REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0131.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Phase Change Materials (PCMs); PCM-filled window; transparent building envelope; Thermal energy storage (TES); glazing; SWOT analysis; review; experimental
Online: 20 October 2017 (02:49:56 CEST)
Building envelope can play a crucial role in building improvement efficiency and the adoption of Phase Change Materials (PCMs) coupled with transparent elements may (i) allow a better control of the heat flows from/to the outdoor environment, (ii) increase the exploitation of solar energy at building scale and (iii) modulate the light transmission to avoid glare effects. Starting from a literature review of experimental works, this research identifies the main possible integration of PCM in transparent/translucent building envelope components (in glazing, in shutters and in multilayer façade system) drawing a global picture potentials and limitations of these technologies. Transparent envelopes with PCMs have been classified from the simplest “zero” technology, which integrates the PCM into the double glass unit (DGU), to more complex solutions – with different numbers of cavities of the glass (TGU), different position of PCM layer (internal/external shutter), and in combination with other materials (TIM, aerogel, prismatic solar reflector, PCM curtain controlled by an electric pump). The results of the analysis are resumed in a SWOT (strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats) analysis table to underline strengths and weaknesses of transparent building envelope components with PCMs, and to indicate opportunities and threats for future research and building application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0215.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: U-value; Thermal insulation; Energy efficiency; Residential building; Embodied Energy
Online: 24 April 2022 (09:39:55 CEST)
In Europe, the recent application of regulations oriented to zero-energy buildings and climate neutrality in 2050 has led to a reduction in energy consumption for heating and cooling in the construction sector. The thermal insulation of the building envelope plays a key role in this process and the requirements about the maximum allowable thermal transmittance are defined by country-specific guidelines. Typically, high insulation values provide low energy consumption for heating, however, they may paradoxically imply the risk of overheating in summer period and thus negatively affect the overall performance of the building. In addition, the embodied energy and related emissions caused by the manufacturing and transportation processes of thermal insulation cannot be further neglected in the evaluation of the best optimal solution. Therefore, this paper aims to evaluate the influence in terms of embodied and operational energy of various walls’ thermal insulation thicknesses on residential buildings in Europe. To this end, the EnergyPlus engine was used for the energy simulation within Ladybug & Honeybee tools, by parametrically conducting multiple iterations; 53 variations of external wall U-value, considering high and low thermal mass scenarios, were simulated for 100 reference cities of the European context, using a representative multifamily building as a reference. The results demonstrate that massive walls generally perform better than lightweight structures and, of course, the best solution in terms of energy varies according to each climate. The optimal values are graphically reported on the map of Europe according to specific climatic features, providing a guidance for new constructions and building retrofit.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0474.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: building energy monitoring system; heat lost coefficient (hlc); fault sensor
Online: 31 May 2018 (11:38:30 CEST)
The present article is dealing with the state of question about building-energy monitoring systems used for data collection to estimate the Heat Lost Coefficient (HLC) with existing methods and so determinate buildings’ Envelope Energy Performance (EEP). In addition, the data requirements of HLC estimation methods are related with commonly used methods for fault detection, calibration and supervision of energy monitoring systems in buildings. Based on an extended review of experimental tests since 1978, a qualitative and quantitative analysis of Monitoring and Controlling System (MCS) specifications has been carried out. Although most actual Buildings Automation Systems (BAS) may measure the required parameters, further research is still needed to ensure that these data are accurate enough to rigorously apply the HLC estimation methods.
DATA DESCRIPTOR | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0106.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: zero energy building, measured data, energy measurement, building air leakage
Online: 5 April 2021 (12:01:18 CEST)
This paper provides an open dataset of measured energy use, solar energy production, and building air leakage data from a 328 m2 (3,531 ft2) all-electric, zero energy commercial building in Virginia, USA. Over two years of energy use data were collected at 1-hour intervals using circuit-level energy monitors. Over six years of solar energy production data were measured at 1-hour intervals by 56 microinverters. The building air leakage data was measured post-construction per ASTM-E779 Standard Test Method for Determining Air Leakage Rate by Fan Pressurization and the United States Army Corps (USACE) Building Enclosure Testing procedure; both pressurization and depressurization results are provided. The architectural and engineering (AE) documents are provided to aid researchers and practitioners in reliable modelling of building performance. The paper describes the data collection methods, cleaning, and convergence with weather data. This dataset can be employed to predict, benchmark, and calibrate operational outcomes in zero energy commercial buildings.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0425.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: porous materials; building wall; modelling; heat and mass transfer; green building
Online: 18 May 2021 (11:36:53 CEST)
The hygrothermal transfer is very important for the design of a building envelope for thermal comfort and economic and energy analysis of the building envelope. The applications of various materials in building envelope have been studied extensively. The study presents several models for the hygrothermal transfer for various building walls. Several energy and mass conservation equations with different boundary conditions and input considerations were presented in this paper for concrete, bricks and wooden walls. The effect of hysteresis was ignored in developing most model equations, while few considered flow pattern of fluid through the wall surfaces. Due to the flexibility of Luikov models, it formed the basis for modelling the coupled heat and mass transfer for porous material independent of hygroscopic nature with different boundary conditions defined according to the geometry and orientations. The influence of type of wall, orientation, thickness, the density of the material and climatic variations on the temperature and moisture evolutions within the building materials was more pronounced. Literature, presenting imaging models using imagery software like COMSOL multi-physics, CFD etc. were scarce considering that microscopic imagery is now deployed to measure the heat and moisture evolution in materials. Future models should include shrinkage or expansion influence on the fibrous material like wood due to their behaviour under environmental condition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0105.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: High-Rise Building; Wind Comfort; Building Arrangement; Pedestrian Level; CFD; Tehran
Online: 6 March 2020 (04:35:48 CET)
High-Rise buildings with their particular features can affects on surrounding environment and makes new microclimates. In the windy conditions, the spaces that are between building blocks changes to passages and affects on the wind velocity, intensity and it’s other parameters.The importance of this effect is different in each level of building height. The Pedestrian-Level is the lowest and one of important areas. Markets, playgrounds and pedestrian access had located in this area and any unwanted microclimate changes like high velocity and turbulence in this level can makes discomfort and dangerous condition for residents. So this research tries to consider the pedestrian- level wind comfort in some High-Rise building complexes arrangement that had located in Tehran district 22 with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling and reaching to a suitable arrangement pattern. It had collected the required data through field study and librarian databases and then compared them with standard guidelines and analyzed them by comparative comparison method. As a result a linear arrangement that placed crossover to wind direction for providing wind comfort and preventing wind danger is been suggested in this region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0559.v1
Online: 23 July 2020 (12:30:24 CEST)
We have modelled the energy consumption of prototype and real buildings under present and future climatic conditions with the EnergyPlus model to develop a better understanding of the relationship between changing climate conditions and energy demand. We have produced detailed meteorological information with 50 meters of spatial resolution through dynamical downscaling process combining regional, urban and computational fluid dynamics models which include the effects of the buildings on urban wind patterns. The city of Madrid has been chosen for our experiment. The impact on energy demand and their respective economic cost are calculated for year 2100 versus 2011 based on two IPCC climate scenarios, RCP 4.5 (stabilization of emissions) and RCP 8.5 (not reduction of emissions). Findings show that climate change will have a significant impact on the energy demand for buildings. Space heating demand will be increased by the RCP 4.5 and cooling demand will be increased for the RCP 8.5 in the analysed buildings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0386.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: energy efficiency; natural building; conventional building; TRNSYS software; temperature; humidity; energy consumption
Online: 23 December 2021 (11:48:08 CET)
The construction field uses up over one-third of the global energy consumption and contribute to 40% of CO2 emissions according to the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the 2020 annual reporter of United Nation, Goal 11 (Make cities inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable) which discusses sustainable, safe and efficient buildings. Therefore, Morocco has a commitment to this program by publishing the law 47-09 of energy efficiency. This work aims to study the energy efficiency of two types of building, a conventional and a natural building. Conventional building is constructed using concrete, while the natural one uses sand clay and straws. As for the technique of making the natural building, it perpetually follows the same approach accustomed in rural zones of Atlas Mountains in Morocco. In this research we also simulate, temperature and humidity variation inside these buildings using TRNSYS software. Sketch Up software was employed to design these houses. The weather database is used for a typical meteorological year (TMY). In the case of natural building, many building configurations were simulated: roof insulation, floor insulation, different types of glazing and sun protection. What's more, the thermal comfort is revealed to be more conspicuous in the case of natural building.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0033.v1
Online: 2 December 2022 (02:22:20 CET)
Recently on the November 4, 2022 at 03:00 PM, a Mww 5.6 earthquake struck Cianjur district of West Java province, Indonesia. To our best knowledge, an earthquake will cause a massive damage to the manmade infrastructure and this responsible for a massive casualty. A building damage is affected by various determinant factors. One of important factors is the geological bedrock variations. Here this research aiming to elaborate the associations of geological bedrocks in Cianjur district with residential building damages caused by recent earthquakes. The results confirm that majority of building damages account for 54.67% of the total building was associated with quaternary volcanic bedrocks. The second massive building damages were observed for Andesitic Dacitic volcanic rocks accounted for 32.07%. To conclude, elaborations of geological bedrock-building damage will contribute to the better planning in the future that can reduce the damages in the urban settings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0042.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: building footprint; LiDAR; classification; segmentation
Online: 4 February 2020 (10:27:59 CET)
Topographic mapping using stereo plotting is not effective because it takes much time and labor-intensive. Thus, this research was conducted to find the effective way to extract building footprint for mapping acceleration. Building extraction method in this process comprises four steps: ground / non-ground filtering, building classification, segmentation, and building extraction. Non-ground points from filtering process were classified as building with the algorithm based on multi-scale local dimensionality to separate points at the maximum separability plane. Segmentation using segment growing was used to separate each building, so edge detection could be conducted for each segment to create boundary of each building. Lastly, building extraction was conducted through three steps: edge points detection, building delineation, and building regularization. With 10 samples and step 0.5, classification resulted quality and miss factor of 0.597 and 0.524, respectively. The quality was improved by segmentation process to 0.604, while miss factor was getting worse to 0.561. Meanwhile, on average shape index value from extracted building had 0.02 difference and the number of errors was 30% for line segment comparison. Regarding positional accuracy using centroid accuracy assessment, this method could produce RMSE of 1.169 meters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0615.v1
Subject: Keywords: Building management system; Smart building; Energy consumption management; Demand response management; Energy consumption optimization
Online: 25 May 2021 (14:19:32 CEST)
Considering the increasing rate of energy consumption and its environmental detrimental effects, as well as considering the use of non-renewable energy sources such as fossil fuels, energy management issues have become more important. Given the 40% share of the building industry's total energy consumption, as well as the 80% share of energy consumed during the operation period, attention to the areas of energy management and optimization during the operation period of the buildings can have a major impact on buildings’ energy performance. In this research, through identifying building energy management tools and studying previous studies and assessing the effects of building energy management systems, the economic and environmental impacts of using building energy management systems on the annual energy consumption in an office building in Tehran as a case study has been investigated. The results indicate a 32 percent reduction in energy consumption and a significant reduction in the release of the environmental pollutants in smart mode compared to the base mode. Moreover, considering the social costs associated with the emitted pollutants as well as the return period, it has been attempted to identify the factors contributing to the economic justification of using smart heating and cooling systems. According to the results, the use of smart energy management systems can be considered as an effective step in optimizing and managing energy consumption in the construction sector.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0174.v3
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: sustainable architecture; industrial building; indoor environment; lighting conditions; computational simulation; luminance
Online: 13 February 2018 (08:05:05 CET)
This paper highlights the problems associated with daylight use in industrial facilities. In a case study of a multi-story textile factory, we report how to evaluate daylight (as part of integral light) in the production halls marked F and G. This study follows the article in the Buildings journal, where Hall E was evaluated (unilateral daylight). These two additional halls have large areas that are 54 × 54 meters and are more than 5 meters high. The daylight is only on the side through the attached windows in envelope structures in the vertical position. In this paper, we want to present two case studies of these two production halls in a textile factory in the eastern part of Slovakia. These are halls that are illuminated by daylight from two sides through exterior peripheral walls that are against or next to each other. The results of the case studies can be applied in similar production halls illuminated by a ‘double-sided’ (bilateral) daylight system. This means that they are illuminated by natural illumination through windows on two sides in a vertical position. Such a situation is typical for multi-storied industrial buildings. The proposed approximate calculation method for the daylight factor can be used to predict the daylight in similar spaces in other similar buildings.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0168.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Keywords: Circular economy; building sector; Europe
Online: 13 September 2022 (10:04:31 CEST)
