ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0272.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Software Keywords: COVID-19, Education App, Biochemist, Global issue analyst
Online: 27 November 2023 (07:02:05 CET)
AbstractBackground: The World Health Organization (WHO) said the situation in India was a "devastating reminder" of what the coronavirus could do. COVID-19 cases suddenly spiked across India. Union Health Minister Harsh Vardhan has said that one of the major reasons for the spike in coronavirus cases was people not following COVID-appropriate behaviour. The Union minister noted that the sudden rise in cases is largely or maybe event-driven comprising local body elections, grand weddings, and farmers' protest. These events may cause asymptomatic covid-19 carriers to spread wide covid-19 to others. Malaysia is also facing a surge in Covid-19 may due to the spread of covid-19 by asymptomatic covid-19 carriers. Therefore, it is important to develop an application that can publicize information on asymptomatic covid-19 carriers. The purpose of this application is to provide sufficient information and scientific research evidence to ensure that prevention strategies for asymptomatic covid-19 carriers must be implemented. The app is also open to anyone who uses it to educate others so that information can be shared more quickly to prevent other countries from becoming "Second India or Malaysia".Method: The homepage of the app shows that asymptomatic covid-19 carriers may have a lower viral load, the same viral load, or a higher viral load than symptomatic covid-19 carriers. When the user app is pressed by each category, they will see sufficient information and scientifically based research evidence about each category. These apps also show the evidence that on January 13, 2021 - Malaysian Health Department Director Dr Noor Hisham Abdullah instructs test Only those Close Contacts With Symptoms and The Malaysian Medical Association (MMA) has urged the Health Ministry to urgently improve the management of mild Covid-19 cases and revert to its policy of testing all close contacts. In addition, These apps also show App raise public awareness of the importance of COVID-19 vaccination(version 4) [Peter Chew, 2021] can intuitively see that countries with high vaccination rates can solve the problem of asymptomatic transmission of covid-19 carriers.Result: This application displays sufficient information and scientifically based research evidence to prove asymptomatic covid-19 carriers are the main key to the outbreak of covid-19. Some countries are using covid-19 symptom prevention strategies. They are only testing the symptomatic closed contact of covid-19 patients, because they may think that asymptomatic covid-19 carrier is just a low viral load and a low transmission rate, which is wrong. Some asymptomatic covid-19 carriers of covid-19 have high viral loads. The accumulation of asymptomatic covid-19 carriers with high viral load is the main cause of the covid-19 outbreak. Conclusion: Three apps have been developed to educate the public about the importance of asymptomatic covid-19 carriers. The asymptomatic covid-19 carrier education app (1) will provide sufficient information and scientific research evidence to educate citizens of any country to ensure that preventive strategies must be implemented for asymptomatic carriers to prevent the country’s Covid-19 outbreak. App, Game Base Learning to Prevent Infection from COVID-19 (version 3) [Peter Chew, 2020 ]. The app allows anyone to intuitively see that when the second wave covid-19 arrives, the accumulation of a large number of asymptomatic carriers in some countries has led to the high infection rate of covid-19. This is what is happening in India now. App raise public awareness of the importance of COVID-19 vaccination(version 4) can intuitively see that countries with high vaccination rates can solve the problem of asymptomatic transmission of covid-19 carriers. This is what is happening in Israel now.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0246.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: COVID-19; university student; socio-demographic factors, satisfaction; perception; online learning; mental health; habits; institutions; continents
Online: 19 August 2020 (08:20:09 CEST)
The paper presents the most comprehensive and large-scale study to date on how students perceive the impacts of the COVID-19 crisis on various aspects of their lives on a global level. With a sample of 30,383 students from 62 countries, the study reveals that amid the worldwide lockdown and transition to online learning students were most satisfied with the support provided by teaching staff and their universities’ public relations. Still, deficient computer skills and the perception of a higher workload prevented them from perceiving their own improved performance in the new teaching environment. Students were mainly concerned about issues to do with their future professional career and studies, and experienced boredom, anxiety and frustration. The pandemic has led to the adoption of particular hygienic behaviours (e.g. wearing masks, washing hands) and discouraged certain daily practices (e.g. leaving home, shaking hands). Students were also more satisfied with the role played by hospitals and universities during the epidemic compared to the government and banks. The findings also show that students with selected socio-demographic characteristics (male, part-time, first level, applied sciences, lower living standard, from Africa or Asia) were generally more strongly affected by the pandemic since they were significantly less satisfied with their academic work/life. Key factors influencing students' satisfaction with the role of their university are also identified. Policymakers and higher education institutions around the world may benefit from these findings while formulating policy recommendations and strategies to support students during this and any future pandemics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0480.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: COVID-19 death rates; COVID-19 vaccines; hydroxychloroquine; ivermectin; rates of COVID-19 testing; containment measures; social distancing; travel restriction,
Online: 25 November 2022 (10:16:41 CET)
Objectives to assess COVID-19 mortality rates per country population. To determine what if any independent country-specific variables from 9 different databases were correlated. Design population based retrospective cohort study. Setting analysis of global COVID-19 treatment and containment strategies using data from 9 worldwide websites. Participants 108 countries worldwide. Interventions none. Main Outcome Measures were COVID-19 death rates per country population analyzed by univariate and multivariate analysis. The main outcome parameters were to determine if there are any correlations between the percentage of countrywide COVID-19 deaths/population by the countries’ percent vaccinated. Secondary outcome measures include the effect of other independent variables on COVID-19 death rates per country population including: health expenditures per capita, annual income per capita, COVID-19 tests per 1000 people, stringency index (a measure of each countries containment strategies), hydroxychloroquine score (a measure of each countries use), ivermectin score (a measure of each countries use), hypertension, obesity, diabetes, and specific countries and geographic locations. Results COVID-19 vaccination rates ranged from 0-99% in 108 countries. Univariate analysis demonstrates the following independent variables to correlate with COVID-19 deaths/population (correlation coefficient, p value): countrywide COVID-19 vaccination rates (+0.2936, p=0.002); healthcare costs per capita (+0.3212, p=0.0007), income per capita (+0.3051, p=0.0013), COVID-19 tests per 1000 population (+0.6981 p=0.0307); stringency index (+0.3098, p=0.0011); hydroxychloroquine index (-0.1337, p=0.0678); and ivermectin index (-0.1383, p=0.1535). Conclusions Increasing rates of COVID-19 vaccination are associated with increase COVID-19 death rates per country population (p=0.002). Other variables associated include healthcare costs per capita (+0.3212, p=0.0007), income per capita (+0.3051, p=0.0013), COVID-19 tests per 1000 population (+0.6981 p=0.0307); and stringency index (+0.3098, p=0.0011).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0310.v1
Online: 11 June 2021 (09:19:51 CEST)
Because of the covid-19 pandemic, world development has de-escalated, and some have come to a halt because there are many new problems that this era never faced before. Especially in Indonesia's education, every student in this millennial era who is already used to face-to-face lectures and teachers and professors are going through massive changes where every task will be done virtually. These actions are being done to prevent the spread of Covid-19. With online meetings, there will be many changes in the curriculum to find an effective way of studying, and the former curriculum will not fit because it was made for the offline lecture. Also adapting to it will take time. This article will bring up Indonesia’s education progress in this era while Covid-19 pandemic is happening and give an insight on how to anticipate this problem. Questions that arise from this topic are the effect of government effort on holding the pandemic, is it safe if school will be opened soon, and how education after this pandemic is. This research uses literature review methods where it’s done by search, gather, compile and interpret data that is being used. The data are from the latest research, namely from 2019 to 2021 published through Google Scholar, totaling 11 articles, and few online news to keep relevancy of the topic. The results of this study indicate that Covid-19 produces a change that is worse than the good. Even so, the government has allowed face-to-face and online learning according to the consent of students and parents. Thus, the community, especially students, teachers, and others, are expected to uphold education even though it is required to adapt according to existing protocols. From the research, literature review methods proved to be effective to study this topic while Covid-19 is happening to keep safety measures, but it does not give many details and specific information well. This method is recommended to researchers who don’t want to risk their life by being exposed to the pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0366.v3
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: COVID-19; coronavirus; temperature; solutions
Online: 21 June 2020 (16:19:26 CEST)
This article investigated whether the atmospheric temperature had any role in the spread and vulnerability to COVID-19 worldwide and how that knowledge can be utilized to contain the fast-spreading disease. It highlighted that temperature was an important factor in transmitting the virus, and a moderately cool environment was the most favourable state for its susceptibility. In fact, the risk from the virus is reduced significantly in high temperature environment. Warm countries and places were likely to be less vulnerable. We identified various degrees of vulnerability based on temperature and specified countries for March and April. The maximum reported case, as well as death, was noted when the temperature was in the range of around 275°K (2°C) to 290°K (17°C). Countries like the USA, UK, Italy and Spain belonged to this category. The vulnerability was moderate when the temperature was less than around 275°K (2°C) and countries in that category were Russia, parts of Canada and few Scandinavian countries. For temperature 300°K (27°C) and above, a significantly lesser degree of vulnerability was noted. Countries from SAARC, South East Asia, the African continent and Australia fell in that category. In fact, when the temperature was more than 305°K (32°C), there was a unusually low number of reported cases and deaths. For warm countries, further analyses on the degree of vulnerability were conducted for the group of countries from SAARC and South East Asia and individual countries were compared. We also showed countries can switch from one vulnerability state to another based on the variability of temperature. We provided maps of temperature to identify countries of different vulnerability states in different months of the year. That influence of temperature on the virus and previous results of clinical trials with similar viruses gave us a useful insight that regulating the level of temperature can provide remarkable results to arrest and stop the outbreak. Based on that knowledge, some urgent solutions are proposed, which are practically without side effects and very cost-effective too.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS 2; coronavirus
Online: 31 March 2020 (22:41:36 CEST)
There is an urgent need to advance safe and affordable COVID-19 vaccines for low- and middle-income countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America. Such vaccines rely on proven technologies such as recombinant protein-based vaccines to facilitate its transfer for emerging market vaccine manufacturers. Our group is developing a two-pronged approach to advance recombinant protein-based vaccines to prevent COVID-19 caused by SARS CoV2 and other coronavirus infections. One vaccine is based on a yeast-derived (Pichia pastoris) recombinant protein comprised of the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV formulated on alum and referred to as the CoV RBD219-N1 Vaccine. Potentially this vaccine could be used as a heterologous vaccine against COVID-19. A second vaccine specific for COVID-19 is also being advanced using the corresponding RBD of SARS-CoV-2. The first antigen has already undergone cGMP manufacture and is therefore “shovel ready” for advancing into clinical trials, following vialing and required GLP toxicology testing. Evidence for its potential efficacy to cross-protect against SARS-CoV-2 includes cross-neutralization and binding studies using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. Evidence in support of its safety profile include our internal assessments in a mouse challenge model using a lethal mouse adapted SARS strain, which show that SARS-CoV RBD 291N1 (when adsorbed to Alhydrogel®) does not elicit eosinophilic lung pathology. Together these findings suggest that recombinant protein-based vaccines based on the RBD warrant further development to prevent SARS, COVID-19 or other coronaviruses of pandemic potential.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1390.v1
Online: 22 November 2023 (05:42:49 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemic brought about unprecedented disruptions to education worldwide, forcing institutions to adapt rapidly to remote learning. This study explores the impact of the pandemic on the demand for online education among a diverse group of 10,00,000 students. Through a comprehensive survey, we assess the reasons behind the shift towards online education, its effectiveness, and the long-term implications for the education landscape.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0139.v1
Online: 5 April 2021 (14:00:43 CEST)
Resilience is an adaptive coping mechanism needed by health workers, especially nurses who have longer working hours than other health workers to provide care to patients in the era of the Covid-19 pandemic which is a global health problem. The aim of this literature review is to identify the resilience of nurses during the covid-19 pandemic the 21 st century global nursing paradigm. This language method uses literature reviews which are summaries of 10 articles in the publication years of 2020-2021 on search 4 databased electronic searches contain namely Scopus, ProQuest, Pubmed, and Scient Direct. This review used prisms. The eligibility of these studies were from its title, abstract, research methodology, results and discussion. The results of the review were presented in narrative form. The results of a review of 10 articles found that the form of psychological factors during the covid-19 pandemic, mental distress and influencing factors in nurses caring for patients with COVID-19, resilience nurses during the covid-19 pandemic. Conclusion: The 21 st century global nursing paradigm, one of the global problems in the health sector, with the outbreak of the corona virus disease (Covid-19), the role of nurses as the front guard is needed by the community to provide health services in line with the increasing incidence of covid-19 cases. Strong nurses need an adaptive inner coping mechanism.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0535.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; Pandemic; Global health; Health inequalities
Online: 23 September 2020 (04:13:51 CEST)
The COVID-19 crisis has brought unprecedented strain on healthcare systems around the world. It has perhaps taught us some key lessons that are worth considering and addressing to help build more sustainable health systems as well as improve our ability to combat future epidemics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0027.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Humanities Keywords: COVID-19; Deadly disease; Education; Resolution; Africa; Sub-Sahara
Online: 3 July 2020 (08:57:38 CEST)
The eruption of the COVID-19 pandemic has affected every sphere of life and may forever change how we have always lived and conducted our businesses, and no one can resist the wind of change that is blowing. Of all the sectors of governance, the educational sector, particularly at the tertiary level, appears to have been most greatly affected and therefore requires a more pragmatic approach to resolution. As of 29th June, Sub-Sahara Africa has reported 382,190 cases of COVID-19. In rejoinder to the virus epidemic, several Sub Sahara African governments implement the resolution to slam learning institutions to enclose the infection. Consequently, advanced schooling institutions obliged to reorganize their loom, becoming more digitally become forward, and changing to online platforms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0074.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: SDGs; Covid-19; innovation; blockchain; development
Online: 5 October 2020 (11:39:50 CEST)
As we embrace the new normal in the aftermath of Covid-19, the year 2020 also marks the decade of action as we start the 10-year countdown to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by 2030. In this paper, we attempt to explore the extent to which the hardly won development gains over the last years could be reversed due to the unfolding COVID-19 global pandemic, how do we reboot the global response to accelerate the SDGs in times of uncertainties, and most importantly how to turn the recovery into an opportunity to build back better and more resilient economies. To do so, we examine the case of blockchain as one of the emerging innovative work-streams in development practices that could lead the way forward and pave the path for new developmental narratives as we all navigate the uncharted territories of the new digital age.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0309.v1
Online: 26 June 2020 (12:14:21 CEST)
This paper uses resilience as a lens through which to analyse disasters and other major threats to patterns of criminal behaviour. A set of indicators and mathematical models are introduced that aim to quantitatively describe changes in crime levels in comparison to what could otherwise be expected, and what might be expected by way of adaptation and subsequent resumption of those patterns. The validity of the proposed resilience assessment tool is demonstrated using commercial theft data from the COVID-19 pandemic period. A 64 per cent reduction in crime was found in the studied city (China) during an 83-day period, before daily crime levels bounced back to higher than expected values. The proposed resilience indicators are recommended as benchmarking instruments for evaluating and comparing the global impact of COVID-19 policies on crime and public safety.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0220.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: COVID-19; online learning; new teaching and assessment methods; medical education
Online: 17 June 2020 (13:23:11 CEST)
Coronavirus (COVID19) appears to be an inflection point that is forcing a disruption in medical education. However, it is not clear what the responses of the institutions are to this pandemic and how the adaptation of new methods may impact medical education in the post COVID-19 era. Objective: The study aims to explore how medical schools in Egypt responded to COVID-19 pandemic regarding the teaching and learning/assessment for undergraduate students. Design: A mixed method exploratory two-phase study was conducted. A survey was prepared and disseminated to a convenient non-probability sample of the medical school faculty through various social platforms. Then, a focus group guide was conducted to explore in more depth the findings. Results: The staff level of preparedness for that unexpected shift was evaluated by 55.1% of the survey participants as optimum to high and a good leadership support was reported by 70 % of them. They reported conflicting views about the proper role of medical education units but reinforced the idea of Egyptian Knowledge Bank’s crucial role in this transition. Additionally, there is a communication problem with the students that leads to their detachment. Subsequently, 84.6 % of the participants reported that their schools used alternative teaching methods for small groups, large groups, pre-clinical and clinical clerkships. However, 64.1 % of the participants identified a clinical skills teaching challenge. Although, 68.4% reported that alternative methods were used for formative assessment but absence of alternative methods for summative assessment was declared by 76.3%. Conclusions: Individuals moved faster than bodies and relied on support existing outside the universities when catastrophe happened. However, institutes which have experience in adapting modern engaging learning methods should organize a better response for crisis. Online learning should be integrated in the curriculum with a fair percentage especially in the early years of medical study.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0461.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: COVID-19; Economy; GDP; Global; Impact; Market; Pandemic
