ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0627.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: utility; peak-end rule; smoothing; perception; system dynamics
Online: 31 July 2018 (15:16:00 CEST)
Utility perceived by individuals is believed to be different from the utility experienced by that individual. System dynamicists implicitly categorize this phenomenon as a form of bounded rationality and traditionally employ a simple smoothing function to capture it. We challenge this generalization by testing it against an alternative formulation of utility perception that is suggested by modern theories of behavioral economics. In particular, the traditional smoothing formulation is compared with the peak-end rule in a simple theoretical model as well as in a medium-size model of electronic health record implementation. Experimentation with the models reveals that the way utility perception is formulated is important and might affect behavior and policy implications of system dynamics models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0049.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Chronoamperometry, Potential Sweep Methods, Reconfigurable Embedded Potentiostat, Portable Potentiostat, Programmable-System-on-a-Chip, Wireless electronics, Smart Instrumentation, Electrochemical low current detection, slave-master setup
Online: 3 October 2018 (13:03:40 CEST)
Under the main features required on portable devices in electrochemical instrumentation is to have a small size, low power consumption, economically affordable, and precision in the measurements. This paper describes the development of a programmable Embedded Potentiostat System (EPS) capable of performing electrochemical sensing over system-on-a-chip platforms. Furthermore, the study explains a circuit design and develops some validation of the entire system. The hardware validation is performed by electrochemical experiments such as Double Step Chronoamperometry (DSC), Linear Sweep Voltammetry (LSV) and Cyclic Voltammetry (CV); moreover, a comparison of the experimental signals between a commercial potentiostat and the EPS was done by analysis of errors on the response signal. Results illustrate that the EPS is capable of handling currents in the range of absolute values of 86.44 to 3000 nA, and having control voltages in the range of ± 2 V. The device can support from 50 to 2000 samples per second. The EPS capabilities were compared with other compact potentiostats. The programmable EPS is an original approach which hugely reduces the hardware complexity and leads the way to create new applications for Point-of-Care or industrial developments with a reusable full electronics module.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0262.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: energy consumption; optimization; expert system; irrigation system
Online: 19 October 2021 (08:34:22 CEST)
Innovative practices in irrigation systems can bring improvements in terms of economic efficiency and in the same time can reduce environmental impact. Investment in high tech technologies frequently involves additional costs, but an efficient water management can increase the lifetime of the equipment. The main objective of this article is to reduce the energy consumption by one thousand cubic meters pumped and automatically to increase the economic efficiency of the pumping groups. This paper develops a new operating algorithm that ensures the operation of the pumping group at safe operating intervals and in the same time identifies the equivalent pump operating points for the entire flow range and pumping height of the pumping group. This methodology is based on the principles of an Expert System to perform the optimization process of the energy consumption in pumping groups. The resulting methodology avoids the combinatorial explosion of the solutions to be analyzed and determines the point of maximum efficiency without violation of any of the system constraints under any operating condition. The proposed methodology is tested on an irrigation system that includes a pumping group with 5 pumps, showing its effectiveness in obtaining the optimal solution with a relatively low computational burden.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0531.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: energy management system; reserve power; resiliency; battery energy storage system
Online: 27 September 2018 (04:55:24 CEST)
Power system decentralization has been an emerging topic for the past decade in an effort to improve power quality and environment protection via increased integration of renewable energy sources. Towards these objectives, decentralized microgrids have been proposed and thoroughly investigated in terms of technical capabilities and economic performance. In fact, the planning and actual operation of small-scale, decentralized microgrids has started in countries such as Canada, Japan, USA, UK and other countries. It is expected that the research in this area will progress and eventually take over the existing paradigm of large-scale power generation in the future. These small-size decentralized microgrids could be connected with nearby microgrids under normal operating conditions, but under special events, such as natural or man-made disasters, they would be disconnected and run in islanded mode. Under such high impact – low probability events, the microgrid must have resiliency to successfully re-connect with other microgrids and the main grid. In this paper, an Energy Management System (EMS) for a microgrid having a resiliency function, allowing to operate under islanded mode after an accident, is proposed. The proposed tool, called Resilient Energy Management System (ResEMS), aims at procuring reserve power into the microgrid’s Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) effectively, by importing it from the nearby connected power system. The accident is assumed to be a predictable natural disaster, which means that the accident occurrence time, duration and level of damage can be estimated. The proposed ResEMS has been applied to a microgrid comprising of a BESS, a diesel generator and several photovoltaic devices. The simulation results verify its beneficial operation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0498.v2
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: emotion appraisal system; contextual emotion appraisal; cognitive robotics; sentential cognitive system; HRI
Online: 4 January 2021 (10:41:22 CET)
Emotion plays a powerful role in humans’ interaction with robots. In order to express more human-friendly emotions, robots need the capability of contextual appraisal that expresses the emotional relevance of various targets in the spatiotemporal situation. In this paper, an emotional appraisal methodology is proposed in this study to cope with such contexts. Specifically, the Ortony, Clore, and Collins model is abstracted and simplified to approximate an emotional appraisal model in the form of a sentence-based cognitive system. The contextual emotion appraisal is modeled by formulating the emotional relationships among multiple targets and the emotional transition with events and time passing. To verify the proposed robotic system’s feasibility, simulations were conducted for scenarios where it emotional interacts with humans manipulating liked or disliked objects on a table. This experiment demonstrated that the robot's emotion can variously change over time like human by using a proposed formula for emotional valence, which is moderated by emotion appraisal of occurring events.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0388.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Adaptive Educational System; E-Learning; Machine Learning; Semantics; Recommendation System; Ontologies Matching.
Online: 24 August 2020 (09:46:19 CEST)
The implementation of teaching interventions in learning needs has received considerable attention, as the provision of the same educational conditions to all students, is pedagogically ineffective. In contrast, more effectively considered the pedagogical strategies that adapt to the real individual skills of the students. An important innovation in this direction is the Adaptive Educational Systems (AES) that support automatic modeling study and adjust the teaching content on educational needs and students' skills. Effective utilization of these educational approaches can be enhanced with Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies in order to the substantive content of the web acquires structure and the published information is perceived by the search engines. This study proposes a novel Adaptive Educational eLearning System (AEeLS) that has the capacity to gather and analyze data from learning repositories and to adapt these to the educational curriculum according to the student skills and experience. It is a novel hybrid machine learning system that combines a Semi-Supervised Classification method for ontology matching and a Recommendation Mechanism that uses a hybrid method from neighborhood-based collaborative and content-based filtering techniques, in order to provide a personalized educational environment for each student.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0356.v1
Online: 28 February 2022 (11:06:26 CET)
IT auditing quality has been defined by results obtained in the process. Meanwhile, multiple studies have been done to enhance it therefore, it continues to be a topic interest and research so it is worth mentioning that its quality relies on trained competent auditors and experts able to develop a process correctly, adapting to clients and to manage auditing inherent risks According to results from the IT audit, low quality and security levels have been identified in terms of the human, technical and contextual factors, affecting audit quality. The objective of this investigation is to identify metrics and to determine their own corresponding factor applying an exploratory type of research. In order to achieve such aim, a targeted survey was designed and implemented at the Institute of Internal Auditors of Ecuador since they have the knowledge and expertise in the field. A factor analysis statistics technique was applied to data gathered to verify that it relates to the identified factors as dimensions are reduced, thus the most impacting metrics may assess the quality of IT audits. Analysis results yielded a mean score for each one of the assessed metrics, concluding that the technical factor is the most significative since it relates roles and task performance during the auditing process as well as control proce-dures. Finally, most auditing quality-related issues are mainly the outcome of an inferior management auditing process, therefore it is crucial that collegiate groups and professionals in the field validate the auditing process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0499.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: system archetypes; rice production; system dynamics; climate change; Indonesia rice
Online: 28 April 2020 (13:04:04 CEST)
Climate projections show that southern Indonesia such as West Nusa Tenggara is projected to experience a lower precipitation and higher temperatures. To date, research on climate change impact on Indonesian rice production yield is limited. As climate change is projected to decrease rainfall and to increase temperatures, this paper offers a qualitative analysis using system archetypes to understand the impacts of climate change on rice production. Two system archetypes are identified including Limits to Growth and Success to Successful. Both archetypes explain that rice production is hampered by high minimum temperature as photosynthesis output is decreased by increasing respiration. This paper shows that using a simple tool, system archetypes, we can describe the impacts of climate change on rice production. The outputs of this study such as a causal loop diagram and system archetypes can be a basis to develop a simulation model in understanding the impacts of climate change on main crops.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0151.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: attitude angel; angel Vector Coordinate System; Iterative calculation; Spherical Coordinate System; Wind Tunnel Test
Online: 8 December 2022 (09:31:35 CET)
The accurate of model attitude angel plays an important role on the aerodynamic test results in the wind tunnel test. The original method applies the spherical coordinate system transformation to obtain attitude angel calculation. The model attitude angel is obtained by coordinate transformation and spherical surface mapping applying the nominal attitude angel (the balance attitude angel in the wind tunnel coordinate system) indicated by the mechanism. First, the coordinate transformation of this method is not only complex but also difficult to establish the transformed relationship between the space coordinate systems especially after many steps of coordinate transformation, moreover it cannot realize the iterative calculation of the interference relationship between attitude angels; Second, during the calculate process to solve the problem the arc is approximately used to replace the straight line, the angel for the tangent value, and the inverse trigonometric function is applied. Therefore, in the calculation of attitude angel, the process is complex and inaccurate, which can be solved approximately when calculating small attack angel. However, with the advancing development of modern aerodynamic unsteady research, the aircraft tends to develop high or super large attack angel and unsteady research field. According to engineering practice and vector theory, the concept of vector angel coordinate system is proposed for the first time, and the vector angel coordinate system of attitude angel is established. With the iterative correction calculation and avoiding the problem of approximate and inverse trigonometric function solution, the model attitude calculation process is carried out in detail, which validates that the calculation accuracy and accuracy of model attitude angels are improved. Based on engineering and theoretical methods, a vector angel coordinate system is established for the first time, which gives the transformation and angel definition relations between different flight attitude coordinate systems, that can accurately calculate the attitude angel of the corresponding coordinate system and determine its direction, especially in the channel coupling calculation, the calculation of the attitude angel between the coordinate systems is only related to the angel, and has nothing to do with the change order s of the coordinate system, which simplifies the calculation process.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0078.v2
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: MIMO system Model; 2N–MIMO system model; Outage Probability; Channel Capacity Ratio (CCR)
Online: 10 August 2016 (10:11:12 CEST)
Finding a good MIMO system model also major issue in Wireless Communication system. It is facing with so many problem, one of the major problem is finding good system model in terms of capacity and transmitting antenna system. In this paper, we analyze the channel capacity of various MIMO system model with some constant SNR level and outage probability. We establish a novel idea for MIMO system models as consider as 2N- MIMO system model and find-out change in channel capacity when different transmitting antennas with constant SNR and outage probability. The channel capacity ratio CCR is presented here on the basis of 2N- MIMO channel capacity model. Number of transmitted antenna presented in MIMO system is increases is well-known however paper shows change in capacity in simple form.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0187.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Smoking; DPOAEs; Contralateral supression; OAE; Non-smokers; auditory system; ill-effects on efferent system
Online: 10 September 2021 (11:29:00 CEST)
The present study compared the contralateral suppression and the amplitude of distortion product otoacoutsic emissions (DPOAEs) between smokers and non-smokers to determine the influence of smoking. Thirty smokers and thirty non-smokers within the age range of 18-40 years with a normal hearing sensitivity were considered for the study. For both the groups, DPOAEs were measured and the efferent auditory system functioning was measured by presenting the white noise of 50 dB HL to the contralateral side, while recording the DPOAEs. There was no significant effect of age on the amplitude of DPOAEs in both the groups. However, there were significant differences in the amplitude of DPOAEs between smokers and non-smokers. The amount of suppression and DPOAE amplitude were reduced in smokers when compared to non-smokers. The study found no significant correlation between the amount of smoking and amount of suppression between smokers and non-smokers. However, there were significant correlations between the amount of smoking and DPOAE at low and mid frequencies between smokers and non-smokers. Therefore, the present study highlights the increased damage to the efferent auditory system risk and the smoking ill-effects on the efferent auditory system.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0402.v2
Online: 13 November 2020 (13:33:56 CET)