This article evaluates Europe's building sector's circular economy (CE). This industry is respon-sible for 42% of energy consumption, more than 50% of extracted materials, 30% of Europe's wa-ter and waste generation, and 35% of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This study focuses on peer-reviewed articles from Scopus and Web of Science databases. Of the first 1750 publications, 2.9% were eligible for a full-text reading and analysis. Most of the trending studies, 92%, pro-mote the circular economy concept through construction materials rather than analyzing the im-pact of the construction sector on the environment and finding solutions for better implementa-tion, and 41% promote recycling and reuse as the only options. New Design solutions are in 12% of the studies, six-fold more than Law and Legislation, only 2%. Finding an optimal combination of assessing the life cycle of buildings and components and searching for different ways of man-aging the Construction and Demolition Waste at end-of-life is between 33% and 39%. Ultimately, one evaluated CE proposed frameworks for the building industry based on 10R principles varia-tions. One presents an alternative framework for a circular strategy for the building industry that focuses on Upcycling, replacing the Recover principle.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0019.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: building rehabilitation; energy efficiency; seismic reinforcement
Online: 2 April 2018 (10:26:38 CEST)
Most European cities are characterized by very large areas, often formed by buildings with low quality, from a series of point of view. The possibility of renovating them is strategic to improve both the quality of life and to the possibility of economic recovery for building companies. In the last decades, the attention of the scientific community has been addressed to the energy renovation, thanks to the strong activities of the European Community in this field. However, since a relevant part of the EC territory is at risk of earthquake, the possibility to combine both energy and seismic renovation actions may be strategic for many countries. In particular, Italy and Romania are linked by a common social tradition that springs from the Roman Empire. Nowadays, this link is stronger, thanks to common interests in social, cultural and business fields. Therefore, the investigation of possible synergies for seismic and energy renovation strategies may be really interesting for both countries. This paper represents the first step in this direction. After an overview of regulations and common practices for buildings with reinforced concrete structures, in both states, some key combined renovation interventions will be described and discussed, as well as advantages and perspectives of integrated renovation approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0513.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: degradation of buildings; degree of technical condition; abandonment of renovation works; maintenance management of building; use management of building; assessment of the technical condition of the building
Online: 19 November 2020 (13:38:29 CET)
The good management of the building maintenance should be based on the regular maintenance work. Repair works are often not carried out or there are shifts in time, which causes degradation of the building. The article presents a method of planning renovation works of a MUBAR (maintenance Management in an Un-renovated Building with Abandoning Renovation) based on the consequences in case of their lack. No renovation work on individual elements in a building can cause a threat to the stability of the building structure, risking the lives of users, continuing damage to the building by damaging further elements, or even a building disaster. The method can also be applied to historic buildings. Often, due to abandonment of repairs caused most often by lack of the owner, improper manager or irresponsible users, degradation of these objects occurs. The consequences of neglected renovation of buildings lead to irreversible processes of their destruction. The aim of the article is to present the developed method of planning renovation works based on the consequences of lack of renovation works.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0045.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: robotic process automation; RPA; building information model; BIM; Smart Building; Remote Operations and Maintenance; On-line monitoring
Online: 5 October 2022 (14:21:00 CEST)
Base on building information modeling(BIM) plus with Robotic process automation (RPA) technology is rapid development in smart building operations and maintenance (O&M). RPA is a workflow-based automated execution tool that is particularly well suited for replacing manual execution of simple and repetitive tasks using computer systems. The use of RPA technology can saves man-hours and increases productivity, which is important for the automation of building operations and maintenance operations.. The BIM technology, as an advanced technology in the construction industry, it can provide new ideas and methods for building operation and maintenance based on its visualization characteristics. That’s integrating RPA with BIM technology which will enhance the digitalization and virtualization of smart building operation and management. In this article will first introduce the features of RPA and BIM technology and then discuss the technical roadmap for remote automated operation and maintenance of smart building equipment room to implemention a low-cost and high efficient building equipment room operation and maintenance solution.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0392.v2
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Digital building permit; BIM; GIS; GeoBIM; Compliance checking; Rule checking
Online: 23 November 2021 (15:28:57 CET)
Growing interest is awarded to the digitalization of the building permitting use case and many works are developed about the topic. However, the subject is very complex and many aspects are usually tackled separately, making it very hard for traditional literature reviews to grasp the actual progress in the overall topic. This paper unveils the detailed state of the art in Digital Building Permitting (DBP) by critically analyzing the literature by means of a set of coding tags (research progress, implementation, affected DBP workflow steps, ambitions addressed) assigned by a multidisciplinary team. The mainly addressed aspects of the digitalization of building permits resulted to be the technologies to check the compliance of design proposals against regulations, followed by the digitalization of regulations. Lacking aspects are instead the involvement of officers, scalability of solutions and interoperability of data, intended both as data validation and as integration of geoinformation with building models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0239.v1
Subject: Engineering, Construction Keywords: energy-efficient buildings; deep renovation; Plug-and-Play (PnP); building information modelling (BIM); building energy modelling (BEM)
Online: 14 August 2018 (03:59:42 CEST)
Ninety percent of the existing building stock in Europe was built before 1990. These buildings are in urgent need for a significant improvement of energy-efficiency through renovation. Regrettably, so far only five percent of renovation projects have been able to yield energy-saving at deep renovation level. State-of-the-art renovation solutions are available, but costly and lengthy renovation processes and incomprehensible technical complexities hinder the achievement of a wide impact at a European scale. This paper presents research on Plug-and-Play (PnP) technologies supported by Building Information Modelling (BIM) to provide affordable, interchangeable and quick-installation solutions to overcome the main barriers of building deep renovation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0108.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Localization; Navigation; Smartphone; GNSS; 3D Building Models
Online: 4 August 2022 (08:56:12 CEST)
Smart health applications have received significant attention in recent years. Novel applications hold significant promise to overcome many of the inconveniences faced by persons with disabilities throughout daily living. For people with blindness and low vision (BLV), environmental perception is compromised, creating myriad difficulties. Precise localization is still a gap in the field and is critical to safe navigation. Conventional GNSS positioning cannot provide satisfactory performance in urban canyons. 3D mapping-aided (3DMA) GNSS may serve as an urban GNSS solution, since the availability of 3D city models has widely increased. As a result, this study developed a real-time 3DMA GNSS-positioning system based on state-of-the-art 3DMA GNSS algorithms. Shadow matching was integrated with likelihood-based ranging 3DMA GNSS, generating positioning hypothesis candidates. To increase robustness, the 3DMA GNSS solution was then optimized with Doppler measurements using factor graph optimization (FGO) in a loosely-coupled fashion. This study also evaluated positioning performance using an advanced wearable system’s recorded data in New York City. The real-time forward processed FGO can provide a root-mean-square error (RMSE) with about 21 m. The RMSE drops to 16 m when the data is post-processed with FGO in a combined direction. Overall results show that the proposed loosely-coupled 3DMA FGO algorithm can provide a better and more robust positioning performance for the multi-sensor integration approach used by this wearable for persons with BLV.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0228.v1
Subject: Engineering, Construction Keywords: smart primary healthcare; building; Construction; South Africa
Online: 15 July 2022 (06:32:30 CEST)
Smart primary healthcare building facility services capture a new level of process and operational data through advanced monitoring, enabling experts to use the building facilities to produce significant and efficient healthcare service delivery within the individual spheres of influence. This study assessed the impact of IoT services on achieving smart primary healthcare building facilities in the rural area of South Africa to enhance primary healthcare delivery. The study identified three (3) basic constructs of IoT services that comprised the application of IoT location recognition and tracking services, the application of the IoT high-speed communication network-based services, and the application of IoT-based services. The study is quantitative, and a questionnaire was used to collect data from the project managers and healthcare practitioners working with the primary healthcare agency in South Africa. The study found a variable degree of impact between the three (3) IoT constructs and the achievement of primary healthcare building facility services in South Africa. The study recommends adopting IoT essential services for achieving smart primary healthcare building facility services in the rural areas of South Africa and other developing countries facing similar primary healthcare delivery challenges.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: 5G; AR/VR; BIM; Building maintenance; matching
Online: 24 May 2021 (07:35:35 CEST)
The significance of virtual reality (AR/VR/MR) technology stands out because it can be used in various construction fields such as urban design, construction review, maintenance and education, etc. As to prove this, conglomerates such as Facebook, Google, Sony, Microsoft, and Samsung are increasing their investments to preoccupy the virtual reality market and are competing to dominate the contents and platform market. Virtual reality technology has a concept that collectively refers to VR (Virtual Reality), AR (Augmented Reality), and MR (Mixed Reality), but technically, the two technologies are strictly separated. While VR technology is an immersive virtual environment using computer graphic technology, AR technology is a more advanced technology that combines real data and VR data, and MR technology is a technology that combines both AR and VR. In Korea, Republic of, the use of BIM (Building Information Modeling), a 3D information model, becomes mandatory and based on this, the demand for a new market where VR/AR/MR technologies and advanced sensing equipment are combined increases. This study implemented a building maintenance platform using AR based on 5G, and developed matching technology between BIM of the building maintenance platform and AR equipment. Besides this study implemented the technology to enhance the matching rate of the matching technology and carried out the process to enhance the matching rate empirically through continuous tests. As a result, the initial target of 90% matching rate could be improved to 96%. Based on this, it is expected that effective EV (Optimum Life Cycle Cost) could be achieved at a lower cost compared to the previous one by using it for maintenance monitoring after construction and completion of the building, and can be used as an effective solution in the aspect of building maintenance as well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0034.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: the building and the environment; phenotype; genotype
Online: 3 May 2020 (08:10:53 CEST)
Phenotype variation is produced through a complex of interactions between genotype and environment. Phenotype, genotype, and environment are addresses the relationship between architecture and identity. The term genotype biology and phenotype have been adopted into architecture in the late twentieth century. Genotypes are abstract relational models that govern the arrangement of space, and the principle of organizing space and phenotypes is the real realization of genotypes in the physical environment. The genotype is a reflection that is not only about the spatial organization but also the nature of social and cultural patterns. Then this study purpose to an understanding of the connectedness variant phenotype from a genotype and environment. The repetition pattern being stable structure in variation phenotype uses as a database to finding an identity in architecture. The method used in this research was Levi Strauss's structuralism and multi-layer of a biological system. This research samples traditional Malay houses in West Borneo, Indonesia. These houses have a unique site and existing environment. The houses can be found mainly along the river. The results found from the phenotype, genotype, and environment have value and meaning as a traditional Malay house rule in West Borneo which was always handed down from generation to generation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0206.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: IoT; LoRa; sustainability; building management system; sensors
Online: 16 May 2019 (10:33:48 CEST)
In this research paper we describe the development phase of a low-cost LoRa IoT solution applied to a kindergarten school with three years results. A set of sensors solution was developed in a LoRa communication board, battery powered, providing a simplified setup process. These sensors were used in order to measure temperature, humidity, luminosity, air quality and presence. Also, energy monitor solutions were integrated. The acquired data is transmitted and analysed for knowledge extraction, identifying savings and other related KPIs. From data, automatic saving actions were performed towards heating and cooling systems, lighting and a set of if-then actions were developed for automatic cost-saving actions, based on infrared signals to heating/cooling systems using some procedure of external command devices. This approach avoids the usage of proprietary vendor solutions in a flexible approach that can easily be deployed to any building facility. This is an important achievement since most of the building consumption is based on heating and cooling systems. In a three years test of the solution, the total energy consumption savings surpassed 20%
DATA DESCRIPTOR | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0295.v3
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: sustainability; sustainable building criteria; sustainable building planning and design; sustainable site selection; sustainable construction; performance and renovation criteria.
Online: 28 December 2021 (10:52:46 CET)
Published data or available literature on sustainable building plan-design, construction, performance, and renovation criteria have covered some stages or some parts of each stage. These data usually have been published partially in many different papers―there have not been any papers that published these data together. Hence, this paper aims to collectively review these data and publish them together. The collection and review of these data were carried out by our twenty-five team members who specialized in sustainable urban, architectural, and civil engineering and construction management. The gathered and reviewed outputs were combined and validated based on a general group consensus. This consensus decision-making proceeded through two major group meetings with several follow-up meetings. The first major meeting was to combine and improve the gathered reviewed sustainable building criteria for Cambodia. The second major meeting was to validate the improved reviewed sustainable building criteria for Cambodia. The several follow-up meetings were to discuss the relevance and importance of the validated data “criteria and their classifications and descriptions” in all stages and more focused on their importance and applicability to Cambodia. The collective reviewed data in this paper would be useful to researchers in the fields. They could also be useful collective knowledge and information for policymakers from governmental agencies and development partners, particularly for sustainable building and construction companies.