Online: 29 May 2020 (12:27:24 CEST)
The pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus obstructed the Chinese economy and has expanded to the rest of the world at a rapid pace affecting at least 215 countries, areas and territories. The advancement of the disease and its economic repercussions is profoundly ambiguous, making it challenging for policymakers to formulate suitable microeconomic and macroeconomic policy responses. The scenarios in this paper illustrate how an outbreak could significantly affect the global economy in the short run. It has been estimated that each additional month of crisis would cost from about 2.5-3% of the global GDP and that the GDP growth would take a blow, reaching about 3-6%, depending on the country. Scenarios also suggest that GDP can drop by more than 10% and even exceed 15% in some countries. Via addressing the economic consequence of COVID-19 in different industries and countries, the paper presents assessments of the likely global economic costs of COVID-19 and the GDP growth of different countries. Economies will be negatively affected because of the high number of jobs at risk. Countries highly dependent on foreign trade are more negatively affected. Given that disease and its economic influence are highly unpredictable in numerous aspects, the global economy at the moment is the most critically threatened in history.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID 19; Health Education; RCSI; teaching and learning; Pandemic
Online: 30 October 2020 (10:13:08 CET)
Background: The Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland - Bahrain (RCSI Bahrain) was closed due to COVID 19. The aim of this paper is to present our experience, in managing teaching and learning, during this pandemic. Methods: Following, ethical approval, several meetings were held with the senior faculty and student representatives to select alternative virtual approaches for teaching, learning and assessment with evidence-based instructional design. Informed consent was obtained from all study participants. All procedures were carried out in accordance with relevant guidelines and regulations. In alignment with global scenario, we decided upon early graduation for our students, and expedited the clinical examinations, with special permission from health and education ministries. Two major clinical examinations were redesigned to form a single hybrid clinical examination with two parts. Following all COVID 19 preventive measures, students were taken in groups of seven and simulated patients were substituted for real patients. No more than 40 students were present at any point of time, with no more than 10 examined in one block. 149 out of 152 RCSI students attended the clinical examinations and 524 students from the three RCSI campuses attended the written online examination. A structured survey was conducted to elicit students’ perceptions and participation was entirely voluntary. Results: 82% of students were happier to be joining the workforce early and, 22% expressed concerns. A comparison of student performance in these examinations against the equivalent components from semester one yielded no significant deviation in student performance, illustrating that the quality was consistent. Conclusion: We recommend that the government accredit online or distance learning programmes and explore appropriate methodologies for evaluation of online learning and assessment. Incorporating practical/clinical training, will continue to be a great challenge.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0199.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic; children; schools; schools closures; global health
Online: 14 December 2020 (11:54:04 CET)
School closures (SC) were adopted globally as a COVID-19 disease pandemic containment strategy. This extreme measure provoked a disruption of the educational system involving hundreds of million children worldwide. The return of children to school has been variable and is still an unresolved and contentious issue. Importantly the process has not been directly correlated to the severity of the pandemic s impact and has fueled the widening of disparities, disproportionately affecting the most vulnerable populations. Available evidence shows SC added little benefit to COVID-19 control whereas the harms related to SC severely affected children and adolescents. This unresolved issue has put children and young people at high risk of social, economic and health-related harm for years to come, triggering severe consequences during their lifespan. In this article we describe the process of SC and the reopening timetable across the globe. We highlight the data regarding the international state of educational systems around the world, putting emphasis on the rights of children to come back to school.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; globalization; health systems; pandemic; preparedness
Online: 30 August 2020 (11:38:30 CEST)
The socio-economic benefits of globalization cannot be overemphasized. However, the global spread of infectious diseases has so followed a parallel course. The recent wave of pandemics with emerging new diseases has shown that no part of the world is immune from the spread of infectious diseases. COVID-19 like previous pandemics has exposed inadequacies of our healthcare systems and global capacity for prevention, early detection, and response in pandemic outbreaks. Given the highly interconnected global economy and the high potential for passim spread of infections, every nation must not only come up with concerted efforts to prevent and better prepare for pandemics, international solidarity and engagements will also be critical to ensure a long-lasting and sustainable solution. We are only as strong as our weakest health system, global support to strengthen all health systems around the world is the most effective way to be pandemic – ready. ‘All for one and one for all’.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0195.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: COVID-19; digital transformation; education; 4IR; South Africa
Online: 12 April 2020 (14:39:03 CEST)
The study sought to gauge the impact of COVID-19 pandemic in unleashing digital transformation in the education sector in South Africa. In order to gauge the impact, the study tracked the rate at which the 4IR tools were used by various institutions during the COVID-19 lockdown. Data were obtained from secondary sources, mainly newspaper articles, magazines and peer-reviewed journals. The findings are that, in South Africa, during the lockdown, a variety of 4IR tools were unleashed from primary education to higher and tertiary education where educational activities switched to remote learning (online learning). These observations point to the fact that South Africa generally has, some pockets of excellence to drive the education sector into the 4IR, which has the potential to increase access. Access to education, particularly at a higher education level, has always been a challenge due to a limited number of spaces available. Much as this pandemic has brought with it massive human suffering across the globe, there is an opportunity to assess successes and failures of deployed technologies, costs associated with them, and scaling these technologies to improve access.
Online: 26 September 2020 (13:08:55 CEST)
The issues mothers face in the academy have been discussed for decades. Routinely, new studies report significant differences between women and men at comparable career stages with respect to salary, service demands, publications, grant submissions, and overall funding rates. The COVID-19 pandemic is further exposing these inequalities as women scientists who are parenting while also engaging in a combination of academic related duties are falling further behind. COVID-19 is shaking the very foundations of our society and laying bare the many inequalities that defined our pre-COVID world. We can solve these inequities by investing strategically in creative solutions, thereby making the most of women’s contributions to scientific endeavors. Here we describe strategies that would make the academy more equitable for working mothers now and into the future. Importantly, while the data are clear that mothers are being disproportionally impacted by COVID-19, many groups could benefit from these same ideas. Now is the time to act. Rather than rebuilding what we once knew, let us be the architects of a new world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1810.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Global Optimization; COVID-19; Genetic Algorithms; Particle Swarm Optimization; Cat Swarm Optimization
Online: 27 October 2023 (12:55:48 CEST)
As the COVID-19 pandemic has caused enormous damage to society, economy and public health security, it is crucial to combat the epidemic and allocate social and health resources effectively. Global optimization algorithms are extensively used in many domains to find optimal solutions to complex problems. Thus, a survey of three typical global optimizations applied on the COVID-19 pandemic is timely. This article is structured into three typical global optimization algorithms - Genetic Algorithm, Particle Swarm Optimization, and Cat Swarm Optimization - and summarizes the framework models and practical applications, as well as other optimization methods that may be applied to COVID-19. Finally, current unresolved challenges and future research opportunities to be explored are summarized.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0362.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Free and Open Source Hardware; COVID-19; pandemic
Online: 24 March 2020 (14:46:29 CET)
With the current rapid spread of COVID-19, global health systems are increasingly overburdened by the sheer number of people that need diagnosis, isolation and treatment. Shortcomings are evident across the board, from staffing, facilities for rapid and reliable testing to availability of hospital beds and key medical-grade equipment. The scale and breadth of the problem calls for an equally substantive response not only from frontline workers such as medical staff and scientists, but from skilled members of the public who have the time, facilities and knowledge to meaningfully contribute to a consolidated global response. Here, we summarise community-driven approaches based on Free and Open Source scientific and medical Hardware (FOSH) currently being developed and deployed to bolster access to personal protective equipment (PPE), patient treatment and diagnostics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0334.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: 21st century; Covid 19; education; the government system
Online: 14 June 2021 (08:46:38 CEST)
In this modern era, continuous change is the first step in forming a new structure between theory and practice. The idea of a juggernaut is very relevant to the theory of structuration with current conditions in the 21st century, where technology becomes a reference that can crush anyone who is not responsive to its power. This technology takes one path and takes many roles from various fields: economic, social, political, legal, and educational. This 21st century is marked by great momentum for changes in human behavior and civilization, namely the industrial revolution 4.0 and the arrival of Covid-19, which have changed many social structures and human activities. This makes history a means of connecting the problems in the 21st century with past events. By using a descriptive qualitative method, this paper will reveal how technological developments are very influential on educational and political developments and what are the challenges faced based on historical perspective?. In this case, the study aims to discuss the history and challenges of Indonesia's education system and government system in the 21st century and give a solution. The data used are from 2 books, 14 journal articles, and 4 websites with a span of 2019-2021. The research results are expected to be used as a further study in the face of the development of the modern era in the fields of education and government. This study also has limitations, namely only on the face of the development of the modern era in the fields of education and government.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0425.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: COVID-19 lockdown; Restriction policies; Air pollution; Environmental science; Sustainability.
Online: 27 October 2022 (08:06:26 CEST)
The goal of this study is to develop a global analysis, based on data from 2015 to 2022, that clarifies the impact of containment policies (e.g., lockdown and quarantine) for Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) on the air pollution between countries of different continents. In this context, average changes of CO, NO2, SO2, O3, PM2.5, and PM10 concentrations based on measurements at ground level in January, February, and March for 2019, 2020, 2021, and 2022 are compared with average values of 2015-2018 period between 300 cities of 19 countries in 5 continents. Results show that the maximum reduction in pollutant concentrations during this period is given by: CO (-4,367.5%) in France, NO2 (-150.5%) in China and Australia, SO2 (-154.1%) in Israel, O3 (-94.1%) in China, PM2.5 (-41.4%) in Germany and PM10 (-157.4%) in Turkey. Findings reveal that the effects of containment policies on air quality vary significantly between countries depending on different geographical characteristics of regions. This study has main environmental policy implications because it clarifies the critical role of severe control measure to reduce air pollution and support sustainable environment and development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0001.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Probability And Statistics Keywords: COVID-19; Disease Modelling; SIR Model; R software
Online: 1 July 2020 (08:40:40 CEST)
The crux of the paper is to present a detailed analysis of COVID-19 data which is available on global basis. This analysis is performed using some specific package of R software. It provides various insights from the data and help to understand the current status of this pandemic in India so that effective measures can be formulated by policymakers. These insights include global summary of this disease, growth rate of this pandemic and performance of SIR model for the given global data. The analysis has been presented in different tables and graphs to understand the outputs of the problem in a more detailed point of view.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0565.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: higher education; Bangladesh; eLearning; COVID-19; lockdown
Online: 24 May 2021 (11:59:51 CEST)
The great lockdown of the current COVID-19 pandemic has significant consequences on the global Higher Education Studies (HES).To find the relevance of eLearning in the HES, our study calculates the economic costs of higher education during Covid-19 in Bangladesh, which includes both stu-dents’ cost and institutional cost. The study used a purposive random sample survey conducted on 105 students enrolled in higher education in different categories of institutions to identify the stu-dents’ cost during this pandemic. The institutional cost of higher education is analyzed by breaking down the budget allocated in the education sector in Bangladesh and reviewing the literature. The result indicates that the HES of Bangladesh experiences a huge economic cost due to this pandemic and the study found eLearning can reduce the economic impact of HES. In the post-COVID-19 world, higher education will never be the similar because many institutions that already had experi-ence a huge advantage from online education. The findings of the study might be helpful for the policymakers to frame effective education policies during any bizarre situation that creates huge cost in higher education sector.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0864.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Covid-19; death education; children; primary school; spirituality
Online: 13 July 2023 (12:34:48 CEST)
Background: The Covid-19 pandemic has globally impacted the lives of individuals, families, and children. In Italy, measures such as lockdowns and distance learning were implemented in schools, which affected the mental health of children and families. Methods: This article employs qualitative methodology to explore the experiences of children, parents, and teachers during the pandemic and lockdown, as well as the implementation of a death education project aimed at primary school children to help them process emotions and losses experienced during this period. Results: Distance learning posed challenges to the learning process and exacerbated social inequalities. Children suffered from limited social contact with friends and experienced negative emotions, including anger, fear, and concern for the health of their loved ones. The death education project provided a safe space for emotional expression and facilitated the acquisition of coping strategies. Open communication between adults and children about illness and death proved effective in mitigating the psychological impacts of loss and preventing traumatic bereavement. Conclusions: The findings highlight the utility of death education in enhancing children's ability to express their emotions and approach the topic of death morefrankly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0289.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computational Mathematics Keywords: reproduction number; infectious disease epidemiology; COVID-19; epidemic modelling; mobility index
Online: 24 June 2020 (09:03:44 CEST)
Real-time estimation of the parameters characterising infectious disease transmission is important for optimization quarantine interventions during outbreaks. One of the most significant parameters is the effective reproduction number - number of secondary cases produced by a single infection. The current study presents an approach for estimating the effective reproduction number and its application to COVID-19 outbreak. The method is based on fitting SIR epidemic model to observation data in a sliding time window and allows to show real-time dynamics of reproduction number at any phase of epidemic for countries globally. Online data on COVID-19 daily cases of infections, recoveries, deaths are used.Finally, time-dependent reproduction number is explored in connection with dynamics of peoples mobility. The method allows to assess the disease transmission potential and understand the effect of interventions on epidemics spread. It also can be easily adapted to future outbreaks of different pathogens. The tool is available online as Python code from the Github repository.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0069.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: coronavirus; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; respiratory diseases; air pollution
Online: 6 April 2020 (15:48:46 CEST)
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), known to cause 2019-coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is a zoonotic coronavirus and crosses species to infect human populations, where an efficient transmission of virus occurs human-to-human. Nationwide lockdown is being adopted to stop public transport, keep people at their homes and out of their work, and maintain social distancing. In turn, large geographic areas in the world (including China, Italy, Spain, and USA) has been almost halted. This temporary halt is significantly slashing down the air pollution (air pollutants and warming gases) in most cities across the world. This paper: (i) introduces both COVID-19 and air pollution; (ii) overviews the relation of air pollution with respiratory/lung diseases; (iii) compiles and highlights major data appeared in media and journals reporting lowering of air pollution in major cities those have been highly impacted by the COVID-19; and also (iv) lists the way forward in the present context. Because COVID-19 is an ongoing pandemic and currently far from over, strong conclusions could not be drawn with very limited data at present. The temporary slashed down global air pollution as a result of COVID-19 restrictions are expected to stimulate the researchers, policy makers and governments for the judicious use of resources; thereby minimise the global emissions, and maintain their economies once the pandemic eases. On the other, lifting of the nationwide lockdown and eventual normalisation of the temporarily halted sectors may also reverse the currently COVID-19 pandemic-led significantly slashed down global air pollution that could make the future respiratory health crisis grimmer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0529.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Covid-19; pandemic; distance education; nursing students; sustainability