In the same manner that there are several statements of the second law of thermodynamics but all of them are equivalent, it is possible that most of the entropic methods applied to the nervous system and brain in particular share a similar outcome, or essence, that helps understand some aspects of the fundamentals of basic neurodynamics. In this short review focused on certain aspects of the entropic metrics some results are examined that indicate the fundamental importance of the natural tendency towards a maximal energy distribution for healthy brain activity and thus cognition to emerge.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0458.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Monitoring system; joint station; BP neural network; PID
Online: 20 May 2021 (09:07:15 CEST)
Abstract: The Hanqu Joint Station of the Dingbian Oil Production Plant of Yanchang Oilfield Co., Ltd is located at the edge of the desert in northern China. the bad field conditions and strong sandstorm, the hardware of computer monitoring system of Joint Station is often damaged. At the same time, the core equipment of the joint station three-phase separator oil chamber liquid level is hard to achieve high precision constant value control, the general control algorithm is difficult to meet the control requirements.This paper proposed a design scheme of a oilfield joint station computer monitoring system based on the Siemens S7-300 PLC, the hardware of the monitoring system adopts the redundancy scheme of dual monitoring computers, dual programmable logic controllers (PLCs), and dual industrial Ethernet. The BP neural network PID control algorithm was used to realize constant value control of the oil chamber liquid level of the three-phase separator of the core equipment of the joint station，and realized high control precision. The monitoring system could well adapt to the harsh environment of the scene, and showed high reliability and efficiency.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0250.v1
Online: 10 December 2020 (11:30:57 CET)
β-glucan is a generic term for insoluble dietary fibers exerting various effects on the immune system. As a group, β-glucans are non-cellulose polysaccharides composed of a glucopyranose as the main constituent sugar with β configuration, having a β- (1,3)-linked glucopyranose main chain as a common feature. β-glucans are absorbed through the intestine. Since the 1980s, there have been many studies reporting various effects of β-glucans on the immune system, including reports on receptors, that have slowly clarified their recognition system and action mechanisms. However, these studies focused mostly on treatments of infectious diseases and tumors; thus, the effects of β-glucans ingested in food as dietary fiber and their mechanisms of action remain largely unknown. The uptake of β-glucan into the body may be resemble that of proteins, which are soluble polymers, and insoluble material such as dietary fiber. Dietary fibers have varied structures, with wide-ranging solubility and physiological effects. Understanding whether these substances are actually taken up, how they exert their effects, and their metabolism after being taken up are important issues when considering the functionality and safety of dietary fibers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0067.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: sector coupling; energy system modelling; North Sea energy system; energy transition; open science; Oemof
Online: 6 November 2019 (14:03:54 CET)
Sector coupling is one of the emerging topics in recent energy and climate change policy discussions. It can play a significant role in creating the pathway of a renewable-based energy system in the European energy sector. The North Sea region is very likely to play a key role in the transition to a sustainable energy system. Though different energy modelling approaches allow a versatile use, they lead to the problem of an unclear understanding of specific aspects of sector coupling, and the relevance of existing tools and techniques to model and analyze such a system. This paper is aimed at providing a comprehensive understanding of sector coupling and its incorporation in energy system models. Followed by a thorough literature review on sector coupling and energy system modelling, the paper outlines an approach to select an appropriate tool based on the specific rationales of the research. The paper also presents ‘Oemof’ as an open model tool to address the complex challenges of energy systems. The conclusions from the literature review provide a detailed understanding of the concept of sector coupling and indicate that it can be advantageous from the viewpoints of decarbonization, flexibility, network optimization, and system efficiency. To solve the coupling barriers, diversified techno-socio-economic circumstances should be taken into account through the use of model collaboration. It is also demonstrated how a list of appropriate tools for model collaboration can be picked up methodologically from an available wide range of models. Finally, ‘Oemof’ is hypothesized as a progressive tool to design a sector-coupled and renewable-based energy system in the North Sea region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0075.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: forest tending; group decision support system; process management; data integration
Online: 10 June 2019 (10:32:09 CEST)
In this study, the decision-making process management of forest tending in the forestry business is decentralized, and forest tending decision-making activities at different points in time are integrated by decision makers at different geographical locations. The decision-making process was analyzed and optimized from a system perspective. Based on the optimized decision-making process, a forest tending business group decision support system (FTGDSS) was established. We first reviewed and discussed the characteristics and development of the forest tending business and forestry decision support system. Business Process Modeling Notation was used to draw a current state flow chart of the forest tending business, to identify and discover important decision points in the process of tending decision-making. We also analyzed the content and attributes of each decision point, and described the system structure, functional framework, knowledge base structure, and reasoning algorithm of FTGDSS in detail. Finally, FTGDSS was evaluated from the two dimensions of the technology adoption model. FTGDSS integrates different levels of time-space decision-making activities, historical tending data, business plans, decision-makers' management tendencies into the decision-making process and automatically extracts decision-making data from the forest business process management enterprise resource planning system (Smartforest) that improves the ease of use of the decision support system (DSS). It also improves the quality of forest tending decisions, and enables the DSS to better support multi-target management strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0394.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Mitigation system modelling; Remote impoundment; Consequence analysis
Online: 16 December 2020 (08:32:01 CET)
After the occurrence of a hydrogen fluoride leakage accident that triggered massive losses in Gumi, South Korea in 2012, the government and companies have been interested in installing mitigation systems to minimize the loss of a leakage accident. What lacks in previous researches studying mitigation systems is an evaluation of how much a mitigation system can reduce the impact of accidents. Therefore, modeling-based simulations of mitigation systems should be urgently developed to analysis of the performance of a mitigation system. This study aims to design a mitigation system to handle a leakage accident of a storage tank and determine its design specifications through the use of modeling. The basic concept is that when leakage occurs, leakage material in a dike is drained to a remote impoundment installed under the ground, while the material in the storage vessel is transferred to a reserve tank by a pump at the same time. To evaluate the efficacy of this system. hydrogen fluoride and benzene storage vessels are tested. The simulation results indicate that the proposed mitigation system can contribute to the reduction in the dispersion area for the materials as well as a large reduction in the leakage material.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0372.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: IoT; OSA patient rescue system; Beidou indicator
Online: 17 September 2020 (04:19:35 CEST)
This paper presents an OSA patient interactive monitoring system based on the Internet of Things (IoT) framework. This system allows OSA patients to get timely rescue when they are sleepy outside. Because the Beidou position marker has an interactive function, it can reduce the anxiety of the patient while waiting for the rescue. At the same time, if a friend helps the OSA patients to call the doctor, the friend can also report the patient's condition in time. This system uses the popular IoT framework. At the bottom is the data acquisition layer, which uses wearable sensors to collect vital signs from patients, with a focus on ECG and SpO2 signals. The middle layer is the network layer that transmits the collected physiological signals to the Beidou indicator using the Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) protocol. The top layer is the application layer, and the application layer uses the mature rescue interactive platform of Beidou. Since the GPS indicator has not included the communication satellite, So it has no SMS function. OSA patients can only passively wait for a rescue. Moreover, due to the lack of satellites in Asia and the insufficient density of the ground-enhanced system, the positioning error of OSA patients is large. The Beidou system developed by China itself, the main coverage of the satellite is in Asia, and is equipped with a high-density ground-based augmentation system. Therefore, the Beidou model improves the positioning accuracy and is equipped with a special communication satellite, which increases the short message interaction function. Therefore, patients can report disease progression in time while waiting for a rescue. After our simulation test, the effectiveness of the OSA patient rescue monitoring system based on the Internet of Things framework and the positioning accuracy of OSA patients have been greatly improved. Especially when OSA patients work outdoors, the cell phone base station signal coverage is relatively weak. The satellite signal is well covered, plus the SMS function of the Beidou indicator. Therefore, the system can be used to provide timely patient progress and provide data support for the medical rescue team to provide a more accurate rescue plan. After a comparative trial, the rescue rate of OSA patients using the detection device of this system was increased by 15 percentage points compared with the rescue rate using only GPS satellite phones.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0014.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: Trophic factors; nervous system; development; plasticity; axotomy
Online: 7 October 2016 (09:51:38 CEST)
Neurotrophins play a principal role in neuronal survival and differentiation during development, but also in the maintenance of appropriate adult neuronal circuits and phenotypes. In the oculomotor system, we have demonstrated that neurotrophins are key regulators of developing and adult neuronal properties, but with peculiarities depending on each neurotrophin. For instance, the administration of NGF, BDNF or NT-3 protects neonatal extraocular motoneurons from cell death after axotomy, but only NGF and BDNF prevent the downregulation in ChAT. In the adult, in vivo recordings of axotomized extraocular motoneurons have demonstrated that the delivery of NGF, BDNF or NT-3 recovers different components of the firing discharge activity of these cells, with some particularities in the case of NGF. All neurotrophins have also synaptotrophic activity, although to different degrees. Accordingly, neurotrophins can restore the axotomy-induced alterations acting selectively on different properties of the motoneuron. In this review we summarize these evidences and discuss them in the context of other motor systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0487.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Innovative talents; Innovation system; Innovation culture; Innovation environment
Online: 20 November 2018 (08:30:39 CET)
Based on the deployment of global innovation value chain, the article analyzes the existing independent innovation capability of Guangzhou, and analyzes in detail from innovative talents, innovation system, innovation culture and innovation environment. The role of the central city of Guangzhou has led to research on issues such as the common development of cities in Guangdong and the Pearl River Delta. Using the combination of qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis, we can find out the shortcomings of Guangzhou's independent innovation capability, explore the causes of problems, and seek solutions to the main problems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0625.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: elderly care; hand gesture; computer vision system; Microsoft Kinect depth sensor; Arduino Nano Microcontroller; global system for mobile communication (GSM)
Online: 26 July 2020 (02:07:09 CEST)
Hand gestures may play an important role in medical applications for health care of elderly people, where providing a natural interaction for different requests can be executed by making specific gestures. In this study we explored three different scenarios using a Microsoft Kinect V2 depth sensor then evaluated the effectiveness of the outcomes. The first scenario utilized the default system embedded in the Kinect V2 sensor, which depth metadata gives 11 parameters related to the tracked body with five gestures for each hand. The second scenario used joint tracking provided by Kinect depth metadata and depth threshold together to enhance hand segmentation and efficiently recognize the number of fingers extended. The third scenario used a simple convolutional neural network with joint tracking by depth metadata to recognize five categories of gestures. In this study, deaf-mute elderly people execute five different hand gestures to indicate a specific request, such as needing water, meal, toilet, help and medicine. Then, the requests were sent to the care provider’s smartphone because elderly people could not execute any activity independently. The system transferred these requests as a message through the global system for mobile communication (GSM) using a microcontroller.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0301.v1
Subject: Keywords: rough sets, Covering approximation space, Neighborhood system, approximation operation, Partition
Online: 15 October 2018 (10:44:08 CEST)
In this paper, we propose a new covering-based set in which the lower and the upper approximation operations are defined by neighborhood systems. We discuss this new type of covering-based set systematically in two steps. First, we study the basic properties of this covering-based set, such as the properties of normality, contraction, and monotone. Second, we discuss the relationship between the new type of covering-based set and the other ten sets proposed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0562.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: rough sets; covering approximation space; neighborhood system; approximation operation; partition
Online: 28 September 2018 (10:30:37 CEST)
In this paper, we propose a new covering-based set in which the lower and the upper approximation operation are defined by neighborhood systems. We discuss this new type of covering-based set systematically in two steps. First, we study the basic properties of this covering-based set, such as the properties of normality, contraction, and monotone. Second, we discuss the relationship between the new type of covering-based set and the other ten sets proposed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0486.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: YOLOv5s; Gz-ShuffleNetv2; XIoU; Attention Mechanis; Interface system
Online: 27 January 2023 (06:11:27 CET)
Aiming at the problems that the parameters of YOLOv5s model are too large and the computing resources of development board memory are limited, a new target detection method based on deep learning YOLOv5 algorithm model is proposed. First, the light-weight module Gz-ShffleNetv2 is used to construct cotton top bud feature extraction unit, which reduces the number of parameters and improves the running speed. It can be better applied in image classification, speed up detection and meet the requirements of mobile end of development board. Secondly, in order to solve the problem of decreasing detection accuracy caused by lightweight, BotNet and C3SE attention mechanism are added to focus on specific areas of cotton terminal bud. Combined with YYG loss function XIOU boundary frame regression loss, more feature information and rich feature MAP were obtained to further improve the accuracy of target detection. Through analysis of research and experimental results, the average accuracy map reached 91.3% under the Windos system NVIDIA Geforce RTX 2060 SUPER detection. While maintaining high precision identification, the number of parameters of YOLOv6 and YOLOv7-tiny network model is reduced by 83% and 53%, respectively, and the detection accuracy is increased by 1.2% and 7.7%, respectively. Compared with YOLOv5 reasoning image, the speed of image is increased by 0.035s, and the detection accuracy of MAP_0.5:0.95 is increased by 1%. At the same time, PyQt5 and YOLOv5 target detection algorithms are used to design a cotton top bud identification system, which makes cotton top bud detection more intuitive and convenient for subsequent hardware development and use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0104.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Engine Overheating; Cooling System; Cylinder Head; Cylinder Blok