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Energy consumption monitoring system; Building energy conservation management; Insect Intelligent Building technology; Computing process node; Insect intelligent algorithm
Online: 4 September 2019 (14:27:48 CEST)
In this paper, the methodology using Insect Intelligent Building (I^2B) technology for establishing energy consumption monitoring system of public buildings is prevailed. The computing process node and distributed algorithm are utilized to implement the energy consumption collection and data transmission and data pre-processing. Taking a commercial building as a case study, CPNs are applied to set up the building energy consumption monitoring system, with the Spanning Tree Algorithm for generating network topology，and BPNN method for solving abnormal data and recovering missing data. The research results demonstrate the proposed method can effectively improve the performance of plug-and-play and self-identified and self-configuration of energy consumption monitoring system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0031.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: industrial building; environment; lighting analysis; building physics; sustainable architecture; computational simulation; integrated lighting; solar radiation; luminance; sky components
Online: 16 June 2017 (12:29:28 CEST)
We present observations from evaluation of internal environmental quality of industrial halls with priority on daylighting in combination with the integral lighting. The physical parameters related to indoor lighting in large industrial halls in winter and summer periods were analyzed using in situ measurements and computational methods. These are part of a comprehensive research on indoor environmental quality of industrial halls with the aims of saving energy and providing a comfortable environment for the workers while improving the productivity. The results showed that the procedures used for evaluation of residential or office buildings may not be used for industrial buildings. We also observed that the criteria of occupants’ comforts for indoor industrial buildings may differ from those of other kinds of buildings. Based on these results, an adequate attention is required for designing the industrial buildings. For this reason, appropriate evaluation methods and criteria should be created. We found the measured values of daylight factor very close to the skylight component of the total illumination. The skylight component was observed on average 30% that of the measured daylight factor values. Although the daylight is not emphasized when designing the industrial buildings and its contribution is small, but it is very important for the workers psychology and physiology. The workers must feel a connection with the exterior environment; otherwise, their productivity decreases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0318.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: thermal bridge; data-driven system modeling; system identification; time-varying indoor temperature; dynamic analysis; building energy simulation; building envelope
Online: 21 July 2022 (08:40:55 CEST)
It is not easy to dynamically analyze thermal bridges that require multidimensional analysis in building energy simulations, which are mostly one-dimensional platforms. To solve this problem, many studies have been conducted and, recently, a study was conducted to model the thermal bridge based on the data by approaching this in a similar way to steady-state analysis, showing high accuracy. This was an early-stage study, which is only applicable when the indoor temperature is constant. By extending this study, a thermal bridge model that can be applied even when the indoor temperature changes over time is proposed and validated. Since the governing equation, the heat diffusion equation, is linear, the key idea is to create and apply two thermal bridge transfer function models by expressing the heat flow entering the room as a linear combination of the transfer function for indoor temperature and the transfer function for outdoor temperature. For the proposed thermal bridge model, the NRMSE of the model itself showed a high accuracy of 99.9%, and in the verification through annual simulation using the model, the NRMSE showed an accuracy of 88.8%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0554.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Field measurement; Typhoon; High-rise building; Strong wind
Online: 30 January 2023 (10:13:31 CET)
The overcrowding of high-rise buildings in the city adversely affects the wind environment by changing the air currents in the surrounding areas. In particular, extreme climate phenomena caused by climate change are stronger and more frequent, causing social damages in cities. To comprehensively better understand the wind properties around high-rise buildings, actual filed measurement is necessary to determine the environment assessment of wind effect. We performed the on-site measurement on LCT residential complex regions (411.6m tall) with highly concentrated high-rise buildings in coastal city Busan, South Korea under extreme weather conditions such as typhoon invasions to determine wind fluid characteristics. In the field monitoring, five anemometers were installed to analyze the wind environment around high-rise buildings when typhoon 'Hinnamnor' invaded. Compared to the nearby weather station operated by KMA(Korea Meteorological Administration), the gust was 3.7 times stronger and the max 1 min-mean wind speed was 3.1 times stronger, and the characteristics of the downward wind and the canyon wind were shown depending on the location characteristics of the point. Turbulence intensity decreased as the wind speed increased and converged to a certain value. Likewise, the gust factor also decreased as the wind speed increased and converged to 2.0, which is considered to be the parameter that best represents the intensity of the instantaneous gust caused by the skyscraper wind effect.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0272.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Thermally Activated Building System; thermal comfort; thermal mass
Online: 19 January 2022 (14:18:14 CET)
In recent years, several alternatives for improving the thermal comfort conditions inside buildings have been proposed. Among these alternatives, Thermally Activated Building Systems (TABS) have become of interest due to the benefits this technology brings to the building sector. The TABS are embedded in different building components and exchange heat with building envelope to improve the indoor air temperature. This review presents relevant results presented in the literature on the thermal behavior of TABS, the different types of TABS configurations, and the main parameters of TABS studied such as pipe separation, fluid inlet temperature, fluid velocity, and volumetric flow rate. The potential of TABS to improve thermal comfort conditions and provide energy savings is also discussed. Further, this study presents the different modes of application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0461.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: microgrid; energy-management-system; quantile-forecasts; smart-building
Online: 20 September 2020 (13:58:10 CEST)
The research work hereby presented, emerges from the urge to answer the well-known question of how the uncertainty of intermittent renewable sources affects the performance of a microgrid and how could we deal with it. More specifically, we want to evaluate what could be the impact in performance of a microgrid intended to serve a smart-building (powered by photovoltaic panels and with battery energy storage), when the uncertainty of the photovoltaic-production forecasts is considered in the energy management process. For this, several objectives (or services) are targeted based in a two-step (double-objective) energy management framework, that combines optimization-based and rule-based algorithms. The performance is evaluated based on some particular services proposed as performance indicators. Simulations are performed using data of a study-case microgrid (Drahi-Xnovation center, Ecole Polytechnique, France). The use of quantile forecasts (obtained with an analog-ensemble method) is tested as a mean to deal with (i.e. decrease) the uncertainty of the solar PV production. The proposed energy management framework is compared with basic reference strategies and the results show the superior performance of the former in almost all the services and forecasting scenarios proposed. The contrasting nature among some of the target services is one of the main conclusions of this work, as well as the different requirements in terms of forecasts when optimizing for different services and seasons of the year. This fact highlights the usefulness of the quantile forecasting approach, as a tool to deal with the intrinsic uncertainty of PV power production
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0279.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: COVID19; sub-Sahara Africa; PCR testing; Capacity building
Online: 13 July 2020 (06:32:48 CEST)
The novel COVID-19 pandemic prompted an unprecedented Institutional reaction to aggregate existing capacity from silos of research laboratories to establish a multidisciplinary research laboratory for COVID19 testing. In less than two weeks, resources were mobilized from the community to strengthen public health response and epidemic control. Such strengthening of institutional research capacity to support public health response contributes to a natural knowledge transfer, facilitates collaboration, and generates new frontiers for knowledge production that should ultimately lead to professional development and retention of skilled human resources. This report describes the pre-established mechanisms and involvement of the authors that made it possible to set-up a multidisciplinary laboratory in a remarkably short period of time. We also discuss the opportunities and sustainability of multidisciplinary laboratory research post-COVID19. Existing institutional capacity can be repurposed to establish multidisciplinary research laboratories to support the strengthening of basic and clinical translational research capacity in resource limited settings and impact on public health and scientific knowledge for socioeconomic development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0121.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: performance-based building design; PBBD; high-rise residential.
Online: 7 July 2020 (09:46:46 CEST)
The complexity of the design in high-rise residential projects is a challenge for the construction industry in completing projects that fit the needs of users. Performance-Based Building Design (PBBD) appears as a design concept that can describe these needs into performance requirements. In this case designing a building can be considered as an iterative process of exploration, where desired functional properties can be created, the shapes are suggested, and evaluation processes is used, so as to bring together the shapes and functions of the building. This concept is a container for designers to produce high-performance buildings. This study aimed to identify the performance-based building design factors applied by architect designers and engineers in high-rise residential building in Surabaya. As part of this study, primary data was collected based on surveys conducted through observation and questionnaire distributed to designers who had or were involved in the high-rise residential design process in Surabaya. A total of sixty-eight respondents were included in this study. Descriptive analysis through a mean and standard deviation scatter plot was used to rank the application of PBBD. Meanwhile, factor analysis was used in the analysis of PBBD application factors. From the results of the analysis, four factors were obtained for the application of PBBD in high-rise residential buildings in Surabaya, namely; the interests of occupants, the sustainability of building operations, the design collaboration process, and the risk of loss. Future research is the influence relationships and measure the success model of PBBD at a higher level into BIM (Building Information Modeling) interoperability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0055.v1
Subject: Engineering, Construction Keywords: Green campus; Sunlight hour; Solar radiation; Building reconfiguration
Online: 5 February 2020 (10:27:13 CET)
Universitas Gadjah Mada (UGM) is implementing the concept of green campus by various means including through elements in its sustainable campus development plan. With regards to several factors related to Energy and Climate Change indicators set by UI GreenMetric, this research examined the existing condition of the area of UGM which belongs to academic zone in order to construct a proposal based on a building mass reconfiguration. This proposal was aimed to improve the implementation of energy-specific green campus concept within the Forestry cluster area as a sample case study. This selection was based on the average value of the Building Coverage Ratio (BCR) values in all of the clusters; thus, the scenario was relevant for generalization and could be replicated in other clusters in the university. The study was done in three stages of simulation, and was based on a series of digital simulation of sunlight hour and solar radiation run in Grasshopper using Lady Bug environmental analysis plug-in for a period of five summer months during the building office hours. Following the reconfiguration, results had shown a similar downtrend between the amount of sunlight hour and solar radiation in the area (up to 49% and 45% respectively on building envelopes, and up to 44% and 42% respectively on landscaping surfaces). This reduction indicated a potential of energy efficiency by applying selective building mass reconfiguration as a passive design strategy that goes hand in hand with the campus’s development policy to optimize the use of BCR for a greener UGM campus through its many undergoing and upcoming redevelopment projects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0190.v2
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Delphi methods; consensus decision analysis; building sustainability plan and design; Cambodia urban buildings; sustainable site selection; sustainable building shape design
Online: 5 May 2022 (08:05:09 CEST)
Buildings can generate heats which are mostly generated from the machinery using inside the buildings, and these heats generally released to the atmosphere. Buildings can also block the wind flow by their canopies and trap the heat by using low albedo materials. These causes pointedly contribute to urban heat island and greenhouse effects. Likewise, urban development and building construction in Cambodia are growing rapidly. The construction has been recognized as a key development sector while thousands of buildings are being built and have been operated in the main cities. However, those buildings mostly have not been considered to incorporate sustainability concepts while the major final energy consumers in the country are buildings. The buildings’ energy consumption is also projected to increase more than double until 2040. Hence, sustainable building promotion in Cambodia is necessary, and sustainable building criteria are completely required. This research aims to find out significant sustainable building criteria for Cambodia and focused on planning and design criteria because having proper planning and design is a smart start leading to achieving building sustainability in all stages. This research used the Delphi methods to validate the relevant sustainable building criteria available in the literature and then select the significant ones for Cambodia based on the Delphi consensus. The results showed that ninety-nine consensus planning and design criteria were found to be significant for sustainable buildings in Cambodia.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0302.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: digital twin; energy saving; simulation; solar energy; smart building
Online: 20 September 2022 (10:16:50 CEST)
Hospital Pulau Pinang is the general hospital in Malaysia which targeting energy savings of 10% within five years from 2015 and other sustainability targets such as 3-star Energy Management Gold Standard and Green Building Certification. The targets are beneficial for the hospital itself to establish the Smart Building Program to improve its energy efficiency concurrent with the green policy of the Ministry of Health Malaysia and Sustainable Development Goals by the United Nations. This paper reviews the background of Hospital Pulau Pinang energy data , energy consumption trending, energy-saving trending, and energy conservation measures taken for the hospital from 2015 to December 2021.The yearly energy consumption baseline taken in 2016 was 27,496,731.00 kWh. It reduced significantly to 21,356,063 kWh in 2021 due to energy conservation measures. As a result, Hospital Pulau Pinang has achieved energy-saving about 16% at approximately RM7.3 million reduction in operational expenditure. The main objective of this paper is to provide further potential energy savings by studying the energy reduction by implementing solar photovoltaics using the simulation method. The simulation method can predict that Hospital Pulau Pinang can achieve another 5,130,000 kWh energy savings annually. This type of simulation has never been done before at a public hospital, and it will give further enhancing strategies to the Smart Building Program itself. Furthermore, the potential of smart building can be maximized to the next level by simulation, which helps the hospital energy committee make the potential decision on the energy-saving investment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0377.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: High-rise Building; Urban Ventilation; Wind Flow; CFD; Babolsar
Online: 25 January 2022 (10:28:25 CET)
In recent years, excessive heat in the urban texture has become the main problem in the humid and calm wind city of Babolsar with high density, especially in high-rise areas. Therefore, in order to create comfort in this region, it is necessary to establish and continue the wind circulation in space with an environmentally compatible and optimal configuration. The study applies combination of literature, field measurement, experimental validation of CFD simulation output, and comparative analysis. After field measurement and validation of FLOW-3D simulation software (V11.2.2), the relationship between these parameters (height, the width of passages, enclosure between buildings, and buildings' orientation) will be studied which affects the wind’s velocity and direction. The factors of the buildings' orientation and enclosure based on the passages' width have opposite reactions in the direction of the prevailing wind especially from perpendicular side. In this study, two effective factors are on wind velocity: 1- The orientation of the buildings towards the wind flow by creating permeability 2- Reducing the enclosure by increasing the width of the passage's perpendicular to the wind flow (w '= 3w, E' = 0.33E). According to the theoretical and practical study, first, the creation of permeability in the body of the block and the separation of buildings instead of aggregation has been studied, and then reducing the confinement of streets perpendicular to the wind flow has been discussed as effective solutions to improve the wind velocity and circulation between the urban environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0209.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: remote sensing imagery; building extraction; super-resolution; deep learning.
