framework or possible outline to foster the use of digital technologies through a set of integrated bottom-up and top-down actions, to facilitate connections of minor sites into larger networks, contributing to search for new forms of active fruition and social participation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0467.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: corporate digital responsibility; CDR; digital technologies; corporate social responsibility; CSR; customer interface; case studies
Online: 18 April 2023 (03:26:24 CEST)
As the digital era advances, many industries continue to expand their use of digital technologies to support company operations, notably at the customer interface, bringing new commercial opportunities and increased efficiencies. However, there are new sets of responsibilities associated with the deployment of these technologies, encompassed within the emerging concept of corporate digital responsibility (CDR), which to date has received little attention in the academic literature. This exploratory paper thus looks to make a small contribution to addressing this gap in the literature. The paper adopts a qualitative, inductive research method, employing an initial scoping literature review followed by two case studies. Based on the research findings, a simple model of CDR parameters is put forward, and the article concludes with a discussion of a number of emergent issues - fair and equitable access, personal and social well-being, environmental implications, and cross-supply chain complexities - that suggest possible directions for future research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0091.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: inverse Finite Element Method; iFEM; Digital-Twin; Structural Health Monitoring; crack; Digital Image Correlation
Online: 6 February 2023 (09:04:08 CET)
The inverse Finite Element Method (iFEM) is a model-based technique to compute the displacement (and then the strain) field of a structure from strain measurements and a geometrical discretization of the same. Different literature works exploit the error between the numerically reconstructed strains and the experimental measurements to perform damage identification in a Structural Health Monitoring framework. However, only damage detection and localization are performed, without attempting a proper damage size estimation. The latter could be based on machine learning techniques, however, an a priori definition of the damage conditions would be required. To overcome these limitations, the present work proposes a new approach in which the damage is systematically introduced in the iFEM model to minimize its discrepancy with respect to the physical structure. This is performed with a maximum likelihood estimation framework, where the most accurate damage scenario is selected among a series of different models. The proposed approach is experimentally verified on an aluminum plate subjected to fatigue crack propagation, which enables the creation of a Digital-Twin of the structure itself. The strain field fed to the iFEM routine is experimentally measured with an Optical Backscatter Reflectometry fiber and the methodology is validated with independent observations of lasers and the Digital Image Correlation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0560.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: nursing education; undergraduate curricula; nursing workforce; digital literacy; information and communication technologies; digital health
Online: 31 January 2023 (01:22:38 CET)
Background and Aims: Nurses are increasingly engaging with digital technologies to enhance safe, evidence-based patient care. Digital literacy is now considered a foundational skill and an integral requirement for lifelong learning, and includes the ability to search efficiently, critique information and recognise the inherent risk of bias in information sources. However, at many universities, digital literacy is assumed. In part, this can be linked to the concept of the Digital Native, a term first coined in 2001 by the US author Marc Prensky, to describe young people born after 1980 who have been surrounded by mobile phones, computers, and other digital devices their entire lives. The objective of this paper is to explore the concept of the Digital Native and how this influences undergraduate nursing education. Materials and Methods: A pragmatic approach has been used for this narrative review, working forward from Prensky’s definition of the Digital Native and backward from contemporary sources of information extracted from published health, education, and nursing literature. Results: The findings from this narrative review will inform further understanding of digital literacy beliefs and how these influence undergraduate nursing education. Recommendations for enhancing the digital literacy of undergraduate nursing students are also discussed. Conclusions: Digital literacy is an essential requirement for undergraduate nursing students and nurses, and is linked with safe, evidence-based patient care. The myth of the Digital Native negates the reality that exposure to digital technologies does not equate with digital literacy and has resulted in deficits in nursing education programs. Digital literacy skills should be a part of undergraduate nursing curricula, and National Nursing Digital Literacy competencies for entry into practice as a Registered Nurse should be developed and contextualised to individual jurisdictions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0213.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Digital gap; academic performance; Information and Communication Technology; digital literacy; virtual education; Covid-19
Online: 15 November 2022 (01:12:52 CET)
This study analyzes the academic performance of students from an official school in Bogotá (Colombia) who had asymmetric access to Information and Communication Technologies during the first year of the Covid-19 pandemic. The Classical Linear Regression Model is employed using data from a survey of a representative group of students in the year 2020. Results show technological gaps between students that are associated with asymmetric academic performance against students with limited or null access to the Internet and electronic devices. Results also show that, among students with permanent access to the Internet, women have better scores compared to men’s scores, which implies that women can achieve better academic results than men in virtual education. It is also noted that the sole access to an electronic device does not guarantee good academic achievements if there is no full access to the Internet, and if ICT-use skills have not been developed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0090.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: flood mapping; urban flood potential; LIDAR; image segmentation; Digital Surface Model; Digital Elevation Model
Online: 8 April 2018 (10:02:20 CEST)
Degradation of environment quality is currently the prime cause of the recent occurrence of natural disasters; it also contributes in the increase of the area that is prone to natural disasters. This research is aimed to map the potential of areas around Pesanggrahan river in DKI Jakarta by segmenting the Digital Elevation Model derived from LIDAR data. The objective of this segmentation is to find the watershed lines of the DEM image. Data processing in this research is using LIDAR data which take the ground surface data, which is overlaid with Jakarta river map and subsequently, the data is then segmented the image. The expected result of the research is the flood potential area information, especially along the Pesanggrahan river in South Jakarta.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0463.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: nonlinear refractive index; noncolinear degenerate phase modulation; femtosecond pulses; quantum dots; inline digital holograms; pump-probe digital holography; diffraction patterns; digital holography; phase shift
Online: 31 January 2022 (13:23:58 CET)
We report on the application of time-resolved inline digital holography to study the nonlinear optical properties of quantum dots deposited onto the sample glass. Fresnel diffraction patterns of the probe pulse due to noncollinear degenerate phase modulation induced by the femtosecond pump pulse were extracted from the set of inline digital holograms and analyzed. Absolute values of the nonlinear refractive index of both sample glass substrate and the deposited layer of quantum dots were evaluated using the proposed technique. To characterize the inhomogeneous distribution of samples’ nonlinear optical properties we proposed to plot an optical nonlinearity map calculated as a local standard deviation of diffraction patterns intensity induced by noncollinear degenerate phase modulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0135.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: digital twin; data analytics; digital thread; workforce adaptability; technology manageability; process agility; template; action list
Online: 2 August 2023 (04:26:17 CEST)