Online: 5 January 2023 (10:51:33 CET)
Engine Overheating is a condition where the engine temperature has increased above the working temperature. This analysis aims to analyze the damage, determine the factors causing the damage, identify corrective steps and prevent engine overheating. The inspection procedure is carried out by checking the cooling system's components, cylinder head, and cylinder block. Further analysis using a fishbone diagram to analyze the causes of engine overheating troubleshooting. Damage analysis results Engine overheating occurs because the thermostat is damaged, namely, the thermostat valve which cannot open when the temperature reaches the standard temperature (71oC), and also due to damage to the cylinder gasket which causes bubbles due to compression leaks and mixing of radiator coolant and oil. Repair steps are taken in the form of replacing damaged components with new ones. Preventive measures are taken by not using the unit on an over-running basis, checking coolant levels, carrying out daily checks properly and correctly, and carrying out preventive maintenance regularly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0332.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: ecological efficiency; collaborative innovation; global-malmquist; gravity model; system-gmm
Online: 29 September 2019 (10:42:11 CEST)
Taking capital, manpower, and natural resources as inputs, regional GDP as expected output, and industrial pollution as undesired output, this study measures the ecological efficiency of various regions in China through the Global-Malmquist model. The results show a trend of an initial sharp decline in ecological efficiency followed by a gradual increase in the time dimension, but there is no significant correlation in the spatial dimension. Using the gravity model to quantify the attractiveness of the regions’ capital and human resources for collaborative innovation, it estimates the impact of collaborative innovation on eco-efficiency through the system-Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) model. The results show that technological innovation capital in other regions has a negative “U” relationship with local ecological efficiency, while scientific and technological innovation human resources have a positive “U” relationship. In addition, government financial support in science and technology and the ecological efficiency of the previous period serve as promoting factors of the current local ecological efficiency, while the introduction of foreign technological innovation is likely to inhibit improvements in ecological efficiency. Based on these findings, this study puts forward corresponding policy recommendations for local governments to advance their development agendas alongside their environmental priorities in line with their specific circumstances.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0536.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Stabilization; control constraints; evolutionary algorithms; switched linear system
Online: 20 November 2020 (11:07:03 CET)
In this paper, we address the problem of stabilization of switched linear systems. The idea is to look for a state feedback control law using evolutionary algorithms (EA) in order to assure the stability of the switched linear systems under control constraints. In some cases when states are not available and only outputs are measurable, the previous method is applied to design an output feedback controller which stabilizes the system. Both stabilizing controllers are developed using deferential evolution and genetic algorithm. Two numerical examples illustrate our proposed theory and point out the effectiveness of our proposed approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0353.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General & Theoretical Computer Science Keywords: big data; big data system; energy; district heating; reinforcement learning
Online: 24 May 2018 (16:05:27 CEST)
This paper presents a study on the thermal efficiency improvement of the user equipment room in the district heating system based on reinforcement learning , and suggests a general method of constructing a learning network(DQN) using deep Q learning, which is a reinforcement learning algorithm that does not specify a model. In addition, we introduce the big data platform system and the integrated heat management system for the energy field in the massive data processing from the IoT sensor installed in large number of thermal energy control facilities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0376.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: bone repair; macrophages; immune system; cytokines; mesenchymal stem cells
Online: 16 November 2018 (06:42:10 CET)
A new mathematical model is presented to study the effects of macrophages on the bone fracture healing process. The model consists of a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations that represents the interactions among classically and alternatively activated macrophages, mesenchymal stem cells, osteoblasts, and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. A qualitative analysis of the model is performed to determine the equilibria and their corresponding stability properties. Numerical simulations are also presented to support the theoretical results and to monitor the evolution of a broken bone for different types of fractures under various medical interventions. The model can be used to guide clinical experiments and to explore possible medical treatments that accelerate the bone fracture healing process either by surgical interventions or drug administrations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0231.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: copper resources; demand forecasting; system dynamics model; sustainability development
Online: 31 March 2017 (10:50:56 CEST)
Copper demand for a country's copper industry has a greater pull effect. China's copper consumption in 2015 has accounted for 50% of the world. The scientific forecast of China's copper demands trend is also an important basis for analyzing its future environmental impact. This paper assumes that China's economy will be developing high, medium and low scenarios, and forecasts economic and social indicators such as total GDP, population and per capita GDP in China from 2016 to 2030. Then, predicted the demand of copper resources in China from 2016 to 2030 by the combination of system dynamics model, vector autoregressive moving average model and inverted U-type empirical model. The results show that: (1) in 2020, 2025 and 2030, China's refined copper demand will be 13 Mt, 15 Mt and 15.5 Mt. (2) China's copper demand growth slowed down significantly from 2016-2030. (3) 2025-2030, China's copper resource demand is stable, into the platform of demand growth, the highest peak value in 2027 will be 15.5 Mt. (4) 2030 years later, China's copper resource demand will enter a slow decline.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0356.v3
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: ecology - extinction and speciation - ‘light’ v. ‘heavy’ order - Linnaean system - thermodynamics - trophic levels - tropical continental lowland communities
Online: 8 October 2018 (16:15:55 CEST)
The origination of most free-living animal species is predictable. ‘Light’ order production in the trophic levels below is the key. Absent from the abiotic environment (pre-primary level) and prokaryotes, ‘light’ order consists of differences in species composition between highly-developed, species-packed communities in which extinction may be the precursor to speciation, particularly ecologically comparable tropical continental lowland ones of Africa, Australia, India, and South America. Based on but not itself of matter and non-burnable, its nil waste heat content ‘compensates’ for burned-up food energy. Where the amounts of it on infra-apical trophic levels form an inverted pyramid like waste heat’s, occupancy of trophic levels from primary to apical is predictable (variation and selection assumed). Terminal non-inversion predicts post-apical vacancy. Examined communities were from grasslands (grasses, large grazing mammals, large carnivores), and woodlands (woody plants, butterflies, insect-eating birds, raptorial birds). Linnaeus’s binomial classificational system turned out to be unexpectedly rich in new content. A new object of study, the neoLinnaean, is recognised and a new process, the neoLyellian, advanced to explain it. Relations to Darwin’s and Lyell’s non-predictive theories of change, to ecology and evolution, to thermodynamics, statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics, and to neurology are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0079.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: micro segmented genetic algorithm; multicore embedded system; parallel processing
Online: 5 March 2020 (03:23:59 CET)
This paper presents a novel micro-segmented genetic algorithm (μsGA) to identify the best solution for the locomotion of a quadruped robot designed on a rectangular ABS plastic platform. We compare our algorithm with three similar algorithms found in the specialized literature: a standard genetic algorithm (GA), a micro-genetic algorithm (μGA), and a micro artificial immune system (μAIS). The quadruped robot prototype guarantees the same conditions for each test. The platform was developed using 3D printing for the structure and can accommodate the mechanisms, sensors, servomechanisms as actuators. It also has an internal battery and a multicore embedded system (mES) to process and control the robot locomotion. This research proposes a μsGA that segments the individual into specific bytes. μGA techniques are applied to each segment to reduce the processing time; the same benefits as the GA are obtained, while the use of a computer and the high computational resources characteristic of the GA are avoided. This is the reason why some research in robot locomotion is limited to simulation. The results show that the performance of μsGA is better than the three other algorithms (GA, μGA and AIS). The processing time was reduced using a mES architecture that enables parallel processing, meaning that the requirements for resources and memory were reduced. This research solves the problem of continuous locomotion of a quadruped robot, and gives a feasible solution with real performance parameters using a μsGA bio-micro algorithm and a mES architecture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0356.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: Clinoptilolite zeolite; Nanospecies; Bimetallic system; Copper; Silver
Online: 24 January 2022 (12:58:16 CET)
Long-term changes in nanoparticles of copper-silver bimetallic systems on natural clinoptilolite obtained by ion exchange of Cu2+ and Ag+, and then reduced at different temperatures, have been studied. Even after storage under ambient conditions, XRD and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra indicate the presence of nanospecies of reduced copper and silver. Scanning Electron Microscopy of aged bimetallic samples, reduced at the highest temperature (450oC) and the primary samples for their preparation, also aged, showed the presence of silver nanoparticles with a size of about 100 nm. They are formed in the initial ion-exchanged sample (without reduction) due to the degradation of Ag+ ions. The nanoparticles in the reduced sample are larger; in both samples they are evenly distributed over the surface. The presence of silver affects the stability and the mechanism of decomposition/oxidation of reduced copper nanospecies, and this stability is higher in bimetallic systems. The decomposition pattern of recently reduced species includes the formation of smaller nanoparticles and few-atomic clusters. This can occur, preceding the complete oxidation of Cu to ions. Quasi-colloidal silver, which is present in fresh bimetallic samples reduced at lower temperatures, transforms after aging into Ag8 clusters, which indicates the stability of these nanospecies on natural clinoptilolite.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0308.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: PLC programming, hydraulic pulse system, state machine programming,
Online: 17 September 2018 (12:19:56 CEST)
In the paper is described the control electronics for an industrial pneumatic – hydraulic system based on a low-cost PLC. The developed system is a hydraulic pulse system and it generates series of high pressure hydraulic pulses (max. 200 bar). We describe requirements, an overall concept of the embedded control system, user interface, security features and network connectivity. In the description of the software solution we describe implementation of hierarchical ordered program threads (multithreaded program) and main control state machine. At the conclusion, we describe the calibration method of the system and calibration curves and we present the schematic diagram and a photo of a functional prototype of the system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0476.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Climate Variability; Climate Change; Food Security; Zero Hunger; System GMM; PCSE
Online: 31 August 2022 (03:22:49 CEST)
According to the World Food Programme (WFP), the projected increase in the human population stands at 2 billion people by 2050. At the same time, world food production is witnessing a declining trend over recent years, and 690 million (8.9%) of the world's population are already in severe starvation. Climate variability and climate change impacts on food security are very eminent today. For this reason, this study explored the real effects of climate variability and change on food security in Africa by applying the system Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) and the Panel Corrected Standard Errors (PCSEs) estimators on data from 2001–2018 for 38 selected African countries. The findings reveal that higher amounts of precipitation positively influence food security along two dimensions (food availability and utilization). Hotter temperatures negatively impact food availability and utilization. However, it aids food accessibility in Africa. Similarly, carbon dioxide emissions improve food availability and are harmful to food accessibility and food utilization in Africa. Consequently, the effects of climate variability and change on food security in Africa are undesirable, thereby putting the continent at risk of food insecurity over the long run. Given these findings, the study made appropriate recommendations for policy change to address the negative effects of climate variability and change on food security in Africa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0176.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: recommender system; tag-ware; deep reinforcement learning; user cold start
Online: 11 January 2021 (10:02:49 CET)
Recently, the application of deep reinforcement learning in recommender system is flourishing and stands out by overcoming drawbacks of traditional methods and achieving high recommendation quality. The dynamics, long-term returns and sparse data issues in recommender system have been effectively solved. But the application of deep reinforcement learning brings problems of interpretability, overfitting, complex reward function design, and user cold start. This paper proposed a tag-aware recommender system based on deep reinforcement learning without complex function design, taking advantage of tags to make up for the interpretability problems existing in recommender system. Our experiment is carried out on MovieLens dataset. The result shows that, DRL based recommender system is superior than traditional algorithms in minimum error and the application of tags has little effect on accuracy when making up for interpretability. In addition, DRL based recommender system has excellent performance on user cold start problems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0032.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: indoor positioning system; image-based positioning system; computer vision; SIFT; feature detection; feature description; cell phone camera; PnP problem; projection matrix; epipolar geometry; OpenCV
Online: 3 April 2020 (11:59:48 CEST)
As people grow a custom to effortless outdoor navigation there is a rising demand for similar possibility indoors as well. Unfortunately, indoor localization, being one of the necessary requirements for navigation, continues to be problem without a clear solution. In this article we are proposing a method for an indoor positioning system using a single image. This is made possible using small preprocessed database of images with known control points as the only preprocessing needed. Using feature detection with SIFT algorithm we can look through the database and find image which is the most similar to the image taken by user. Pair of images is then used to find coordinates of database image using PnP problem. Furthermore, projection and essential matrices are determined allowing for the user image localization ~ determining the position of the user in indoor environment. Benefits of this approach lies in the single image being the only input from user and no requirements for new onsite infrastructure and thus enables a simpler realization for the building management.