Online: 29 July 2021 (11:08:09 CEST)
Existing methods for building extraction from remotely sensed images strongly rely on aerial or satellite-based images with very high resolution, which are usually limited by spatiotemporally accessibility and cost. In contrast, relatively low-resolution images have better spatial and temporal availability but cannot directly contribute to fine- and/or high-resolution building extraction. In this paper, based on image super-resolution and segmentation techniques, we propose a two-stage framework (SRBuildingSeg) for achieving super-resolution (SR) building extraction using relatively low-resolution remotely sensed images. SRBuildingSeg can fully utilize inherent information from the given low-resolution images to achieve high-resolution building extraction. In contrast to the existing building extraction methods, we first utilize an internal pairs generation module (IPG) to obtain SR training datasets from the given low-resolution images and an edge-aware super-resolution module (EASR) to improve the perceptional features, following the dual-encoder building segmentation module (DES). Both qualitative and quantitative experimental results demonstrate that our proposed approach is capable of achieving high-resolution (e.g. 0.5 m) building extraction results at 2×, 4× and 8× SR. Our approach outperforms 8 other methods with respect to the extraction result of mean Intersection over Union (mIoU) values by a ratio of 9.38%, 8.20% and 7.89% with SR ratio factors of 2, 4, and 8, respectively. The results indicate that the edges and borders reconstructed in super-resolved images serve a pivotal role in subsequent building extraction and reveal the potential of the proposed approach to achieve super-resolution building extraction. Our code is available at https://github.com/xian1234/SRBuildSeg.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0593.v1
Subject: Keywords: affordable housing; environmental justice; equity; green building; housing policy
Online: 26 July 2021 (15:45:31 CEST)
Research on green-certified buildings has often been focused on the benefits of green standards, such as energy efficiency, smart growth, resource conservation, and health protection. Recent studies suggest the adoption of a reductionist sustainability planning language can turn green-certified houses into luxury goods, attracting White, prime-age, college-educated households with some pro-environmental attitudes who replace existing long-term, lower-income residents in core urban areas. While many factors may work together in driving neighborhood change and gentrification in cities, the question this study aims to address is to what extent the supply of green-certified units can affect neighborhood change and gentrification? We use Central Virginia’s Multiple Listing Service (MLS) housing market transactions data and the U.S. Census Bureau’s socioeconomic data to present the differential effect of new construction of market-rate, green-certified units in a natural experiment using difference-in-differences estimates. We find that neighborhoods that include new, green-certified units have experienced a statistically significant increase in population, supporting new construction and positively affecting house prices. We also detect some negative effects on minorities and minority owners, but these effects have not yet reached statistical significance. This study finds strong evidence of green housing providing the conditions that make areas ripe for gentrification, but more studies should follow up to better measure and generalize this finding.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0069.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Solar reflective coatings; Heat transfer; Heat gains; Building roofs
Online: 2 March 2021 (10:11:48 CET)
Building roofs are sources of unwanted heat for buildings situated in zones with a warm climate. Thus, reflective coatings have emerged as an alternative to reject a significant fraction of solar energy received by roofs. In this research, the thermal behavior of concrete slab-type roofs with traditional and solar reflective coatings was simulated using a computational tool. Weather data from four cities in Mexico with a warm climate were used as boundary conditions. This tool is an in-house code based on the Finite Volume Method developed by the author to perform building components simulations. The code was validated with experimental data from previous work. A series of comparative simulations were developed, taking a gray roof as a control case. The results showed that for the roof without thermal insulation (single roof), the solar reflective coatings reduced the exterior surface between 11 and 16∘C. Consequently, the single roofs’ daily heat gain was reduced by a factor ranging between 41 and 54%. On the other hand, for the insulated roof, the reflective coatings reduced the exterior surface temperature between 17 and 21∘C. At the same time, the daily heat gain of composite roofs was reduced between 37 and 56%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0626.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: multispectral lidar; single-photon lidar; building data; 3D reconstruction
Online: 28 August 2020 (08:49:07 CEST)
This paper investigated building data from multispectral and single-photon Lidar systems. The multispectral datasets from the individual channels and fused channels were explored. The multispectral and single-photon Lidar data were compared across multiple aspects: the data acquisition geometry, number of echoes, intensity, density, resolution, data defects, noise level, and the absolute and relative accuracy. In addition, we explored the performance of the multispectral and single-photon data for roof plane detection for eight complex/stylish buildings to investigate the suitability of these data for 3D building reconstruction. The building data from the single-photon and multispectral Lidar systems were evaluated with respect to the reference building vector data with an accuracy of better than 5 cm. The advantages and disadvantages of both technologies and their applications in the urban building environment are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0354.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: open LiDAR; terrestrial images; building reconstruction; point cloud registration
Online: 16 October 2018 (11:20:43 CEST)
Recent advances in open data initiatives allow us to free access to a vast amount of open LiDAR data in many cities. However, most of these open LiDAR data over cities are acquired by airborne scanning, where the points on façades are sparse or even completely missing due to the viewpoint and object occlusions in the urban environment. Integrating other sources of data, such as ground images, to complete the missing parts is an effective and practical solution. This paper presents an approach for improving open LiDAR data coverage on building façades by using point cloud generated from ground images. A coarse-to-fine strategy is proposed to fuse these two different sources of data. Firstly, the façade point cloud generated from terrestrial images is initially geolocated by matching the SFM camera positions to their GPS meta-information. Next, an improved Coherent Point Drift algorithm with normal consistency is proposed to accurately align building façades to open LiDAR data. The significance of the work resides in the use of 2D overlapping points on the outline of buildings instead of limited 3D overlap between the two point clouds and the achievement to a reliable and precise registration under possible incomplete coverage and ambiguous correspondence. Experiments show that the proposed approach can significantly improve the façades details of buildings in open LiDAR data and improving registration accuracy from up to 10 meters to less than half a meter compared to classic registration methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0121.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: social criteria; building assessment tools; sustainable development; social sustainability
Online: 15 January 2018 (07:55:41 CET)
The social criteria of sustainable development have remained underexplored. Moreover, a large number of green building assessment tool and social sustainability documentations have been developed which, has had a direct impact on social criteria issues, but there seems to be a substantial gap in the study of social criteria in green building assessment tools. In examining the problem facing social sustainability, taking into consideration social sustainability in sustainable development reviews and green building assessment tool towards social aspects. This paper through analysis identified a centripetal conceptual framework composed of seven key components equity, education, participation & control, social cohesion, health & safety, accessibility & satisfaction, and cultural values. The interpretation of the social sustainability in green building assessment tool would impact building practitioners towards implementing social criteria in GBAT. The aim was to identify social categories as well as consider a starting point for the development of an effective social criteria assessment tool for green building.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0538.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: building materials; sugar cane bagasse; Portland cement; Concrete; water absorption
Online: 31 August 2022 (08:36:55 CEST)
The main goal of this study was to evaluate sugarcane bagasse ash as a partial cement replacement material. Sugarcane bagasse ash is a by-product of fuel blending in the sugar industry. Yet all economic sugar is obtained after extraction from the cane. The disposal of the discharged waste in agriculture causes environmental problems in the sugar industry. The cement industry also creates environmental problems due to carbon dioxide emissions during cement manufacturing. Initially, bagasse ash samples were collected from the rubble of the Arjo Didessa sugar factory. The crude bagasse ash was sieved with a sieve size of 250µm. The strength of grade C-25 concrete was designed using five different concrete mixture proportions ranging from 5 to 20% cement by weight, including a water-cement ratio of 0.45. Impact strength tests were conducted at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of age for each replacement ratio. For the experimental work, a total of 60 cubic concrete specimens were cast for compressive strength tests, and 15 cylindrical concrete specimens were cast for water absorption tests. Working compressive strength results indicated that bagasse ash could replace up to 5% of ordinary Portland cement concrete.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0148.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Cellulose Nanofiber; Organoclay; PCM; Thermal Energy Storage; Building; Composite materials
Online: 15 April 2022 (14:55:52 CEST)
In this research, Cellulose Nanofibers (NFC) modified with a eutectic of lauric acid (LA) was prepared as a new form-stable phase change material (NFC-LA). Thermal properties of this composite were investigated by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The results revealed that the melting temperature and latent heat of NFC/LA were 21.56 °C and 88.5 J/g, respectively; and the super cooling degree for the NFC-LA composite decreased to 13.99 °C when compared to 20.28 °C of the pure lauric acid. Natural clay was purified and modified with Cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) to prepare organoclay. Through FTIR spectra, we have confirmed that the clay was successfully modified. The PCM-composite was then added to the organoclay to obtain a new composite denoted NFC-LA-OC. this latter was added to cement and was investigated as a reinforcement material in cement mortars for thermal energy storage application. The prepared material can both solve the leakage problem associated to the phase change material, and reduce or even avoid the use of heating and air conditioning systems, which are energy-intensive systems, and therefore reduce energy consumption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0261.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: energy saving; lighting control; smart lighting; green buildings; building automation
Online: 18 March 2022 (04:19:49 CET)
Global temperature rise due to hydrocarbon gases emission that are produced by generating the electrical power has a great attention by the researchers to reduce it till zero emission is successfully achieved. Sustainable energy source such as solar energy, wind, hydro-energy and sea wave energy are focal areas to replace the fossil fuel by clean energy. In this article, daylight is used to minimize the power consumption that required for indoor lighting using electric roller blind. Smart controller is designed to adjust the position of the roller blind stepper motor, and hence, adjust the roller blind opening, based on the preset light intensity, to achieve precise utilization of daylight inside the room. If the desired Lux is not achieved for any reason, the smart controller adjusts the LED circuit current to boost the light intensity to achieve precisely the desired Lux. Comprehensive test cases using MATLAB-Simulink is carried out to verify the performance of the proposed smart controller. Techno-economic analysis is introduced to evaluate the benefits of installing the controller. Summary and recommendation are given at the end.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0181.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: energy monitoring; net zero energy; human-building interaction; solar photovoltaics
Online: 14 March 2022 (09:49:53 CET)
This study reports an empirical analysis of an all-electric, Net Zero Energy Housing (NZEH) development located in a mixed-humid climate zone (4A, Virginia, USA). Circuit-level energy monitors were used to measure energy consumption and energy production data (solar photovoltaic) at 1-hr intervals in six identical apartments over 24 months. The study employs a multi-step case study methodology to a) empirically evaluate energy consumption and production data, b) identify the temporal variability of energy consumption and production data at different time scales, c) understand the impact(s) of weather and human-building interaction on energy consumption and production, and d) synthesize the study’s “lessons learned” toward data-driven recommendations for future NZEH researchers and practitioners. The study found that the development’s net zero energy goal was achieved in three of six case units and that NZEH housing performance was more influenced by human-building interaction than weather variability. The analysis also found the solar photovoltaic (PV) performance to be reliable across the sampled units over the periods of measurement, suggesting that solar PV could be oversized as an approach to overcome verifiability in HBI and achieve NZEH performance goals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0145.v1
Subject: Engineering, Construction Keywords: residential high-rise building; critical success to sustainability; KMITL PROCESS
Online: 5 August 2021 (11:49:51 CEST)
Sustainability is very important in business. The residential high-rise building all firms wanted to successful and sustainability in business. There is need the construction to completed low time, low cost and high quality in construction work. Therefore, real estate developers must find various strategies to use in construction projects to achieve goals and success of the firm. The purpose of this study was to indicate the very importance of knowledge management can lead to sustainability in business. Analyze 14 critical success to sustainability in residential high-rise building projects, collected questions from literature review, and survey in deep interview senior managers of 15 projects real estate development firms listed on the stock market of Thailand. Budget building more than 1000 million baht per project. From conceptual frame work five foundations integrated to knowledge management of critical success (KMITL PROCESS) used made tool survey in deep interview the critical success to sustainability in residential high-rise building project from project managers. Used IBM SPSS evaluated the critical success to sustainability. Found was one very important of critical success to sustainability, which was quality of products x̄ = 4.83. All 14 critical success to sustainability was found can applied made the knowledge management of critical success to sustainability in residential high-rise building project in firm. Especially in the field of construction managements project can used improve of all construction projects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0224.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: energy-efficient building; heating load; neural computing; biogeography-based optimization
Online: 12 January 2021 (14:46:29 CET)
: The significance of heating load (HL) accurate approximation is the primary motivation of this research to distinguish the most efficient predictive model among several neural-metaheuristic models. The proposed models are through synthesizing multi-layer perceptron network (MLP) with ant lion optimization (ALO), biogeography-based optimization (BBO), dragonfly algorithm (DA), evolutionary strategy (ES), invasive weed optimization (IWO), and league champion optimization (LCA) hybrid algorithms. Each ensemble is optimized in terms of the operating population. Accordingly, the ALO-MLP, BBO-MLP, DA-MLP, ES-MLP, IWO-MLP, and LCA-MLP presented their best performance for population sizes of 350, 400, 200, 500, 50, and 300, respectively. The comparison was carried out by implementing a ranking system. Based on the obtained overall scores (OSs), the BBO (OS = 36) featured as the most capable optimization technique, followed by ALO (OS = 27) and ES (OS = 20). Due to the efficient performance of these algorithms, the corresponding MLPs can be promising substitutes for traditional methods used for HL analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0031.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: BIM; Insulation Design; Building Envelope; Multi-objective; Optimisation; Pareto-front
Online: 2 November 2020 (11:26:02 CET)
Insulation systems for the floor, roof and external walls play a prominent role in providing a thermal barrier for the building envelope. Design decisions made for the insulation material type and thickness can alleviate potential impacts on the embodied energy and improve the building thermal performance. This design problem is often addressed using a BIM-integrated optimisation approach. However, one major weakness lies in the current studies is that BIM is merely used as the source for design parameters input. This study proposes a BIM-based envelope insulation optimisation design framework using a common software Revit to find the trade-off between the total embodied energy of the insulation system and the thermal performance of the envelope by considering the material type and thickness. In addition, the framework also permits data visualisation in a BIM environment, and subsequent material library mapping together with instantiating the optimal insulation designs. The framework is tested on a case study based in Sydney, Australia. By analysing sample designs from the Pareto front, it is found that slight improvement in the thermal performance (1.3399 to 1.2112 GJ/m2) would cause the embodied energy to increase by more than 50 times.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0225.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: radar remote sensing; building damage assessment; change detection method; GLCM
Online: 20 January 2020 (10:19:38 CET)
In this research paper, change detection based methods were considered to find collapsed and intact buildings using radar remote sensing data or radar imageries. Main task of this research paper is collection of most relevant scientific research in field of building damage assessment using radar remote sensing data. Several methods are selected and presented as best methods in present time, there are methods with using interferometric coherence, backscattering coefficients in different spatial resolution. In conclusion, methods are given in end, which show, which methods and radar remote sensing data give more accuracy and more available for building damage assessment. Low resolution Sentinel-1A/B radar remote sensing data are recomended as free available for monitoring of destruction degree in microdistrict level. Change detection and texture based method are used together to increase overall accuracy. Homogeneity and Dissimilarity GLCM texture parameters found as better for separation of a collapsed and intact buildings. Dual polarization (VV,VH) backscattering coefficients and coherence coefficients (before earthquake and coseismic) were fully utilized for this study. There were defined the better multi variable for supervised classification of none building, damaged and intact buildings features in urban areas. In this work, we were achieved overall accuracy 0.77, producer’s accuracy for none building is 0.84, for damaged building case 0.85, for intact building 0.64. Amatrice town was chosen as most damaged from 2016 Central Italy Earthquake.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0299.v1