Online: 9 October 2023 (13:00:36 CEST)
Abstract: (1) Background: The Covid-19 pandemic has spread globally since January 2020 and is a threat to public health. This study aims to highlight the psychosocial impact on Greek nursing students and the challenges they received regarding the new sustainable educational reality, in the context of the sudden and exclusive application of distance education during the pandemic Covid-19; (2) Methods: Questionnaires were distributed through an online form (Lime Survey) to undergraduate nursing students enrolled in online courses. Data were collected between De-cember 2020 and January 2021 (3) Results: A total of 341 participants were included in the study. Some of the participants (9.1%) reported that being unemployed because of the Covid-19 affected their sustainability of life. Similarly, distance education had a negative impact on students' par-ticipation in social activities with their classmates (64.5%), while many of the participants were concerned that the sudden transition from face-to-face to distance education would have a negative impact on their future career (46.3%). Furthermore, the majority of students in this study seemed to disagree that distance education could be more effective than face-to-face education (72.1%); (4) Conclusions: It is undoubtedly proven that the effects of the Covid-19 pandemic have a great impact on the educational sector. These social and psychological changes endangered the viability of students in the Greek educational reality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0522.v2
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: COVID-19; Risk Group; Syndrome; Community Quarantine; Population dynamics; Social distancing
Online: 25 June 2020 (16:04:54 CEST)
COVID-19 appeared as an infectious disease of global health emergency and the highest public health concern of 21st century for this world due to its high-speed of spread across the globe. The disease started as one single case to a cluster of cases in Wuhan, China (Dec 2019) and within few months with its continuous upsurge of cases spreading globally which has created enormous threat and tension across the global Public health care field. Most significantly to share the fact that, this disease caused high level of Risk Group mortality, high morbidity, health care services burden, panic anxiety, mental trauma and tension, social and economic insecurity, which also collectively surfaced by diverse range of social reaction and political pressure across the world. Also with the appearance of new and unknown pathogenesis of the disease has created the most and significant attention and concern for the scientific community and political leaders as well. The disease also varies much with its pattern of virus, sign, symptoms, characteristics including its epidemiological and public health response (like prevention strategy, diagnoses, case management, treatment pattern) across the countries. However, this variance is comparatively less rather even more in commonality while it comes to basic public health prevention interventions like frequent hand washing, wearing face mask, maintaining social/physical distancing (2 - 6 meter in between), individual isolation and community quarantine for suspected exposure and lockdown in community areas where cases are identified. These are with the most commonly practiced public health interventions to deal with this disease in majority of the epicenters across countries. Also with the progress of the disease with its diverse categorical appearance of sign symptoms which are uniquely portraying this disease is more of a kind of COVID-19 syndrome than as COVID-19. Moreover, various factors including socio economic status, health status, population dynamics, health system and infrastructure, health behavioral pattern, nutrition and food habit and access to information and knowledge made this viral disease one of the historically counted on expensive disease of the modern world to fight for. Specially to mention here, the case fatality rate distinctively vary with the population dynamics and the health system infrastructure and ability factors which have already created clear evidence as explained in this paper how these factors are uniquely distinguished and different from country to country. Apart from the contextual differences, the various kind of ongoing preventive measures (like prevention, diagnosis and treatment) learnt every day from the emerging characteristics and pattern of this viral disease which are most commonly practiced across countries with a variance. According to the Public health prevention practice and interventions, the total world is connected and learning from each other’s public health experiences to fight for the virus. However, the world communities are eagerly waiting to see the result and outcome of the ongoing therapeutics and vaccine trial initiated in several countries, the people of the world are quite optimistic and hopeful that, global scientific community will be able to invent some miraculous and magic solution in upcoming months which ultimately will free the world from this most terrifying COVID-19 pandemic of 21st century.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0518.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: virus; extracellular vesicles; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; membrane vesicluation
Online: 31 May 2020 (21:35:23 CEST)
Within the micro and nano world, tiny membrane-enclosed bits of material are more or less free to move and act as communication tools within cells, between cells, between different tissues and between organisms in global environment. Based on the mechanism of membrane budding and vesiculation that includes all types of cells, in this review, we attempted to present a review on SARS-CoV-2 virus actions in compartments of different scales (cells and their surroundings, tissues, organisms and society). Interactions of the virus with cells on a molecular level, with neural system, endothelium, hematopoietic system, gastrointestinal system and genitourinary system. Transmission route between organisms and between mother and fetus are considered. Also, transmission of virus through contact with materials and with environment, the suggested measures to prevent contamination with the virus and to support the organism against the disease are given.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0070.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19; dynamic-based learning; , higher education; interactive learning; online classroom
Online: 2 April 2021 (14:17:22 CEST)
Purpose: Now traditional lecture-based teaching and learning have been affected by the COVID-19. The objectives of this article are to design the novel educational technique called ‘dynamic-based learning’ (DBL) that provides the combination of online teaching-learning methods and student’s creativity, to evaluate primary dynamic-based learning function, and to propose dynamic-based learning for higher education. Methods: DBL composes of four steps, including, preparation, homework, classroom, and evaluation, which was designed, and taught in medical and dental schools. Online support materials included mobile phone, email, Facebook Messenger, Line Messenger, Cisco Webex, and Zoom Meetings applications were recruited for this novel method. Results: A total of 32 third-year medical students and 26 sixth-year dental students was treated by DBL similarly. three subjects, including, Innovation in Dentistry, Basic Medical Research, and Principles of Pathology and Forensic Medicine were selected in this article. The results showed students could create their knowledge, ideas, and creativity during the online classes.Conclusion: DBL can be used as an alternative learning mode during the COVID-19 crisis. The benefits of DBL also include high flexibility, dynamic process, active learning, and high creativity. DBL should be tested with other disciplines such as engineering school, laws school, health sciences school, and should be compared with other traditional teaching and learning modes in the future. This method may support the global higher education systems to move forward the COVID-19 pandemic to set a novel standard of a future normal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0792.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Baltic Dry Index; Covid-19; Stepwise Regression
Online: 11 May 2023 (05:11:46 CEST)
The outbreak of COVID-19 in 2020 caused significant disruptions to global shipping and the world economy. This paper aims to investigate the impact of the pandemic on global shipping by analyzing the Baltic Dry Index (BDI). The BDI is a metric that reflects the worldwide shipping costs and directs related to supply and demand conditions, making it an indicator of economic production. The study utilizes data from 2019 to 2021, before and after the outbreak of COVID-19, and considers 13 independent variables, including raw materials, energy, stock market indexes, global port calls, and confirmed COVID-19 cases to investigate how to influent the BDI. The study employs stepwise regression to select variables and build models before and after the pandemic. The findings reveal that the key factors affecting the freight index BDI before the outbreak are: international scrap steel prices, iron ore prices, and the Commodity Research Bureau Index. However, after the COVID-19 outbreak, the factors affecting the BDI changed to the Shanghai Index, global port calls, and the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1463.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: COVID-19; hs-Troponin; global longitudinal strain; intubation; myocarditis
Online: 24 October 2023 (07:51:05 CEST)
Myocardial involvement among critical patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has a worse outcome. The occurrence of an imbalance in oxygen supply results in the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines which leads to increased ventilation support requirement and increase risk of mortality. Our aim was to evaluate the association between hs-Troponin I level and global longitudinal strain as evidence of myocardial involvement among critical COVID-19 patients. Methods. We performed prospective cohort study from February 1st – July 31st, 2021 at Dr. Soetomo General Hospital, Surabaya as referral center for COVID-19 care. Of the 65 critical COVID-19 included, 41 (63.1%) were men, with a median (interquartile range) age of 51.0 years (20.0-75.0).Subjects were recruited according to WHO criteria for severe COVID-19 and CDC criteria for myocarditis. All subjects recruited were examined using echocardiography to measure global longitudinal strain (GLS) and blood samples were taken to measure hs-Troponin. Subjects were then followed to assess their needs for mechanical ventilation and in-hospital mortality. Severe COVID-19 subjects with cardiac injury were associated with an increased need for intubation (78.5%) and an increased incidence of myocarditis (50.8%). There was an association between the use of intubation and the risk of mortality in patients (66.7% vs. 33.3%, p-value <0.001). Both reduced GLS and increased hs-troponin are associated with increased myocarditis (p-value <0.001 and 0.004 respectively). Reduced GLS is associated with higher mechanical ventilation needs (12.17 + 4.79 vs.15.65 + 4.90, p-value 0.02) and a higher mortality rate (11.36 + 4.64 vs. 14.74 + 4.82; p-value 0.005). Increased hs-troponin is associated with higher mechanical ventilation needs (25.33% vs. 3.56%, p-value 0.002) and a higher mortality rate (34.57% vs. 5.76%, p-value 0.002). Compared with contemporary controls, critical COVID-19 patients with myocardial involvement and elevated cardiac troponin level are associated with higher mechanical ventilation needs and a higher mortality rate.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0290.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: academia; higher education; coronavirus pandemic; online tuition; social distancing; COVID-19; digital revolution
Online: 17 April 2020 (01:56:58 CEST)
COVID-19 pandemic instigated a digital revolution in academia and higher education. Social distancing, months-long quarantine, as economic shutdown will help the majority of people working in academia and higher education not only to complete their personal transition to the fully functional and operational online tuition, but also to understand that online defences, online entrance and final exams, as well as online academic jobs are as effective and meaningful as those conducted “in real life”. Due to the crisis induced by the coronavirus epidemic, innovations in academia and higher education that would have normally taken several years due to the various contradictory administrative regulations are now introduced promptly in a matter of days. This is a clear example of the Schumpeterian ‘creative destruction’ in making that will forever change the status quo in academia and higher education.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0361.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: renewable energy; decarbonization; fossil fuels; energy transition; COVID-19; sustainability
Online: 16 July 2020 (13:41:22 CEST)
The measures for tackling the COVID-19 may shrink the global GDP by approximately 6% in 2020, the deepest post-war recession. As a result, the global energy demand declined by 3.8% in the first quarter of 2020. Concerning fossil fuels, this conjuncture reduced the demand drastically and collapsed the prices to historic levels. Despite the general market disruptions, renewable energy sources (RES) seem to be more resilient to the crisis because they are the only sources that will grow in demand in 2020, driven by priority dispatch. The RES´s significant growth in cumulative installed capacity in the last two decades and the significant cost reductions of RES and energy storage technologies are positive signs towards better market conditions for the global energy transition. Currently, the crisis is seen by international agencies and transition scholars as an opportunity to advance a renewable-based energy transformation. Nevertheless, this article aims at caution about another possibility: if societal changes are not urgently implemented, the crisis may weaken the global energy transition. This article examines this last possibility from a three-level perspective: 1) post-COVID economic recovery, 2) low oil and natural gas prices and competitiveness of alternative sources and, 3) reorganization of the world energy market and the OPEC+. This paper exists to stimulate debate.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0684.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: COVID-19; point-of-care diagnostic test; target product profile; clinical performance
Online: 28 December 2020 (11:14:55 CET)
COVID-19 pandemic will continue to pose a major public health threat until vaccination-mediated herd immunity is achieved. Most projections predict vaccine will reach a large subset of the population late in 2021 or early 2022. In the meantime, countries are exploring options to remove strict lockdown measures and allow for society and the economy to return to normal function. One possibility is to expand on existing COVID-19 testing strategies by including large-scale rapid point of care diagnostic tests (POCTs). Currently, there is significant variability in performance and features of available POCTs, making selection and procurement of appropriate test for specific use case difficult. In this review, we have used the World Health Organization’s (WHO) recently published Target Product Profiles (TPPs) for specific use cases of COVID-19 diagnostic tests to screen for top-performing POCTs on the market. Several top-performing POCTs, based on clinical sensitivity/specificity, the limit of detection, and time to results, that meet WHO TPP criteria for direct detection of SARS-CoV-2 (acute infection), or indirect diagnosis of past infection (host antibodies) are highlighted here.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1894.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic; just-in-time; supply chain risk mitigation; supply chain visibility; GSCM
Online: 8 September 2023 (04:28:19 CEST)
There are two purposes for this article. The first purpose is to perform a reiew of previous research on global supply chain management (GSCM) principles that can adapt and survive adversity, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. The second purpose is to put forth a conceptual framework for the GSCM that is sustainable in the event of future turbulence similar to that experienced during the COVID-19 pandemic. With regard to the issues raised, the article posits the following questions. Is there, perhaps, a sustainable post-COVID-19 pandemic GSCM? Can the COVID-19 pandemic-related international logistics system (GSC) turbulences be predicted with certainty using these sustainable post-COVID-19 pandemic GSCM concepts? Putting it all together, the paper concludes that, while debatable, sustainable GSCM is feasible and can be accomplished utilizing JIT, supply chain mitigation, and supply chain visibility, as demonstrated by the manufacturing firms referenced in the article.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0501.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Probability And Statistics Keywords: Crude oil; Global financial crisis; COVID-19; Stock; Returns; Persistence
Online: 31 May 2020 (20:15:29 CEST)
This study investigates the impact of global financial crisis and the present COVID-19 pandemic on daily and weekly Crude oil futures using four variants of ARMA-GARCH models: ARMA-sGARCH, ARMA-eGARCH, ARMA-TGARCH and ARMA- aPARCH with dummy variables We also investigated the persistence, half-life and backtesting of the models. This study therefore seeks to contribute to the body of literature on the impact of global financial crisis and the present COVID-19 pandemic on crude oil futures market. This investigation of the impact of global financial crisis and the COVID-19 on crude oil futures has not been much studied at present. We obtained and analyzed the daily and weekly crude oil futures from secondary sources. Daily crude oil futures used in this study covers the period from the 4th January 2000 to 27th April 2020 while the weekly crude oil futures covered from 2ndJanuary 2000 to 26th April 2020 . The global financial crisis period covered from 2nd July 2007 to 31st March 2009 and the current COVID-19 pandemic covered from 1st January 2020 to 27th April, 2020. The study used both student t and skewed student t innovations with AIC, goodness-of-test fit and backtesting to select the best model. Most of the estimated ARMA-GARCH models are supported by skewed student t distribution while most of the ARMA-GARCH models exhibited high persistence values in the presence of global financial crisis and the COVID-19 pandemic. In the overall, the estimated ARMA(1,0)-eGARCH(2,1) and ARMA(1,0)-eGARCH(2,2) model for daily crude oil futures and weekly crude oil futures respectively have been significantly impacted by the global financial crisis and the Present COVID-19 pandemic while the preferred estimated models also passed the goodness-of-test fit and backtesting.This study recommends shareholders and investors should think outside the box as crude oil futures tend to be affected by global financial crisis and COVID-19 pandemic while countries also that depend mostly on crude oil are encouraged to diversify their economy in other to survive and be sustained during financial and health crisis.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Covid-19; Twitter; sustainable cities; sustainable citizenship; environmental awareness; responsible consumption; sustainable tourism
Online: 5 February 2021 (22:15:27 CET)
The social confinement resulting from the COVID-19 crisis temporarily reduced greenhouse gas emissions. Although experts consider that the decrease in pollution rates was not drastic, some surveys detect a growth in social concern about the climate. In this new climate-conscious environment, municipalities and local governments are promoting a new way of living and caring for cities, even before they can regain national and international freedom of movement. This work analyzes the connection between the new climate awareness arising from the COVID-19 crisis, the proposals of sustainable citizenship around the world, and its communication on Twitter to educate the new eco-conscious audience. The methodology mixes quantitative and qualitative analysis, using the Twitonomy Premium tool and the Twitter research tool, with data extracted at the end of December 2020. Among the top 10 most influential and active accounts, the results show educational institutions, local institutions, companies, neighborhood, associations, and influencers. The impossibility of living the city, has not prevented citizen education and commitment to make real change for when that city and its citizens return to normality. Although this new normality must be different: more ecological, more responsible, more sustainable and practiced from early childhood.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0387.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Humanities Keywords: college of arts and sciences; COVID-19 adaptation; internationalization; interdisciplinary collaboration; strategic planning; higher education