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: Path planning; Multi-UAV system; Shortest path algorithm
Online: 25 August 2021 (12:03:59 CEST)
A graph based path planning method consisting of off-line part and on-line part for multi-UAV system in windy condition is proposed. In the off-line part, the task area is divided into grids. When two nodes is close enough, they are connected and weighted by the cost, obtained by solving an optimization problem based on difference method, between them. In order to ensure the accuracy of the difference method, the adjacent radius is set to be small enough. In order to ensure the generated paths close to analytical solution, the grid size is set to be much smaller than the adjacent radius. The shortest path algorithm is used to update the adjacent matrix and path matrix. In the on-line part, the target position assignment and optimal velocity can be obtained by accessing the adjacent matrix and path matrix. At the end of this paper, some numerical examples are taken to illustrate the validity of our method and the influence of the parameters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0123.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: positioning system; neural-fuzzy network; adaptive control; buoys
Online: 8 April 2020 (08:51:47 CEST)
Recently, various relations and criteria have been presented to establish a proper relationship between control systems and control Global Positioning System (GPS)-intelligent buoy system. Given the importance of controlling the position of buoys and the construction of intelligent systems, in this paper, dynamic system modeling is applied to position marine buoys through the improved neural network with a backstepping technique. This study aims at developing a novel controller based on adaptive fuzzy neural network to optimally track the dynamically positioned vehicle on water with unavailable velocities and unidentified control parameters. In order to model the network with the proposed technique, uncertainties and the unwanted disturbances are studied in the neural network. The presented study aims at developing a neural controlling which applies the vectorial back-stepping technique to the surface ships, which have been dynamically positioned with undetermined disturbances and ambivalences. Moreover, the objective function is to minimize the output error for the neural network (NN) based on closed-loop system. The most important feature of the proposed model for the positioning buoys is its independence from comparative knowledge or information on the dynamics and the unwanted disturbances of ships. The numerical and obtained consequences demonstrate that the controller system can adjust the routes and the position of the buoys to the desired objective with relatively few position errors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0483.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: System Dynamics; Land Use; Transportation Systems; Access Management
Online: 31 May 2018 (17:15:58 CEST)
The coordination planning between land use and transportation system is an important premise of solving urban transportation problems and realizing land use integration. This study investigates the interactive and feedback relationship between land use and transportation system from the perspective of access management. By integrating the land use and traffic data from Las Vegas Metropolitan area with the system dynamics model, the causal relationship and causal loop diagrams (CLDs) are introduced to analyze the cause-and-effect relationship and quantitative relationship between the factors of the combined system of land use and transportation, and then sub-models partition and system simulation are performed. The systems dynamics model is established by analyzing the relationship between a series of access management techniques, traffic characteristics, and land use features. The results show that system dynamics model can be used as an effective alternative to model the symbiosis relationship of land use and transportation system for urban planning and construction.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0629.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: road safety; advanced driver assistance; safe system approach; LMIC
Online: 25 November 2020 (10:06:33 CET)
Abstract: Traffic collisions cause a huge problem of public health in low and middle income countries.. The safe system approach is generally considered as the leading concept on the way to road safety. Based on the fundamental premise that humans make mistakes, the overall traffic system should be ‘forgiving’. Sustainable safe road design is one of the key elements of the safe system approach. However, the road design principles behind the safe system approach are certainly not leading in today’s infrastructure developments in most LMICs. Cities are getting larger and road networks are expanding. In many cases, existing through-roads in local communities are up-graded, resulting in heavy traffic loads and high speeds on places, that are absolutely not suited for this kind of through-traffic. Furthermore a safe system would require that functional design properties of cars and roads would be conceptually integrated, which is not the case at all. Although advanced driver assistance systems are on their way of development for quite a long period, their potential role in the safe system concept is mostly unclear and at least strongly underexposed. The vision on future cars is dominated by the concept of automation. This paper argues that the way to self-driving cars, should take a route via the concept of guidance, i.e. vehicles that guide drivers, both on self-explaining roads and on more or less unsafe roads. Such an in-vehicle support system may help drivers to choose transport mode, route and speed, based on criteria related to safety and sustainability. It is suggested to develop a driver assistance system using relatively simple and cheap technologies, particularly for the purpose of use in LMICs. Such a GUIDE (Generic User Interface for Driving Evolution) may make roads self-explaining - not only by their physical design characteristics - but also by providing in-car guidance for drivers. In future the functional characteristics of both cars and roads should be conceptualized into one integrated safe system, in which the user plays the central role. As such GUIDE may serve as the conceptual bridge between vehicle and roadway characteristics. It is argued that GUIDE is necessary to bring a breakthrough in road safety developments in LMICs and also give an acceleration towards zero fatalities in HICs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0508.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: heart rate monitor; ECG; portable/wearable monitoring system; heart rate variability; long-term assessment; arrhythmia; QARDIO MD VSI system
Online: 24 August 2020 (07:45:40 CEST)
Heart Rate Monitors (HRMs) are an indispensable tool for controlling training parameters of healthy athletes. They became a source of information about stress heart rhythm disturbances, recognized as unexpected increases in heart rate (HR), which can be life-threatening for athletes. Most HRMs do not recognize the type of arrhythmia, confusing them with artifacts. The aim of the study was to assess the usefulness of ECG recording functions by sports HRMs among endurance athletes, coaches, and physicians in comparison with other basic and hypothetical functions. We conducted 3 surveys among endurance athletes (76 runners, 14 cyclists, and 10 triathletes), as well as 10 coaches and 10 sports doctors to obtain information on how important ECG recording is, and what functions of HRMs should be improved to meet their expectations in the future. The respondents were asked questions regarding use and hypothetical functions, as well as preference for HRM type (optical/strap). For athletes, the 4 most important functions were distance traveled, pace, instant heart rate, and information about reaching the oxygen threshold. ECG recording was the 8th and 9th most important for momentary and continuous, respectively. Coaches opined more importance to ECG recording. Doctors placed ECG recording as most important. All participants preferred optical HRMs to strap HRMs. Research on the improvement and implementation of HRM functions shows slightly different preferences of athletes compared to coaches and doctors. Suspected arrhythmia increases the value of the HRM’s ability to record ECGs during training by athletes and coaches. For doctors, this is the most desirable feature in any situation. Considering the expectations of all groups continuous ECG recording during training will significantly improve the safety of athletes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0311.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: opinion model; user modeling; information content; dialogue strategy; dialogue system
Online: 21 September 2022 (02:27:12 CEST)
When designing rule-based dialogue systems, the need for elaborate design by the designer is a challenge for dialogue systems. One way to reduce the cost of creating content is to generate utterances from data collected in an objective and reproducible manner. This study focuses on rule-based dialogue systems using survey data, and more specifically on opinion dialogue where the system models the user. In opinion dialogue, there has not been much study of topic transition methods for modeling users while maintaining their motivation for dialogue. To model them, we adopted information content. Our contribution includes the design of a rule-based dialogue system that does not require elaborate design. We also reported an appropriate topic transition method based on information content. This is confirmed by the influence of the user's personality characteristics. The content of questions can give the user a sense of the system's intention to understand them. We also reported the possibility that the system's rational intention contributes to the user's motivation for dialogue with the system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0046.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General & Theoretical Computer Science Keywords: extended fuzzy transform; fuzzy number; rule management system; spatial analysis
Online: 4 April 2018 (05:42:01 CEST)
We propose a new Mamdani fuzzy rule-based system in which the fuzzy sets in the antecedents and consequents are assigned in a discrete set of points and approximated by using the extended inverse fuzzy transforms, whose components are calculated by verifying that the dataset is sufficiently dense with respect to the uniform fuzzy partition. We test our system in the problem of spatial analysis consisting in the evaluation of the liveability of residential housings in all the municipalities of the district of Naples (Italy). Comparisons are done with the results obtained by using trapezoidal fuzzy numbers in the fuzzy rules.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0280.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Urology Keywords: COVID-19; 2019-nCoV; male reproductive system; a retrospective study
Online: 16 April 2020 (13:50:47 CEST)
A novel and highly pathogenic coronavirus (2019-nCoV)-induced pneumonia spread worldwide in a short time. However, studies on the effects of 2019-nCoV on the male reproductive system are limited. The aim of this study is to describe the clinical characteristics of the male reproductive system of COVID-19 patients and to explore the presence of 2019-nCoV in semen. Retrospective, single-center case series of 112 male patients with confirmed COVID-19 who were admitted to Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University from January 2 to March 7, 2020. Demographic data, symptoms and signs related to the male reproductive system, throat swabs and semen samples were collected and analyzed. 2019-nCoV RNA measured in throat swab and semen samples. The organ distribution of ACE2 mRNA and protein in human tissue on The Human Protein Atlas portal and investigated immunohistochemistry (IHC) images of the testis. The HPA dataset revealed relatively high levels of ACE2 protein and RNA expression in the testis. A total of 3 severe COVID-19 patients (2.7%) presented with orchidoptosis, while no patients experienced other symptoms or signs related to the male reproductive system. The analysis of 2019-nCoV RNA in semen included 17 patients with fertility needs. Among these patients, 9 (52.9%) remained positive for 2019-nCoV according to throat swab analysis, and 8 (47.1%) became negative. In the semen 2019-nCoV analysis, all 17 patients were negative for the N gene and ORF1ab gene. In view of the potential impairment, long-term follow-up for male COVID-19 patients with fertility needs is of great significance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0387.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Brownian motion; Parisian time; exact simulation; real-time gross settlement system
Online: 19 October 2020 (14:43:03 CEST)
In this paper, we study the Parisian time of a reflected Brownian motion with drift on a finite collection of rays. We derive the Laplace transform of the Parisian time using a recursive method, and provide an exact simulation algorithm to sample from the distribution of the Parisian time. The paper is motivated by the settlement delay in the real-time gross settlement (RTGS) system. Both the central bank and the participating banks in the system are concerned about the liquidity risk, and are interested in the first time that the duration of settlement delay exceeds a predefined limit, we reduce this problem to the calculation of the Parisian time. The Parisian time is also crucial in the pricing of Parisian type options; to this end, we will compare our results with the existing literature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0726.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Work safety standardization; Viable System Model; Chinese enterprise; Safety process control
Online: 30 September 2020 (08:09:42 CEST)
The work safety standardization of enterprises based on the traditional work safety theory has played a significant role in reducing the number of accidents and improving work safety to some extent in China. However, some problems are coming with the work safety standardization of enterprises developing constantly in China. On the one hand, it is not combined with the actual situation of the enterprise, lacking pertinence and specificity, these defects resulted that it is not integrated with original safety production management system of enterprise and make it difficult to carry out. On the other hand, there is a lack of systematic management methods for the work safety management system of enterprise, most of enterprises only pay attention to the inspection result rather than the process control. This means after the check of the government, many enterprises will relax to carry out the system. This paper puts forward a new method for optimizing the standardization management mode of work safety based on the Viable System Model(VSM), which can solve the defects of work safety standardization of enterprises management system. An optimization model of work safety standardization based on VSM was construct for explaining the process optimization and control of work safety standardization management. It can improve the connectivity between the enterprise and the government. The conclusion of this paper can provide reference for achieving the development and optimization of work safety standardization of enterprises in China.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0126.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Computational Mathematics Keywords: graph isomorphism problem; multivariate polynomial system; zero-knowledge proof
Online: 8 May 2018 (09:35:15 CEST)
Zero-Knowledge Proofs ZKP provide a reliable option to verify that a claim is true without giving detailed information other than the answer. A classical example is provided by the ZKP based in the Graph Isomorphism problem (GI), where a prover must convince the verifier that he knows an isomorphism between two isomorphic graphs without publishing the bijection. We design a novel ZKP exploiting the NP-hard problem of finding the algebraic ideal of a multivariate polynomial set, and consequently resistant to quantum computer attacks. Since this polynomial set is obtained considering instances of GI, we guarantee that the protocol is at least as secure as the GI based protocol.
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: hierarchical medical system, national health insurance, healthcare-seeking behavior, reduction in hospital visits
Online: 15 July 2019 (11:56:40 CEST)
Objective: This study investigated the effect of the hierarchical medical system under the national health insurance program on resident’s healthcare-seeking behavior in Taiwan. Background: Healthcare authorities in Taiwan initiated the allowance reduction of outpatient visits at regional hospitals and higher hierarchical hospitals from 2018. The ultimate goal is to implement a hierarchical medical system and provide the residents accessible as well as consistent medical services. Methods: This research was conducted through the questionnaire survey method and data were collected between August and December 2018 from the records of subjects who had recently sought medical attention. A total of 1,340 valid questionnaires were returned. Results: Regarding the effect on healthcare-seeking behavior, the following factors were significant: being aged between 40 to 49 (p＜.1), subjects with an educational background of junior high school (p＜.05), those who were not aware of the policy (p＜.001), and an awareness about both the hierarchical medical system and the policy to reduce outpatient visits to large hospitals (p＜.001). Conclusion: The public should be made aware about the hierarchical medical system to improve healthcare.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0348.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: cropping system; rotation; tillage; natural rainfall; Greece
Online: 18 November 2022 (03:53:32 CET)
Soil erosion is one of the biggest problems in the agricultural sector that can affect ecosystems and human societies. A field of 50 slope was selected to study the runoff, soil and nutrients’ loss as well as crop productivity in different treatments (conventional tillage (CT) vs. no-tillage (NT), plant vs. no plant cover, contour cultivation (CC) vs. perpendicular to the contour cultivation, (PC) under natural rainfall. The experiment was conducted in central Greece in two cultivation periods. In autumn, the field was cultivated with intercropping Triticosecale and Pisum sativum and in spring with Sunflower. The total rainfall was 141.4 mm in the 1st year and 311 mm in the 2nd. We found that runoff in the treatment of no tillage with contour cultivation was 85% lower in both years compared to the no tillage-no plant control. Therefore, the contour cultivation-no tillage treatment had a positively effect in decreasing phosphorus and potassium concentrations lost from soil: indeed, there was a decrease by 55% and 62% in P and K, respectively, in the NT compared to the CC treatments. We conclude that the NT-CC treatment with plant cover was the most effective in reducing water runoff, soil nutrients’ loss and increasing yield.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0192.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: doppler effect; optical measurements; precision; rotation velocimetry; system capability; repeatability; surface metrology
Online: 9 October 2020 (09:29:37 CEST)
The article aims to present the possible use of the simple modified optical training kit as a low-cost, simple setup for high precision surface speed measurements. A measurement capability evaluation of the optical Doppler kit used for velocimetry of a fast-rotating reflecting surface is presented. To get high repeatability measurements, we modified a fibre optic interferometry training kit. By using signal processing and statistics a precision under repeatability conditions of measurements was evaluated. Expressed by the standard deviations (3σ’s) the surface velocity measurements precision below 0.2 m/s is shown. The Cg’s capability indices were also evaluated. We postulate, the electric circuit stability of the measurement system power supply is essential for a signal noise reducing process for a wide range of metrology systems. It is crucial for precision measurements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0348.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: electricity system; COVID-19; electricity demand; energy; demand; behaviour; lockdown; electricity pricing
Online: 12 November 2020 (12:33:48 CET)
The outbreak of SARS-COV-2 disease 2019 (COVID-19) abruptly changed the patterns in electricity consumption, challenging the system operations of forecasting and balancing supply and demand. This is due to the mitigation measures that include lockdown and Work from Home (WFH), which decreased the aggregated demand and remarkably altered its profile. Here, we characterise these changes with various quantitative markers and compare it with pre-COVID-19 business-as-usual data using Great Britain (GB) as a case study. The ripple effects on the generation portfolio, system frequency, forecasting accuracy and imbalance pricing are also analysed. An energy data extraction and pre-processing pipeline that can be used in a variety of similar studies is also presented. Analysis of the GB demand data during the March 2020 lockdown indicates that a shift to WFH will result to a net benefit for flexible stakeholders, such as consumer on variable tariffs. Furthermore, the analysis illustrates a need for faster and more frequent balancing actions, as a result of the increased share of renewable energy in the generation mix. This new equilibrium of energy demand and supply will require a redesign of the existing balancing mechanisms as well as the longer-term power system planning strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0137.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Co-generation system; Gas turbine control system; System efficiency; Heat balance
Online: 8 August 2022 (08:29:12 CEST)
The power utility, Tanzania Electric Supply Company Limited (TANESCO) is faced with challenges of supplying adequate power to the ever-increasing demand. To this end, this paper explores the installed Ubungo Gas Power Plant (UGP II) located in Dar es Salaam to find means of utilizing it in co-generation method. The study embarked on detailed modelling of the system and run simulations which indicated that the co-generation can result to power generation efficiency increase between 10.42 to 50.92%. It is recommended to change the UGP II to exploit this co-generation method. Further, the study could be improved by including more parameters of the gas and steam plant and verify them experimentally.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0126.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Cybersecurity; Industry 4.0; Android; Operating System; Algorithm; SWOT Analysis