This article sets out to examine how digital twins have been used in a multi-national corporation, what technologies have been used, what benefits delivered and the significance of people and process related issues in achieving successful implementation. A qualitative, inductive research method is used, based on interviews provided by key personnel involved in three digital twin projects. The article concludes that digital twin projects are likely to involve incremental rather than disruptive change, and that successful implementation is usually underpinned by ensuring technology, people and process change factors are progressed in a balanced and integrated fashion. Building upon existing frameworks, three “properties” are identified as being of particular value in digital twin projects - workforce adaptability, technology manageability and process agility – and a related set of steps and actions is put forward as a template and point of reference for future digital twin implementations. The findings are a contribution to the developing theory around digital twins and digitalization in general, and are also of relevance to professionals embarking on DT projects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0242.v2
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: digital controller; digital signal processors (DSP); modular multilevel converters (MMC), multi-terminal DC network (MTDC)
Online: 14 June 2018 (03:17:20 CEST)
This paper presents the design and implementation of a digital control system for modular multilevel converters (MMC) and its use in a 5-kW small scale prototype. To achieve higher system control reliability and multi-functionality, the proposed architecture has been built with an effective split of the control tasks between a master controller and six slave controllers, one for each of the six arms of the converter. The MMC prototype have been used for testing both converter and system level controls in a reduced scale laboratory set up of a Multi-Terminal DC transmission network (MTDC). The whole control has been tested in order to validate the proposed control strategies. The tests performed at system level allowed to explore the advantages of using an MMC in a MTDC system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1938.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: digitalisation; bioeconomy; entrepreneurship; digital transformation; AHP
Online: 28 July 2023 (02:38:33 CEST)
the process of rapidly digitalizing and transforming businesses, known as Industry 4.0, was already underway before COVID-19. However, the imposed restrictions during the pandemic significantly amplified the need and motivation for both businesses and consumers to utilize digital tools across all sectors including the sectors of bioeconomy. The agricultural and food production sectors have a predominant role in the bioeconomy of the European Union (EU), followed by wood production. These sectors make significant contributions not only to national economies but also to rural areas. Consequently, the digitalization of businesses within the bioeconomy sector not only transforms the enterprises and value chains themselves but also benefits the rural communities in which these enterprises are situated. This study aims to assess the barriers of the bioeconomy sector and ways to support digital transformation within this sector. The paper analyses bioeconomy in EU and the state of digitalisation in the EU. The empiric analysis is based on the cluster analysis of the digitalisation and R&D indicators of the EU and the AHP analysis that allows determining the digitalisation scenarios in Latvia, Lithuania and Poland carried out by four stake-holder groups - national government; advisory and extension; research and entrepreneurship. The results of the AHP indicate that experts from Lithuania and Poland preferred the scenario that suggested the self-initiative from the entrepreneurs of the sector, but experts from Latvia – prioritization of support for digital transformation using national and EU funding. The AHP results also indicate that the opinions of the national government, consulting, and research experts are more aligned throughout all three countries, but the opinion of entrepreneurs differs from these groups.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1226.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: CAD-CAM materials; digital dentistry; prosthodontics
Online: 18 July 2023 (11:30:38 CEST)
Clinical outcomes of dental restorations depends primarily on the choice of materials used and their fabrication processes. The spectrum of dental CAD-CAM (Computer-Aided Design Computer-Aided Manufacturing) materials presents a wide range of variables on what may be the most suitable material for the clinical case. This narrative review focuses on CAD-CAM dental materials based on their mechanical properties and in relation to their clinical applications. A literature review was performed on PubMed, Scopus, Web of Knowledge, and Cochrane Library. Articles addressing at least one of the following topics regarding dental materials for CAD-CAM systems: manufacturers, mechanical features, materials ’composition optical properties, clinical indications and / or outcomes were included in the review. A flowchart was performed as de-scribed in the PRISMA guidelines. Among the 564 articles found, 63 were analyzed and evaluated. Within the limitation of this narrative review, it can be concluded that all CAD-CAM materials presents a wide range of clinical applications due to their improved mechanical properties. Specifically, in addition to materials that have been in use for a long time (such as feldspathic ceramics), resin block composites can also be used for permanent restorations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1156.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Digital manufacturing; Quality Management; ERP; MES
Online: 16 May 2023 (10:44:22 CEST)
The rapid market changes and strong product individualization create the need for great flexibility of manufacturing management on new foundations, such as the Industry 4.0 model. Digital manufacturing is the basis for Industry 4.0, that have the following dimensions: (i) digital manufacturing based on advanced digital-oriented technologies, (ii) smart products (advanced manufacturing mode and new characteristics), and (iii) smart supply - chain (procurement of raw materials and delivery of finished products). Bidirectional exchange of information in collaborative manufacturing, using it exchange also for digital platforms of design of the innovative products. In this paper we are showing developed model of one Serbian digital factory model for Quality 4.0 (Q 4.0) , especially in workshop as a part of ERP/MES model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0783.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Online banking; Digital security; Technology implementation
Online: 23 April 2023 (07:36:13 CEST)
This research study aims to explore how during COVID-19, the adoption of online banking is impacted by various factors such as perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, perceived security, and trust. The data were collected using the primary questionnaire with 98 respondents. The study investigates the direct effect using the PLS-SEM method, and the indirect effects are analyzed using mediation analysis. The study indicates that perceived security is an important factor that impacts the adoption of online banking by self-help groups in India. Trust in online banking without allaying the fears of banking online does not lead to the adoption of technology. Perceived ease of use and ease of usage directly impact the adoption of online banking by the members of self-help groups in India. The study is the first-ever study to measure the indirect impact of trust on the intention to use online banking by the members of self-help groups in India This study has far-reaching implications for policymakers and banks. To increase the adoption of online banking, it is important to allay the fears of security among the members of self-help groups in India.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0407.v1
Online: 27 September 2022 (03:27:50 CEST)