Subject: Keywords: Energy Consumption, Saudi Arabia, Renewable Energy, Building Envelope, Energy Efficiency
Online: 28 June 2019 (12:37:43 CEST)
In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), residential buildings’ energy consumption accounts for almost 50% of the building stock electricity consumption. The electricity generation consumes over one-third of the daily oil production. KSA was ranked as one of the highest countries in fossil fuel consumption per capita in 2014. Moreover, the KSA’s economy heavily relies on fossil fuel sources, namely oil reservoirs, whereby depletion will negatively affect the future development of the country. The total electricity consumption is annually growing by approximately 5-8%, which would lead to identical oil consumption to oil production in 2035. Currently, the KSA government is concerned to generate more renewable energy using large renewable energy plants. The government is investing in energy generation through renewable sources, by financing large scale photovoltaic farms to stop an economic crisis that may occur in 2035. The existing building stock consumes around 80% of the total current Saudi electricity that is generated. According to the Saudi energy efficiency report, the primary energy consumption per capita is over three times higher than the world average. Therefore, the residential buildings need further assessment as to their current energy consumption. This research used a survey to explore current user behaviour in residential buildings energy performance in the city of Jeddah, KSA. The findings of the survey showed: • The buildings thermal properties were found to be poorly designed • The majority of users within the buildings prefer a room temperature of below 24 °C, which requires a massive amount of cooling • Due to the climate conditions and the cultural aspects of KSA, housing units are occupied for more than 18 hours per day • An increase in user awareness has helped to slightly improve residential buildings energy efficiency Knowing the current high energy consumption sources and causes and being able to define available opportunities for further developments on building thermal properties enhancements and how to increase user awareness to reach self-sustaining buildings is essential.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0211.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: VHR image; building roof; segmentation; GF2; deep convolution neural network
Online: 18 December 2018 (04:07:47 CET)
This paper presents a novel approach for semantic segmentation of building roof in dense urban environment with Deep Convolution Neural Network (DCNN) using imagery acquired by a Chinese Very High Resolution (VHR) satellite mission, i.e. GaoFen-2 (GF-2). To provide an operational end-to-end work flow for accurate build roof mapping with feature extraction as well as image segmentation, a fully convolutional DCNN with both convolutional and deconvolutional layers is designed to perform the VHR image analysis for labeling pixels. Since the diverse urban patterns and building styles in large areas, sample image data sets of building roof and non-building roof are collected over different metropolitan regions in China. We selected typical cities with dense urban environment in each metropolitan region as study areas for collecting training and test samples. High performance cluster with GPU-mounted workstations is employed to perform the model training and optimization. With the building roof samples collected over different cities, the predictive model with multiple NN layers is developed for building roof labeling. The validation of the building roof map shows that the overall accuracy(OA) and the mean Intersection Over Union( mIOU) of DCNN based segmentation are 94.67%, 0.85 respectively, while CRF-refined segmentation achieved OA of 94.69% and mIOU of 0.83. The results suggest that the proposed approach is a promising solution for building roof mapping with VHR images over large areas across different urban and building patterns. With the operational acquisition of GF2 VHR imagery, it is expected to develop an automated pipeline for operational built-up area monitoring and timely update of building roof map over large areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0518.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: solar; LiDAR; rooftop photovoltaics; building characteristics; wide-area solar yield
Online: 21 November 2018 (06:59:32 CET)
A new method for wide-area urban roof assessment of suitability for solar photovoltaics is introduced and validated. Knowledge of roof geometry and physical features is essential for evaluation of the impact of multiple rooftop solar photovoltaic (PV) system installations on local electricity networks. This paper begins by reviewing and testing a range of existing techniques for identifying roof characteristics. It was found that no current method is capable of delivering accurate results with publicly available input data. Hence a different approach is developed, based on slope and aspect using LIDAR data, building footprint data, GIS tools and aerial photographs. It assesses each roof’s suitability for PV installation. That is, its properties should allow the installation of at least a minimum size photovoltaic system. In this way the minimum potential solar yield for region or city may be obtained. The accuracy of the new method is then established, by ground-truthing against a database of 886 household systems. This is the largest validation of a rooftop assessment method to date. The method is flexible with few prior assumptions. It is based on separate consideration of buildings and can therefore generate data for various PV scenarios and future analyses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0146.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: air cap; roller module; energy saving; performance evaluation; building envelope
Online: 9 July 2018 (13:44:24 CEST)
While previous research has shown the use of attachable air-caps on windows to efficiently reduce a building’s energy consumption, the air-caps considered had to be attached to the entire window’s surface, thus limiting the occupants’ view and creating the inconvenience of needing to detach and attach the air-caps. In this study, a window-mounted air-cap roller module using Velcro tape that may be easily attached, detached, and rolled up or down was developed and performance tested in a full-scale test bed. It was found that as the area of the air-caps attached on a window increased, the required indoor lighting energy increased. However, the window insulation improved, thus reducing the cooling and heating energy needed. Attaching the air-caps to the entire window surface effectively reduced the building’s energy consumption, but views through the window may be disturbed. Thus, the developed window-mounted air-caps enable an occupant to reduce the building energy consumption and maintain their view according to their need. The findings of this study may contribute to a reduction in building energy consumption without sacrificing a pleasant indoor environment. Further studies may be needed to verify their efficacy under varying indoor and outdoor conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0030.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: green building; risk management; risk factors, risk mitigation measures; architect
Online: 2 May 2018 (16:55:58 CEST)
The number of green buildings has increased to address the global environmental crisis. However, green buildings face risks resulting from new materials and methods. In addition, these buildings are expected to perform at higher levels than traditional ones. The objectives of this study are to identify the possible risk factors for architects developing green building projects in South Korea and to assess risk mitigation measures. To attain this goal, fourteen risk factors and twelve mitigation measures were identified from a comprehensive literature review. A questionnaire survey was administered to architects practicing green building design. Findings revealed the ‘adoption of new technology and processes’ was the largest difference between green and traditional building projects. This study identified ‘financial risk,’ ‘design changes,’ and ‘client’s goal uncertainty’ as the top three risk factors in green building design. Additionally, the survey proposed the four most effective risk mitigation measures for green building projects: (1) ‘contract indicating each party’s roles, liabilities and limitations clearly’; (2) ‘utilizing integrated design process’; (3) ‘understanding client’s goal in green building projects’; and (4) ‘improving communication and coordination among stakeholders.’ There are a few studies focusing on the architects’ perceived risk concerning green building projects; however, this study expands the knowledge and fills the literature gap. Additionally, this study provides a comprehensive understanding of critical risks and mitigation measures that can benefit South Korea’s green building design practice through better risk management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0262.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Building Information Modeling; Case Based Reasoning; cost estimating; information management
Online: 28 January 2018 (16:43:50 CET)
Information regarding the cost of a construction project is available to the investor and project participants in order to determine the subsequent success of a project, given that the information they collect has an impact on the decisions they make. Cost calculations, especially in the initial phase of a project, often generate large errors. This paper presents the new approach based on a combination of the Case Based Reasoning method (CBR) with the originally selected criteria for the description of a construction project (as a result of Pearson correlation coefficient and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient) and Building Information Modeling (BIM) technology. The CBR method fulfils expectations for a simple and fast system supporting the cost estimation process. It does not require any specialist knowledge, so it will be comprehensible to cost estimation practitioners. The BIM-based model gives the opportunity for the calculation of quantity take-offs and enables the use of the information contained in the BIM model in the cost estimation process. In order to prepare the model an appropriate relational database had to be developed. With extensive research, a database of 173 construction projects, including the construction of a sports field, was obtained. There were 14 variables defined originally by authors; however, only 10 (as a result of the correlation analysis) were used for the calculation. Data related to the project were collected in the BIM model. Results estimating the project’s unit price, using the CBR method, were presented and discussed. The Mean Absolute Estimate Error was used to evaluate the model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0187.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: influencing factors; building development costs; New Zealand; structural equation modeling
Online: 28 April 2017 (05:22:10 CEST)
Identification of costs drivers and their influence level on building development costs play a key role in the development of construction models and improve the efficiency and effectiveness of any project. Forty-five indicators influencing building development costs in New Zealand are explored by literature review and pilot interviews. These indicators are grouped into seven categories. The determination and ranking of the cost drivers are carried out by a questionnaire survey distributed to key professionals working in New Zealand’s construction industry. Structural equation modeling (SEM) software was employed for analysis of the collected data. One of the key advantages of this powerful software is to provide the p-value according to the structure of the research model. Findings of this study indicate that the property market and construction industry factor, statutory and regulatory factor, and socio-economic factor are major factors affecting building development costs in New Zealand.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0055.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: seismic damage building; watershed segmentation; SAR; texture feature; change detection
Online: 5 August 2016 (12:19:24 CEST)
The information of seismic damage of buildings in SAR images of different time phase, especially in SAR images after earthquake, is easily disturbed by other factors, which affects the accuracy of information discrimination. In order to identify and evaluate the distribution information of the seismic damage accurately and make full use of the abundant texture features in the SAR image. The conventional method of change detection based on texture features usually takes the pixel as the calculating unit. In this paper, a method of texture feature change detection of SAR images based on watershed segmentation algorithm is proposed. Based on the optimization of texture feature parameters, the feature parameters are segmented by the watershed segmentation algorithm, and the feature object image is obtained. This method introduces the idea of object oriented, and carries out the calculation of the difference map at the object level, Finally, the classification threshold value of different types of seismic damage types is selected, and the recognition of building damage is achieved. Taking the ALOS data before and after the earthquake in Yushu as an example to verify the effectiveness of the method, the overall accuracy of the building extraction is 88.9%, Compared with pixel-based methods, it is proved that the proposed method is effective.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0037.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: energy efficient building; heat flux; thermal transmittance; in situ measurement
Online: 4 August 2016 (08:09:58 CEST)
The building envelope has the most significant contribution in the reduction of the building energy consumption. Application of new, alternative and improved materials and systems has an important impact on the buildings performances. This paper is focused on the thermal transmittance, as an indicator of the thermal conductance of the construction element. It includes comparisons of the U-values, calculated by software, with those measured in situ on three representative façade walls. The walls have been constructed with the new wall system Fragmat NZ-1, a new product in Macedonian buildings. This research provides basic information on the thermal transmittance of the system. The results of the analysis show that the in situ measuring is a useful tool in validation of the precision of analytically calculated values, since it was difficult to obtain precise results from the analytical calculations only, especially when the layers are with non-uniform thickness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0031.v1
Subject: Biology, Horticulture Keywords: Commercial building environments; Electric lighting; Green walls; Plant growth and health
Online: 2 December 2022 (02:09:50 CET)
This study demonstrates the possibility of growing green walls in normal commercial building environments with lighting designed primarily for aesthetic reasons, rather than the promotion of plant growth. Lighting is a key resource required for the growth and maintenance of robust green walls within interior environments. The study evaluated the appearance and growth of green walls with electric lighting used primarily for aesthetic reasons. Three identical green walls with six different plants were illuminated using three different white LED light sources for a period of five months. Plant health was monitored and documented in terms of growth patterns. One hundred and six subjects appraised the appearance of the walls using questionnaires. Findings of this study indicate that it is indeed possible to grow and maintain green walls in normal commercial building environments with lighting designed for aesthetic reasons. Further, it was observed that the selection of the correct plant species for the green walls is important to ensure plant health.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0345.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Urinal; Passive Infrared (PIR); Water Conservation; Water efficiency; Campus; building management
Online: 24 October 2022 (03:18:04 CEST)
This study looks at the application of delayed action Passive InfraRed (PIR) sensors in the control of water use for urinal flushing. In this we briefly review the literature on urinal controls before reviewing four different approaches to PIR urinal controls. Existing literature discusses some of the pros and cons of different types of urinal control. However, the literature doesn’t consider the marked differences that can occur within individual approaches, based on the way controls operate. This study was initiated at the University of Surrey during 2019 following a water saving audit, in an attempt to bring down what had been identified as one of the largest users of water. This paper therefore aims to identify the most effective way to reduce water consumption of urinal systems, through retro-fitting PIR control systems within the variety of settings found across university campuses. This paper also reviews the different reductions achieved over periods of different levels of use, linked to term time, holidays, Covid-19 related lockdowns, and the ‘new normal’. It found that grouped delayed action flushing was the most effective form of urinal control for reducing water use. The delayed action, grouped PIR sensors, achieved between, a 59-64% adjusted reduction against the control group during non-Covid19 periods, and a 35% reduction against the control group during lockdowns.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0399.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Urban Heat Island; Building Footprint; Remote Sensing; ASTER; New York City
Online: 19 August 2021 (10:35:33 CEST)
Urban areas have very complex spatial structures. These spatial structures are primarily composed of a complex network of built environments, which evolve rapidly as the cities expand to meet the growing population’s demand and economic development. Therefore, studying the impact of spatial structures on urban heat patterns is extremely important for sustainable urban planning and growth. We investigated the relationship between surface temperature obtained by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER, at 90 m spatial resolution) on the current EOS-Terra platform and different urban components based on the classification of high-resolution QuickBird imagery. We further investigated the relationships between surface temperature and building footprint and land use information acquired from the New York City (NYC) Department of City Planning. The ASTER image reveals fine-scale urban heat patterns in the NYC metropolitan region. The dark and medium-dark impervious surfaces, along with bright surfaces, generate higher surface temperatures. Even with highly reflective urban materials, the presence of impervious materials leads to an increased surface temperature. At the same time, trees and shadows are effective in reducing urban heat. The data aggregated to the census tract reveals high-temperature clusters in Queens, Brooklyn, and the Bronx region of NYC. These clusters are associated with industrial and manufacturing areas and multi-family walk-up buildings as dominant land use. The census tracts with more trees and higher building height variability generate lower surface temperatures, consistent with shadow cast by high-rise buildings and trees. The results of this study can be valuable for urban heat island modeling on the effects of building heights variability and tree shadows on small-scale surface temperature patterns. It can also help identify the risk areas during extreme heat events to protect public health.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0238.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Artificial reefs; design; building material; bio-monitoring; species diversity; European Atlantic
Online: 13 January 2021 (10:31:56 CET)