Online: 6 July 2021 (08:28:12 CEST)
The world is attesting a tremendous change today which is remarkably coined as industry 4.0. Several terminologies have developed as a result of the emergency of industry 4.0, notably is cybersecurity which entails the security of communication and network operations activities either on or offline and the measures taken to achieve such security. The most common form of communication by organizations and Business today is the electronic mails (Email), although email is a valuable tool, it also creates security challenges when not properly managed. There is a growing adoption of email as official form of communication in many organizations with majority of users on mobile android devices due to the popularity of the android operating systems and the proliferation of mobile devices. Banks, health care, educational institutions and many other service providers are communicating to their clients through email where sensitive and confidential information are shared. One major threat to email communication is lack of confidentiality for emails accessed via android mobile devices due to weaknesses of android operating system (OS) platform that presents possibilities to penetrate by hackers and android email client since it accepts a onetime login and password authentication which is only required again if the email account is deleted from the android mobile device. In this study, an algorithm was designed and implemented on an android application that allows an email sender to compose an email and set the time the email will stay in the receiver inbox before it automatically wipes off. Primary data was collected from email users using tightly structured questionnaires and respondents comprised of those with email technical background and those that are typical email users inorder to get their opinion on the lack of confidentiality on the android mobile email client, while secondary data from scholarly journals and articles informed the study design. The designed algorithm was tested and evaluated through expert opinion. The result of the study indicates that the designed algorithm addresses the confidentiality issues and threats on android email clients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0417.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: lecithin; ginger oil; essential oil; nano-lipid; drug delivery system
Online: 30 June 2022 (08:00:31 CEST)
Lipid nanoparticles have an interesting part of drug delivery system. In this study, the modification of the convention nano-lipid based soybean lecithin was demonstrated. Ginger oil derived Zingiber officinale was used along with lecithin, cholesterol and span 80 to fabricate nano-lipid (GL nano-lipid) using thin-film method. Through TEM and confocal microscope, GL nano-lipid exposes the liposome- like morphology. The average size of the resultant nanoparticles was 249.1nm with monodistribution (PDI= 0.021). The ζ-potential of GL nano-lipid was negative as similar to as prepared nano-lipid based lecithin. GL nano-lipid express the highly stable over 60 days of storage at room temperature in term of size, ζ-potential. A shift of pH value from alkaline to acid was detected in lecithin nano-lipid, while with the incorporation of ginger oil, pH value of nano-lipid dispersion was around 7.0. Furthermore, due to the rich of shogaol-6 and other active compounds in ginger oil, the GL nano-lipid is endowed with intrinsic antibacterial feature. In addition, the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay and live/dead imaging revealed the excellent biocompatibility of GL nano-lipid. Notably, GL nano-lipid was capable to carry the hydrophobic agents as curcumin and perform a pH-dependent release profile. A subsequent characterization are a suitable potential for drug delivery system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0326.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: SNP; calpaincalpastatin system genes; genomic association; tenderization; ageing
Online: 18 November 2021 (13:48:09 CET)
The most important factor that determines beef tenderness is its proteolytic activity and the balance between calpain1 protease activity and calpastatin inhibition is especially important, while contributions could arise from calpain2 and possibly calpain3. These processes are however affected by the meat aging process itself. To determine whether genotypes in the calpaincalpastatin system can enhance tenderness throughout a 20 day aging period, South African purebred beef bulls (n=166) were genotyped using the Illumina BovineHD SNP BeadChip, through genebased association analysis targeting the cast, capn3, capn2 and capn1 genes. The WarnerBratzler shear force (WBSF) and myofibril fragment length (MFL) of Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) steaks were evaluated between d 3 d 20 of aging, with protease enzyme activity in the first 20 h postmortem. Although several of the 134 SNP associated with tenderness, only seven SNP in the cast, capn2 and capn1 genes sustained genetic associations, additive to agingassociated increases in tenderness for at least three of the four aging periods. While most genomic associations were relatively stable over time, some genotypes within SNP responded differently to aging, resulting in altered genomic effects over time. The level of aging at which genomic associations are performed is an important factor that determines whether SNP affect tenderness phenotypes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0461.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: microgrid; energy-management-system; quantile-forecasts; smart-building
Online: 20 September 2020 (13:58:10 CEST)
The research work hereby presented, emerges from the urge to answer the well-known question of how the uncertainty of intermittent renewable sources affects the performance of a microgrid and how could we deal with it. More specifically, we want to evaluate what could be the impact in performance of a microgrid intended to serve a smart-building (powered by photovoltaic panels and with battery energy storage), when the uncertainty of the photovoltaic-production forecasts is considered in the energy management process. For this, several objectives (or services) are targeted based in a two-step (double-objective) energy management framework, that combines optimization-based and rule-based algorithms. The performance is evaluated based on some particular services proposed as performance indicators. Simulations are performed using data of a study-case microgrid (Drahi-Xnovation center, Ecole Polytechnique, France). The use of quantile forecasts (obtained with an analog-ensemble method) is tested as a mean to deal with (i.e. decrease) the uncertainty of the solar PV production. The proposed energy management framework is compared with basic reference strategies and the results show the superior performance of the former in almost all the services and forecasting scenarios proposed. The contrasting nature among some of the target services is one of the main conclusions of this work, as well as the different requirements in terms of forecasts when optimizing for different services and seasons of the year. This fact highlights the usefulness of the quantile forecasting approach, as a tool to deal with the intrinsic uncertainty of PV power production
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0257.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Hyper-spectral imaging system; Spectral characteristics; Image processing; Threshold method; Bloodstains recognition
Online: 25 January 2019 (14:54:14 CET)
The identification of bloodstain is one of the most important approaches in obtaining evidence in criminalistics. A threshold method based on spectral co-efficient and interclass variance is proposed in this paper, it is a non-contact, non-destructive method for quickly identifying bloodstains. The spectra of bloodstains and other suspected substances were all extracted from their hyper-spectral image. Then calculate the correlation coefficients of these spectral and interclass variances, analyze the differences between substances. The best blood recognition threshold was determined as 0.9. After preprocessing for eliminating systematic errors, experiments with the threshold 0.9 are carried out to identify bloodstains on the calico and red T-shirt. The method can remarkably identify the bloodstain from other non-blood substances both quickly and efficiently. The blood extraction rate can reach to 93.35% and 89.19%, respectively. It is an important step toward the implementation of bloodstain non-contact and non-destructive identification in forensic casework.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0122.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: computer aided diagnosis; topological relations; TNM system; non-small Cells; lung cancer
Online: 20 November 2017 (07:57:32 CET)
Computers and artificial intelligence affect every field of life nowadays. In medical image interpretation automatic decision making using algorithms are used increasingly in every sub-field and computer aided diagnosis (CAD) is one of the main tools available to medical science today. CAD systems are used as an augmented option for both the medical practitioner and the patients, with image analysis and interpretation being of primary importance. In particular, spatial relations are used in knowledge representation, and these relations can be used for effective medical image interpretation. In this paper, we put forth an algorithm for defining non-small cells lungs cancer (NSCLC) stages in lungs images interpretation using topological spatial relations. We show an application case study in event motion predictions for lung cancer staging scoring - tumor, nodes and metastasis (TNM) - with combined topological and directional relations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0282.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Classification of insulators; Electrical power system; k-Nearest neighbors; Computer vision.
Online: 13 August 2021 (11:45:50 CEST)
The contamination on the insulators may increase its surface conductivity and, as a consequence, electrical discharges occur more frequently, which can lead to interruptions in the power supply. To maintain reliability in the electrical distribution power system, components that have lost their insulating properties must be replaced. Identifying the components that need maintenance, is a difficult task as there are several levels of contamination that are hardly noticed during inspections. To improve the quality of inspections, this paper proposes to use the k-nearest neighbours (k-NN) to classify the levels of insulator contamination, based on the image of insulators at various levels of contamination simulated in the laboratory. Using computer vision features such as mean, variance, asymmetry, kurtosis, energy, and entropy are used for training the k-NN. To assess the robustness of the proposed approach, statistical analysis and a comparative assessment with well-consolidated algorithms such as decision tree, ensemble subspace, and support vector machine models are presented. The k-NN showed results of up to 85.17 % accuracy using the k-fold cross-validation method, with an average accuracy higher than 82 % for multi-classification of the contamination of the insulators, being superior to the compared models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0345.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: cobalt-rich crusts; mobile drilling rig; hydraulic propulsion system; dynamic simulation
Online: 14 December 2020 (14:42:57 CET)
At present, the drilling rig for deep seabed shallow strata is widely used in the exploration of ocean cobalt-rich crust resources and other fields, which not only can obtain solid core samples at a specific station, but the operation process is relatively safe. This paper mainly presents the structure and mechanism of mobile drilling rig in acquiring the seafloor cores (up to 1.5 m long). Based on the function of the AMESim software, the hydraulic propulsion system model of mobile drilling rig is established, which is the basis and core part of the mobile drilling rig. Moreover, the control methods of closed-loop and PID are respectively used to control the hydraulic propulsion system for simulation analysis. Through the comparison of simulation results, it is found that the PID control method is more convincing in verifying the design rationality of hydraulic propulsion system. In the simulation of the PID-controlled hydraulic propulsion system, the co-simulation technology of AMESim and Matlab/Simulink not only establishes the hydraulic model and control model, but also determines the relevant simulation parameters, which is helpful to improve the system simulation efficiency. In its verification deployment in the South China Sea, the mobile drilling rig has been operated for many times at different depths, and some cores have been successfully obtained. Furthermore, the mobile drilling rig has been used during the 55th Voyage of China Oceanic Scientific Expedition supported by China Ocean Mineral Resources R&D Association. Several sites were explored and a large number of cobalt-rich crust cores were obtained. The powerful theory and sea trails are provided to support for the further research on survey of the abyssal resource.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0738.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: parking management system; smart parking; multi-objective method; decision-making method
Online: 30 November 2020 (16:04:41 CET)
Due to the tremendous progress in the automotive industry, the growth of the urban population, the number of vehicles is increasing and this creates parking challenges. Intelligent parking management systems offer an optimal solution for finding empty parking space so that drivers can quickly find their car parking space. To solve these problems, it is necessary to design an intelligent parking system, in addition to providing comfort to drivers, which is also economically viable. This paper proposes an intelligent multi-storey car parking system with the help of RFID technology and examining user preferences that can effectively solve car parking problems. The proposed method is a multi-objective decision-making method to reduce the problem of car parking, which is called MODM-RPCP. Therefore, the proposed MODM-RPCP method can allocate the best space for their stopping place by using the decision-making system and based on the priorities considered by the users. The simulation results show that the MODM-RPCP reduces the average booking time more than 19.2% and 27.1%, and decreases the response time of central parking management server more than 20.1% and 29.78% compared to MOGWOLA and ODPP approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0077.v1
Subject: Keywords: camera calibration; multi-cameras system; ray tracing; glass checkerboard; bundle adjustment
Online: 12 October 2017 (04:55:15 CEST)
Multi-cameras system is widely applied in 3D computer vision especially when multiple cameras are distributed on both sides of the measured object. The calibration methods of multi-cameras system are critical to the accuracy of vision measurement and the key is to find an appropriate calibration target. In this paper, a high-precision camera calibration method for multi-cameras system based on transparent glass checkerboard and ray tracing is described, which is used to calibrate multiple cameras distributed on both sides of the glass checkerboard. Firstly, the intrinsic parameters of each camera is obtained by Zhang’s calibration method. Then, multiple cameras capture several images from the front and back of the glass checkerboard with different orientations, and all images contain distinct grid corners. As the cameras on one side are not affected by the refraction of glass checkerboard, extrinsic parameters can be directly calculated. However, the cameras on another side are influenced by the refraction of glass checkerboard, and the direct use of projection model will produce calibration error. A multi-cameras calibration method using refractive projection model and ray tracing is developed to eliminate this error. Furthermore, both synthetic and real data are employed to validate the proposed approach. The experimental results of refractive calibration show that the error of the 3D reconstruction is smaller than 0.2 mm, the relative errors of both rotation and translation are less than 0.014%, and the mean and standard deviation of reprojection error of 4-cameras system are 0.00007 and 0.4543 pixel. The proposed method is flexible, high accurate, and simple to carry out.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0071.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: gas turbine fuel system; anomaly detection; symbolic dynamic analysis; time series
Online: 13 April 2017 (05:36:51 CEST)
Anomaly detection plays a significant role in helping gas turbines run reliably and economically. Considering collective anomalous data and both sensitivity and robustness of the anomaly detection model, a sequential symbolic anomaly detection method is proposed and applied to the gas turbine fuel system. A structural Finite State Machine is to evaluate posterior probabilities of observing symbolic sequences and most probable state sequences they may locate. Hence an estimating based model and a decoding based model are used to identify anomalies in two different ways. Experimental results indicates that these two models have both ideal performance overall, and estimating based model has a strong ability in robustness, while decoding based model has a strong ability in accuracy, particularly in a certain range of length of sequence. Therefore, the proposed method can well facilitate existing symbolic dynamic analysis based anomaly detection methods especially in gas turbine domain.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0319.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: glia; central nervous system; COVID-19; SARS; MERS; coronavirus
Online: 26 June 2020 (17:32:55 CEST)
With confirmed COVID-19 cases surpassing the 8.5 million mark around the globe, there is an imperative need to deepen the efforts from the international scientific community to gain comprehensive understanding of SARS-CoV-2. Although the main clinical manifestations are associated with respiratory or intestinal symptoms, reports of specific and non-specific neurological signs and symptoms, both at presentation or during the course of the acute phase, are increasing. Approximately 25-40% of the patients present neurological symptoms. The etiology of these neurological manifestations remains obscure, and probably involves several direct pathways, not excluding the direct entry of the virus to the Central Nervous System (CNS) through the olfactory epithelium, circumventricular organs, or disrupted blood-brain barrier (BBB). Furthermore, neuroinflammation might occur in response to the strong systemic cytokine storm described for COVID-19, or due to dysregulation of the CNS angiotensin system. Descriptions of neurological manifestations in patients in the previous coronavirus (CoV) outbreaks have been numerous for the SARS-CoV and lesser for MERS-CoV. Strong evidence from patients and experimental models suggests that some human variants of CoV have the ability to reach the CNS and that neurons, astrocytes and/or microglia can be target cells for CoV. A growing body of evidence shows that astrocytes and microglia have a major role in neuroinflammation, responding to local CNS inflammation and/or to dysbalanced peripheral inflammation. This is another potential mechanism for SARS-CoV-2 damage to the CNS. In this work we will summarize the known neurological manifestations of SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, explore the potential role for astrocytes and microglia in the infection and neuroinflammation, and compare them with the previously described human and animal CoV that showed neurotropism. We also propose possible underlying mechanisms by focusing on our knowledge of glia, neurons, and their dynamic intricate communication with the immune system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0498.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: acrylamide; asparagine; agriculture; nitrogen; sulfur; fertilization; cereals; cropping system
Online: 22 October 2018 (12:57:43 CEST)
In a two-year field trial, the effect of nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) fertilization was investigated on grain yield, grain quality parameters, formation of acrylamide (AA), and the precursor free asparagine (Asn) in organically and conventionally produced winter wheat cultivars. In both production systems, different types, amounts, and temporal distributions of N were tested. While the effect of S fertilizer types and amounts on free Asn was only tested in the conventional farming system. Within both cropping systems, grain yield and baking quality were significantly influenced by N treatment while the effect on free Asn was only minor. Especially within the organic farming system, increasing N fertilization levels did not increase free Asn significantly. A slight trend of increasing free Asn levels with an intensified N supply was observed, especially in the presence of crude protein contents of 14% or higher. But only N amounts of 180 kg N ha−1 or higher increased the probability of high free Asn contents considerably, while N supply below that amount led to free Asn values similar to the unfertilized controls. The results indicated that good baking quality can be achieved without significantly increasing free Asn levels. In addition, cultivars affected the levels of free Asn significantly. Compared to cv. “Bussard” and “Naturastar”, cv. “Capo” exhibited the lowest AA formation potential at an N supply of 180 kg N ha−1 while simultaneously reaching a crude protein content > 15% (conventional) and > 12% (organic). Thus, it seems that cultivars differ in their ability to store and incorporate free Asn into proteins. Over all trials, a correlation of free Asn and AA was shown by R2 = 0.77, while a relation of free Asn and protein was only R2 = 0.36. Thus, lowering free Asn by adjusting N treatments should not necessarily affect baking quality. S nutrition within conventional farming did not change free Asn amount or crude protein significantly, probably due to the fact that soil was not sulfate-deficient. In summary, it was evident that free Asn amounts in wheat varied widely both within cultivars and between cropping systems. In order to clearly unravel genotypic differences and their interaction with environmental factors and especially N fertilization, further research is needed.