A number of research projects and a rich literature have dealt with the theme of abandoned medieval villages in Sardinia since the end of the 60s of the last century. Some more or less precise catalogues and reviews of villages in limited territories have been published. Only recently, however, this subject is being addressed in an interdisciplinary manner, combining traditional historical research with the results of archaeological surveys and excavation campaigns, geo-archaeology, toponymy, paleoclimatology. This allows us to have a picture of the landscape and human settlement evolution with its historical changes, conditioned not only by institutional superstructures but also by human and natural traumatic events. Particular attention will be given to the sudden changes that occurred between the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. To carry out this survey, it is possible to use some very powerful IT tools which, through the aggregation, organization, correlation and management of information, allow the geo-localization of abandoned villages as proven by the documentary evidence. Thus, on this documentation, existing and acquired in the future, is founded the construction of the related information system. The most easy and suitable tools for this purpose are the CMSs (Content Management Systems) which, in association with GIS (Geographic Information Systems) engines, allow spatial and contextual analysis of the settlements, as they were inserted in their territory. This type of tools aggregates different peculiarities of the object of study, supporting a multidisciplinary reading on the argument. The computerized tools, integrated as a system, offer the possibility to implement it, feeding it and correcting it continuously, basing on new acquisitions. In this study, we will examine a historical areal, for which we have a sufficient number of sources available: Sarrabus, Colostrai and Quirra, adding to the geographical visual information, the temporal visual evolution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0335.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: children; digital media; attention; development; cognition
Online: 18 August 2022 (09:03:44 CEST)
Using digital media has become the most popular leisure activity for children and adolescents. The effects of digital media use on the developing brain and cognitive processes of children are subject to debate. Here, we examine the effect of digital media use on attention subdomains in children aged 6 to 10 years. In total, 77 children participated in the study. Selective and divided attention as well as switching between attentional demands were quantified by the SwAD task. Parents were asked to assess the screen time of their children (TV, smartphone, laptop/PC, game console, tablet). Results show no main or interaction effects of screen time on any of the attention conditions investigated. Based on the present findings, as well as previous studies, we suggest a possible non-linear relationship between the amount of screen time and attention function. Furthermore, we emphasize the relevance of considering the socio-economic background of children and a need for longitudinal studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0461.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Malaria; digital; epidemic; mixed infections; reinforcement
Online: 29 July 2022 (11:25:46 CEST)
Malaria is a long-standing disease and one of the top life-threatening diseases, yet its treatment has not changed, while the world has already embraced the Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR). A wave of research on digitizing monitoring mechanisms of such a deadly disease has surfaced. Automated malaria screening is one of the detection processes which are gaining popularity in the research domain. However, the process needs to be coupled with other processes aiming a nationally or regionally contextualised malaria monitoring system. This paper proposes a digital malaria monitoring system in the context of an African country or region. One advantage of such a digital system is that is enables a novel disease spread forecasting model based on the dynamics of different malaria types. The architecture of the diagnosis system is described, and the disease spread model is mathematically modelled in terms of a SPITR (Susceptible- Protected- Infected-Treated- Recovered) epidemic model which is further analysed. The forecasting model is expressed and analysed whereas experiments are conducted using a Monte Carlo simulation method. The design of the monitoring system has inspired how predictions can be made in the complex cases such as mixed infections. Results show that reinforcing the model parameter makes a significant improvement on the disease prediction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0179.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Information Centric Network; Authentication; Digital Signature
Online: 7 September 2021 (07:51:56 CEST)
The world is growing very rapidly concerning technology. In the next-generation Internet, the existing architecture requires to be upgraded from Host-Centric Networking paradigm to Information-centric networking architecture. The unique aspect of information-centric networking is in-network cashing. Due to the system augmentation and In-network cashing technique, this novel system needs extremely high content security to ensure system integrity and maintenance. 5G network may be supported by the Information-Centric Network due to its high data transmission rate. In order to handle the serious security issues such as attack on confidentiality, authentication and integrity of the content, a Digital Signature based Access Control Mechanism in Information-Centric Network (DSAC) scheme is proposed to enhance security of ICN. Briefly, this new scheme uses Digital Signature, hash function, Trusted Third Party (TTP) and Proxy TTP. The client request for content, after receiving a request, the content provider generates and encrypts content with the digital signature and random value ‘k’ hash function and send it to TTP. After the signing process, the TTP sends the encryption hash key to Proxy TTP. In this proposed scheme authentication, confidentiality, the integrity aspects of the content security are improved.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0725.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Citizens; Digital; Development; eGovernment; Strategy; Sustainable
Online: 31 May 2021 (09:59:07 CEST)
The research study examines the Digital government strategies of different countries and compare it with the Digital Pakistan Policy 2018. Different countries focus on the different factors/themes as per requirement of their countries and need of their citizens. Therefore, a requirement for re-search that compares the different digital government strategies has been identified. Secondary data on eGovernment strategies of different governments have been examined to investigate best practices in other countries. The qualitative data analysis software program NVivo has been used to facilitate code-based analysis of different digital government strategies. The findings and recommendations can be successfully utilized for the improvement of digital government strate-gies and its alignment with Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 2030.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0567.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: cognitive strategies; digital games; teaching; learning
Online: 21 April 2021 (10:28:48 CEST)
This paper presents a case study analyzing which learning cognitive strategies are employed by students who play digital games in both in-school and out-of-school learning contexts. As a Case Study, it falls within the qualitative research category. The researcher integrated themselves to the subjects' learning facility for data-gathering, following all recommended ethical protocols for research involving underage subjects. The following data collection instruments were used: research diary, questionnaire, and interviews, conducted with teenagers who play digital games during formal learning activities. Analysis involved data-crossing and checking our data against existing studies and theories, as well as a cartographic production. Data indicates that digital games enhance student usage of cognitive strategies and favor competencies and abilities-based learning over formal learning contents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0092.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: Digital Narrative; Reconstruction; Memory; Place Making
Online: 2 March 2021 (12:46:41 CET)
Re-creation of the past of historical buildings sits at the intersection of the spatio-temporal manifestation of cultural memories, socio-cultural meanings, values and identity re-moulds and refines the existing understanding and sense of place. Digital technologies have become a popular tool in re-creation of the past by creating a new body of knowledge and historical discourse based on identifying the gaps within our written histories. Designers and policymakers around the world have been exploring various tools and technologies such as diachronic modelling yet there is a gap in evidence-based understanding regarding the actual functioning and success of application for place making. This paper, therefore, sets out to scrutinise the role of digital technologies in facilitating digital place making. To do so, it investigates the potential of a new “digital heritage” narrative in the revival of the lost architectural narrative of the Dennys Lascelles Wool Store, Geelong. The proposed paper aims to investigate the potential of a new “digital heritage” narrative and story-telling as a means towards digital place making framework. While exploring the new and unique capabilities provided by the digital narrative in capturing, simulating and disseminating ‘lost’ heritage it will further imbue a sense of place by connecting the everyday city dweller.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0330.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: digital footprint; exploit; identity theft; technology