Artificial reefs have been deployed in multiple regions of the world for different purposes including habitat restoration and protection, biodiversity and fish stock enhancement, fisheries management and recreation. Artificial reefs can be a valuable tool for ecosystem protection and rehabilitation, helping mitigate the effects of anthropogenic impacts that we face today. However, knowledge on artificial reefs is unevenly distributed worldwide, with some regions having much more quality information available and published (e.g. European Mediterranean Sea area), while others, for instance the North-East Atlantic area, do not. Here, we provide a characterization of purposely built artificial reefs in North-East Atlantic area based on all available literature (i.e. research papers and reports), highlighting the needs and gaps that are vital for establishing future perspectives for artificial reef deployment and research. In the North-East Atlantic area, sixty-one purposely built artificial reefs have been deployed since 1970, mostly between the years 1990-2009, with Spain being the country with the highest number of artificial reefs. The most reported purpose for their deployment is fisheries productivity and habitat/species protection, although, most artificial reefs are multipurpose in order to maximise the benefits of a given financial investment. The majority of artificial reefs were submerged at < 50 m, mainly between 10-20 m of depth. The most used designs were cubic blocks and complex designs made by an array of combined shapes, which mostly consist of concrete (79%). From all the analysed data on artificial reefs, 67% of the cases reported surveys to assess biodiversity after the deployment. However, in 26% of those cases, data was not available. When data was available, only 31% of cases reported long-term biomonitoring surveys (3 years or more). Based upon these findings, we noticed a general lack of scientifically robust data, including records of species and abundance of both fish and invertebrates, as well as macroalgae. Preventing an adequate determination of the best balance between shape, construction material and bio-colonization. Critiques and suggestions are discussed in the light of current available data in order to perform more efficient research, evaluation and functioning of future artificial reefs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0730.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: Structure component, occupant behaviour, energy savings, lightweight building and comfort enhancement
Online: 30 September 2020 (08:23:16 CEST)
A characteristic feature of lightweight constructions is their low thermal mass which causes high internal temperature fluctuations that require high heating and cooling demand throughout the year. Phase Change Materials (PCMs) is effective in providing thermal inertia to low thermal mass buildings. The aim of this paper is to analyse the thermal behaviour of two proposed lightweight buildings designed for homeless people and to investigate the potential benefit achievable through the use of different types of PCM in the temperate climatic conditions of Christchurch, New Zealand. For this purpose, over 300 numerical simulations have been conducted using the simulation software DesignBuilder®. The bulk of the simulations were carried out under the assumption that the whole opaque building envelope is equipped with PCM. The results showed significant energy saving and comfort enhancement through the application of PCMs. Thereby, annual energy saving of over 50 % was reached for some of the PCMs considered. Additionally, the effectiveness of single, PCM-equipped structure components was investigated and substantial benefits between 19 and 27 % annual energy saving were achieved. However, occupant behaviour in terms of ventilation habits, occupancy of zones etc. remains one of the biggest challenges in any simulation work due to insufficient data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0369.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Virtual Reality; Augmented Reality; Building Information Modeling; industry trend; virtual environment
Online: 29 December 2019 (04:42:10 CET)
With advances in Building Information Modeling (BIM), Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) technologies have many potential applications in the Architecture, Engineering, and Construction (AEC) industry. However, the AEC industry, relative to other industries, has been slow in adopting AR/VR technologies, partly due to lack of feasibility studies examining the actual cost of implementation versus an increase in profit. The main objectives of this paper are to understand the industry trends in adopting AR/VR technologies and identifying gaps within the industry. The identified gaps can lead to opportunities for developing new tools and finding new use cases. To achieve these goals, two rounds of a survey at two different time periods (a year apart) were conducted. Responses from 158 industry experts and researchers were analyzed to assess the current state, growth, and saving opportunities for AR/VR technologies for the AEC industry. The findings demonstrate that older generations are significantly more confident about the future of AR/VR technologies and they see more benefits in AR/VR utilization. Furthermore, the research results indicate that Residential and commercial sectors have adopted these tools the most, compared to other sectors and institutional and transportation sectors had the highest growth from 2017 to 2018. Industry experts anticipated a solid growth in the use of AR/VR technologies in 5 to 10 years, with the highest expectations towards healthcare. Ultimately, the findings show a significant increase in AR/VR utilization in the AEC industry from 2017 to 2018.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0069.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: building energy modeling; energy systems; energy demand; future climate; weather files
Online: 7 October 2019 (12:19:24 CEST)
The building sector accounts for nearly 40% of total primary energy consumption in the U.S. and E.U. and 20% of worldwide delivered energy consumption. Climate projections predict an increase of average annual temperatures between 1.1-5.4°C by 2100. As urbanization is expected to continue increasing at a rapid pace, the energy consumption of buildings is likely to play a pivotal role in the overall energy budget. In this study we used EnergyPlus building energy models to estimate the future energy demands of commercial buildings in Salt Lake County, Utah, USA, using locally-derived climate projections. We found significant variability in the energy demand profiles when simulating the study buildings under different climate scenarios, based on the energy standard the building was designed to meet, with reductions ranging from 10% to 60% in natural gas consumption for heating and increases ranging from 10% to 30% in electricity consumption for cooling. A case study, using projected 2040 building stock, showed a weighted average decrease in heating energy of 25% and an increase of 15% in cooling energy. We also found that building standards between ASHRAE 90.1-2004 and 90.1-2016 play a comparatively smaller role than variation in climate scenarios on the energy demand variability within building types. Our findings underscore the large range of potential future building energy consumption which depend on climatic conditions, as well as building types and standards.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0026.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: building information modelling; co-citation network; literature review; research visualization; scientometrics
Online: 9 July 2019 (03:42:40 CEST)
In the recent decade, Building Information Modelling (BIM) has widely been adopted in the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry and completely upended the way we build. While BIM continues gain momentum in the industry, it has also attracted increasing attentions from researchers. However, most of the current study focuses on reviewing BIM for management, BIM for green building, BIM for infrastructure and BIM for Facilities Management (FM). There are few studies about Global BIM review and to discuss their complex inter-connections. In this study, we adopted a scientometric analysis method to review global BIM research from 2004-2019. A total of 1455 scholarly bibliographic records obtained from Web of Science Core Collection databased were established for the analysis. This study has identified the top productive and influential researchers, research institutes, regions/countries, subject categories and journals in the BIM field. In addition, 11 clusters of Global BIM research were also identified including construction project, green BIM, construction safety planning, automated IFC-based workflow and so on. Authors distinguished 11 clusters of global BIM research into 3 stages, namely formulating stage, accelerating stage and transforming stage. Furthermore, authors reviewed the BIM policy of Singapore and observed there is a co-production relationship between evolution of BIM policy and global BIM research. These findings provide valuable information for researchers, practitioners and policy makers by visualizing the current progress in the research field of BIM and highlighting future research needs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0275.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: building; environmental impacts; façade; life-cycle assessment; transparent insulation; low-emissivity
Online: 12 November 2018 (09:36:29 CET)
Contemporary architects and the construction industry are trying to cope with increasing requirements concerning energy efficiency and environmental impact. One of the available options is the active utilization of energy gains from the environment, specifically solar energy gains. These gains can be utilized by, for example, solar walls and facades. The solar façade concept has been under development for more than a century. However, it hasn’t achieved widespread use for various reasons. Rather recently the concept was enhanced by the application of transparent insulation materials that have the potential to increase the efficiency of such façades. The presented study evaluates the environmental efficiency of 10 solar façade assemblies in the mild climate of the Czech Republic, Central Europe. The evaluated façade assemblies combine the principles of a solar wall with transparent insulation based on honeycomb and polycarbonate panels. The study applies Life-Cycle Assessment methodology to the calculation of environmental impacts related to the life cycle of the evaluated assemblies. The results indicate that even though there are several limiting factors, façade assemblies with transparent insulation have lower environmental impacts compared to a reference assembly with standard thermal insulation. The highest achieved difference is approx. 84% (in favour of the assembly with transparent insulation) during a modelled 50-year façade assembly service life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0663.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: electrochromic glazing; building energy; daylight performance; optimal control; climate zone; EnergyPlus
Online: 29 October 2018 (08:48:15 CET)
Solar radiation is closely related to the energy buildings consume for cooling, heating, and lighting purposes. Glazing is the only material of the building envelope that transmits solar radiation and needs to be appropriately designed to reduce energy cㅈonsumption. Currently, smart glass technology is being actively investigated and developed for effective solar radiation control. Among the various types of smart glass, electrochromic glazing is one of the most promising technologies, as it can adjust transmittance on its own, has a wider transmittance range in both the clear and darkened states, and consumes less electricity. Considering the importance of solar radiation adjustment in electrochromic glazing technology, this study attempted to develop an optimal control method for electrochromic glazing. Toward this goal, the solar radiation incident on vertical surfaces and outdoor temperature conditions were controlled in three regions with different climatic characteristics, and the annual cooling, heating, and lighting loads, discomfort glare, and interior illumination were analyzed. This approach enabled the optimal conditions with respect to visual comfort to be determined. Subsequently, the EDPI (Energy and daylight performance index) was used to optimize control conditions for each region, thereby producing integrated evaluations from results with different units and properties. The proposed control method will be utilized to develop a control algorithm and a control system to reduce building energy consumption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0044.v1
Subject: Keywords: environmental impact assessment, remediation, petroleum-contaminated sites, environment, health, capacity building
Online: 3 October 2018 (12:01:44 CEST)
Human-generated, natural occurrences and other actions connected with the petroleum industry have contributed expansively to the contamination of numerous areas of human habitant, thus effecting overwhelming challenges and constraints to sustainable human health, development and the biosphere. The sites commonly associated include derelict pits, hydrocarbon onshore release sites, and places to where oil slicks exuding from offshore releases are blown onshore. In diverse cases, remediation is pertinent to restore the affected ambient. This is required despite the complexity and intricate pore structure and fluid trafficking trajectories of soil which are not easily amenable to remediation. Due to the complex assemblage of contaminated soil, it is necessary to conduct an encompassing site assessment by considering the potential impact of the environment and human health prior to proper selecting and implementing of a desirable remediation process. There are extant remediation methodologies which are effective and efficient for the clean up of contaminated shorelines and other petroleum-contaminated sites involving inter alia agricultural activities. There are salient variations in the techniques to expunge contaminants regarding spatiotemporal and pecuniary costs or considerations due to the gross environmental hazards entailed. This study provides for the opportunity to harness and sustain the capacity for the mitigation of untoward impacts, and induce the latitude for an enabling condition in sustainable human health, environment and development in the petroleum industry and other anthropogenic activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0094.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Building Information Modeling; defects; damage information modeling; life cycle; bridges; inspection; maintenance
Online: 6 January 2022 (17:45:29 CET)
Current bridge inspection practices rely on paper-based data acquisition, digitization, and multiple conversions in between incompatible formats to facilitate data exchange. This practice is time-consuming, error-prone, cumbersome, and leads to information loss. One aim for future inspection procedures is to have a fully digitized workflow that achieves loss-free data exchange, which lowers costs and offers higher efficiency. On the one hand, existing studies proposed methods to automatize data acquisition and visualization for inspections. These studies lack an open standard to make the gathered data available for other processes. On the other hand, several studies discuss data structures for exchanging damage information through out different stakeholders. However, those studies do not cover the process of automatic data acquisition and transfer. This study focused on a framework that incorporates automatic damage data acquisition, transfer, and a damage information model for data exchange. This enables inspectors to use damage data for subsequent analyses and simulations. The proposed framework shows the potentials for a comprehensive damage information model and related (semi-)automatic data acquisition and processing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0584.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: seismic risk; WebGIS; seismic resilience; HVNSR; fundamental frequency; DSM; soil-building resonance
Online: 21 April 2021 (14:52:36 CEST)
In the context of seismic risk, studying the characteristics of urban soils and of the built environment means adopting a holistic vision of the city taking a step forward compared to the current microzonation approach. Based on this principle, CLARA WebGIS aims to collect, organise, and disseminate the available information on soils and buildings in the urban area of Matera. The geodatabase is populated with i) 488 downloadable geological, geotechnical, geophysical, surveys; ii) geological, geomorphological, and seismic homogeneous microzones maps and iii) a new Digital Surface Model. The CLARA WebGIS (https://smartcities-matera-clara.imaa.cnr.it/) is the first publicly available database reporting for the whole urban area the spatial distribution of the fundamental frequencies for soils and the overlying 4043 buildings, along with probability levels of soil-building resonance. The WebGIS is addressed to a broad target of end users (local government, engineers, and geologists, etc.) as a support to the implementation of seismic risk mitigation strategies in terms of urban planning, seismic retrofitting, and management of post-earthquake crises. We recommend that the database be managed by local administrators, who would also have the task of deciding on future developments and continuous updating as new data becomes available.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0666.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Bricks; Bricks Types; Technical Specification of Bricks; Building Materials; Brick Quality Index
Online: 26 March 2021 (12:55:03 CET)
The purpose of this study is to investigate the different types of bricks as a construction material. In this study, monitoring different technical specification or characteristics of the bricks. At the end of study, Brick Quality Index (BQI) evaluated. According to BQI, bricks were classified poor to excellent quality.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0197.v3
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: Built Environment (BE); building operations; novel coronavirus; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2
Online: 2 April 2020 (05:19:41 CEST)
With the rapid spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that results in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), corporate entities, federal, state, county and city governments, universities, school districts, places of worship, prisons, health care facilities, assisted living organizations, daycares, homeowners, and other building owners and occupants have an opportunity to reduce the potential for transmission through built environment (BE) mediated pathways. Over the last decade, substantial research into the presence, abundance, diversity, function, and transmission of microbes in the BE has taken place and revealed common pathogen exchange pathways and mechanisms. In this paper, we synthesize this microbiology of the BE research and the known information about SARS-CoV-2 to provide actionable and achievable guidance to BE decision makers, building operators, and all indoor occupants attempting to minimize infectious disease transmission through environmentally mediated pathways. We believe this information is useful to corporate and public administrators and individuals responsible for building operations and environmental services in their decision-making process about the degree and duration of social-distancing measures during viral epidemics and pandemics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0132.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: transfer function models; ARIMA models; model selection; building cost index; New Zealand
Online: 12 March 2019 (03:14:14 CET)
Cost estimating based on building cost index plays an important role in project planning and management by providing accurate cost information. Recently, tremendous advances in cost estimating has been made but serious inaccuracies in it are still too frequently witnessed. This study aims to improve estimating accuracy for residential building costs in New Zealand. In this study, the New Zealand house prices index is involved in the transfer function models to produce forecasts of building costs for one-storey house, two-storey house, and town house in New Zealand. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed models, this study compares the estimate results of the transfer function models with the univariate ARIMA models. The results indicate that the proposed transfer function models can achieve better outcomes than ARIMA models by considering the causality between building costs and New Zealand house prices. During the modelling process, the better cost estimation approach can be identified, and the movements of building costs are shown.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0682.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: Indoor Location, Mobile App, Building Information Models, BLE, Beacon, Path Finding, A*.