Subject: Keywords: Physical Activity; COVID-19; healthy lifestyle; metabolic disorders; immune system
Online: 7 June 2020 (11:31:17 CEST)
Purpose: At a time of a pandemic SARS-CoV2 infection, and in the context of the multiorgan crosstalk widely accepted as a mechanism participating in the pathophysiology of all organs and systems, a correlation between adipose tissue, muscle and the immune system has been investigated. Physical Activity (PA) represents the first line of defence against metabolic diseases and infections, like SARS-CoV2, modulating several crucial functions such as inflammation and immune response. Conversely, obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disorders – all correlated with PA - negatively impact on general health status, including susceptibility to infections. Here we review the complex interplay between type 2 diabetes, obesity, immune response, inflammation and viral infections, such as the current SARS-CoV2, focusing on the molecular mechanisms modulated by exercise. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was completed to identify joint biomarkers previously used to investigate acute and chronic exercise training. Results: we show that PA may counteract/mitigate viral adverse effects. We also describe data suggesting that vitamin D supplementation, frequently observed in practitioners of sport and regular exercise, could represent an additional positive factor in supporting COVID-19 with fighting against the virus. Conclusion: Altogether this evidence confirms that an active lifestyle and PA not only counteract dysmetabolic diseases but could also be effective for counteracting SARS-CoV2 infection. It is therefore essential to persuade people to keep active.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0227.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS); neurodegeneration; neuroinflammation; neuromuscular disease; autoimmunity; the clonotypic immune system
Online: 15 September 2022 (08:51:54 CEST)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neuromuscular disease, characterized by progressive degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons in the cortex and spinal cord. Although the pathogenesis of ALS remains unclear, evidence on the role of the clonotypic immune system is growing. Adaptive immunity cells often appear changed in number or activation profile peripherally and centrally. However, their role in ALS appears conflicting. Data, from human and animal model studies, currently reported in literature show that each subset of lymphocytes and their mediators may mediate a protective or toxic mechanism in ALS, affecting both its progression and risk of death. In the present review article and attempt is made to shed light on the actual role of the cellular clonotypic immunity in ALS by integrating recent clinical studies and experimental observations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0027.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: neuroscience; big data; functional Magnetic Resonance (fMRI); pipeline; one platform system
Online: 8 April 2019 (05:46:55 CEST)
In the neuroscience research field, specific for medical imaging analysis, how to mining more latent medical information from big medical data is significant for us to find the solution of diseases. In this review, we focus on neuroimaging data that is functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) which non-invasive techniques, it already becomes popular tools in the clinical neuroscience and functional cognitive science research. After we get fMRI data, we actually have various software and computer programming that including open source and commercial, it's very hard to choose the best software to analyze data. What's worse, it would cause final result imbalance and unstable when we combine more than software together, so that's why we want to make a pipeline to analyze data. On the other hand, with the growing of machine learning, Python has already become one of very hot and popular computer programming. In addition, it is an open source and dynamic computer programming, the communities, libraries and contributors fast increase in the recent year. Through this review, we hope that can make neuroimaging data analysis more easy, stable and uniform base the one platform system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0660.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: dynamic time warping; pattern matching trading system; time series data; sliding window
Online: 29 October 2018 (07:03:51 CET)
The futures market plays a significant role in hedging and speculating by investors. Although various models and instruments are developed for real-time trading, it is difficult to realize profit by processing and trading a vast amount of real-time data. This study proposes a real-time index futures trading strategy that uses the pattern of KOSPI 200 index futures time series data. We construct a pattern matching trading system (PMTS) based on a dynamic time warping algorithm that recognizes patterns of market data movement in the morning and determines the afternoon's clearing strategy. We adopt 13 and 27 representative patterns and conduct simulations with various ranges of parameters to find optimal ones. Our experimental results show that the PMTS provides stable and effective trading strategies with relatively low trading frequencies. Investor communities that have sustained financial markets are able to make more efficient investments by using the PMTS. In this sense, the system developed in this paper is a sustainable investment technique and helps financial markets achieve efficient sustainability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0249.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: domination, detection system, identifying-code, open-locating-dominating set, fault-tolerant, king's grid, density
Online: 18 January 2022 (09:43:55 CET)
A detection system, modeled in a graph, uses "detectors" on a subset of vertices to uniquely identify an "intruder" at any vertex. We consider two types of detection systems: open-locating-dominating (OLD) sets and identifying codes (ICs). An OLD set gives each vertex a unique, non-empty open neighborhood of detectors, while an IC provides a unique, non-empty closed neighborhood of detectors. We explore their fault-tolerant variants: redundant OLD (RED:OLD) sets and redundant ICs (RED:ICs), which ensure that removing/disabling at most one detector guarantees the properties of OLD sets and ICs, respectively. This paper focuses on constructing optimal RED:OLD sets and RED:ICs on the infinite king's grid, and presents the proof for the bounds on their minimum densities; [3/10, 1/3] for RED:OLD sets and [3/11, 1/3] for RED:ICs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0404.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: fermion sign problem; path integral molecular dynamics; path integral Monte Carlo; thermodynamic properties; large Fermi system; ground state
Online: 22 November 2022 (03:56:48 CET)
In this work we study the recently developed parametrized partition function formulation and show how we can infer the thermodynamic properties of fermions based on numerical simulation of bosons and distinguishable particles at various temperatures. In particular, we show that in the three dimensional space defined by energy, temperature and the parameter characterizing parametrized partition function, we can map the energies of bosons and distinguishable particles to fermionic energies through constant-energy contours. We apply this idea to both noninteracting and interacting Fermi systems and show it is possible to infer the fermionic energies at all temperatures, thus providing a practical and efficient approach to obtain thermodynamic properties of large fermion systems with numerical simulation. As an example, we present energies for up to 50 noninteracting fermions and up to 20 interacting fermions at all temperatures and show good agreement with the analytical result for noninteracting case.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0055.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: EMR; data preprocessing; text mining; information extraction; medical decision support system
Online: 15 August 2017 (05:46:43 CEST)
At present, medical institutes generally use EMR to record patient's condition, including diagnostic information, procedures performed and treatment results. EMR has been recognized as a valuable resource for large scale analysis. However, EMR has the characteristics of diversity, incompleteness, redundancy and privacy, which make it difficult to carry out data mining and analysis directly. Therefore, it is necessary to preprocess the source data in order to improve data quality and improve the data mining results. Different types of data require different processing technologies. Most structured data commonly needs classic preprocessing technologies, including data cleansing, data integration, data transformation and data reduction. For semi-structured or unstructured data, such as medical text, containing more health information, it requires more complex and challenging processing methods. The task of information extraction for medical texts mainly includes NER (Named Entity Recognition) and RE (Relation Extraction). In this paper, we introduce the process of EMR processing, including data collection, data preprocessing, data mining, evaluation and knowledge application, analyze the current status of the key technologies, such as data preprocessing and data mining, and provide an overview of the application domains and prospects of EMR mining technologies. Finally, we summarize the existing problems in the research of EMR mining, and review the development trends.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0520.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: Energy consumption, Energy savings, Home Energy Management System (HEMS), Homeowners, Target group segmentation
Online: 26 September 2018 (15:39:15 CEST)
In contrast to physical sustainable measures carried out in homes, such as insulation, the installation of a Home Energy Management System (HEMS) has no direct and immediate energy-saving effect. A HEMS gives insight into resident behaviour regarding energy use. When this is linked to the appropriate feedback, the resident is in a position to change his or her behaviour. This should result in reduced gas and/or electricity consumption. The aim of our study is to contribute towards the effective use of home energy management systems (HEMS) by identifying types of homeowners in relation to the use of HEMS. The research methods used were a literature review and the Q-method. A survey using the Q-method was conducted among 39 owners of single-family homes in various Rotterdam neighbourhoods. In order to find shared views among respondents, a principal component analysis (PCA) was performed. Five different types of homeowner could be distinguished: the optimists, the privacy-conscious, the technicians, the sceptics, and the indifferent. Their opinions vary as regards the added value of a HEMS, what characteristics a HEMS should have, how much confidence they have in the energy-saving effect of such systems, and their views on the privacy and safety of HEMS. The target group classification can be used as input for a way in which local stakeholders, e.g. a municipality, can offer HEMS that is in line with the wishes of the homeowner.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0336.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: control system; system design; reactive system; physics facility; experiment control; x-ray spectroscopy
Online: 16 August 2021 (12:39:30 CEST)
A novel approach to the remote-control system for the compact multi-crystal energy-dispersive spectrometer for x-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) applications has been developed. This new approach is based on asynchronous communication between software components and on reactive design principles. In this paper, we identify the challenges we have faced, our solution to them as well as the implementation and future development prospects. The main motivation of this work was the development of a new holistic communication protocol that can be implemented to control various hardware components.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0103.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Stochastic processes; stochastic differential equation; coupled system; nonlocal stochastic integral conditions.