Online: 20 May 2020 (11:14:36 CEST)
As technology evolves, our digital footprint keeps increasing. Now, everything we do is largely related to us being online, connected and logged. Therefore, if someone’s online data is exposed, then their life will be compromised. This is called identity theft and in this era of technology, it has become one of the most serious forms of crime. When someone’s data is compromised, there is a huge chance of harming the person financially, morally and socially. New technology and the knowledge gap it creates when it first comes out is perfect for identity thieves to exploit. If we are not cautious, our future will be very different than what we dream of due to the very technology created to make it better. Hence, we need to understand the technology, identify the loopholes and educate ourselves to avoid being held captive by our digital footprint.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0188.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: digital watermarking; multiple image; transform domain
Online: 17 October 2019 (08:48:19 CEST)
In this paper, a technique of image watermarking using multiple images as watermarks is presented. The technique is based on transform domain functions including discrete wavelet transform (DWT), discrete cosine transform (DCT) and singular value decomposition (SVD) with an image as the host signal i.e. the watermarks will be used as proofs of the authenticity of the host image. The technique is executed by performing multilevel DWT followed by applying DCT and SVD to both the host and watermark. Multiple watermarks are used for the insurance of better security level. The scheme is immune to common image processing operations & some attacks and exhibits PSNR of 108.3781dB, normalized cross correlation (NCC) over 0.99 and normalized correlation (NC) over 0.99.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0130.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: data; cooperatives; open data; data stewardship; data governance; digital commons; data sovereignty; open digital federation platform
Online: 7 April 2023 (14:14:02 CEST)
Network effects, economies of scale, and lock-in-effects increasingly lead to a concentration of digital resources and capabilities, hindering the free and equitable development of digital entrepreneurship (SDG9), new skills, and jobs (SDG8), especially in small communities (SDG11) and their small and medium-sized enterprises (“SMEs”). To ensure the affordability and accessibility of technologies, promote digital entrepreneurship and community well-being (SDG3), and protect digital rights, we propose data cooperatives [1,2] as a vehicle for secure, trusted, and sovereign data exchange [3,4]. In post-pandemic times, community/SME-led cooperatives can play a vital role by ensuring that supply chains to support digital commons are uninterrupted, resilient, and decentralized . Digital commons and data sovereignty provide communities with affordable and easy access to information and the ability to collectively negotiate data-related decisions. Moreover, cooperative commons (a) provide access to the infrastructure that underpins the modern economy, (b) preserve property rights, and (c) ensure that privatization and monopolization do not further erode self-determination, especially in a world increasingly mediated by AI. Thus, governance plays a significant role in accelerating communities’/SMEs’ digital transformation and addressing their challenges. Cooperatives thrive on digital governance and standards such as open trusted Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) that increase the efficiency, technological capabilities, and capacities of participants and, most importantly, integrate, enable, and accelerate the digital transformation of SMEs in the overall process. This policy paper presents and discusses several transformative use cases for cooperative data governance. The use cases demonstrate how platform/data-cooperatives, and their novel value creation can be leveraged to take digital commons and value chains to a new level of collaboration while addressing the most pressing community issues. The proposed framework for a digital federated and sovereign reference architecture will create a blueprint for sustainable development both in the Global South and North.
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Industrial Internet of Things; Cyber Physical Systems; Internet of Everything; Industry 4.0; Digital Industry; Digital Economy
Online: 14 September 2020 (05:47:48 CEST)
This article conducts a literature review of current and future challenges in the use of artificial intelligence (AI) in cyber physical systems. The literature review is focused on identifying a conceptual framework for increasing resilience with AI through automation supporting both, a technical and human level. The methodology applied resembled a literature review and taxonomic analysis of complex internet of things (IoT) interconnected and coupled cyber physical systems. There is an increased attention on propositions on models, infrastructures and frameworks of IoT in both academic and technical papers. These reports and publications frequently represent a juxtaposition of other related systems and technologies (e.g. Industrial Internet of Things, Cyber Physical Systems, Industry 4.0 etc.). We review academic and industry papers published between 2010 and 2020. The results determine a new hierarchical cascading conceptual framework for analysing the evolution of AI decision-making in cyber physical systems. We argue that such evolution is inevitable and autonomous because of the increased integration of connected devices (IoT) in cyber physical systems. To support this argument, taxonomic methodol- ogy is adapted and applied for transparency and justifications of concepts selection decisions through building summary maps that are applied for designing the hierarchical cascading conceptual framework.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1890.v2
Online: 15 September 2023 (05:06:15 CEST)
This research examines the impact of social equity on energy consumption. We constructed a digital twin for residential energy consumption by enriching the synthetic population with real-world surveys and feeding them with other environmental and appliance data to the energy modeling framework. We analyzed household hourly energy consumption data from Albemarle County and Charlottesville City in Virginia, USA, for the year 2019. We used clustering analysis to identify patterns in social equity and energy consumption. The results demonstrated the impact of different residential attributes on energy poverty. Statistical analyses, including ANOVA and Chi-Squared tests, were conducted to test for significant differences between racial groups in quantitative and categorical variables. The study found that race is significant in determining the location and quality of housing. People of color often live in areas with higher pollution and less access to green spaces. Additionally, income levels and the age of the house are influential factors in determining energy efficiency. Future work should focus on collecting and analyzing data at the country level and using qualitative data collection methods to gain a more comprehensive understanding of social equity issues concerning energy consumption. Overall, this study provides valuable insights into the relationship between different residential attributes and energy consumption, which can inform policy development to promote more equitable and sustainable communities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0868.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: inequalities; digital media; communications; pedagogy; mental health
Online: 13 September 2023 (10:42:06 CEST)
This paper applies conceptualization from Paulo Freire, Tracey Nicholls, and bell hooks to develop a framework to understand art- and media-based communication of knowledge. Increasing use of art and digital media in research and formal educational settings emphasize knowledge-communication intent, and the theory attempts to rationalize why individuals potentially devalue, discard, or misconstrue messaging. Drawing upon two case studies: children’s literature, and existing scholarship on true crime as a media genre, the framework proposes art and media consumption based on perceived task-applicability of art and media. Stemming from the complex nature of socially-imposed, self-determined, and art- & media-instated tasks that an individual may face throughout their lifetime, an individual may be drawn to Freirean power and privilege - even fictional depictions - as societal structures can grant power and privilege with universal task-applicability. Potential usage of this framework towards participatory, qualitative inquiries conclude the paper, in attempt to support future art and media designed with knowledge-communication intent.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0284.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: VNNV; Diagnosis; Validation; dPCR; droplet digital PCR.