Online: 6 September 2023 (08:51:15 CEST)
In an ever-evolving landscape of higher education institution, the College of Arts and Sciences at St. Michael's College, Iligan City, Philippines, embarked on a strategic journey to navigate the challenges and opportunities of the post-pandemic era. This study, conducted in August 2022, delves into the multifaceted dimensions of their strategic planning processes. Through qualitative methods that use intensive in-depth reviews of literature, informal interviews, observation, and thematic analysis, this research unveils a narrative of adaptation, innovation, and internationalization. It explores how the institution resiliently adapted to the COVID-19 pandemic, leveraged technological advancements to enhance educational delivery, fostered interdisciplinary collaboration at the nexus of arts and sciences, and embraced internationalization through partnerships and cultural exchange. Anchored in a robust theoretical framework, this study resonates with broader trends in higher education, echoing the global call for agile, student-centric, and forward-thinking institutions. As this institution's journey unfolds, its experiences and lessons resonate with academic leaders, administrators, faculty, students, and stakeholders, inviting reflection and dialogue on the future of higher education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0075.v2
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Humanities Keywords: COVID-19; Quality education; social work; students; implication level
Online: 15 February 2022 (20:45:19 CET)
Abstract The article discusses about the current situation of Novel Corona Virus also called as the COVID-19 that hinder for all human’s life including the education. Rapidly escalating COVID-19, has caused havoc in quality education and every educational institution are closed. As the UNESCO report it showed that 1.6 billion children being affected due to the close of institution across 191 countries. With the alternative method every education institution started blended learning virtual classes in order to continue learning environment in students. The articles investigate COVID-19 impact on student’s quality education in Nepal and social work implication. The findings of the study shows that the COVID-19 has seriously effects on the students learning environment. It showed the huge gap between getting the good education in Nepal. However, Nepal has also made some policies to provide equal quality education to all the children through the ICT and also encourage social work to actively participate on providing education to all the majority of group children in Nepal. Whereas social work applied the micro, messo, and macro level of implication in practice to provide the education for children in remote area of Nepal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0118.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: sleep depth; sleep duration; sleep timing; time zones; COVID-19; aviation
Online: 5 July 2021 (16:18:13 CEST)
Fatigue risk to commercial pilots operating under global pandemic conditions had not been in-vestigated prior to COVID-19. Examining how pilots slept during COVID-19 pandemic-specific flights can provide a precedent for estimating fatigue risk for future public health emergencies. Twenty (n=20) pilots flying across five COVID-19 humanitarian missions between Brazil and China wore a sleep-tracking device (the Zulu watch), which has been validated for the estimation of sleep timing (sleep onset and offset), duration, efficiency, and sleep depth (Wake, Interrupted, Light, or Deep Sleep) throughout the mission period. Pilots also reported sleep timing, duration and subjective quality of their in-flight rest periods using a sleep diary. To our knowledge, this is the first report of commercial pilot sleep behavior during ultra-long-range operations under COVID-19 pandemic conditions. Moreover, these analyses provide an estimate of sleep depth during in-flight sleep, which has not been reported previously in the literature.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0082.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; global pandemic; global health emergency; SARS-CoV-2
Online: 7 April 2020 (10:08:47 CEST)
The 2019 novel coronavirus (previously 2019-nCoV) or coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak has been summarized as on March 29, 2020. COVID-19 is a highly transmittable and pathogenic viral infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SERS-CoV-2). The disease was first seen during an outbreak in Wuhan, China and continuous spreading from human to human around the sphere. The disease is uncontrolled and increasing the death toll through. The world is facing a global challenge to protect human lives caused by coronavirus outbreak. The number of infected patients is increasing day by day due to COVID-19 as a pandemic. The world health organization (WHO) has declared global public health emergency on January 30, 2020. The disease has been spread around 201 countries with total confirmed cases 634835 and death cases 29891 as on March 29, 2020. The goal of this review to summaries and update the clinical/medical features and suggestions for diagnosis of the COVID-19 as a pandemic. The discussion of the various therapeutic algorithms, risk, prevention and control based on the latest reports has been provided.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0001.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Assessment; Institutional Support; Online Education; Tertiary Education; Covid-19; Bangladesh
Online: 1 April 2021 (09:03:02 CEST)
Institutional support and quality education are linked in a significant way. During Covid-19, institutional support is critical to closing the huge academic gap that has emerged as physical academic practices have been moved to a virtual education system using technology. This research aims to assess institutional support for online education in Bangladesh during the Covid-19 pandemic. This analysis is focused on the three main elements of the Adapted Model of Institutional Support (AMIS) of Bond et al, 2007, and the Institutional Support Model (ISM) of Valverde and Rodriguez, 2002, namely Financial Support (FS), Technical Support (TS), and Mentoring Support (MS). According to the findings, a few universities in Bangladesh have provided average support for continuing online education, while others have just started taking online classes. Several problems have been discovered, such as the lack of dedicated software for conducting online academic activities, lack of training and grooming, lack of mentoring, poor internet access, lack of smartphones, high internet package rates, and so on. This study concludes with some policy recommendations for a smooth online education system in Bangladesh.
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: catastrophes; COVID-19; civil unrests; inflation; public health; Health safety; Health crisis
Online: 28 January 2023 (04:52:49 CET)
Aim: Shockwaves have been felt all over the world as a result of war, inflation, food shortages, and the COVID-19 pandemic's long tail. The aim of the study is to correlate present global conflicts, pandemic and socio-economic crises with present healthcare sustainability, identifying possible threats and visualize future global health crises if all these catastrophes persist for long. Materials and Methods: PubMed, ALTAVISTA, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Central Registers were prioritized to collect public health issues. Results: The global economic slowdown, sharp decline in financial asset values, decline in imports and exports, contraction of industrial production, rise in inflation, decrease in wages, rise in unemployment, damage to the social security caused by numerous natural calamities, human displacement due to pandemic and ongoing conflicts tear down not only the economic sector but also the health sector. It is already late for taking corrective measure by the participation every country, community or intelligence. Only healthcare issues, highlighted in this study, if focused in the highest platforms, could compel global leaders to forego conflicts and work together. Conclusion: The global health sector will be collapsed soon, if proper initiatives are not taken right now, which has already been grossly mistreated by the pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0701.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: COVID-19; eating behavior; diet; food concern; Google Trends; health behavior.
Online: 28 December 2020 (12:55:42 CET)
COVID-19 pandemic and its restrictive measures have present serious unprecedented challenges to human eating behavior. Given that Google Search has become a valuable information resource to examine, predict, and estimate human online interests and behavior, that somehow linked to real people concerns. This study aimed to investigate the features and evaluate the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic and its lockdown on consumer worldwide interest in eating behavior and its related factors. Google Trends-Relative Search Volumes (RSV) of distinct keywords related to eating behavior, were obtained from a timeframe before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, from January 1, 2018, to December 13, 2020. During the global lockdown from March 11, 2020, to June 30, 2020, RSV curves exhibited a short-term fluctuation of interest in multiple keywords related to eating behavior and its related factors such as food purchasing, food security, food poisoning, panic buying, stocking up, health awareness and mental illness. Spearman’s correlation analysis showed a strong correlation between daily confirmed cases and examined keywords. Univariate repeated measures ANOVA following with Bonferroni Post-hoc test revealed that during the year with the presence of COVID-19 pandemic, people worldwide pay more concerns in each keyword (1) environmental and economic factors (unemployment: +269%, food shortage: +180%, food bank: +50%); (2) health- and food-safety concerns (immunity: +138%, vitamin C: +90%, vitamin D: +55%, zinc: +47%, food storage containers: +40%, food packaging: +31%); (3) food choices and interest (local meat: +84%, frozen food: +67%, CSA: +65%, flour: +66%, bread: +53%, soybean oil: +45%, local fruit: +43%, canned tomato: +42%, refrigerated food: +41%, canned meat: +39%, pancake: +37%, cookie: +29%, butter: +29%, canned fish: +29%, liquior: +20%); (4) social and individual factors (take-out: +128%, deliver: +53%), (6) lifestyle factors (stationary bicycle: +110%, dumbbell: +89%, yoga mat: +84%, treadmill: +65%, grocery store: +51%); (6) psychological factors (isolation: +113%). COVID-19 pandemic and its lockdown have had far-reaching effects on global concerns in many factors related to human eating behavior. Swift action is necessarily performed to strengthen the resilience of the food supply chain system, support and adapt to the new normal behavior, and mitigation the profound negative changes, especially targeting those in high-risks and vulnerable groups and food-insecure regions.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0415.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: solar energy; photovoltaics; UVGI; UVC; COVID-19; coronavirus; SARS-CoV-2
Online: 25 May 2020 (17:59:50 CEST)
As the first initiative of its kind in Algeria, here is presented a solar-powered mobile “Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation” disinfection unit (UVGI) based on a special germicidal ultraviolet-C (UVC) radiator. The system was designed to disinfect several objects such as: medical tools, reusable masks, face-shields, gloves, phones, laptops, keys, money and many other portable devices that need to be disinfected/sterilized. It offers the advantage of complete autonomy through the built-in photovoltaic (PV) system that includes a solar panel, a gel battery, a charge controller and a power inverter. The system provides an extra 220V-50Hz outlet with 375VA maximum power to be used when energy is needed. The system is easily scalable to generate higher ultraviolet dosages by adding more UVC lamps. The chemical-free germicidal UVC sanitizing method employed by this device effectively disactivates a very wide range of microorganisms (microbes, bacteria and fungi and viruses including the actual SARS-CoV-2 that causes COVID-19 respiratory disease) and it has several advantages in comparison to chemical-based sanitizing methods. The total cost to make this open source device is below 1000 € and is easily customizable and scalable. This device is an open source, secure and fast equipment for objects and surface disinfection. The device will be fully automated by adding PIR sensors or remote control after further funding will be received.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0599.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: crisis self-efficacy; work commitment; education workers; public schools; COVID-19 pandemic
Online: 24 July 2020 (14:47:56 CEST)
COVID-19 pandemic has affected the public educational sectors in terms of adjustment in educational modalities of instructional delivery, school operations, and policies. With this emerging paradigm shift, teachers' crisis self-efficacy and work commitment are relevant for research. This study's main objective was to determine the significant influence of crisis self-efficacy on the work commitment of public school teachers in Region XI (Davao Region), Philippines, during the COVID-19 pandemic. The sample consisted of 1,340 public school teachers across the Davao Region. The researchers collected the data through adapted questionnaires contextualized to the local setting and administered through online Google forms with appended consent. Mean, standard deviation, Pearson r, and regression analysis were used to analyze data. Results revealed that crisis self-efficacy significantly influences the work commitment of public school teachers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Uncertainty management during this crisis, in particular, best predicts teachers’ work commitment. Data also showed a high level of crisis self-efficacy in terms of action, preventive, achievement and uncertainty management, and high level of teachers’ work commitment in terms of commitment to school, commitment to students, commitment to teaching, and commitment to profession. Correlation results also showed a link between crisis self-efficacy and the work commitment of teachers amid pandemic. Finally, the study concluded with practical recommendations and directions for future research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0275.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: fossil fuel; life cycle assessment (LCA); COVID-19; environment; resources; exergy
Online: 9 November 2020 (10:38:07 CET)
As the world grapples with the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been a sudden and abrupt change in global energy landscape. Traditional fossil fuels that serve as the linchpin of the modern civilization have found their consumption rapidly fell across the most categories due to strict lockdown and stringent measures that have been adopted to suppress the disease. These changes consequently steered various environmental benefits across the world in recent time. The present article is an attempt to investigate these environmental benefits and reversals that have been materialized in this unfolding situation due to reduced consumption of fossil fuels. Life cycle assessment tool has been used hereby to evaluate nine environmental impacts and one energy based impact. These impacts include: ozone formation (terrestrial ecosystems), terrestrial acidification, freshwater eutrophication, marine eutrophication, terrestrial ecotoxicity, freshwater ecotoxicity, marine ecotoxicity, land use, mineral resources scarcity and cumulative exergy demand. Outcomes from the study demonstrate that COVID-19 has delivered impressive changes in global environment and life cycle exergy demand with about 11-25% curtailment in all above-mentioned impacts in 2020 in comparison to their corresponding readings in 2019.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0051.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Forestry; Forest industries; forest products trade; modeling; Cobweb; COVID-19
Online: 5 May 2021 (12:34:06 CEST)
The GFPMX projects forest area and stock, consumption, production, imports, exports, and prices of industrial roundwood, fuelwood, sawnwood, wood-based panels, wood-pulp, and paper and paperboard, in 180 countries, and currently from 2018 to 2070. The core principle of the model is the Cobweb theorem, according to which markets are not necessarily in equilibrium, but take some time to adjust to shocks, such as demand shifts, leading to oscillatory dynamics of prices and quantities. The paper presents the model structure and the estimation of its parameters from international statistics on production, trade, forest area, and forest stock. This is followed by an application of the GFPMX to the impact on the global forest sector of the economic recession caused by the COVID-19 pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0271.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: COVID-19; human mobility; spatial autocorrelation; temporal autocorrelation; Facebook mobility data
Online: 19 September 2022 (09:33:10 CEST)
COVID-19 is the most severe health crisis of the 21st century. COVID-19 presents a threat to almost all countries world-wide. The restriction of human mobility is one of the strategies used to control the transmission of COVID-19. However, it has yet to be determined how effective this restriction is in controlling the rise in COVID-19 cases, particularly in major capital cities such as Jakarta, Indonesia. Using Facebook's mobility data, our study explores the impact of restricting human mobility on COVID-19 case control in Jakarta. Our main contribution is showing how the restriction of human mobility data can give important information about how COVID-19 spreads in different places. We proposed modifying a global regression model into a local regression model by accounting for the spatial and temporal interdependence of COVID-19 transmission across space and time. We applied Bayesian hierarchical Poisson spatiotemporal models with spatially varying regression coefficients. We estimated the regression parameters using an Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation. We found that the local regression model with spatially varying regression coefficients outperforms the global regression model based on DIC, WAIC, MPL, and R2 criteria for model selection. In Jakarta's 44 districts, the impact of human mobility varies significantly. The impacts of human mobility on the log relative risk of COVID-19 range from –4.445 to 2.353. The prevention strategy involving the restriction of human mobility may be beneficial in some districts but ineffective in others. Therefore, a cost-effective strategy had to be adopted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0549.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: childhood education; Hygiene; COVID-19; preventive behaviours; staying at home; mask wearing; hand washing; public goods
Online: 30 January 2023 (09:21:57 CET)
Childhood hygiene education has resulted in individuals engaging in hand washing and mask wearing to cope with COVID-19. Individuals can form sustainable development-related habits through childhood education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0374.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; coronavirus; infectious disease; infection management; PCR test; mortality; kinetic analysis
Online: 3 June 2020 (05:10:05 CEST)
Global differences in changes in the numbers of population-adjusted daily test-positive cases (NPDP) and deaths (NPDD) by COVID-19 were analyzed for 49 countries, including developed and developing countries. The changes as a proportion of national population were compared, adjusting by the beginning of test-positive cases increase (BPI) or deaths increase (BDI). Remarkable regional differences of more than 100 fold in NPDP and NPDD were observed. The trajectories of NPDD after BDI increased exponentially within 20 days in most countries. Machine learning analysis suggested that NPDD on 30 days after BDI was the highest in developed Western countries (1180 persons per hundred million), followed by countries in the Middle East (128), Latin America (97), and Asia (7). Furthermore, in Western countries with positive rates of the PCR test of less than 7.0%, the increase in NPDP was slowing-down two weeks after BPI, and subsequent NPDD was only 15% compared with those with higher positive rates, which suggested that the situation of testing might have affected the velocity of COVID-19 spread. The causes behind remarkable differences between regions possibly include genetic factors of inhabitants because distributions of the race and of the observed infection increasing rates were in good agreement globally.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0192.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: UK higher education; student; COVID-19; pandemic; academic performance; student evaluations; online learning; loss of income; educational disruptions