Online: 5 July 2021 (14:42:05 CEST)
Here we are concerning with two problems of a coupled system of random and stochastic nonlinear differential equations with two coupled systems of nonlinear nonlocal random and stochastic integral conditions. The existence of solutions will be studied. The sufficient condition for the uniqueness of the solution will be given. The continuous dependence of the unique solution on the nonlocal conditions will be proved.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0365.v1
Subject: Keywords: System identification; Hydrodynamic model; Ship maneuvering; Wave energy converter; Bayesian regression
Online: 16 September 2020 (12:15:24 CEST)
Establishing an accurate mathematical model is the foundation of simulating the motion of marine vehicles and structures, and it is the basis of modeling-based control design. System identification from observed input-output data is a practical and powerful method. However, for modeling objects with different characteristics and known information, a single modeling framework can hardly meet the requirements of model establishment. Moreover, there are some challenges in system identification, such as parameter drift and overfitting. In this work, three robust methods are proposed for generating ocean hydrodynamic models based on Bayesian regression. Two Bayesian techniques, semi-conjugate linear regression and noisy input Gaussian process regression, are used for parametric and nonparametric gray-box modeling and black-box modeling. The experimental free-running tests of the KVLCC2 ship model and a multi-freedom wave energy converter (WEC) are used to validate the proposed Bayesian models. The results demonstrate that the proposed schemes for system identification of the ship and WEC have good generalization ability and robustness. Finally, the developed modeling methods are evaluated considering the aspects required conditions, operating characteristics and prediction accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0293.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: precision dairy farming; milk progesterone; production; reproduction; automatic milking system
Online: 14 July 2020 (05:48:53 CEST)
The aim of the instant study was to evaluate relative inline progesterone dynamic changes according to parity and status of reproduction and to estimate the relationship with productivity in dairy cows by inline milk analysis system (IMAS) Herd Navigator. According to a progesterone assay, cows were divided into three periods: postpartum, after insemination, and pregnancy. In the first stage of the postpartum period (0-29 days), the progesterone level in milk was monitored every 6 days. The second stage of the postpartum period (30-65 days) lasted until cows were inseminated. In the third period (0-45 days) after cows were inseminated, progesterone scores were distributed according to whether or not cows became pregnant. The stability of progesterone dynamics was monitored in the last study period (45-90 days). For milk progesterone detection, the fully automated real-time progesterone analyzer Herd Navigator (Lattec I/S. Hillerød. Denmark) was used in combination with a DeLaval milking robot (DeLaval Inc., Tumba, Sweden). The highest progesterone concentration in multiparous cows ranged from 1.08% (11-17 days postpartum) to 34.89% higher than that in cows of the first parity. The lowest progesterone concentrations in the milk of all cows were estimated during the first 5 postpartum days and between 18 and 23 days after calving. Peak milk progesterone concentrations were evaluated in the first stage of the experiment on days 24-29 after calving. In the 30-65-day period after calving, the level of milk progesterone was 2.02-2.08 times higher than that in the 24-29-day postpartum period. After insemination, the level of progesterone in milk increased by 10.77-22.54% compared with the level from cows on days 30-65 after calving. A higher (12.88%) concentration of progesterone in milk was evaluated in multiparous cows compared with that from cows of the first parity. In pregnant cows, milk progesterone within 0-45 days after insemination was 23.88% (in multiparous cows) and 32.54% (in primiparous cows) higher than that in non-pregnant cows. On days 31–35 after insemination, pregnant cows had higher milk progesterone levels, which can predict pregnancy success. According to our study results, we can suggest that an inline progesterone concentration determined by inline milk analysis system Herd Navigator and changes in its dynamics correlate with different reproductive statuses and milk yield of cows. Pregnant cows 11–15 days after insemination have higher milk progesterone levels, what positively, associated with a successful pregnancy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0452.v2
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: towed vessel; tugboat; propulsion system; towing vessel; steering performance; rudder; back-stepping control
Online: 2 July 2020 (13:43:28 CEST)
In this study, a motion control problem for the vessels towed by tugboats or towing ships on the sea is considered. The towed vessels including barge ships are need to have assistance of tugboats. Combining two vessels, some work purposes in the sea or harbor area can be completed. In this study, the authors give newly developed mathematical model and control system strategy. Especially, the system model fully presenting the physical characteristics of two vessels are derived. For controlling the system effectively, it is considered that the towed vessel has no power propulsion system but the rudder is activated to improve the maneuverability. Considering the strong nonlinearities included in the vessel dynamics, the modelled system is presented by nonlinear system without linearization of nonlinear parameters. Thus, the control system for the towed vessel is designed based on the nonlinear control scheme. Exactly, the back-stepping control method is applied to its motion control. Also, the PID control method is applied for comparing with the proposed control strategy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0100.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: automatic voltage control (AVC); virtual dispatching master station; simulated power system; digital simulation
Online: 5 July 2018 (15:54:27 CEST)
Generator automatic voltage control device (AVC) is an automatic voltage and reactive power optimization control terminal on the power plant side. Aiming at improving the performance of generator automatic voltage control device, this paper introduces a detection method of AVC substation performance based on virtual dispatching terminal environment. During the testing, the upper computer of redundant power plant is connected to the virtual dispatching terminal environment to simulate the sending instructions of AVC master station, the behavior of AVC sub stations and the excitation system of generators. The performance of AVC substation is evaluated according to the feedback adjustment results, which can effectively detect the abnormal behavior of AVC substation in power plant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0067.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Cognitive & Experimental Psychology Keywords: CSERP; OERP; EEG; spectra power; olfactory system; 3M syndrome; rare disease
Online: 4 March 2020 (11:38:24 CET)
3M syndrome is a rare disorder that involves the gene CUL7. CUL7 modulates odour detection, conditions the olfactory response (OR) and plays a role in olfactory system development. Despite this involvement, there are no direct studies on olfactory functional effects in 3M syndrome. The purpose of the present work was to analyse the cortical OR, through chemosensory event-related potentials (CSERP) and power spectra calculated by electroencephalogram (EEG) signals recorded in 3M infants: two twins (3M-N) and an additional subject (3M-O). The results suggest that olfactory processing is diversified. Comparison of N1 and LPC components indicated substantial differences in 3M syndrome that may be a consequence of a modified olfactory processing pattern. Moreover, the presence of delta rhythms in 3M-O and 3M-N clearly indicates their involvement with OR, since the delta rhythm is closely connected to chemosensory perception, in particular to olfactory perception.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0358.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: trajectory planning; optimal control; parafoil; airdrop system; cuckoo search; geometric segmentation strategy
Online: 19 August 2022 (05:47:39 CEST)
Reasonable trajectory planning is the precondition for the parafoil airdrop system to achieve autonomous accurate homing and safe landing. In order to successfully realize the self-homing of the parafoil airdrop system, a new trajectory optimization design scheme is proposed in this paper. The scheme is based on the parafoil's unique flight and control characteristics and adopts a segmented homing design. Compared with the current common trajectory design method, its core feature is to avoid the problem that the straight-line flight distance before landing is limited by the radius of the height-reducing area and ensure landing accuracy and safety. Firstly, the different starting states of the parafoil airdrop system and the landing requirements were comprehensively considered, and the homing trajectory is reasonably segmented. Based on the requirements of energy control, stable flight, and landing accuracy, the optimal objective function of the trajectory was established, and the trajectory parameters, calculation methods, and constraints were given. Secondly, the cuckoo search algorithm was applied to optimize the objective function to obtain the final home trajectory. Finally, the trajectory planning under different airdrop conditions was simulated and verified. The results showed that the planned trajectories could reach the target point accurately and meet the flight direction requirements, proving the proposed scheme's correctness and feasibility.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0264.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: defendant; legal psychology; litigation; mental health; plaintiff; user of the justice system
Online: 23 October 2019 (04:19:58 CEST)
This study aimed to assess the psychological effects of being processed by the justice system, either as a plaintiff or as a defendant. The sample consisted of 360 subjects, 32.8% defendants and 52.2% plaintiffs, residents in the Autonomous Community of Galicia (NW Spain). A lot of psychological test were administered. The results indicated significant differences between plaintiffs and defendants. The former were more pessimistic about the future, used poor strategies for protecting health, and had less empathy. In contrast, defendants had a more negative outlook on life, and in general more psychosomatic symptomology. Thus, both defendants and plaintiffs suffered health problems. Moreover, the group with the longest exposure to litigation had the worst deteriorated health. In conclusion, defendants were more pessimistic about the future, used poor strategies for protecting their own health, and showed less empathy. Likewise, plaintiffs had a more negative outlook on life, and on the whole presented more psychosomatic symptomology. Thus, both defendants and plaintiffs presented health problems. Moreover, the comparison between litigants and non-litigants showed health was more deteriorated in the former, but only in a few specific variables.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0110.v2
Subject: Keywords: curcumin; nanoparticle; inflammation; λ-carrageenan; nanoparticle permeability; Biopharmaceutical Class System (BCS) 4
Online: 11 August 2016 (11:24:03 CEST)
Curcumin, a hydrophobic polyphenol compound derived from the rhizome of the Curcuma genus, has a wide spectrum of biological and pharmacological applications. Previously, curcumin nanoparticles with different stabilizers had been produced successfully in order to enhance solubility and per oral absorption. In the present study, we tested the anti-inflammatory effect of D-α-Tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS)-stabilized curcumin nanoparticles in vivo. Lambda-carrageenan (λ-carrageenan) was used to induce inflammation in rats; it was given by an intraplantar route and intrapelurally through surgery in the pleurisy test. In the λ-carrageenan-induced edema model, TPGS-stabilized curcumin nanoparticles were given orally one hour before induction and at 0.5, 4.5, and 8.5 h after induction with two different doses (1.8 and 0.9 mg/kg body weight (BW)). Sodium diclofenac with a dose of 4.5 mg/kg BW was used as a standard drug. A physical mixture of curcumin-TPGS was also used as a comparison with a higher dose of 60 mg/kg BW. The anti-inflammatory effect was assessed on the edema in the carrageenan-induced paw edema model and by the volume of exudate as well as the number of leukocytes reduced in the pleurisy test. TPGS-stabilized curcumin nanoparticles with lower doses showed better anti-inflammatory effects, indicating the greater absorption capability through the gastrointestinal tract.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0072.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Image Processing System; Drones; Surveillance system; FANET operations
Online: 3 August 2022 (03:54:45 CEST)
The major goal of this paper is to use image enhancement techniques for enhancing and extracting data in FANET applications to improve the efficiency of surveillance. The proposed conceptual system design can improve the likelihood of FANET operations in oil pipeline surveillance, and sports and media coverage with the ultimate goal of providing efficient services to those who are interested. The system architecture model is based on current scientific principles and developing technologies. A FANET, which is capable of gathering image data from video-enabled drones, and an image processing system that permits data collection and analysis are the two primary components of the system. Based on the image processing technique, a proof of concept for efficient data extraction and enhancement in FANET situations and possible services is illustrated
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0055.v1
Online: 15 February 2017 (11:20:31 CET)
The process of modelling energy systems is accompanied by challenges inherently connected with mathematical modelling. However, due to modern realities in the 21st century, existing challenges are gaining in magnitude and are supplemented with new ones. Modellers are confronted with a rising complexity of energy systems and high uncertainties on different levels. In addition, interdisciplinary modelling is necessary for getting insight in mechanisms of an integrated world. At the same time models need to meet scientific standards as public acceptance becomes increasingly important. In this intricate environment model application as well as result communication and interpretation is also getting more difficult. In this paper we present the open energy modelling framework (oemof) as a novel approach for energy system modelling and derive its contribution to existing challenges. Therefore, based on literature review, we outline challenges for energy system modelling as well as existing and emerging approaches. Based on a description of the philosophy and elementary structural elements of oemof, a qualitative analysis of the framework with regard to the challenges is undertaken. Inherent features of oemof such as the open source, open data, non-proprietary and collaborative modelling approach are preconditions to meet modern realities of energy modelling. Additionally, a generic basis with an object-oriented implementation allows to tackle challenges related to complexity of highly integrated future energy systems and sets the foundation to address uncertainty in the future. Experiences from the collaborative modelling approach can enrich interdisciplinary modelling activities. Our analysis concludes that there are remaining challenges that can neither be tackled by a model nor a modelling framework. Among these are problems connected to result communication and interpretation.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0590.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Field Programmable Gate Array, Flight Control System, and Hardware Design.
Online: 30 July 2018 (14:45:25 CEST)
Abstract— Flight Control System is an integrated avionics system equipped with the minimum required components for an autonomous flight. This paper focuses on the Hardware Design of the Flight Control System and presents specific details of the components and its interface. The system architecture is based on Field Programmable Gate Array and Digital Signal Processor. Employing these two processors in the flight control system would improve the Flight Control System performance in terms of fast sequential processing of high-level control algorithms. In addition to Field Programmable Gate Array and Digital Signal Processor, the flight control computer system will also make use of Global Positioning System and Micro Electro Mechanical System sensors. The project will be implemented using Altera’s System On Programmable Chip builder, currently known as Qsys – Platform Designer implemented in Quartus-II. The system employs Nios-II processor which is 32-bit soft-core embedded-processor architecture designed especially for the Altera’s family of Field Programmable Gate Array. From conceptualization to final design, this paper presents the functionality of the different modulus and complex interfaces employed in this Flight Control System.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0163.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General & Theoretical Computer Science Keywords: emergence; uniqueness; existence of solutions; input/output system; system specifications; discrete event system specification
Online: 17 August 2016 (11:29:23 CEST)
Conditions under which compositions of component systems form a well-defined system-of-systems here are formulated at a fundamental level. Statement of what defines a well-defined composition and sufficient conditions guaranteeing such a result offers insight into exemplars that can be found in special cases such as differential equation and discrete event systems. For any given global state of a composition, two requirements can be stated informally as: 1) the system can leave this state, i.e., there is at least one trajectory defined that starts from the state, and 2) the trajectory evolves over time without getting stuck at a point in time. Considered for every global state, these conditions determine whether the resultant is a well-defined system and if so, whether it is non-deterministic or deterministic. We formulate these questions within the framework of iterative specifications for mathematical system models that are shown to be behaviorally equivalent to the Discrete Event System Specification (DEVS) formalism. This formalization supports definitions and proofs of the afore-mentioned conditions. Implications are drawn at the fundamental level of existence where the emergence of a system from an assemblage of components can be characterized. We focus on systems with feedback coupling where existence and uniqueness of solutions is problematic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0186.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: stable water isotopes; deuterium; oxygen-18; soil water; fine root system
Online: 16 October 2019 (10:32:02 CEST)
Stable isotope concentrations in the soil, rain and ground water have been used to trace the water extraction zones of plants in different environments. The need to identify the plant water use by plants in afforestation programs to control desertification increases the importance of sap water partitioning of plants in sand dune areas. However, the introduction of new plant covers exerts pressure on the water resources and can affect the local soil water conditions. In this study, we analyzed the isotope concentrations in rain, soil, sap, and ground water after the summer of 2010. Two experimental plots established in the Hailiutu catchment (Shaanxi province, northwest China) were selected to gather the water samples between September and October 2010. One plot is dominated by Salix bushes (Salix psammophila C. Wang \& Chang Y. Yang) and the other by the tree species Willow (Salix matsudana Koidz.). The total precipitation at the experimental site was 401 mm/yr during 2010, while 88.7 mm was collected in total for the period September to October. Willow trees transpired 12.82 kg/d being almost three times larger than Salix shrubs (4.57 kg/d). Despite the transpiration rates of both plant species and the few rain events in the region, the soil water beneath the plant covers is not depleted. Stable isotope signature of soil water beneath both covers shows the fractionation front in Salix at 20 cm depth and at Willow at 40 cm depth. However, soil water signature is closer to the groundwater than the collected rain water.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0362.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Maritime transport; Automatic mooring system; Container vessel; TEU; CO2 emissions.