Online: 3 August 2023 (10:44:12 CEST)
The viral nervous necrosis virus (VNNV) is the causative agent of an important disease affecting fish species cultured worldwide. Early and accurate diagnosis is at present the most effective control and prevention tool, and the molecular techniques have been strongly introduced and accepted by official organizations. Among those, real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (rt-qPCR) is nowadays displacing other molecular techniques. However, another PCR-based technology, the droplet digital PCR (ddPCR), is on the increase. It has many advantages over qPCR, such as higher sensitivity and more reliability of the quantification. Therefore, we decided to design and validate a protocol for diagnosis and quantification of SJ and RG type VNNV, using reverse transcription-ddPCR (RT-ddPCR). We obtained an extremely low limit of detection, 10 to 100-folds lower than with RT-qPCR. Quantification by RT-ddPCR, with a dynamic range of 6.8 – 6.8 x 104 (SJ type) or 1.04 x 101 – 1.04 x 105 (RG) cps/rctn, was more reliable than with RT-qPCR. The procedure was tested and validated in field samples, providing the high clinical sensitivity and negative predictive values. In conclusion, we propose this method to substitute RT-qPCR protocols because it exceeds the expectations of qPCR in the diagnosis and quantification of VNNV.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1517.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Sustainable Tourism; Blockchain; Digital Innovation; Cases Study
Online: 21 June 2023 (09:54:27 CEST)
This article presents a comprehensive review of the relationship in sustainable tourism and blockchain technology. The aim of this research is to explore the potential of blockchain to promote sustainable tourism, as well as to evaluate the current state of research and practical implementations in this field. The findings demonstrate the potential of blockchain in enhancing sustainability practices in tourism, while also highlighting the challenges and limitations. The study provides valuable insights for policymakers, industry practitioners, and researchers, and proposes future research directions to further advance the field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0224.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: Metaverse; AR; VR; Digital ownership; Blockchain; NFT.
Online: 14 February 2023 (02:59:00 CET)
The concept of a metaverse, a shared virtual space that brings together the physical and digital worlds, has been a topic of interest for decades. With recent advancements in technology, particularly in virtual reality (VR), augmented reality (AR), and blockchain, the metaverse has become a rapidly evolving and promising ecosystem. This paper provides a review of the metaverse, exploring its history, evolution, and current state of development. The paper delves into the different types of the metaverse, including fully immersive VR metaverses, hybrid metaverses that blend the physical and virtual worlds, and decentralized metaverses that are powered by blockchain. Additionally, the paper examines the impact of web 3.0 on the metaverse, as well as the various technologies used to create and sustain the metaverse, including VR, AR, and blockchain. Furthermore, the paper explores the concept of digital ownership and the potential for marketing and commerce within the metaverse. This paper serves as a review of the metaverse and its various components, providing insights into its history, development, and prospects, and is intended to provide a foundation for further research into this exciting and rapidly evolving ecosystem.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0441.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: digital learning; CiteSpace; visualization; Web of Science
Online: 29 July 2022 (02:48:11 CEST)
The objective of this research is to establish a better understanding of the current landscape of digital learning research and sustainable development by using CiteSpace. First, we retrieved published publications from the Web of Science (2004–2022). Following that, we examined the primary research strengths and important subjects of digital learning from two perspectives: collaboration networks (including collaborative networks across countries, institutions, and authors) and co-citation networks. We examined the co-citation network from three perspectives: cluster analysis, the most active citers, top references. Furthermore, referenced journals, popular themes, and rising trends were examined. These findings indicate the primary study subjects in the field of digital learning, the most intriguing research literature, and each period's emerging research hotspots. Finally, we proposed further study ideas for future paths.
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Configuration effect; QCA; Burdensome impact; Digital tool
Online: 20 June 2022 (10:36:10 CEST)
[Research Objective] In the context of the rapid development of digital governance, understanding and analyzing the burden level of digital tools in the process of serving digital governance from multiple perspectives is an important prerequisite for improving the capacity and accuracy of government digital governance, promoting sustainable public participation, and maximizing digital value in the new era. [Research Method] By constructing a model of the burden of digital tools caused by technical, organizational and environmental factors on the public based on the TOE framework, using SPSS for data testing based on 275 research questionnaires, and using fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) to explore the linkage ways and paths of the burden-increasing effect of digital tools in a holistic perspective. [Research findings] does not constitute a necessary condition for high levels of digital tool affordances under a single condition, but improving users' digital literacy plays a more general role in optimising the efficiency of digital tool use. According to the results, there are five dominant patterns that have a significant impact, i.e. the driving paths that lead to high levels of digital tool affordability are characterised by a "homogeneous approach". In the cross-group study, significant differences were found in the driving paths of high digital tool affordability by group, depending on the level of digital tool mastery. This paper suggests that the government should continue to pay attention to affordability levels, rationalise the use of financial resources, improve the level of digital tool adaptation, and innovate the existing performance evaluation system for digital governance indicators.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0208.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: behaviour change; digital intervention; COVID-19; school
Online: 15 March 2022 (11:05:30 CET)
The rapid transmission of COVID-19 in school communities has been a major concern. To ensure that mitigation systems were in place and support was available, a digital intervention to encourage and facilitate infection control behaviours was rapidly adapted and optimised for implementation as a whole school intervention. Using the person-based approach, ‘Germ Defence’ was iteratively adapted, guided by relevant literature, co-production with Patient and Public Involvement representatives, and think aloud interviews with forty-five school students, staff, and parents. Suggested infection control behaviours deemed feasible and acceptable by the majority of participants included handwashing/hand-sanitising and wearing a face covering in certain contexts such as crowded public spaces. Promoting a sense of collective responsibility was reported to increase motivation for the adoption of these behaviours. However, acceptability and willingness to implement recommended behaviours seemed to be influenced by participants’ perceptions of risk. Barriers to the implementation of recommended behaviours in school and at home primarily related to childcare needs and physical space. We conclude that it was possible to rapidly adapt Germ Defence to provide an acceptable resource to help mitigate against infection transmission within and from school settings. Adapted content was considered acceptable, persuasive, and accessible.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0057.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: digitalisation; digital learning; mental health; parenting; China
Online: 3 March 2022 (07:50:28 CET)
While a raft of existing Chinese literature examines the associations between the outbreak of the pandemic and students’ mental health, rarely do Chinese studies assess the nuanced relationships between digital learning, parenting, and students’ mental health since the coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak. Such a rarely discussed topic has substantial scholarly value as mismanagement of digital learning and parenting, such as the exposure to cyberbullying and negative parenting during the public health crisis, could add substantial, unforeseeable psychological burdens for Chinese students. In this article, the author applied a systematic review to find all relevant Chinese literature that contains the words “digital learning”, “children/adolescents”, “mental health”, and “parenting” published since January 2020. As such a complex topic has rarely been addressed in Chinese contexts, the author was only able to find four related scholarly articles. The author summarises the arguments and empirical findings to explore the nuanced relationships between a) digitalisation, isolation, parenting, and children’s mental health, b) parenting, teacher-student relationships, and students’ mental health, and c) maternal and paternal parenting styles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0556.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Museology Keywords: Covid-19; digital culture; museums; reality; digitality
Online: 30 November 2021 (10:47:20 CET)
Museums increasingly recognize the need to address advances in digital culture which impact the expectations and needs of their audiences. Museum collections of real objects need to be presented both on their own premises and digitally online, especially as social media becomes more and more influential in people’s everyday lives. We investigate these challenges magnified by advances in digital and computational media and culture looking particularly at recent and relevant reports on changes in the ways museums interact with the public. We find that the Covid-19 pandemic has accelerated many of the changes driving museum transformation. We believe that museums must be more prepared than ever to adapt to unabated technological advances set in the midst of cultural and social revolution, now intrinsic to the digital landscape in which museums are inevitably connected and participating across the global digital ecosystem where they inevitably find themselves entrenched.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0456.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: children; digital games; executive function; motor skills.