Online: 8 February 2021 (11:36:40 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemic is one of the worst catastrophes that we have faced globally in recent years. It has not only taken its toll on the economic sector but also on the education sector. The social distancing norms that are in place as a direct response to the pandemic have turned conventional classroom teaching into a problematic minefield; as such, students all over the world have been forced into unprecedented situations that have served only to worsen the situation. The current pandemic has given rise to one of the worst crises the 21st Century has ever seen, resulting in a surge of unemployment. Many companies have taken the route of firing employees or making redundancies, as they cannot afford the monthly reimbursement for staff. While this issue primarily concerns full-time workers, it also carries significant consequences for students – a considerable number of students are required to earn their daily living costs, and, without a job, they cannot pay their educational fees, accommodation costs, or living expenses. This comprehensive study briefly discusses the multitude of problems faced by students in the UK regarding higher education, as a direct result of the coronavirus pandemic. It contains six individual sections: a detailed introduction; the methodological procedures employed; educational disruptions, covering issues from hindrances in field research to examinations and student evaluations; personal problems experienced by students, such as accommodation and loss of income; concerns arising from the global pandemic; and finally, a conclusion and summary of the study’s findings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0311.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: perceived stress; life satisfaction; academic performance; university students; stress management; COVID-19
Online: 21 October 2021 (13:59:07 CEST)
The circumstances arising from the exceptional situation caused by the COVID-19 pandemic have affected all socioeconomic areas in the last two years. The field of Education has not been an exception and the management of the situation seems to have caused an increase in the level of perceived stress of university students. On this basis, this research that aims, first, to analyze the student’s level of perceived stress during the de-escalation and return to normality period, secondly, to evaluate its relationship with life satisfaction and, finally, to detect the students' needs in stress management, has been developed. An exploratory-descriptive study of quantitative and cross-sectional nature has been carried out. 222 university students of the Childhood and Primary Education Degrees of the University of Jaén (Spain) have participated. The instruments, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) have been used. The results show a moderate and partial relationship among the dimensions of the used instruments. The obtained coefficients of determination are, Academic Performance (r² = .019) and Life Satisfaction (r² = .402), with a mean square error (SRMR) of .079. These findings show the need to develop actions within the university training program in effective stress management strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0507.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: COVID-19; lockdown; online teaching; physical education; physical activity; teachers; secondary school
Online: 19 November 2020 (11:26:28 CET)
COVID-19 pandemic has drastically reduced physical activity (PA) behaviors of many people. Physical education (PE) is considered one of the privileged instruments to promote youths’ PA. We aimed to investigate the effects of lockdown on PE teachers’ behaviors promoting their students’ out-of-school PA and differences between three European countries. 1146 PE teachers (59.5% females) from France, Italy, and Turkey answered an online questionnaire about guiding students to engage in out-of-school PA, helping them to set PA goals, encouraging in self-monitoring PA, the pedagogical formats of these behaviors and feedback asked to students. RM-MANCOVAs were performed with a 2 Time (before and during the lockdown) × 3Country (France, Italy, Turkey) × 2 Gender factorial design, using teaching years and perceived health as covariates. A significant multivariate main effect Time×Country×Gender (p<.001) was reported for the behaviors promoting students’ PA, with French and Italian teachers increasing some behaviors, while Turkish teachers showing opposite trends. Significant multivariate main effects Time×Country were found for formats supporting the behaviors (p < .001) and for asked feedback formats (p<.001). The massive contextual change imposed by lockdown caused different reactions in teachers from the three countries. Findings are informative for PA promotion and PE teachers’ education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2140.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; term pregnancy; vertical transmission; placental gene expression; molecular pathways
Online: 30 May 2023 (12:36:54 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has led to a significant and enduring influence on global health, in-cluding maternal and fetal well-being. Evidence suggests that placental dysfunction is a potential consequence of SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy, which may result in adverse outcomes such as preeclampsia and preterm birth. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear, and it is uncertain whether a mature placenta can protect the fetus from SARS-CoV-2 infection. To address the above hiatus, we conducted a transcriptome-based study of the placenta in both maternal and fetal compartments. We collected placental samples from 16 women, immediately after term delivery, of which seven had confirmed SARS-CoV-2 in-fection by PCR before parturition. Notably, we did not detect any viral load in either the maternal or fetal compartments of the placenta, regardless of symptomatic status. We extracted total RNA from placental tissues, separately from maternal and fetal compartments, constructed cDNA li-braries, and sequenced them to assess mRNA and small RNA expression. Our analysis revealed 727 differentially expressed genes (DEG) in the maternal placental tissue, with 608 upregulated and 109 downregulated in SARS-CoV-2-positive women compared with healthy, negative wom-en. In contrast, the fetal compartment did not exhibit any significant changes in gene expression with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Specifically, we observed significant downregulation of seven genes belonging to the pregnancy-specific glycoprotein (PSG), related to the immunoglobulin superfam-ily in the maternal compartment with active SARS-CoV-2 infection (fold change range from -13.70 to -5.28, FDR ≤ 0.05). Additionally, comparing symptomatic women with healthy, we identified 14,223 DEGs, with high expression of the inflammatory cytokine IL6 in the maternal placenta of the symptomatic women. Furthermore, KEGG analysis revealed that pathways relat-ed to viral infection, vascular smooth muscle contraction, and oxytocin signaling were altered significantly in symptomatic women. Overall, our study sheds light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the reported clinical risk of preeclampsia and preterm delivery in women with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Nonetheless, studies with larger sample sizes are warranted to further deepen our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of the placenta’s anti-viral effects in ma-ternal SARS-CoV-2 infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0290.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: adolescents; alienation in PE class; school happiness; future healthy life expectancy; COVID-19 pandemic
Online: 16 September 2021 (13:55:44 CEST)
This study aims to investigate the changes in the structural relationship between alienation in physical education (PE) class, school happiness, and future healthy life expectancy in Korean adolescents after the COVID-19 pandemic. The data were collected from adolescents in the Republic of Korea using scales for these factors. The collected data were analyzed with frequency analysis, reliability analysis, validity analysis, independent t-test, and path analysis. The key results were as follows. First, there were partial changes in each of the parameters since the outbreak of COVID-19. Second, before the pandemic, alienation in PE class negatively affected school happiness, and school happiness positively affected future healthy life expectancy; however, alienation in PE class did not affect future healthy life expectancy showing a complete mediating effect. Third, during the pandemic, alienation in PE class negatively affected school happiness, and school happiness positively affected future healthy life expectancy; alienation in PE class negatively affected future healthy life expectancy, showing a partial mediating effect. These findings emphasize the importance and potential of school education, especially PE, in promoting happiness and healthy life in adolescents. We expect these findings to have practical implications for future research by presenting theoretical and empirical data.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: ME/CFS; education; medical school; teaching; long Covid; patient safety, NICE Guidelines, Health Act 1983, General Medical Council, GMC, Medical Schools Council, MSC, Long Covid.
Online: 16 March 2021 (12:16:27 CET)
Background and objectives: Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome ME/CFS is a common complex multi-system disease with a significant impact on the quality of life of patients and their families, yet the majority of ME/CFS patients go unrecognised or undiagnosed. For two decades the medical education establishment in the UK has been challenged to remedy these failings, but little has changed. This study was designed to ascertain the current UK medical school education on ME/CFS and to identify challenges and opportunities to inform the future of medical education. Materials and methods: A questionnaire, developed under the guidance of the Medical Schools Council, was sent to all 34 UK Medical Schools to collect data for the academic year 2018-2019. Results: Responses were provided by 22 out of a total of 34 medical schools (65%). 59% of respondents taught ME/CFS, led by specialists drawn from 6 medical disciplines. Teaching delivery was usually by lecture; however, discussion case studies and e-learning were used. 7 schools included questions on ME/CFS in their examinations and 3 schools reported likely clinical exposure to ME/CFS patients. 64% of respondents were interested in receiving further teaching aids in ME/CFS. None of the schools shared details of their teaching syllabus so it was not possible to ascertain what students were being taught. Conclusions: UK medical school teaching in ME/CFS is shown to be inadequate. Several medical disciplines, with known differences about the disease, need to set these aside to give greater clarity in teaching undergraduates so they can more easily recognise and diagnose ME/CFS. Improvements are proposed in ME/CFS medical education consistent with the international paradigm shift in biomedical understanding of this disease. Many medical schools (64% of respondents) acknowledge this need by expressing a strong appetite for the development of further teaching aids and materials. The GMC and MSC are called upon to use their considerable influence to bring about the appropriate changes to medical school curricula so future doctors can recognise, diagnose and treat ME/CFS. The GMC should also consider creating a registered speciality encompassing ME/CFS, post viral fatigue and Long Covid.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0068.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: wearable device; physical activity; behavior; COVID-19; pandemic; exercise habits; analysis; objectively-measured physical activity
Online: 5 September 2022 (13:49:56 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in government restrictions that altered the lifestyle of people worldwide. Studying the impact of these restrictions on exercise behaviors will improve our understanding of environmental factors that influence individuals’ PA. We conducted a retrospective analysis using an index of government pandemic stringency developed by Oxford and a wearable device for runners to compare strictness of lockdowns and exercise habits, using digitally-logged PA data from more than 7,000 runners on a global scale. Additionally, time-of-day of PA globally and levels of PA in 14 countries are compared between the pre-pandemic year of 2019 and the first pandemic year of 2020. We found that during the pandemic the time-of-day that people exercised experienced a major shift, with significantly more activities logged during standard working hours on workdays (p<0.001) and fewer during the same time frame on weekends (p<0.001). Of the countries examined, Italy and Spain had among the most strict lockdowns and suffered the largest decreases in activity counts, whereas France experienced a minimal decrease in activity counts despite enacting a similarly strict lockdown. This study suggests that there are several factors affecting PA, including government policy, workplace policy, and cultural norms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0463.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; genome-wide mutations; transition and transversion; microevolution; disinfectants as mutagens
Online: 30 July 2020 (06:22:00 CEST)
The all-pervasiveness and dynamic nature of the COVID-19 pandemic warrants comprehensive and constant surveillance of the numerous mutations that are accumulating in global SARS-CoV-2 genomes and contributing to the microevoution of the various lineages of the novel coronavirus. This would help us gain insights into the evolving pathogenicity of the virus, and thereby improvise our control and therapeutic strategies. This study explores the genome-wide frequency, gene-wise distribution, and molecular nature, of the large repertoire of point mutations detected across the global dataset of 3,608 SARS-CoV-2 RNA-genomes short-listed from a total 5,485 whole genome sequences deposited in GenBank till 4 June 2020 using a download filter that eliminated all incomplete/gapped sequences. Phylogenomic analysis involving all existing SARS-CoV-2 lineages, represented by 3,740 whole genome sequences from human-source (out of a total of 63,894 sequences stored in the GISAID repository, as on 15 July, 2020), illustrated that the two major-lineages of the virus contributed almost equivalently to the pandemic. However, entities belonging to the early lineages are still mostly spread over Asian countries, whereas those affiliated to recently-derived lineages have a relatively more global distribution. Mutation frequency in the SARS-CoV-2 pan genome was found to be 2.27 × 10-5 nucleotide positions mutated per nucleotide analyzed. An overwhelming majority (count: 1797) of the total 2452 instances of single nucleotide substitution detected (in the SARS-CoV-2 pan genome) were found to be transition mutations with cytidine to uridine (CàU) as the most ubiquitous molecular-type (count: 987). Of the 655 instances of transversion detected, the guanosine to uridine (GàU) variant was most widespread (count: 367). All transcribed and untranscribed loci of the pan genome were found to contain mutation(s). nsp3, and S, N and orf3a, were the most point-mutation-ridden non-structural and structural protein-coding genes, respectively, with 435, 300, 171 and 128 total mutations; 349/86, 192/108, 107/64 and 76/52 transitions/transversions; and 189/48, 106/55, 59/42 and 43/31 CàU/GàU substitutions respectively. Potential mechanistic backgrounds were envisaged for the molecular bias of mutations observed in SARS-CoV-2.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0369.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: temperature extreme; warm climate; low-and middle-income economies; COVID-19; mortality; mixed effect modelling
Online: 30 June 2020 (11:38:15 CEST)
We performed a global analysis with data from 149 countries to test whether temperature can explain the spatial variability of the spread rate and mortality of COVID-19 at the global scale. We performed partial correlation analysis and linear mixed effect modelling to evaluate the association of the spread rate and motility of COVID-19 with maximum, minimum, average temperatures and temperature extreme (difference between maximum and minimum temperature) and other environmental and socioeconomic parameters. After controlling the effect of the duration after the first positive case, partial correlation analysis revealed that temperature was not related with the spatial variability of the spread rate of COVID-19. Mortality was negatively related with temperature in the countries with high-income economies. In contrast, temperature extreme was significantly and positively correlated with mortality in the low-and middle-income countries. Taking the country heterogeneity into account, mixed effect modelling revealed that inclusion of temperature as a fixed effect in the model significantly improved model skill predicting mortality in the low-and middle-income countries. Our analysis suggest that warm climate may reduce the mortality rate in high-income economies but in low and middle-income countries temperature extreme may increase the mortality risk.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0791.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19 Vaccines; Cross-Sectional Studies; Decision Making; Dental Education; Dental Students; International Association of Dental Students; Mass Vaccination; Multicenter Study; Social Determinants of Health
Online: 30 April 2021 (15:26:07 CEST)
Background: Acceleration of mass vaccination strategies is the only pathway to overcome the COVID-19 pandemic. Healthcare professionals and students have a key role in shaping public opinion about vaccines. This study aimed to evaluate the attitudes of dental students globally towards COVID-19 vaccines and explore the potential drivers for students' acceptance levels; Methods: A global cross-sectional study was carried out in February 2021 using an online ques-tionnaire. The study was liaised by the scientific committee of the International Association of Dental Students (IADS), and data was collected through the national and local coordinators of IADS member organizations. The dependent variable was the willingness to take the COVID-19 vaccine, and the independent variables included demographic characteristics, COVID-19-related experi-ence, and the drivers of COVID-19 vaccine-related attitude suggested by the WHO-SAGE; Results: A total of 6639 students from 22 countries representing all world regions responded to the ques-tionnaire properly. Their mean age was 22.06 ± 2.79 (17-40) years, and the majority were females (70.5%), in clinical years (66.8%), and from upper-middle-income economies (45.7%). In general, 22.5% of dental students worldwide were hesitant, and 13.9% rejected COVID-19 vaccines. The students in low- and lower-middle-income (LLMI) economies had significantly higher levels of vaccine hesitancy compared to their peers in upper-middle- and high-income (UMHI) economies (30.4% vs 19.8%; p < 0.001); Conclusions: The global acceptance level of dental students for COVID-19 vaccines was suboptimal, and their worrisome level of vaccine hesitancy was influenced by the socioeconomic context where the dental students live and study. The media and social media, public figures, insufficient knowledge about vaccines, and mistrust of governments and the pharmaceutical industry were barriers to vaccination. The findings of this study call for further implementation of epidemiology (infectious diseases) education within undergraduate dental curricula.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1908.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; Mechanism of Action; Clinical and Epidemiological Features; Global Pandemic Infectious Disease
Online: 26 May 2023 (09:59:10 CEST)
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel global pandemic infectious disease with higher potential for outbreaks than the other epidemic disease such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), influenza A (H1N1), and the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), which identified in China on December 31, 2019. This disease is caused by a new generation of betacoronavirus termed as the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) or SARS-CoV-2. Although, the first report of this disease was in recent months, now, the COVID-19 is known as a global pandemics. Hence, the aim of this article is the quick review of the recent studies on the novel coronavirus disease 2019 including researches on the epidemiological parameters, mechanism of action, diagnosis, and treatment of the novel coronavirus disease, as well as clinical features of patients infected with COVID-19. Moreover, the novel COVID-19 has comprised of SARS, H1N1, and MERS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0736.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: middle school students, health perception, importance-performance analysis (IPA), online physical education class types, COVID-19