Online: 29 October 2018 (12:38:10 CET)
This research work uses a simplified approach to combine location information from beacons propagation signal interaction with a mobile device with local building information to give real-time location and guidance to a user inside a building. This is an interactive process with visualisation information that can help user’s orientation inside unknown buildings and the data stored from different users can provide useful information about users movements inside a public building. Beacons installed on the building at specific pre-defined position emit signals that give a geographic position with an associated imprecision, related with Bluetooth’s range. This uncertainty is handled by building layout and users’ movement in a developed system that maps users’ position, gives guidance and store user movements. This system is based on an App (Find Me!) for Android OS (Operating System) which captures the Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) signal coming from the beacon(s) and shows, through a map, the location of the user ‘s smartphone and guide him to the desired destination. Also, the beacons can deliver relevant context information. The application was tested by a panel of new and habitual campus users against traditional wayfinding alternatives yielding navigation times about 30% smaller, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0041.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: building remodeling; concentrated loads; FRP reinforcement; FRP strips; shear capacity, vertical concrete cantilever
Online: 5 January 2022 (13:01:16 CET)
Renovation, restoration, remodeling, refurbishment, and retrofitting of build-ings often imply modifying the behavior of the structural system. Modification sometimes includes applying forces (i.e., concentrated loads) to beams that before were subjected to distributed loads only. For a reinforced concrete structure, the new condition causes a beam to bear a concentrated load with the crack pattern that was produced by the distributed loads that acted in the past. If the concentrated load is applied at or near the beam’s midspan, the new shear demand reaches the maximum around the midspan. But around the midspan, the cracks are vertical or quasi-vertical, and no inclined bar is present. So, the actual shear capacity around the midspan not only is low, but also can be substantially lower than the new demand. In order to bring the beam capacity up to the demand, fiber-reinforced-polymer composites can be used. This paper presents a design method to increase the concentrated load-carrying capacity of reinforced concrete beams whose load distribution has to be changed from distributed to concentrated, and an analytical model to pre-dict the concentrated load-carrying capacity of a beam in the strengthened state.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0283.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Emotional intelligence; intelligence quotient; national income; wealth code; nation building; corruption perception index
Online: 18 October 2021 (12:52:00 CEST)
Background: Intelligence quotient (IQ) is a measure of intellectual ability of performing, comprehension, and learning. Previous studies reported that intelligence measures predict various measures of job performance and income. Emotional awareness (EA) is the measure of emotional capacity to recognize and make sense of one’s emotions, as well as those of others. A high level of emotional awareness (EA) indicates one can learn from expressed emotions quickly. Both IQ and EA are important for personal and professional success. Objective: This study tests the hypothesis that the average national income rank is best predicted by the combined effect of the population's average intelligence quotient (one's ability to perform and learn) and emotional awareness (ability to recognize and make sense of emotions). Method: The population’s average intelligence quotient (IQ), emotional awareness (EA), and indices of good governance, which include corruption perception index and educational expenses for each country, were obtained from public data sources. The outcome variable was per capita gross national income. All the variables that are statistically significant in univariate analysis were included in the multivariate regression analyses but excluded from the final model if not statistically significant. Result: The total number of countries included in the final analysis was 81 because of missing values in different variables. Intelligence quotient (IQ) and emotional awareness (EA) were found to be highly correlated, at 0.77 and 0.32 respectively, with the per capita gross national income. The independent effects of intelligence quotient (IQ) and emotional awareness (EA) were found significant in the multivariate model after adjusting for measures of good governance. The R square value for the final multivariate model was 0.82. The corruption perception index (CPI) and educational expenses were strongly correlated with other measures of good governance such as democracy index, functioning of government, electoral process and pluralism, political participation, and civil liberty, but these variables were found not significant in the multivariate model. Conclusion: The study concludes the effect of intelligence quotient (IQ) and emotional awareness (EA) are complementary to each other but intelligence quotient (IQ) is a stronger predictor than emotional awareness (EA) for gross national income or wealth. We also find that indicators of good governance, including corruption perception index and educational expenses, have important associations with per capita gross national income. This study implies a nation may build more wealth if the educational system focuses on developing emotional awareness in addition to intelligence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0092.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Facade retrofitting; Scan to BIM; Parametric modelling; Terrestrial laser scanning; Building life cycle.
Online: 5 July 2021 (11:15:12 CEST)
Current commitments by European governments seek to improve energy consumption as a means to reduce carbon emissions from building stock by 2050. Within such context, retrieving reliable three-dimensional contours from point clouds becomes an important step in developing facade retrofitting solutions since facade retrofitting projects often make use of as-built 3D models to help reduce inaccuracies by narrowing interpretation and measurement errors. This work aims to provide a method that uses topology-based parametric modelling for reconstructing building envelopes from point clouds. Through a semi-automated process that gives permanent visual feedback, the user adjusts parameters to custom standards of acceptability. A solution under the form of a Grasshopper definition delivers building envelope 3D contours in various file formats as a means for increasing interoperability. The main contributions of this work consist of a parametric reconstruction workflow capable of solving building topology for retrieving 3D contours, a strategy to bypass point cloud occlusion, and a strategy for converting those contours into an IFC model directly from the parametric modelling environment.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: building simulation; office buildings; energy performance; energy modelling; HVAC; analytical modelling; statistical analysis
Online: 1 October 2020 (15:40:25 CEST)
Large office buildings are responsible for a substantial portion of energy consumption in urban districts. However, thorough assessments regarding the Nordic countries are still lacking. In this paper we analyse the largest dataset to date for a Nordic office building, by considering a case study located in Stockholm, Sweden, that is occupied by nearly a thousand employees.Distinguishing the lighting and occupants’ appliances energy use from heating and cooling, we can estimate the impact of occupancy without any schedule data. A standard frequentist analysis is compared with Bayesian inference, and the according regression formulas are listed in tables that are easy to implement into building performance simulations (BPS). Monthly as well as seasonal correlations are addressed, showing the critical importance of occupancy.A simple method, grounded on the power drain measurements aimed at generating boundary conditions for the BPS, is also introduced; it shows how, for this type of data and number of occupants, no more complexities are needed in order to obtain reliable predictions. For an average year, we overestimate the measured cumulative consumption by only 4.7%. The model can be easily generalised to a variety of datasets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0320.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: District Heating Network; reduced-order model; building heat capacity; scalability; gray box model
Online: 28 June 2020 (08:26:31 CEST)
District heating networks have become widespread due to their ability to distribute thermal energy efficiently, which leads to reduced carbon emissions and improved air quality. The characteristics of these networks vary remarkably depending on the urban layout and system amplitude. Moreover, extensive data about the energy distribution and thermal capacity of different areas are seldom available. Design, optimization and control of these systems are enabled by the availability of fast and scalable models of district heating networks. This work addresses this issue by proposing a novel method to develop a scale-free model of large-scale district heating networks. Starting from coarse data available at the main substations, a physics-based model of the system aggregated regions is developed by identifying the heat capacity and heat loss coefficients. The model validation on the network of Västerås, Sweden, shows compatibility with literature data and can therefore be exploited for system design, optimization and control-oriented applications. In particular, the possibility to estimate the heat storage potential of network regions allows new smart management strategies to be investigated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0099.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: residential energy use; energy management; residential building costs; exponential smoothing method; ARIMA model
Online: 12 June 2019 (03:40:57 CEST)
Over the last two decades, residential buildings have accounted for nearly 50 percent of total energy use in New Zealand. In order to reduce household energy use, the factors that influence energy use should be continuously monitored and managed. Building researchers and professionals have made efforts to investigate the factors that affect energy use. However, few have concentrated on the association between household energy use and the cost of residential buildings. This study examined the correlation between household energy use and residential building cost. Analysis of the correlation between energy use data and residential building cost indicated that residential building cost in the construction phase and energy use in the operation stage were significantly correlated. These findings suggest that correct monitoring of building costs can help to identify trends in energy use. Therefore, this study proposes a time series model for forecasting residential building costs of five categories of residential building (one-story house, two-story house, townhouse, apartment, retirement village) in New Zealand. The primary contribution of this paper is the identification of the close correlation between household energy use and residential building costs and provide a new area for optimize energy management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0238.v1
Subject: Engineering, Construction Keywords: building information modelling (BIM); mixed reality; energy performance gap; knowhow gap; prefab buildings
Online: 14 August 2018 (03:52:39 CEST)
At present European buildings typically consume two to five times more energy than predicted at the design stage. An important cause of this performance gap is the discrepancies between the design specification and the As-Built condition. Such discrepancies are mainly due to the gaps in knowhow between design, production and construction professionals. Design is more and more contained into a virtual environment and loses touch with the physical production and construction sites. As the construction sector enters the Industry 4.0 era, Building Information Modelling (BIM) based Mixed Reality can intertwine virtual and real worlds to bridge the knowhow gaps.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0108.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Data Management; Utilization and Analysis; Capacity Building; Health professionals; Workforce Development; Evidence Based
Online: 7 June 2018 (08:54:20 CEST)
The objective of the study was to investigate the gap between data and evidence-based decisions among healthcare professionals considering the enormous amount of individual and aggregate data collected. Our study assessed the capacity, skills, and knowledge of the Ministry of Health leadership staff to understand data management, analysis, utilization, and dissemination. Three key components were assessed: 1) Knowledge through true/false questions, 2) Level of Skill (and Competency) using a Likert scale, and 3) Understanding of Key Concepts and Tools based on a Likert scale. The 183 study respondents were diverse healthcare professionals from Kenya, Tanzania, and Rwanda. Majority of respondents had not received any training on data management, analysis, interpretation, and utilization techniques, further there was a significant difference between those who had received training versus those who had not(p=0.005). The respondents were competent in work-related experiences but lacked skills and knowledge on: data concepts and tools, study designs, and types of data analysis. These findings explain the gap between data management, analysis, utilization, and dissemination among health professional’s cadre. To enhance service delivery and optimal provision of health care, it is imperative to have all health care professionals receive a well-designed training on data management, analysis, interpretation, and utilization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0012.v1
Subject: Engineering, Construction Keywords: Building Information Modelling (BIM); Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA); Building process; Level of Development (LOD); Embodied environmental impacts; Greenhouse Gas emissions (GHG); LCA databases; LCA values; LCA benchmarks; cost estimation structure
Online: 1 March 2020 (13:16:52 CET)
The building sector has a big potential to reduce the material resource demand needed for building construction and therefore, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Digitalisation can help to make use of this potential and improve sustainability throughout the entire building’s life cycle. One way to address this potential is through the integration of Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) into the building process by employing Building Information Modelling (BIM). BIM can reduce the effort needed to carry out an LCA and therefore facilitate the integration into the building process. A review of current industry practice and scientific literature shows two main approaches to address BIM-LCA integration. Either the LCA is performed in a simplified way at the beginning of the building process, or it is done at the very end when all the needed information is available, but it is too late for decision-making. One reason for this is the lack of methods, workflows and tools to implement BIM-LCA integration over the entire building process. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to develop an integrated BIM-LCA workflow implemented into a method for the whole building process using an existing structure for cost estimation. A tool is created and used in a case study in Switzerland to test the developed approach. The results of this study show that LCA can be performed continuously in each building phase over the entire building process using existing BIM modelling techniques. The main benefit of this approach is that the re-work caused by the need for re-entering data and the usage of many different software tools that characterise most of the current LCA practices is minimised. Furthermore, decision-making, both at the element and building levels, is supported.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0030.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: base-isolated building, irregularity, angle of seismic incidence, pulse-like ground motion, energy input
Online: 29 September 2022 (03:20:20 CEST)
In general, isolators and dampers used in seismically isolated buildings are designed to be isotropic in any horizontal direction. However, in the case of buildings with plan irregularities, their nonlinear responses depend on the direction of seismic loading. To discuss the influence of the angle of seismic incidence (ASI) on the nonlinear response of irregular building structures, it is important to define the angle of the critical axis of the horizontal ground motion. One possible choice is the “principal axis of ground motion” proposed by Arias (1970). However, because this principal axis is independent of the natural period of a structure, it could be complicated to use for seismically isolated structures with long natural periods. In this study, the influence of the ASI of long-period pulse-like seismic input on an irregular base-isolated building is investigated. First, the angle of the principal axis of ground motion is defined in terms of the cumulative energy input. Then, a nonlinear time-history analysis of a five-story irregular base-isolated building is performed using 10 long-period pulse-like ground motion records considering various ASIs. The results show that, compared with the principal axis of ground motion proposed by Arias, defining the principal axis of ground motion in terms of the cumulative energy input is more suitable for discussions concerning the influence of the ASI on the response of an irregular base-isolated building.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0475.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Fuzzy logic controller, Lighting control, Smart lighting control, Green buildings, Building automation, Daylight harvesting
Online: 29 August 2022 (08:09:55 CEST)
This paper is an extension to previous work that introduced successful classical-control for indoor lighting system that simultaneously control LED system and roller curtain to achieve accurate light intensity for indoor lighting applications. In this paper, Multi Input Multi Output Fuzzy Logic Controller (MIMO FLC) is proposed to replace the classical-controller. Detailed method is provided to illustrate the steps to design the required MIMO FLC that has two fuzzy input, two fuzzy output and forty-five fuzzy rules with mamdani fuzzy engine. The proposed MIMO FLC is simulated in Matlab using Simulink tools. The results are illustrated, analyzed and compared with the classical-control. The response showed very close performance to the classical-controller. The maximum average error and the maximum error with respect to “Desired Lux” inside the room is -6% and -10% respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0020.v1
Subject: Engineering, Construction Keywords: conceptual framework; Information Modelling; Building Information Modelling (BIM); Facility Management; Smart Buildings; Smart Applications
Online: 1 July 2022 (16:48:35 CEST)
The paper is based on the scientific outcome of a PhD Thesis. It introduces the generic, model-based, reusable, and extensible conceptual framework to incorporate Facility Management data based within the three-dimensional model-based design and construction of an asset to enable smart applications, which are introduced. The conceptual framework is composed of empirical data from expert interviews, questionnaires, and factual analysis from 13 projects of varied sizes of public and private clients. It shows which phases need which data, who needs them, and which added value can be generated if intelligent data structuring is used at the beginning of the construction project and bridges the gap between requirement and practice. The term “smart application” is introduced.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0431.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: cell phone indoor positioning; scene recognition; building map; map location anchor; YOLOv5; geocoding matching
Online: 28 January 2022 (08:55:08 CET)
At present, indoor localization is one of the core technologies of location-based services (LBS), and there exist numerous scenario-oriented application solutions. Visual features, as the main semantic information to help people understand the environment and thus occupy the dominant part, many techniques about indoor scene recognition are widely adopted. However, the engineering application problem of cell phone indoor scene recognition and localization has not been well solved due to insufficient semantic constraint information of building map and the immaturity of building map location anchors (MLA) matching positioning technology. To address the above problems, this paper proposes a cell phone indoor scene recognition and localization method with building map semantic constraints. Firstly, we build a library of geocoded entities for building map location anchors (MLA), which can provide users with "immersive" real-world building maps on the one hand and semantic anchor point constraints for cell phone positioning on the other. Secondly, using the improved YOLOv5s deep learning model carried on the mobile terminal, we recognize the universal map location anchors (MLA) elements in building scenes by cell phone camera video in real-time. Lastly, the spatial location of the scene elements obtained from the cell phone video recognition is matched with the building MLA to achieve real-time positioning and navigation. The experimental results show that the model recognition accuracy of this method is above 97.2%, and the maximum localization error is within the range of 0.775 m, and minimized to 0.5 m after applying the BIMPN road network walking node constraint, which can effectively achieve high positioning accuracy in the building scenes with rich MLA element information. In addition, the building map location anchors (MLA) has universal characteristics, and the positioning algorithm based on scene element recognition is compatible with the extension of indoor map data types, so this method has good prospects for engineering applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0053.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Building Information Modelling; Construction safety; Planning; Safety Elements; Construction Site Management; Falls from height.