Online: 29 October 2021 (14:03:58 CEST)
Studies show that executive functions and motor development are associated among each other and with learning ability. A more technological lifestyle, related with digital culture, should be considered an important component to stimulate children. In addition, digital games constitute an element of the digital culture in which children are inserted. The aim of this study is to present a systematic mapping of the literature involving executive functions, motor development and the use of digital games in intervention programs for elementary school children, from 6 to 11 years old. Four databases were searched: PubMed, Scielo, Science Direct and SCOPUS, including publications between 2012 and March 2021. The initial results indicated 4881 works. After the selection process, 15 investigations that presented the central theme of the study were selected. The main results indicate that intervention strategies are quite heterogeneous. Most of the studies demonstrated significant positive effects after intervention protocols and were conducted in Europe and 46% of the studies were conducted in a school environment. No researches were identified that involved technological solutions involving executive functions, motor development and digital games in an integrated manner, constituting a field of future scientific research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0371.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: COVID-19; digital data collection; qualitative; Zimbabwe
Online: 22 September 2021 (10:20:11 CEST)
The newly discovered coronavirus (COVID-19) has disrupted traditional methods of conducting research, particularly qualitative research. However, there remains a number of methods by which qualitative data can still be collected. These include the use of digital voice, video, and text-based tools, online surveys, and content analysis. Text-based sources can help to overcome the limitations of time and space, and also can be cost-effective. This chapter draws from data collected from 12 participants across Zimbabwe and demonstrates how these tools can be used to generate data or to sample data that is already available to satisfy research questions and meet research objectives. It recommends researchers to experiment with new ways of collecting qualitative data while also observing safety protocols and ethical considerations.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Breast cancer; PIK3CA; digital PCR; Sanger sequencing
Online: 5 July 2021 (14:00:22 CEST)
PIK3CA is a gene usually mutated in breast cancer and has an important role in tumor progression and treatment. Therefore, there is required a technique to detect low-rate PIK3CA mutations improving the clinical conduct. This study aimed to compare chip-based dPCR and Sanger sequencing to detect PIK3CA mutations in breast cancer patients. Fifty-seven tumor samples from breast cancer patients were collected and analyzed by Sanger sequencing and dPCR for PIK3CA mutations (E545K, H1047R, and H1047L). Digital PCR sensitivity, specificity, and overall performance were estimated by contingency tables, receptor operator characteristic (ROC), and area under the curve (AUC). Sanger sequencing identified PIK3CA mutations in six patients (10.5%), two with H1047R, and four with E545K. Digital PCR confirmed those mutations and identified 19 additional patients with at least one mutation. Comparison between dPCR and Sanger sequencing showed a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI 53-100%), and a specificity of 84.2% (95% CI 83 - 84.2%). Besides, H1047R mutation showed a significant association with breast cancer phenotype (p =0.019) and lymphatic node infiltration (p =0.046). Digital PCR showed a high sensitivity to detect mutations in tumor samples and it might be capable to detect low-rate mutations and tumor subpopulations not detected by Sanger sequencing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0348.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: character education; the millennial generation; digital era
Online: 14 June 2021 (10:36:05 CEST)
Character education is essential for the current millennial generation and must be applied in everyday life in the surrounding community. The character of the millennial generation is different from the previous generation, which requires us to pay more attention to character education which is starting to erode along with the times. The Millennial generation is a generation that in everyday life can never be separated from science and technology. In this digital era, the millennial generation has a social function of strength in technology. In this study, there are research questions that will be discussed in this article, namely the first regarding what problems occur in the millennial generation who occupy the digital era?. Second, what is the important role and influence of the digital era on character education for the millennial generation in Indonesia?. Writing this article uses a qualitative research method, namely a literature review study, where researchers use or look for references from journals or books. Samples of respondents were taken randomly from each region, and there were ten respondents. From this research, it is found that the millennial generation in the digital era chooses to use social media to access the latest news and information rather than reading print media that contains education. This article aims to find out the importance of character education for the millennial generation, which is starting to erode with the times in the digital era. Many people underestimate character education, especially for the current millennial generation. Therefore, we must implement educational programs at any level, especially in Indonesia, because the character shows the national identity. This article will discuss the vital role and influence of character education for millennials who live in the digital era to be aware of the importance of character education in citizenship.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0329.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Colonial Era; Digital Era; Education; History; Transformation
Online: 14 June 2021 (07:49:14 CEST)
ABSTRACT Education is the most important instrument in human life because education can increase human dignity. In addition, education can also be a benchmark for human quality and an example of the progress of a nation. The history of education in Indonesia has evolved from the colonial era to the digital era. These developments have influenced government policies in every era. In the 21st century, the development of education in Indonesia is starting to show progress. This is because it is supported by the rapid growth of information and technology. This research article aims to analyze the educational policies carried out by the government from the colonial era to the digital era to be used as evaluation material at this time so that in the future education in Indonesia is even better. To achieve this goal, this research focuses on the question of how is the transformation of education in Indonesia from the colonial era to the digital era? and what is the paradigm of education in Indonesia when viewed from a historical perspective?. The research method used is the Literature Review method from 27 sources in journal articles, websites, and data reports for 2019-2021. The results of this study found that changes in the Indonesian education system from time to time have a positive influence on the progress of the Indonesian nation. The development of education in Indonesia also has an impact on increasing the Human Development Index (HDI). This shows that the quality of Indonesian society is increasing. Based on the results obtained, it is hoped that it can provide information about the transformation of education in Indonesia from the colonial era to the digital era from a historical perspective. This article is suitable as a reference source for education observers in Indonesia to know the history of education and its policies from the colonial era to the digital era and useful for academics to know the history of education in Indonesia. This research has limitations, namely this research is only limited to the development of education in Indonesia from the colonial era to the digital era and the paradigm of education development in Indonesia from a historical perspective.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0143.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: e-mail; scientific productivity; internet; digital era
Online: 8 October 2019 (11:40:06 CEST)