Online: 31 May 2021 (10:41:19 CEST)
This study aimed to assess the differences in the importance and performance of health awareness in Korean middle school students according to the types of online physical education classes they attended during the coronavirus disease-2019 pandemic. Overall, 583 participants were selected using a convenience sampling method; the data were obtained through an online survey using Google forms. Frequency analysis, reliability analysis, independent sample t-test, and importance-performance analysis were performed. First, the differences between importance and performance were found to be the most for sleep and physical activity management, and the least for disease and hygiene management. In addition, both the groups demonstrated higher importance and performance for hygiene and disease management. There were significant differences in the importance and performance of all the sub-factors. Second, hygiene, disease management, and mental health management were found in quadrant I in both the groups, while physical activity, sleep, and dietary habit management were in quadrant III. No factors were in quadrant II and IV.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0519.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: COVID-19; Machine learning (ML); Grey wolf optimizer (GWO); artificial neural network (ANN); time-series; outbreak prediction
Online: 26 October 2020 (11:57:14 CET)
An accurate outbreak prediction of COVID-19 can successfully help to get insight into the spread and consequences of infectious diseases. Recently, machine learning (ML) based prediction models have been successfully employed for the prediction of the disease outbreak. The present study aimed to engage an artificial neural network-integrated by grey wolf optimizer for COVID-19 outbreak predictions by employing the Global dataset. Training and testing processes have been performed by time-series data related to January 22 to September 15, 2020 and validation has been performed by time-series data related to September 16 to October 15, 2020. Results have been evaluated by employing mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) and correlation coefficient (r) values. ANN-GWO provided a MAPE of 6.23, 13.15 and 11.4% for training, testing and validating phases, respectively. According to the results, the developed model could successfully cope with the prediction task.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0195.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: COVID-19; COVID-19 vaccines; capillary leak syndrome
Online: 11 January 2023 (09:41:36 CET)
Systemic capillary leak syndrome (SCLS) is an uncommon, potentially life-threatening disorder defined as recurrent attacks of pseudo-shock. This syndrome occurs due to the disruption of endothelial cells, which leads to increased vascular permeability, causing intravascular fluid to leak into the extravascular space and albumin to be retained in the interstitial space. SCLS can lead to hypovolemia, peripheral hypoperfusion, and acute renal insufficiency. The syndrome is presented with fever, generalized edema, pleural effusions, dyspnea, hypovolemia, hemoconcentration, prerenal azotemia, shock, and syncope. After ruling out other causes of hypovolemic shock, the diagnosis of SCLS can be considered on the presence of the classical triad of hypotension, hemoconcentration, and hypoalbuminemia. Eliminating the precipitating factors is the cornerstone of SCLS management. It is advisable to be very cautious and weigh the risks and benefits of vaccination of people with a history of this condition. This review will discuss and compare different aspects of SLCS after SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 vaccination.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0097.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Bivalent COVID-19 vaccine; COVID-19 vaccination booster; COVID-19; Omicron; SARS-CoV-2
Online: 6 March 2023 (07:00:00 CET)
The severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron variant of concern has been the dominant cause of worldwide COVID-19 cases since 2022. All the Omicron sublineage viruses have demonstrated high transmissibility and an ability to escape vaccine-induced immunity. While first-generation vaccines, including monovalent vaccines, continue to provide protection against severe disease, hospitalization and mortality, their efficacy against Omicron sub variants remains sparse. These vaccines have also been associated with rapidly waning protection against primary COVID-19 and COVID-19 reinfections conferred by evolving Omicron sublineages.. This led to the development and deployment of updated vaccines and the introduction of the bivalent booster. Through this review, we highlight the brief journey of the variants of concern leading to the dominance of Omicron and the effectiveness of the key vaccines against these variants, including the updated (bivalent) boosters.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0526.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; Unreported COVID-19 Death; Provisional COVID-19 Death; Death Reporting Discrepancy; Bangladesh
Online: 22 July 2020 (11:32:05 CEST)
Objective: We aim to assess the reporting discrepancy and the difference between confirmed and unreported COVID-19-like death counts.Study Design: The study is based on time-series data.Methods: We used publicly available data to explore the differences between confirmed death counts and deaths with Codiv-19 symptoms between March 8, 2020, and July 11, 2020, in Bangladesh.Results: During the week ending May 9, 2020, the unreported COVID-19-like death count was higher than the confirmed COVID-19 death count; however, it was lower in the following weeks. On average, unreported COVID-19-like death counts were similar to the confirmed COVID-19 death counts during the same period. However, the reporting authority neither considers these deaths nor adjusts for potential seasonal influenza or other related deaths, which might produce incomplete COVID-19 data and respective mortality rates. Conclusions: Documenting unreported deaths with COVID-19 symptoms needs to be included in provisional death counts because it is essential to estimate a robust COVID-19 mortality rate and to offer data-driven pandemic response strategies. An urgent initiative is needed to prepare an acceptable guideline for COVID-19 death reporting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0227.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: COVID-19; depression; anxiety; post-acute COVID-19 syndrome; post-COVID
Online: 12 August 2022 (04:56:33 CEST)
Background: This study aimed to examine the course of Depression and anxiety in COVID-19 survivors with a psychiatric history compared with those without a psychiatric history. Methods: A web-based cross-sectional survey for COVID-19 survivors was conducted from July to September 2021. 6016 COVID-19 survivors, the accuracy of whose responses was determined to be assured, were included in analyses. Exposures included psychiatric history and time since COVID-19 infection, and the main outcomes and measures included severity of depression and anxiety, as assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), respectively. Results: Mean severity of PHQ-9 and GAD-7 were significantly higher in participants with a psychiatric history than in those without a psychiatric history. Two-way analysis of covariance for PHQ-9 showed a significant main effect of the presence of psychiatric history and a significant interaction effect of psychiatric history × time since infection. Two-way analysis of covariance for the GAD-7 score revealed a significant main effect of the presence of psychiatric history and time since COVID-19 infection and the interaction effect of these factors. Conclusions: The course of depression and anxiety was more severe in COVID-19 survivors with a psychiatric history than in those without a psychiatric history.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0240.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Locomotion; regulatory modes; resilience; COVID-19; Covid-19 anxiety.
Online: 4 July 2023 (13:48:34 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has exerted a significant impact on mental health globally. The uncertainty, fear, and stress associated with this crisis have contributed to a heightened prevalence of anxiety, depression, and various other mental health disorders. In this scenario, the present study aimed at investigating the relationship between locomotion regulatory mode, resilience, and COVID-19 anxiety. It is worth noting that previous extensive research has established a significant correlation between high levels of locomotion and diverse positive psychological conditions, such as optimism, reduced hopelessness, and positive affect. A total of 243 participants completed measures of locomotion regulatory mode, resilience, and COVID-19 anxiety. In line with our hypotheses, individuals' locomotion regulatory mode was negatively, although non significatively, associated with COVID-19 anxiety. Furthermore, resilience was found to mediate the relationship between locomotion regulatory mode and COVID-19 anxiety, indicating that individuals displaying high locomotion may be better equipped to cope with the stress and uncertainty of the COVID-19 pandemic due to their greater levels of resilience. Taken together, these findings highlight the importance of considering both locomotion and resilience in managing anxiety related to COVID-19 and suggest that interventions aimed at enhancing resilience may be beneficial particularly for individuals with low locomotion regulatory mode.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0338.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: COVID-19; ACE2; severity; post-COVID-19 patients; comorbidity.
Online: 5 June 2023 (14:36:06 CEST)
ACE2 impact on the severity of COVID-19 is widely discussed but still controversial. To estimate its role in aspects of the main risk factors and comorbidities, we involved post-COVID-19 patients in Ternopil region (Ukraine). Recruitment period was July 2020 to December 2021. Medical records, treatment modalities and outcomes were recorded and analyzed. Serum human ACE2 protein was measured with Cusabio ELISA kits (Houston, TX, USA). Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS21.0 software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). The level of ACE2 serum protein was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in patients with mild symptoms compared to more severe course of disease, and inversely had changed from 1 to 90 days after recovery. In patients with mild COVID-19, ACE2 level significantly decreased over time, while among critical patients, it increased by 34.1percent. Such results could be explained by ACE2 shedding from tissues into circulation. Loss of the membrane-bound form of the enzyme decreases the virus entry into cells. Our studies did not identify any sex-related ACE2 serum levels correlation. The most common comorbidities were hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases and diabetes mellitus. All comorbidities except respiratory diseases contribute to the severity of disease and correlate with ACE2 blood serum level.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0361.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; pandemic; asymptomaticspread; early-stage COVID-19 mitigation
Online: 20 April 2020 (06:18:33 CEST)
Background: Early-stage interventions in a potential pandemic are important tounderstand as they can make the difference between runaway exponential growththat is hard to turn back and stopping the spread before it gets that far. COVID-19 is an interesting case study because there have been very different outcomesin different localities. These variations are best studied after the fact if precisionis the goal; while a pandemic is still unfolding less precise analysis is of value inattempting to guide localities in the early stages to learn lessons of those that pre-ceded them. Methods: I examine three factors that could differentiate strategy: asymptomaticspread, differences in use of the Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) tuberculosis vac-cine and cloth face masks.Results:Differences in disease progression as well as the possibility of alternativestrategies to prevent COVID-19 from entering the runaway phase or damping itdown later can be elucidated by a study of asymptomatic infection. A study todemonstrate not only what fraction are asymptomatic but how contagious they arewill also inform policy on universal mask wearing. Conclusions: While a COVID-19 outbreak is at a level that makes accurate trace-and test possible, investigation of asymptomatic transmission is viable and shouldbe attempted to enhance understanding of spread and variability in the disease aswell as policy options for slowing the spread.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0413.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: long COVID; COVID 19 vaccination; COVID awareness
Online: 24 December 2021 (23:40:18 CET)
Background Recently, a surge of COVID 19 was observed globally, regionally and nationally. With increasing numbers of cases, the frequency of long COVID is on the rise. Management and control of long COVID depend on changes in respect of human behaviors and requires an understanding of knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) regarding health threats. MethodsA descriptive cross sectional study using online survey to gather data on the socio-economic background, knowledge, attitudes and practices on long-term complications of COVID. Results: Out of 201 respondents, 89.2% participants have heard about long-term complications of COVID 19. Only 35.9% have demonstrated adequate knowledge in the questions relating to co-morbidities and risk factors of COVID-19. A total of 92.2% believe that they should adhere to preventive measures following vaccination. Less than 60 % were following the advice on avoiding unnecessary travel and crowded places. Further, less than 50% were following COVID preventive measures. ConclusionAlthough the majority of participants have heard about long-term complications and common symptoms, the knowledge regarding co-morbidities that can lead to severe disease and long COVID was not satisfactory. The attitudes of the participants indicated increasing concern about long COVID. Practices indicate lack of adherence to key measures such as avoiding crowded places. These findings highlight the need for further increasing of awareness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0446.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: acute myocardial infarction; coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); island communities; point-of-care testing; spatial care paths
Online: 28 October 2022 (09:30:44 CEST)
Abstract: Our goal is to create point-of-care (POC) strategies that accelerate decision making, increase efficiency, improve outcomes, and enhance standards of care in island communities faced with global warming, rising oceans, population migration, and intensifying weather disasters. We assessed needs in the Bantayan Archipelago and mainland Cebu Province, Visayas Islands, Philippines, to map POC diagnostics, rescue times, and spatial care paths. Significant deficiencies were lack of cardiac troponin testing for rapid diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction, absence of blood gas and pH testing for support of critically ill patients, and geographic gaps prolonging patient transfers and delaying treatment. Strengths comprised primary care that can be facilitated by POC testing, logical inter-island transfers for which decision making and triage could be accelerated with onboard diagnostic testing, and healthcare small-world networks amenable to POC advances, such as pre-hospital testing, that avoid overloading emergency rooms. Healthcare resources must be distributed to archipelago islands, not concentrated in large metropolitan areas inaccessible for emergency interventions. We conclude that a point-of-need focus will help improve public health, decrease disparities in mortality among rural islanders versus urban dwellers, and pave the way for heightened resilience in anticipation of the adverse impact of global warming on vulnerable coastal areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0590.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Physical education; COVID-19; primary school; self-efficacy; work engagement; school closure; classroom teachers; digital competence; online teaching; lockdown
Online: 26 July 2021 (15:41:22 CEST)
This study aimed to evaluate whether primary school classroom teachers reported changes in physical education teaching self-efficacy (SE-PE) and work engagement (WE) during the first COVID-19 wave. Six-hundred-twenty-two classroom teachers filled in an online questionnaire on SE-PE and WE, referring to before and during the lockdown, and on perceived digital competence. While controlling for perceived digital competence, a mixed between-within Repeated Measures Multivariate Analysis of Covariance (RM-MANCOVA) was performed, with a two-time (before vs. during the lockdown) and three age-categories (≤40 vs. 41-50 vs. ≥51 years) factorial design. The RM-MANCOVA revealed that perceived digital competence significantly adjusted teachers’ SE-PE and WE values (p<0.001). The analysis yielded a significant multivariate main effect by time (p< 0.001) and by time × age-categories (p=0.001). Follow-up univariate ANCOVA showed significant differences by time in teachers’ SE-PE (p<0.001) and WE (p < 0.001), with a reduction of both values from before to during the lockdown. A Bonferroni post hoc pairwise comparisons showed teachers’ SE-PE significantly decreased in all age categories (p<0.001). The present findings confirm the importance of promoting SE-PE among primary school teachers, regardless of the crisis due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Teachers’ self-efficacy and WE are essential to master the challenges of PE teaching.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0490.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Covid-19; Long Covid-19; Long Haulers Covid; Post Covid-19 Syndrome; Post-Acute Covid-19; Corona Virus; SARS-Cov-2; Novel Corona Virus 2019; Post-Acute SARS-CoV-2; PASC, Post-Acute Sequelae of COVID-19; Late Sequelae COVID-19
Online: 18 March 2021 (17:16:52 CET)
Introduction: Despite more than one year passed since the first cases of SARS-CoV-2 were reported, there is still no consensus on the definition and clinical management of post-acute-COVID-19. The condition has heterogeneously been named as Chronic COVID syndrome, Post COVID-19 Syndrome, post-acute sequela of SARS-CoV-2 (PASC), and the more familiar long COVID. Method: In order to capture all relevant published studies, we undertook a multi-step search with no language restriction. The following four-step search strategy was utilized: First, a preliminary (limited) search was conducted on January 20, 2021, in Google Scholar and PubMed to identify the appropriate keywords. Then, on January 30, 2021, we adopted a search strategy of electronic databases from Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Web of sciences, using those keywords. Then, after duplicate removal, we screened all titles, abstracts, and full texts. This resulted in 66 eligible studies. Subsequently, after a forward and backward search of their references and citations an additional 54 publications were found, resulting in a total of 120 publications that formed the basis of the present analysis. The titles, abstracts, and full-texts of non-English articles were translated using Google Translate for further evaluation. We conducted our scoping review based on the PRISMA-ScR Checklist.Results: We found only one randomized clinical trial in our search. Of the 67 original studies, 22 were cohort and 28 were cross-sectional studies totaling 74.6% of the original studies. Of the total of 120 publications, 59 (49.1%) focused on signs and symptoms, 28 (23.3%) were focused on management, and 13 (10.8%) focused on pathophysiology. Ten (9%) publications focused on imaging studies. Ninety-one percent of the original investigations came from high and upper-middle-income countries, highlighting the scarcity of reports originating from low-income and lower-middle-income countries.Conclusion: The predominant symptoms among those with the so-called “Long COVID” were: fatigue, breathlessness, arthralgia, sleep difficulties, and chest pain. Recent reports also point to the risk of long-term sequela with cutaneous, respiratory, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, mental health, neurologic, and renal involvement in those who survive the acute phase of the illness. The ambiguity and controversies in its definition have impaired proper recognition and management of those requiring additional support following the resolution of the acute phase of this infection. This has resulted in long-standing distress for the patients and their families. Our findings highlight the need for a multidisciplinary approach, support, and rehabilitation for these patients in terms of long-term mental and physical health.