Online: 2 November 2021 (22:23:31 CET)
As is known, the construction industry has one of the highest occupational accidents incidence rates among all economic sectors. Currently, Building Information Modeling (BIM) appears as a tool that addresses occupational safety issues throughout the construction life cycle projects, avoiding hazards and risks and, consequently, increasing safety. This work investigates BIM methodology and related technologies application for building safety planning in construction and demonstrates the potential of this technology for the integrated implementation of safety measures during the design phase and the construction site management. The first step consisted of a literature review on the application of BIM in safety in the design and planning phases. Following, to show the potentialities of construction simulation, a case study based on BIM 4D to prevent falls from height was developed. With BIM 4D, it is possible to follow the construction process over time, giving the construction safety technicians’, designers, supervisors and managers the capability to analyse, in each phase, the potential risks and which safety measures should be implemented. BIM can effectively integrate safety measures from the design phase to the construction and use phase and do integrated safety planning within construction planning, leading to reliable safety management throughout the construction process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0340.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Axial canal; reef-building coral; high resolution micro-computed tomography; Acropora muricata; calcareous transportation
Online: 14 June 2021 (09:21:47 CEST)
In Acropora, the complex canals in a coral colony connect all polyps into a holistic network to collaborate in performing biological processes, while axial canal is the largest canal amongst the network and distributes at the center of a coral branch. However, previous studies indicated that, in the non-radial symmetry transport system of Acropora, axial canal do not play a major role in the transport of hydroplasm, and the action of axial canal in coral growth is still obscure. In this study, we reconstructed six Acropora muricata samples by high resolution micro-computed tomography to investigate the growth patterns of axial canals during the processes of new branch forming and truncated branch rebuilding. We found that the axial canal of a new branch is transformed from a calice and the polyps in the new branch are budded from the polyp in the axial canal. Meanwhile, the axial canal can transport the calcareous skeletons to rebuild the tip of a truncated branch, which represents as the change in the diameter of axial canal and calcareous deposition/reduction in it. This work indicate the regulation of axial canal in the growth processes including budding, branching, and mineralising of an Acropora colony.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0466.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Keywords: Renewable energy; Nanotechnology; Building-integrated photovoltaics (BIV); Thin films; Dye-sensitized solar cells
Online: 20 May 2021 (09:50:22 CEST)
One of the important research directions in the field of photovoltaics is integration with construction. The integration of solar cell systems with a building can reduce installation costs and help optimize the used space. One of the interesting types of cells is dye-sensitized solar cells. In addition to their interesting properties, they also have aesthetic value. In the classic arrangement, they are constructed using glass with a transparent conductive layer (TCL). This article describes replacing a classic glass counter electrode with an electrode based on a ceramic tile and nickel foil. This solution makes it possible to expand their construction applications. The advantage of this solution is full integration with construction while simultaneously generating electricity. A dye-sensitized solar cell was built layer-by-layer on ceramic tile and nickel foil. An atomization method was used to deposit fluorine-doped tin oxide, and then a screen printing method was used to deposit a platinum layer. The electrical parameters of the manufactured DSSCs with and without a counter electrode tile were characterized by measuring their current-voltage characteristics under standard AM 1.5 radiation. A dye-sensitized solar cell integrated with ceramic tiles and nickel foil was produced and displayed an efficiency of over 4%.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0582.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: village independence; village; building the village; sustainability; regional analysis; region; rural development; governance; government
Online: 25 February 2021 (13:38:18 CET)
Village has a vital role in the national development efforts. The concept of development considered village as an object instead of a subject of development. This study focused on determining the important points in enabling a village to be independent by shifting the paradigm of “building the village” into “the building village”. This study was an exploratory research of public policies with qualitative legal studies. This study was conducted in 3 villages in Bandung regency with different characteristics, namely Neglawangi with urban characteristics, Cibiru Wetan with sub-urban characteristics, and Rancamanyar with plural characteristics. The results of this study showed that the wise step in building an independent village is through “the building village” road maps. First, encourage the inception of critical and care community and community organizations who dynamically interact in the policy making processes of village development. Second, implement a participative, accountable, and transparent planning and budgeting system within the limits of their authorities. Third, empower inclusive village economic institutions. The three road maps can succeed if they are supported by good implementation of participative, systematic, effective and efficient planning and budgeting system, as well as good monitoring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0406.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: energy use; demand-controlled ventilation; hybrid ventilation; humidity; multi-unit residential building; simulation; CONTAM
Online: 16 November 2020 (09:16:41 CET)
A humidity-sensitive demand-controlled ventilation system is known for many years. It has been developed and commonly applied in regions with an oceanic climate. Some attempts were made to introduce this solution in Poland in a much severe continental climate. The article evaluates this system's performance and energy consumption applied in an 8-floor multi-unit residential building, virtual reference building described by the National Energy Conservation Agency NAPE, Poland. The simulations using the computer program CONTAM were performed for the whole hating season for Warsaw's climate. Besides passive stack ventilation that worked as a reference, two versions of humidity-sensitive demand-controlled ventilation were checked. The difference between them lies in applying the additional roof fans that convert the system to hybrid. The study confirmed that the application of demand-controlled ventilation in multi-unit residential buildings in a continental climate with warm summer (Dfb) leads to significant energy savings. However, the efforts to ensure acceptable indoor air quality require hybrid ventilation, which reduces the energy benefits. It is especially visible when primary energy use is analyzed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0370.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: building materials; rural architecture; Ischia Island; radiological characterization; radon; radiological risk assessment; sustainable buildings
Online: 17 September 2020 (04:16:06 CEST)
Radiological risk affect the quality of the environment in buildings since population and workers can be potentially exposed to high level of dose. Radon gas emanated from both subsoil and building materials represents the most important source of radiation exposure for people. This study investigates the sustainability concept of a small rural village of Ischia Island, named Ciglio, in relation to the radiological risk. Radon activity concentration was measured in typical green tuff dwellings and in water samples collected from a local spring using E-Perm devices. Moreover, for green-tuff as building material, the radon emanation coefficient was calculated by gamma spectroscopy. The results highlight the importance to perform environmental radon monitoring and to investigate the radon content of building materials, especially in geographical areas characterized by traditional use of typical stones for constructions. In conclusion, the sustainability development of rural buildings is possible if the radiological risk for inhabitants and workers was assessed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0243.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: georeferencing; conversions; interoperability; CityGML; Industry Foundation Classes; Building Information Models; 3D city models; standards
Online: 11 July 2020 (16:26:37 CEST)
The integration of 3D city models with Building Information Models (BIM), abbreviated as GeoBIM, facilitates improved data support to several applications, e.g. 3D map updates, building permits issuing, detailed city analysis, infrastructure design, context-based building design, to name a few. To solve the integration, several issues need to be tackled and solved, i.e. harmonization of features, interoperability, format conversions, integration of procedures. The GeoBIM benchmark 2019, funded by ISPRS and EuroSDR, evaluated the state of implementation of tools addressing some of those issues. In particular, in the part of the benchmark described in this paper, the application of georeferencing to Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) models and making consistent conversions between 3D city models and BIM are investigated, considering the OGC CityGML and buildingSMART IFC as reference standards. In the benchmark, sample datasets in the two reference standards were provided. External volunteers were asked to describe and test georeferencing procedures for IFC models and conversion tools between CityGML and IFC. From the analysis of the delivered answers and processed datasets, it was possible to notice that while there are tools and procedures available to support georeferencing and data conversion, comprehensive definition of the requirements, clear rules to perform such two tasks, as well as solid technological solutions implementing them, are still lacking in functionalities. Those specific issues can be a sensible starting point for planning the next GeoBIM integration agendas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0230.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: urban fabrics; seismic vulnerability; critic analysis; cost modelling; Urban preservation programming; building works programming
Online: 23 June 2019 (14:08:14 CEST)
Vulnerability is the big issue of the small inland urban centers exposed to the risk of depopulation. In the climate and in the context of an increasing seismic risk in the center-northern part of Italy, seismic vulnerability can become the determinant cause of the final abandonment of a small town. In some Italian regions, as well as Emilia Romagna, municipalities are implementing seismic vulnerability reduction policies based on the Emergency Limit Condition that has become a basic reference for ordinary land planning. This study proposes a valuation planning approach to the seismic vulnerability reduction carried out within the general planning framework concerning the Faentina Union, a group of five small towns located in the south-western part of the Province of Ravenna, Italy. The approach consists of three main stages: knowledge – the typological, constructive and technological description of the buildings specifically concerning their vulnerability degree; interpretation – the analyses aimed to outline a range of hypotheses about the damages in case of seism; planning – identifying the works intended to definitely reduce the vulnerability of the buildings. This stage includes a cost modelling tools aimed at outlining the trade-off between the extension and the intensity of the vulnerability reduction works, given the budget.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0370.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: building information modeling; industry foundation classes; internet of things; smart campus; environmental sensors; Dynamo
Online: 25 May 2018 (12:29:54 CEST)
Building information modeling (BIM) is the digital representation of physical and functional characteristics (such as geometry, spatial relationship, and geographic information) of a facility to support decisions during its life cycle. BIM has been extended beyond 3D geometrical representations in recent years, and now includes time as a fourth dimension and cost as a fifth dimension, as well as such other applications as virtual reality and augmented reality. The Internet of Things (IoT) has been increasingly applied in various products (smart homes, wearables) to enhance work productivity, living comfort, and entertainment. However, research addressing the integration of these two technologies (BIM and IoT) is still very limited, and has focused exclusively on the automatic transmission of sensor information to BIM models. This paper describes an attempt to represent and visualize sensor data in BIM with multiple perspectives in order to support complex decisions requiring interdisciplinary information. The study uses a university campus as an example and includes several scenarios, such as an auditorium with a dispersed audience and energy saving options for rooms with different functions (mechanical/electric equipment, classrooms, and laboratory). This paper also discusses the design of a common platform allowing communication among sensors with different protocols (Arduino, Raspberry Pi), the use of Dynamo to accept sensor data as input and automatically redraw visualized information in BIM, and how visualization may help in making energy-saving management decisions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0007.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: ventilation; hybrid ventilation; indoor air quality; mycobiota; indoor air questionnaire; school building; Trichoderma citrinoviride
Online: 1 March 2018 (12:19:08 CET)
This paper describes a case study of ventilation as well as measured and perceived indoor air quality (IAQ) in a Finnish comprehensive school with a hybrid ventilation system and reported IAQ problems. An operational error was found when investigating the ventilation system that prevented air from coming into classrooms, except for short periods of high carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations. However, results indicated that hybrid ventilation system was able to provide adequate ventilation and sufficient IAQ once properly designed and maintained. After ventilation operation was improved, occupants reported less unpleasant odors and stuffy air. The amount of total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) and some single volatile organic compounds (VOCs) decreased. Indoor mycobiota was observed in settled dust in the classrooms, from which ventilation improvement eliminated the dominant, opportunistic human pathogen species Trichoderma citrinoviride found before improvement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0303.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Fire Hawk Optimizer; optimization; metaheuristic algorithms; Building Information Modelling (BIM); resource management; project resource management
Online: 17 August 2022 (05:34:30 CEST)
Project managers should balance a variety of resource elements in building projects while taking into account many major concerns, including time, cost, quality, risk, and the environment. This study presents a framework for resource trade-offs in project scheduling based on the Building Information Modeling (BIM) methodology and metaheuristic algorithms. First, a new metaheuristic algorithm called Fire Hawk Optimizer (FHO) is used. Using project management software and the BIM process, a 3D model of the construction is created. In order to maximize quality while minimizing time, cost, risk, and CO2 in the project under consideration, an optimization problem is created, and the FHO's capability for solving it is assessed. A predefined stopping condition is taken into account while doing 30 independent optimization runs to obtain the statistical metrics, such as the mean, standard deviation, and the required number of objective function evaluations. The results show that the FHO algorithm is capable of producing competitive and exceptional outcomes when it comes to trade-off various resource options in projects.