From professors overwhelmed by anxiety-driven e-mails from students, through faculty and administrative staff wasting valued time on e-mail minutia, misuse of electronic mail in the academy has become ubiquitous. After a brief overview of the unique features of e-mail communication, this study provides insight and guidelines to plan new educational activities on healthy and productive utilization of e-mail in the academy of the digital era. The overall aim is to prioritize scholarly deep work by focusing on teaching and research work, freeing working time wasted on unproductive use of e-mail.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0163.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Software Keywords: ethnobotany; paleoethnobotany; biocultural heritage; digital heritage; online database; Indigenous data sovereignty; Open Access; research accessiblity; digital reference collection
Online: 9 December 2021 (20:01:36 CET)
Biocultural heritage preservation relies on ethnobotanical knowledge and the paleoethnobotanical data used in (re)constructing histories of human-biota interactions. Biocultural heritage, defined as the knowledge and practices of Indigenous and Local peoples and their biological relatives, is often guarded information, meant for specific audiences and withheld from other social circles. As such, these forms of heritage and knowledge must also be included in the ongoing data sovereignty discussions and movement. In this paper we share the process and design decisions behind creating an online database for ethnobotanical knowledge and associated paleoethnobotanical data, using a content management system designed to foreground Indigenous and local perspectives. Our main purpose is to suggest the Mukurtu content management system, originally designed for physical items of cultural importance, be considered as a potential tool for digitizing and ethically circulating biocultural heritage, including paleoethnobotanical resources. With this database, we aim to create access to biocultural heritage and paleoethnobotanical considerations for a variety of audiences while also respecting the protected and sensitive natures of Indigenous and local knowledges.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0223.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: digitization; virtualization; digital twin; blockchain; crowdsourcing; decentralization; non-fungible token; NFT; smart contract; oracle; tokenization; digital ownership; consensus; governance; trust; incentivization; staking; reputation systems; reproducibility crisis; exponentiality; digital twin; metaverse; DeSci; decentralized science; citizen science; open science; distributed ledger; digital scarcity
Online: 17 May 2022 (05:50:03 CEST)
Fundamental science and applied research and technology development (RTD) are facing significant challenges that particularly compound to the notorious credibility, reproducibility, funding and sustainability crises. The underlying, serious shortcomings are substantially amplified by a metrics-obsessed publication culture, and a growing cohort of academics fishing for fairly stagnant (public) funding budgets. This work presents, for the first time, a groundbreaking strategy to successfully address these severe issues; the novel strategy proposed here leverages the distributed ledger technology (DLT) “blockchain” to capitalize on cryptoeconomic mechanisms, such as tokenization, consensus, crowdsourcing, smart contracts, reputation systems as well as staking, reward and slashing mechanisms. This powerful toolbox, which is so far widely unfamiliar to traditional scientific and RTD communities (“TradSci”), is synergistically combined with the exponentially growing computing capabilities for virtualizing experiments through digital twin methods in a future scientific “metaverse”. Project contributions, such as hypotheses, methods, experimental data, modelling, simulation, assessment, predictions and directions are crowdsourced using blockchain, and captured by so-called non-fungible tokens (“NFTs”). The so enabled, highly integrative approach, termed decentralized science (“DeSci”), is destined to move research out of its present silos, and to markedly enhance quality, credibility, efficiency, transparency, inclusiveness, sustainability, impact, and sustainability of a wide spectrum of academic and commercial research initiatives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1896.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: biochips; Digital Microfluidic Biochips; deep reinforcement learning; optimization
Online: 27 September 2023 (11:24:50 CEST)
Digital Microfluidic Biochips (DMFBs), used in various kinds of fields like DNA analysis, clinical diagnosis, and PCR testing, have made biochemical experiments more compact, efficient, and user-friendly than previous ways. However, their reliability is often compromised by their inability to adapt to all kinds of errors. All errors in biochips can be categorized into two types: known errors and unknown errors. Known errors are detectable before the start of the routing process through sensors or cameras. Unknown errors, in contrast, become apparent only during the routing process and remain undetected by sensors or cameras, which is the biggest issue to unexpectedly stop the routing process and diminishes the reliability of biochips. This paper introduces a deep reinforcement learning-based routing algorithm designed to manage not only known errors but also unknown errors. Our experiments demonstrate that our algorithm outperforms previous ones in terms of the success rate of the routing in the scenario including both known errors and unknown errors. Additionally, our algorithm contributes to detecting unknown errors during the routing process and identifying the most efficient routing path with high probability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1266.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: digitization; digital transformation; manufacturing export enterprises; enterprise performance
Online: 17 August 2023 (07:32:38 CEST)
At present, countries around the world adopt digital strategy, so that enterprises apply digital technology, digital supply chain, blockchain, and a series of digital measures to enhance their competitiveness. By analyzing the relationship between digital transformation of manufacturing export enterprises, and their business performance and export performance, this paper focused on the current situation and existing problems of digital transformation of manufacturing export enterprises in China. Based on the Resource Based View theory and Trade theory, the impact of digital transformation of enterprises performance, proposing hypotheses, and building regression models were explored. With the samples of 1007 listed companies in Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock markets from 2012 to 2019, the regression analysis, intermediate effect test, robustness test, stage lag, and heterogeneity analysis were conducted. The results shew that: (1) Listed manufacturing export enterprises carried out digital transformation, which had a significantly positive effect on enterprise performance; (2) It was found that digital transformation could improve enterprise performance by reducing costs, improving R&D intensity and improving human resources etc. (3) According to the fractal analysis, non-state-owned enterprises had more positive effects on enterprise performance, and digital transformation of manufacturing export enterprises in developed areas had a more significant impact on enterprise performance. Finally, according to the empirical results, relevant suggestions for digital transformation were provided.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1191.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: data science; artificial intelligence; machine-learning; digital medicine
Online: 16 August 2023 (10:11:45 CEST)
Recent advances in mathematical modelling and artificial intelligence have challenged the use of traditional regression analysis in biomedical research. This study examined artificial and cancer research data using binomial and multinomial logistic regression and compared its performance with other machine learning models such as random forests, support vector machines, Bayesian classifiers, k-nearest neighbours and repeated incremental clipping (RIPPER). The alternative models often outperformed regression in accurately classifying new cases. Logistic regression had a structural problem similar to early single-layer neural networks, which limited its ability to identify variables with high statistical significance for reliable class assignment. Therefore, regression is not always the best model for class prediction in biomedical datasets. The study emphasises the importance of validating selected models and suggests that a mixture of experts approach may be a more advanced and effective strategy for analysing biomedical datasets.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: ChatGPT; Artificial intelligence; chatbot; Open AI; Digital engineering.