Online: 21 July 2020 (13:46:45 CEST)
Today, we are all threatened by an unprecedented pandemic: COVID-19. How different is it from other coronaviruses? Will it be attenuated or become more virulent? Which animals may be its original host? In this study, we analyzed 377 publicly available complete genome sequences for the COVID-19 virus, the previously known flu-causing coronaviruses (HCov-229E, HCov-OC43, HCov-NL63 and HCov-HKU1) and the lethal, pathogenic P3/P4 viruses, SARS, MERS, Victoria, Lassa, Yamagata, Ebola, and Dengue. We found strong similarities between the current circulating COVID-19 and SARS and MERS, as well as COVID-19 in rhinolophines and pangolins. On the contrary, COVID-19 shares little similarity with the flu-causing coronaviruses and the other P3/P4 viruses. Strikingly, we observed divergence of COVID-19 strains isolated from human hosts has steadily increased from December 2019 to March 2020, suggesting COVID-19 is actively evolving in human hosts. From all existing human COVID-19 genome sequences, we calculated the first common model that represents the shared sequences of the human COVID-19 strains, which provides important information for vaccine and antibody development. Geographic and time-course analysis of the evolutionary trees of the human COVID-19 reveals possibly heterogeneous evolutional paths among strains from 21 countries. This finding has important implications to the management of COVID-19 and the development of vaccines.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0269.v1
Online: 21 June 2020 (11:59:21 CEST)
Understanding the clinical conditions and outcomes of Covid-19 infected patients with immunodeficiency like HIV will be an information for improving management and treatment modalities. It was reported a patient of HIV plus clinical confirmed Covid-19 in this presentation.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0077.v4
The Ongoing COVID-19 Epidemic Curves Indicate Initial Point Spread in China With Log-Normal Distribution of New Cases per Day With a Predictable Last Date of the Outbreak Version 4: Predictions for Selected European Countries, USA and the World as a Whole and Try to Predict the End of the Outbreak Including a Discussion of a Possible “New Normal”
Online: 19 April 2020 (08:15:10 CEST)
During an epidemic outbreak it is useful for planners and responsible authorities to be able to plan ahead to estimate when an outbreak of an epidemic is likely to ease and when the last case can be predicted in their area of responsibility. Theoretically this could be done for a point source epidemic using epidemic curve forecasting. The extensive data now coming out of China makes it possible to test if this can be done using MS Excel a standard spreadsheet program available to most offices. The available data is divided up for whole China and the different provinces. This and the high number of cases makes the analysis possible. Data for new confirmed infections for Hubei, Hubei outside Wuhan, China excluding Hubei as well as Zhejiang and Fujian provinces all follow a log-normal distribution that can be used to make a rough estimate for the date of the last new confirmed cases in respective areas. In the version 2 continuation work, 9 additional days were added for the Chinese data to evaluate the previous predictions. The extra data then available from China follows the previous predicted trend supporting the usefulness of this simple technique. In the version 2 we also tested the feasibility for a non-specialist to make similar predictions using additional data from S Korea now available. In this third continuation the predictions for Version 2 are evaluated for S Korea and fits well the beginning of the decline but it seems to be difficult to bring down numbers of cases per day under about 100 new cases per day, potential reasons for this is discussed. To further evaluate when in a prediction becomes reliable the Chinese data was used to evaluate to make predictions for each day around the peak in number of cases and after2-3 consecutive days of decreasing new cases per day the prediction becomes reliable. In version 3 data for Italy just reaching this point was used to make further predictions for that country. A second new analysis was also added to use the fitted equation to detect when the acceleration of new cases per day stopped increasing exponentially. In the Chinese case this measured point coincides with the date of the complete Hubei lockdown and in the new Italian analysis it coincides with the mandatory Italian lockdown. Predicted dates for the end of the Italian outbreak is also added. In version 4 we expand the analysis to selected European countries, USA and the World as a whole and try to predict the end of the outbreak. We further discuss the apparent success of the used techniques that might work to introduce a “new normal” not very different to the previous to stop secondary outbreaks of COVID19 and future COVIDs that are sure to come.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2032.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: COVID-19; post-COVID-19; pulmonary manifestations; spirometry; chest tomography.
Online: 28 July 2023 (12:48:47 CEST)
COVID-19 generated a scenario for global health with multiple systemic impairments. This retrospective study evaluated the clinical, radiological, and pulmonary functional evolution in 302 post-COVID-19 patients. Regarding post-COVID-19 pulmonary symptoms, dry cough, dyspnea, and chest pain were the most frequent. Of the associated comorbidities, asthma was more frequent (23.5%). Chest Tomography (CT) initially showed a mean pulmonary involvement of 69.7%, and the evaluation in the subsequent months showed an improvement in the evolutionary image, and with less than six months post-pathology, there was a commitment of 37 .7%, from six to twelve months, 20% and after 12 months, 9.9%. And as for most of the sample, 50.3% of the patients presented CT normalization in less than six months after infection, 23% normalized between six and twelve months, and 5.2% normalized the images after twelve months, with one remaining. Percentage of 17.3% who maintained post-COVID-19 pulmonary residual sequelae. Regarding spirometry, in less than six months after the pathology, 59.3% of the patients already showed a regular exam; 12.3% normalized their function within six to twelve months, and 6.3% concluded a normal exam after twelve months of post-pathology evaluation. Only 3.6% of the patients still showed some alteration in this period.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0305.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: COVID-19 mitigation, education, indoor air quality, COVID-19 testing
Online: 16 March 2023 (11:16:45 CET)
In this case study, we describe a well-resourced private school system that implemented COVID-19 mitigation measures based on public health expert guidance as well as the lessons learned from this process. Avenues is a 10-year-old private school with campuses in NYC, São Paulo, Shenzhen, Silicon Valley, as well as online, which offers education at sixteen grades: 2 early learning years, followed by a pre-kindergarten–grade 12 school. We describe the mitigation measures Avenues implemented. We compare COVID-19 case prevalence at the school to the reported case prevalence in New York City, as reported by the New York State Department of Health. We compare the school's indoor air quality (IAQ) to ambient IAQ measures reported in the literature. The school's COVID-19 transmission mitigation measures successfully reduced the prevalence of COVID-19 among its students, staff, and faculty. The school also established a consistent high level of IAQ through various ventilation mechanisms. The school received positive parent and community feedback on the policies and procedures it established, with many parents commenting on the high level of communication and trust established by the school. This successful school reopening provides useful data for school closure and reopening standards to prepare for future pandemic and epidemic events.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0414.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19; COVID-19 vaccinations; all-cause mortality; relative risk
Online: 24 February 2023 (02:03:36 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemics has had an unprecedented global impact, and the COVID-19 mass vaccination campaign has been commonly regarded as crucial to overcome the pandemics. Since all-cause mortality is the best way to measure the consequences of a health intervention, the present study was devised to analyze the all-cause mortality data of the United Kingdom (UK), which are made publicly available broken down by vaccination status. Data from January to May 2022 were retrospectively collected and analyzed according to age groups and vaccination status and the relative risk (RR) for all-cause mortality was calculated in comparison to the corresponding unvaccinated groups. All-cause mortality RR was also calculated from January to May 2021 for vaccinated people. Results show that the all-cause mortality RR was higher in people who received one or two doses of COVID-19 vaccines throughout the whole period and in any of the age groups considered. People vaccinated with three doses more than 21 days earlier had RRs lower than unvaccinated people, which however linearly increased over time. RR in vaccinated people of all ages in comparison to unvaccinated people were lower in January-May 2021, however they steadily grew over time. The finding that all-cause mortality RR in vaccinated in comparison to unvaccinated people increases over time requires careful examination to understand the underlying factors. Meanwhile, all the other major countries should undertake a systematic collection of all-causes mortality broken down by vaccination status, and mass vaccination campaigns should be suspended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0400.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: COVID 19; health personnel; Burnout, Psychological; COVID 19 stress syndrome
Online: 26 September 2022 (11:42:28 CEST)
Purpose: The healthcare pressure and emotional tension during the first year of the COVID 19 pandemic have been able to affect the health of healthcare personnel. Physical and psychological symptoms attributed to a work situation and or COVID 19 infection are describ ed in health professionals. Objective: to analyze the prevalence of physical and psychological symptoms directly or indirectly related to COVID 19 (occupational causes, illness or persistent COVID 19) after a 12 month pandemic. Methods: #COVID19PS is a cro ss sectional analytical study using an ad hoc questionnaire distributed through social media to record physical and psychological symptoms related to COVID 19 in health professionals. Variables: age, sex, geographical origin, profession, characteristics of the work environment, physical symptoms, Maslach test ( for health professionals. Univariate and bivariate statistical analysis using t distribution, Chi square, ANOVA using IBM SPSS v20®. Results: N=1.159 ( women, 21.8% men; 44.6% <35 years old, 23.9% between 35 45years); 96.5% Spaniards. Professions: 17.1% medicine, 12.7% nursing, 32% physiotherapy, 24.1% occupational therapy, 14.1% others; 47.5% belonged to direct care for COVID 19 patients. 28.2% had passed the disease and 3.7% had it acti ve. 61.6% had physical symptoms ( neurological, 31.7% musculoskeletal, 29.6% general, 20.9% gastrointestinal, 20.3% skin, 19.2% cardiovascular, 16% respiratory (p= 96.9% had a medium high Burnout index (p= 48.3% with high levels of Emot ional Exhaustion, 62.9% with medium high level of Depersonalization and 74% with medium low levels of Personal Accomplishment. Conclusion: all health professions present high rates of physical and burnout consequences of the first year of COVID 19 pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0415.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: COVID-19; Coronavirus; Vaccine hesitancy; COVID-19 Vaccine; Saudi Arabia
Online: 31 May 2022 (09:22:49 CEST)
On 11th March 2020, the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 as a pandemic. Vaccination programs have advanced greatly in the global health period, despite widespread anti-vaccination attitudes and misinformation. Vaccine hesitancy of COVID-19 vaccine is currently a major issue in Saudi Arabia. This cross-sectional study was carried out from June 25, 2021 to October 2021 in order to investigate the knowledge levels of acceptance and hesitancy of COVID-19 vaccine among Saudi’s nationals. The data was collected through a close-ended structured questionnaire from a total of 565 respondents. Overall, 78.41% respondents were female, 62.48% having university level education and 61.06% were unemployed. Majority of the participants 82.30% (n=465) think that Pfizer vaccine has the highest efficiency against COVID-19. Our study concludes that majority of the participants have satisfactory knowledge about COVID-19 vaccination. Concerns over vaccine components, effectiveness of vaccine and possible side effects are among the key causes for vaccine hesitancy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0416.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; CoVID-19 Dignosis; CoVID-19 Chemistry & Biology
Online: 16 March 2021 (11:54:28 CET)
CoVID-19 is a multi-symptomatic disease which has made a global impact due to its ability to spread rapidly, and its relatively high mortality rate. Beyond the heroic efforts to develop vaccines, which we will not discuss, the response of scientists and clinicians to this complex problem has reflected the need to detect CoVID-19 rapidly, to diagnose patients likely to show adverse symptoms, and to treat severe and critical CoVID-19. Here we aim to encapsulate these varied and sometimes conflicting approaches and the resulting data in terms of chemistry and biology. In the process we highlight emerging concepts, and potential future applications that may arise out of this immense effort.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0275.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; real-time RT-PCR; COVID-19 symptoms; COVID-19 hematological findings; Bangladesh
Online: 21 June 2020 (14:47:03 CEST)
Objective: SARS-Cov-2 infection or COVID-19 is a global pandemic. From the time of identification to till, multiple clinical symptoms and parameters have been identified by the researchers of various countries and regions regarding the diagnosis and presentations of COVID-19 disease. In this manuscript, we investigated the primary symptoms and basic hematological presentations of SARS-CoV-2 infection among the Bangladeshi patients. Methodology: We have collected the disease history of mild to moderate degree of COVID-19 patients; hematological and biochemical on admission reports of moderate degree COVID-19 patients. All of them were tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR in different institutes in Bangladesh. Results: According to this study though COVID-19 patients in Bangladesh commonly presented with fever, cough, fatigue, shortness of breath, and sore throat, but symptoms like myalgia, diarrhea, skin rash, headache, Abdominal pain/cramp, nausea, vomiting, restlessness, and a higher temperature of >1000F have a greater presentation rate and more frequent than other published studies. CRP and Prothrombin time was found to increase in all the patients. Serum ferritin, ESR, SGPT, and D-Dimer were found increased among 53.85%, 80.43, 44%, and 25% patients respectively. 17.39% of the patients had leukocytosis and neutrophilia. 28.26% of patients presented with lymphocytopenia. 62.52% of patients had mild erythrocytopenia. Conclusion: Despite some similarities, our study has evaluated a different expression in presenting symptoms in the case of COVID-19 patients in Bangladesh. CRP, Prothrombin time, serum ferritin, ESR, SGPT, D-Dimer, erythrocytopenia, and lymphocytopenia can be initial diagnostic hematological findings and assessment for prognosis COVID-19 disease. Also, gender variations have a different scenario of clinical and laboratory appearance in this region.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0500.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19; impact on society during COVID-19; behavioral impact of COVID-19; government policies against COVID-19; measures adopted by the government; COVID-19 Statistics; Infection rate and Data analysis
Online: 21 September 2020 (11:09:11 CEST)
Background: COVID-19 pandemic has pulled us all a few steps back, were we never shake hands or hug each other when we meet our friends and family after a gap, but instead we greet them by saying Namaste and joining our hands together. As we all know, COVID-19 spreads through air and the only way to shield ourselves is by maintaining a safe distance from one another. Methodology: In order to conduct a meta-analysis on the number of COVID-19 cases in Kerala and India, the data was retrieved from various sites hosted by the government bodies. The data for analysis was collected from May 2020 to July 2020. The average number of days required to reach every 5000 fresh cases were also calculated using this data. COVID-19 has affected all the economy holistically regardless of financial, behavioral, or societal aspects. Conclusion: Lifting of the lockdown in a step by step process keeping in mind the necessities for the nation was a thoughtful act, but the people who mistook this opportunity and did not remain in quarantine after coming from abroad was recognized as the reasons behind the sudden and uncontrolled rise in the number of COVID-19 cases in Kerala, India. The government authorities had no other option but to lift the restrictions to reduce the economic burdens that had already affected the daily wage worker and farmers prompting them to give up their lives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1915.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: post-COVID-19 syndrome; diabetes; overweight; COVID-19 pneumonia; observational study
Online: 29 August 2023 (03:18:29 CEST)
