Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Differences in the Course of depression and anxiety After COVID-19 Infection Between Recovered Patients With and Without a Psychiatric History: A Cross-Sectional Study

Version 1 : Received: 9 August 2022 / Approved: 12 August 2022 / Online: 12 August 2022 (04:56:33 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Hazumi, M.; Usuda, K.; Okazaki, E.; Kataoka, M.; Nishi, D. Differences in the Course of Depression and Anxiety after COVID-19 Infection between Recovered Patients with and without a Psychiatric History: A Cross-Sectional Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 11316. Hazumi, M.; Usuda, K.; Okazaki, E.; Kataoka, M.; Nishi, D. Differences in the Course of Depression and Anxiety after COVID-19 Infection between Recovered Patients with and without a Psychiatric History: A Cross-Sectional Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 11316.

Journal reference: Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 11316
DOI: 10.3390/ijerph191811316

Abstract

Background: This study aimed to examine the course of Depression and anxiety in COVID-19 survivors with a psychiatric history compared with those without a psychiatric history. Methods: A web-based cross-sectional survey for COVID-19 survivors was conducted from July to September 2021. 6016 COVID-19 survivors, the accuracy of whose responses was determined to be assured, were included in analyses. Exposures included psychiatric history and time since COVID-19 infection, and the main outcomes and measures included severity of depression and anxiety, as assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), respectively. Results: Mean severity of PHQ-9 and GAD-7 were significantly higher in participants with a psychiatric history than in those without a psychiatric history. Two-way analysis of covariance for PHQ-9 showed a significant main effect of the presence of psychiatric history and a significant interaction effect of psychiatric history × time since infection. Two-way analysis of covariance for the GAD-7 score revealed a significant main effect of the presence of psychiatric history and time since COVID-19 infection and the interaction effect of these factors. Conclusions: The course of depression and anxiety was more severe in COVID-19 survivors with a psychiatric history than in those without a psychiatric history.

Keywords

COVID-19; depression; anxiety; post-acute COVID-19 syndrome; post-COVID

Subject

MEDICINE & PHARMACOLOGY, Psychiatry & Mental Health studies

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