Online: 16 August 2023 (09:59:35 CEST)
Herein are reported the main pros and cons of using the conversational Artificial Intelligence (AI) called “ChatGPT” as a tool to write essays in the academic and scientific community. Also, selected mathematical and scientific problems were solved to determine the effectiveness of this platform. To this end, a systematic case study was designed and conducted to obtain data generated by the chatbot that was further analyzed. Six different topics were chosen for the essay evaluation, and the introduction section was created using this AI. Meanwhile, six mathematical problems related to integrals, z-transform, Laplace transform, and resolution of ordinary differential equations were solved. Furthermore, a scientific problem associated with the structural properties of material was also solved. After data analysis, we concluded that the conversational platform could quickly create written essays with well-structured words. Nonetheless, in almost all cases, the chatbot only used basic information to complete the introduction, and no critical writing was obtained. For the mathematical case study, we observed that under the current status of the ChatGPT, this platform has no ability or skills to solve complex equations. Thus, significant changes need to be conducted to improve the performance of ChatGPT for mathematical solutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0040.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Security Systems Keywords: Malware Analysis; Cyber Threat Intelligence; IPTV; Digital Investigations
Online: 2 August 2023 (05:29:15 CEST)
Technologies providing copyright-infringing IPTV content are a commonly used, as an illegal alternative to legal IPTV subscriptions and services, as they usually have lower monetary costs, and can be more convenient for the users that follow content from different sources. These infringing IPTV technologies may include websites, software, software add-ons, and physical set-top boxes. Due to the free or low cost of illegal IPTV technologies, illicit IPTV content providers will often resort to intrusive advertising, scams, and the distribution of malware to increase their revenue. We developed an automated solution for collecting and analysing malware from illegal IPTV technologies and used it to analyse a sample of illicit IPTV websites, application (app) stores, and software. Our results show that our IPTV Technologies Malware Analysis Framework (IITMAF) classified 32 of the 60 sample URLs tested as malicious, compared to running the same test using publicly available online anti-virus solutions, which only detected 23 of the 60 sample URLs as malicious. Moreover, the IITMAF framework also detected malicious URLs and files from 31 of the sample’s websites, one of which had reported ransomware behaviour.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1842.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Internet use; digital competences; online safety; basic education
Online: 27 July 2023 (09:47:48 CEST)
The conditions for safe Internet access and the development of skills enabling full participation in online environments are recognized in the Council of Europe’s strategy for child rights, from 2022. The guarantee of this right has implications for experiences inside and outside the school context. Therefore, this article aims to compare the perceptions of students from different educational levels, who participated in a digital storytelling workshop, regarding online safety, searching habits, and digital competences. Data were collected through a questionnaire survey completed by 84 Portuguese students from elementary and secondary schools. A non-parametric multivariate analysis of variance was used to identify differences as children advance across educational stages. The results revealed that secondary students tend to spend more time online, and demonstrated more advanced search skills. Interestingly, the youngest children exhibited higher competences in creating games and practicing safety measures regarding online postings. These findings emphasize the importance of schools, in a joint action with the educational community, including parents, teachers and students, developing a coordinated and vertically integrated approach to digital education that considers the children's current knowledge, attitudes, and skills as a starting point for pedagogical intervention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1666.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Security Systems Keywords: cybersecurity; digital forensics; cyber threats; forensic investigator; python
Online: 25 July 2023 (07:56:11 CEST)
This article delves deeply into digital forensics, covering computer forensics, network 1 forensics, and mobile device forensics. It analyzes the techniques and methodologies used by forensic 2 investigators in various disciplines. It underlines the diffculties investigators encounter and the 3 importance of thorough investigations to combat ever-increasing cyber risks. The paper emphasizes 4 the necessity of leveraging digital forensic tools to improve cybersecurity and provides a thorough 5 list of widely used Python libraries suitable for each investigation strategy, allowing for effective 6 comparison. Furthermore, it emphasizes the availability and suitability of these Python libraries in 7 computer device investigations (PyTSK3, Volatility, Pyregf, and Pyevtx), mobile device investigations 8 (Pytsk3, Volatility, Pyewf, dfVFS, Androguard, and pyMobileDevice), and network forensics (Scapy, 9 Bro/Zeek, Dpkt, pypcap, and NetworkX). The creation of these libraries recognizes the complexities 10 of digital crimes and the importance of applying modern techniques in forensic investigations. 11 Particularly, digital forensics plays an important role for healthcare providers because modern 12 medical devices produce, store, and transmit large amounts of patient and therapy information, 13 which could provide a forensic investigator with a treasure trove of potential digital evidence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1117.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: history; endowments; query model; digital data; physical data
Online: 17 July 2023 (15:11:18 CEST)
Historical and Endowment Properties are different from Heritage and cultural Properties, as Historical and Endowment properties are governed by a unique set of laws that Waqf recipients must abide by. Property that is entrusted is usually in the form of buildings, land or valuables which in preservation is not limited to time as long as the property can be utilized. Reliable information technology is needed to ensure data security both digitally and physically, while the rapid development of information technology demands information openness and this will be a challenge in itself. The objectives of this study include examining the collection of historical databases and endowments, the relationship between digital data and physical data and management organizations. The method of how to design a query model to display data is then analyzed whether the data conforms to the rules in waqf management. The results are expected to bring up accurate data between digital data and physical data and if there are differences into findings for the next analysis.