In the aftermath of the COVID pandemic, post-COVID-19 syndrome (PCS) remains a challenge and may continue to represent a major health problem in the future. Moreover, the influence of type 2 diabetes and being overweight on PCS remains unclear. This study aimed to assess this influence. We performed an observational study from October 2020 to July 2022, which included 466 patients (269 males and 197 females) with a median age of 65. They were hospitalized due to COVID-19 pneumonia and had persistent symptoms after 1 month of COVID-19 infection. The patients were divided into four groups according to the study objectives: patients with type 2 diabetes, overweight patients, overweight patients with type 2 diabetes, and normal-weight patients without type 2 diabetes. The clinical and demographic data collected during hospitalization and regular visits at the Community Healthcare Center dr. Adolf Drolc Maribor were analyzed. Our results showed that type 2 diabetes patients had a more difficult course of treatment and longer hospitalization. Moreover, more type 2 diabetes patients underwent rehabilitation than the other study groups. The prevailing symptoms in our patients with PCS were dyspnea and fatigue, mostly in female patients with type 2 diabetes. Our study also showed that more women with type 2 diabetes and more overweight women with type 2 diabetes suffered from secondary infections. Further, more overweight patients were treated in the intensive care unit compared to the other groups. However, our study showed an interesting result that patients with type 2 diabetes had the shortest PCS durations. Type 2 diabetes and being overweight are risk factors for PCS onset and prolonged duration. Therefore, our data that revealed a shorter duration of PCS in type 2 diabetes patients compared to the other investigated groups was unexpected. We believe that answering this question regarding the results will enable us to improve PCS treatment in general.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0136.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; health personnel; fear to COVID-19
Online: 8 February 2023 (02:34:46 CET)
The aim of this study was to estimate the association between fear of COVID-19 and risk perception with preventive behavior in health professionals from three Latin American countries. An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted. Health professionals with on-site care in Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, and Peru were surveyed. Information was collected through an online self-report questionnaire. The main variables were preventive behavior as the dependent variable and fear of COVID-19 and risk perception as independent variables. Linear regression was used, and Beta coefficients and p-values were calculated. 435 health professionals were included, the majority were aged 42 years or older (45.29%, 95%CI: 40.65%-50.01%) and female (67.82%, 95%CI: 63.27%-72.05%). It was shown that the greater the fear of COVID-19, the greater the preventive behavior of COVID-19 infection (B=2.21, p=0.002 for total behavior; B=1.12, p=0.037 for additional protection at work; B=1.11, p<0.010 for hand washing). The risk perception of COVID-19 infection had a slight direct relationship with preventive behaviors (B=0.28, p=0.021 for total behavior; B=0.13, p=0.015 for hand washing), with the exception of the preventive behavior of using additional protection at work (p=0.339). We found that fear and risk perception are associated with increased practice of hand washing and use of additional protection at work. Further studies are required on the influence of working conditions, job performance and the occurrence of mental health problems in frontline personnel with regard to COVID-19.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0336.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19 Booster; Influenza and COVID-19; Vaccination Strategy; Combining Vaccination
Online: 17 November 2022 (10:31:53 CET)
Background: The uptake of COVID-19 booster vaccines has been significantly low. Therefore, it is questionable whether combining the COVID-19 booster vaccines with Influenza vaccines can increase the population's interest in taking such vaccines and manage the health pandemic effectively. Methodology: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, a synthesis of the findings and summary of a total of 30 research articles based on the topic, ‘combining influenza and COVID-19 booster vaccination strategy’ was undertaken. The research articles were identified from three databases, namely, PubMed, Cochran Library, and Google Scholar using specific keywords and inclusion criteria. However, research articles that were not peer-reviewed and not published in English were excluded from the systematic review and meta-analysis. The average risk ratio of the included articles was 0.78% based on a 95% CI. On the other hand, the heterogeneity between such studies was I2 = 35%, while the statistical significance of their findings occurred at p < 0.05. The average p-value of the included research studies was p = 0.62, implying that the null hypothesis was not rejected in almost all the studies. Results: A synthesis of the chosen research articles revealed that when influenza and COVID-19 booster vaccines are combined, there is potential for an increase in the uptake of the latter, mainly because many populations have already been accustomed to taking influenza vaccines on an annual basis. Conclusions: In this way, through such findings, medical health experts can make informed decisions to increase the population's willingness to receive the COVID-19 booster vaccines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0024.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: second COVID-19 booster; vaccination; COVID-19; willingness; predictors; general population
Online: 2 June 2022 (04:07:07 CEST)
Given the concerns of waning immunity from the primary COVID-19 vaccines and the first booster dose, we conducted an on-line cross-sectional study in May 2022 to investigate willingness to receive a second COVID-19 booster dose or a new COVID-19 vaccine and its associated factors. Overall, 22.7% of participants were willing to be vaccinated, 39.3% were unsure, but tend to be willing, 25.8% were unsure, 4.9% were unsure, but tend to be unwilling, and 7.4% were unwilling to be vaccinated. The main reasons against accepting a second COVID‐19 booster dose or a new COVID-19 vaccine COVID-19 dose included concerns about the side effects, the opinion that further vaccination is unnecessary, and effectiveness uncertainties. Males, younger individuals, participants without a previous COVID-19 diagnosis, and those with good/very good self-perceived physical health were significantly more frequently willing to receive a second COVID‐19 booster dose or a new COVID-19 vaccine. Also, increased fear of the COVID-19, increased trust in COVID-19 vaccination and decreased fear of a second booster dose or a new COVID-19 vaccine were associated with increased willingness. Our results show some hesitancy and unwillingness toward further COVID-19 vaccination and indicate that fear of COVID-19 and trust in COVID-19 vaccination affect public opinion
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0619.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: COVID-19 Mexico; stress in healthcare professionals; COVID-19 stress scale
Online: 26 September 2020 (08:07:00 CEST)
The world is currently, subjected to the worst health crisis documented in modern history; an epidemic led by the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). At the epicenter of this crisis, healthcare professionals continue working to safeguard our well-being. To the regular high levels of stress, COVID new heights even more to healthcare professionals so depending on the area, specialty, and type of work. Here we investigated what are the tendencies, or areas most affected. Through an adaptation of the original COVID-stress scale, we developed a remote, fast test designed for healthcare professionals of the Northeastern part of Mexico, an important part of the country with economic and cultural ties to the US. Our results showed 4 key correlations as highly dependent: Work area – Xenophobia (p < 0.045), Work with COVID patients - Traumatic stress (p < 0.001) and Total number of COVID patients per day – Traumatic stress (p < 0.027), and Total number of COVID patients - Compulsive checking and reassurance. Overall concluding that normal levels of stress have increased (mild – moderate). Additionally, we further determine that the fear of being an asymptomatic patient (potential to spread without knowing) continues being a concern.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0153.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Virus; Vaccine; SARS-CoV-2; Coronavirus; Covid-19; Covid-19 vaccine
Online: 7 September 2020 (03:46:59 CEST)
This tutorial is organized into three major sections—viruses, vaccines and the race for a Covid-19 vaccine. The goal is to provide enough background on viruses, history of vaccines, and the science of vaccinology founded on the principles of immunity. The hope is that this will enable us to understand the challenges, methods and prospects for developing a safe and effective vaccine against SARS-CoV-2. Many important viruses such as smallpox, HIV, HCV and SARS-CoV-2 which is responsible for causing the Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) are presented in detail, which is then followed by a description of different vaccine development methods and strategies. The tutorial then discusses different candidate SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and provides specific details of many of the prospective vaccines on the leader-board which are undergoing clinical trials. The tutorial concludes with a realistic projection for a safe and effective vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 based on the historical scientific record.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0378.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: China's COVID-19 Guide; Remdesivir; Xuebijing; Hydroxychloroquine; IL6 inhibitors; COVID-19
Online: 26 March 2020 (01:48:42 CET)
Currently, there is no specific treatment for COVID-19 proven by clinical trials. WHO and CDC guidelines therefore endorse supportive care only. However, frontline clinicians have been applying several virus-based and host-based therapeutics in order to combat SARS-CoV-2. Medications from COVID-19 case reports, observational studies and the COVID-19 Treatment Guideline issued by the China's National Health Commission (7th edition published March 3rd, 2020. Edited translation attached) are evaluated in this review. Key evidence from relevant in vitro researches, animal models and clinical studies in SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV are examined. Antiviral therapies remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir and umifenovir, if considered, could be initiated before the peak of viral replication for optimal outcomes. Ribavirin may be beneficial as an add-on therapy and is ineffective as a monotherapy. Corticosteroids use should be limited without indicating comorbidities. IVIG is not recommended due to lack of data in COVID-19. Xuebijing may benefit patients with complications of bacterial pneumonia or sepsis. The efficacy of interferon is unclear due to conflicting outcomes in SARS and MERS studies. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine have shown in vitro inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 and may be beneficial as both prophylactic and treatment therapy. For patients who developed cytokine release syndrome, interleukin-6 inhibitors may be beneficial. Given the rapid disease spread and increasing mortality, active treatment with readily available medications may be considered timely prior to disease progression.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0007.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: nCov-19, COVID-19, coronavirus, SARS-CoV
Online: 1 April 2020 (09:30:00 CEST)
Coronaviruse disease (COVID-19) outbreak has created an emergency globally, and social distancing and isolation is the only solution to prevent its spread. Several countries have announced fully locked on to tackle this pandemic. The recent COVID-2019 has shaken the globe with incidence cases of more than half-million cases, and a mortality toll of more than twenty thousand to date. The coronavirus family is inclusive of pathogen of both – animal species and humans, encapsulating the isolated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Researchers round the globe have been dexterously working to decode this lethal virus. Many mathematical frameworks have also been depicted which have helped to understand the dynamics of the COVID-19. Research on coronaviruses continues to explore various aspects of viral replication and pathogenesis to understanding the predilection of these viruses to switch between species, to develop an infection in a new host, and to identify significant reservoirs of coronaviruses will dramatically aid in our potential to prophesize when and where potential epidemics may occur. Many of the non-structural and accessory proteins encoded by the viruses remain unclear and unknown. This systematic review highlights the current situation of the pandemic, virus genomic composition, pathogenesis, symptomatology, diagnosis, and prognosis along with mathematical models of disease transmission and dynamics.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0033.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Clustering; COVID-19; Long COVID; disease severity
Online: 2 November 2022 (01:02:16 CET)
The increasing number of people living with Long COVID requires the development of more personalized care, as for now limited treatment options and rehabilitation programs adapted to the variety of Long COVID presentations are available. Our objective was to design an easy-to-use Long COVID classification to help stratifying people with Long COVID. Individual characteristics and a detailed set of 62 self-reported persisting symptoms together with quality of life indexes 12 months after initial COVID-19 infection were collected in a cohort of SARS-CoV-2 infected people in Luxembourg. A hierarchical ascendant classification (HAC) was used to identify clusters of people. We identified 3 patterns of Long COVID symptoms with a gradient in disease severity. Cluster-Mild encompassed almost 50% of the study population and was composed of participants with less severe initial infection, fewer comorbidities, and fewer persisting symptoms (mean=2.9). Cluster-Moderate was characterized by a mean of 11 persisting symptoms and a poor sleep and respiratory quality of life. Cluster-Severe was characterized by a higher proportion of women and smokers as in the other clusters, with a higher number of Long COVID symptoms, in particular of vascular, urinary, and skin symptoms. Our study evidenced that Long COVID can be stratified in 3 sub-categories in terms of severity. If replicated in other populations, this simple classification will help clinicians to personalize the care of people with Long COVID.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1872.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: COVID-19; children; mortality
Online: 29 November 2023 (10:35:39 CET)
Background: COVID-19 is currently one of the most important medical challenges as it affects the entire population with children being infected as easily as adults. Objective: The study evaluated the mortality of under 17-year-olds and compare the frequency with that of adults in a cohort of 8986 COVID-19 positive patients hospitalized in a single care center. Design: retrospective clinical trial, all hospitalizations of COVID-19 positive patients as diagnosed by RT-qPCR were analyzed by revisiting their medical records. Setting: 8986 COVID-19 positive patients hospitalized in a Hospital de Base and the Infant and Maternal Hospital of São Jose do Rio Preto, SP, Brazil (HB/HCM) being these totals of 383 COVID-19 positive under 17-patients. Patients: patients COVID-19 positive under 17-year-olds were grouped by age and evaluated by analyzing their medical records. They were categorized as Group I, children, and adolescents under 19 years old and Group II, adults over 19 years. Results: Overall mortality in under 19-year-olds was 12 deaths, that is, 3.13% of the patients in this age group and 0.55% of the overall mortality from COVID-19. Mortality in the group of adults was 2197 equivalent to 24.45% of the hospitalized adults and 99.45% of overall deaths. Mortality was significantly higher for adults than for under 19-year olds (p-value < 0.0001). Regarding the different ages of children and adolescents, the number of deaths of under 1-year olds was 2/123 (1.62%), of 1-4 years it was 4/95 (2.11%), of 5-9 years it was 1/47 (2.13%), of 10-14 years it was 1/40 (2.5%) and of 15-19 years it was 4/78 (5.13%). There were no statistical differences between the different age groups ( p-value = 0.3). Conclusion: Mortality from COVID-19 in children and adolescents was lower than in adults and generally associated with other comorbidities with the main association being with heart disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0390.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Covid-19; inequalities; vaccination
Online: 6 July 2023 (13:24:07 CEST)
Socio-demographic factors are responsible of health inequalities also in vaccination. The aim of this study was to evaluate their role at population level through a population-based study performed on the whole population entitled to receive COVID-19 vaccines in Umbria Region, Italy, and registered to the Regional Healthcare Service as of February 28th, 2021. Socio-demographic characteristics and vaccination status in terms of uptake at least one dose of any available vaccine, completion of the primary vaccination cycle and uptake of the booster doses as of February 28th, 2022 were col-lected from the Umbria regional database. The percentage of eligible population who did not initiate the COVID-19 vaccination, complete the full vaccination cycle and get the booster dose was 11.8%, 1.2% and 21.5% respectively. A younger age, being a not-Italian citizen, and not holding an ex-emption for chronic disease/disability and a GP/FP were associated to all the endpoints. Females, as compared to males, were more likely to not initiate the vaccination but less likely to not receive the booster dose. On the contrary, results on the deprivation index were not conclusive. The findings, beyond confirming current knowledge at population level, provide new inputs for better tailoring vaccination campaigns.