Online: 16 July 2020 (13:45:05 CEST)
Taking into account the increase in the emission of greenhouse gases produced by ships, during navigation and maneuvering in the port, a direct consequence of the increase in maritime traffic, the international community has developed a broad set of regulations to limit such emissions. The installation in commercial ports of automatic mooring systems by means of vacuum suction cups (AMS), thus reducing considerably the time required to carry out the mooring and unmooring maneuvers of ships, is a factor that is considerably influencing the decrease in Emissions of polluting gases in commercial ports with high traffic. The objective of the present work is to verify the influence of the use of the AMS on the emissions of polluting gases produced in the facilities destined to the traffic of container ships. It examines the CO2 emissions of container ships that call in the only three container ports equipped with AMS: Salalah (Oman), Beirut (Lebanon) and Ngqura (South Africa). Between them, these three ports supported the transit of 6 million TEUS in 2017. The calculation of emissions is made taking into account the time saved when performing the mooring maneuvers using the new AMS system compared with when it is not used. To do this, two different calculation methods are used: EPA and ENTEC to then compare the results of the two and thus obtain the reduction in emissions per TEU in these terminals during the mooring maneuvers. The paper concludes with a discussion on the values of the reductions in emissions obtained and the advantages of the installation of AMS in commercial ports located near population centres.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0144.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: portal system; portal vein; portosystemic shunt; portal hypertension; computed tomography
Online: 15 January 2019 (08:46:21 CET)
This article offers an overview of congenital and acquired vascular anomalies involving the portal venous system in dogs and cats, as determined by multidetector-row computed tomography angiography. Congenital absence of the portal vein, portal vein hypoplasia, portal vein thrombosis and portal collaterals are described. Portal collaterals are further discussed as high- and low-flow connections, and categorized in hepatic arterioportal malformation, arteriovenous fistula, end-to-side and side-to-side congenital portosystemic shunts, acquired portosystemic shunts, cavoportal and porto-portal collaterals. Knowledge of different portal system anomalies helps understand the underlying physiopathological mechanism and is essential for surgical and interventional approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0202.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: DC-DC converter; photovoltaic energy storage system; high voltage gain; high efficiency
Online: 17 April 2019 (11:40:50 CEST)
Intended for the high voltage gain and wide-range operation of DC/DC converters for photovoltaic energy storage systems, a topology for four-phase interleaved DC/DC converters for photovoltaic power generation is proposed. This topology increases output voltage for output in series, and reduces the input current ripple by paralleling the input. Compared with traditional boost converter topology, the proposed topology reduces the output current and output voltage ripple, reduces the stress of the switching device, and reduces the withstanding voltage of the output capacitor under the premise of ensuring the boost ratio. Experimental results show that the maximum efficiency of the converter reaches 95.37%. Compared with traditional boost converters, the proposed converter offers obvious advantages in efficiency under the conditions that the output voltage and load are variable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0219.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: Endometriosis; Orbignya speciosa; Copaifera lansgdorffii nanoemulsion; self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system
Online: 17 October 2022 (02:07:50 CEST)
Background: Current drug for the treatment of endometriosis is not able of completely cure and significant side effects hinder the continuation of treatment. So, the search for new drug candidates is necessary, and the use of plants extracts is highlighted. Babassu oil and copaiba oilresin have several therapeutic properties. We investigated the in vitro effects of two nanoemulsions containing babassu oil (Orbignya speciosa) (SNEDDS-18) and/or copaiba oilresin (Copaifera langsdorffii) (SNEDDS-18/COPA) on cultured human eutopic endometrium stromal cells from endometrial biopsies of patients without (CESC) and with (EuESC) endometriosis, and human stromal cells from biopsies of endometriotic lesions (EctESC). Methods: CESC, EuESC and EctESC were established and treated with SNEDDS-18 and SNEDDS-18/COPA to evaluate its effects on cytotoxicity, cell morphology, proliferation, and signaling pathways. Results: After 48 hours incubation with SNEDDS-18 and SNEDDS-18/COPA, cell viability and proliferation were inhibited, especially in EctESC. The lowest concentration of both nanoemulsions reduced cell viability and proliferation and breakdown the cytoskeleton in EctESCs. After 24h treatment it was observed a decrease in IL-1, TNF-α, and MCP-1, and an increase in IL-10 production. Conclusions: Both nanoemulsions can affect the endometriotic stromal cell behaviors, thus revealing two potential candidates for new phytotherapeutic agents on the management of endometriosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0534.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: governance; social-ecological system; tropical cyclone; urban forest; urban tree canopy
Online: 23 July 2021 (10:31:50 CEST)
Urban Tree Canopy (UTC) greatly enhances the livability of cities by reducing urban heat buildup, mitigating stormwater runoff, and filtering airborne particulates, among other ecological services. These benefits, combined with the relative ease of measuring tree cover from aerial imagery, have led many cities to adopt management strategies based on UTC goals. In this study, we conducted canopy analyses for the 300 largest cities in Florida to assess the impacts of development practices, urban forest ordinances, and hurricanes on tree cover. Within the cities sampled, UTC canopy ranged from 5.9% to 68.7% with a median canopy coverage of 32.3% Our results indicate that the peak gust speeds recorded during past hurricanes events were a significant predictor of canopy coverage (P-value = <0.001) across the sampled cities. As peak gust speeds increased from 152 km/h (i.e., a lower-intensity Category 1 storm) to 225 km/h (lower-intensity Category 4 and the maximum gusts captured in our data), predicted canopy in developed urban areas decreased by 7.7%. Beyond the impacts of hurricanes and tropical storms, we found that historic landcover and two out of eight urban forest ordinances were significant predictors of existing canopy coverage (P-landcover <0.001; P-tree preservation ordinance = 0.02, P-heritage tree ordinance = 0.03). Results indicate that local policies and tree protections can protect or enhance urban tree canopy, even in the face of rapid development and periodic natural disturbances.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0047.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: sustainable development; system resilience; resilient and sustainable infrastructure; pandemics; COVID-19
Online: 6 April 2020 (10:14:50 CEST)
Humanity’s social and economic development has been challenged by a range of adversities over the millennia that have caused widespread and unimaginable suffering. At the same time, these challenges have forced humans to evolve more wisely, overcoming adversity through creativity and leading to advancements in science and technology, medicine, ethics and legal systems, and socio-political systems. The dynamics of risks and opportunities caused by COVID-19, in the built, cyber, social and economic environments, present opportunities for deepening our understanding of resilient and sustainable development and infrastructure. This article reflects on five lessons that COVID-19 is teaching us about what it means to develop sustainably through the lens of transportation: (1) sustainable development planning and analytical frameworks must be comprehensive, for long-term sustainability; (2) multi-modal transportation is a superior vision for sustainable development than any one particular mode; (3) tele-activities are part of an effective infrastructure sustainability strategy; (4) economic capital is critically important to sustainable development even when it is not a critical existential threat, and, (5) effective social capital is essential in global disaster resistance and recovery, and can and must be leveraged between fast-moving and slow-moving disasters. Resilient and sustainable infrastructure will continue to be critical to addressing evolving natural and man-made hazards in the 21st Century.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0129.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: circadian timing system; EEG; spectral analysis; sleepiness; melanopic equivalent daylight illuminance; melatonin; slow-wave activity
Online: 12 September 2019 (10:59:27 CEST)
We examined whether the ambient illuminance during extended wakefulness modulates the homeostatic increase in human deep sleep [i.e. slow wave sleep (SWS) and electroencephalographic (EEG) slow-wave activity (SWA)] in healthy young and older volunteers. Thirty-eight young and older participants underwent 40 hours of extended wakefulness [i.e. sleep deprivation (SD)] once under dim light (DL: 8 lux, 2800K), and once under either white light (WL: 250 lux, 2800K) or blue-enriched white light (BL: 250 lux, 9000K) exposure. Subjective sleepiness was assessed hourly and polysomnography was quantified during the baseline night prior to the 40-h SD and during the subsequent recovery night. Both the young and older participants responded with a higher homeostatic sleep response to 40-h SD after WL and BL than after DL. This was indexed by a significantly faster intra-night accumulation of SWS and a significantly higher response in relative EEG SWA during the recovery night after WL and BL than after DL for both age groups. No significant differences were observed between the WL and BL condition for these two particular SWS and SWA measures. Subjective sleepiness ratings during the 40-h SD were significantly reduced under both WL and BL compared to DL, but were not significantly associated with markers of sleep homeostasis in both age groups. Our data indicate that not only the duration of prior wakefulness, but also the experienced illuminance during wakefulness affects homeostatic sleep regulation in humans. Thus, working extended hours under low illuminance may negatively impact subsequent sleep intensity in humans.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0177.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: shortcut nitrification; constructed rapid infiltration system; potassium chlorate inhibition; domestic sewage
Online: 27 February 2018 (08:50:13 CET)
Constructed rapid infiltration system (CRI) is a new type of sewage biofilm treatment technology, but due to its anaerobic zone lacks of the carbon sources and the condition for nitrate retention, its nitrogen removal perfomance is very poor; However, shortcut nitrification-denitrification process presents distinctive advantages, as it saves oxygen, requires less organic matter and needs less time for denitrification compared to conventional nitrogen removal method. Thus, if the shortcut nitrification-denitrification process could be applied to CRI system properly, the simpler, more economic and efficient nitrogen removal method will be obtained. But, as its reaction process shows that the first and the most important step of achieving shortcut nitrification-denitrification is to achieve shortcut nitrification. Thus, in this study, we explored the feasibility to achieve shortcut nitrification, which produces nitrite as the dominant nitrogen species in effluent, by addition of potassium chlorate (KClO3) to the influent. In an experimental CRI model system, the effects on nitrogen removal, nitrate inhibition and nitrite accumulation were studied, and the advantages of achieving shortcut nitrification-denitrification were also analysed. The results showed that shortcut nitrification was successfully achieved and maintained in a CRI system by adding 5 mM KClO3 to the influent at a constant pH of 8.4. Under these conditions nitrite accumulation rate was increased, while a lower concentration of 3 mM KClO3 had no obvious effect. The addition of 5 mM KClO3 in influent presumably allowed sufficient activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) but inhibited nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) strongly enough to result in a maximum nitrite accumulation rate of up to over 80%. As a result, nitrite became the dominant nitrogen product in the effluent. Moreover, if the shortcut denitrification will be achieved in the subsequent research, it could save 60.27 mg carbon source (CH3OH) consumption when treatment of per liter sewage in CRI system compared with full denitrification process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0545.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Covid-19; online teaching and learning; face to face study; learning management system
Online: 24 May 2021 (09:01:42 CEST)
The study is an attempt to enquire into the preference of undergraduate students, after a considerable and over a year-long experience with Online Teaching and Learning (OTL), under the emergency preventive measure of switching from the traditional face-to-face classes to online. The study followed an exploratory approach, with a quantitative survey followed by a qualitative one, and a convenient sampling method to collect responses from a substantial sample size. The study is positioned after more than a year of remote classes by the undergraduate student, and hence represents highly experienced reflections and preferences from these students, as compared to other studies conducted last year. The study has profound implications in considering, and questioning, the importance of on-campus classes, and significance of the physical presence of a tutor in the class, and its effect on the learning experience of undergraduate students.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0315.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: biochar; greenhouse gas emissions; incubation; soil; corn; switchgrass; CO2; N2O; cropping system; diversity
Online: 15 October 2018 (13:10:52 CEST)
Biochar application to soil has been proposed as a means for reducing soil greenhouse gas emissions and mitigating climate change. The effects, however, of interactions between biochar, moisture and temperature on soil CO2 and N2O emissions, remain poorly understood. Furthermore, the applicability of lab-scale observations to field conditions in diverse agroecosystems remains uncertain. Here we investigate the impact of a mixed wood gasification biochar on CO2 and N2O emissions from loess-derived soils using: (1) controlled laboratory incubations at three moisture (27, 31 and 35%) and three temperature (10, 20 and 30°C) levels, and (2) a field study with four cropping systems (continuous corn, switchgrass, low diversity grass mix, and high diversity grass-forb mix). Biochar reduced N2O emissions under specific temperatures and moistures in the laboratory and in the continuous corn cropping system in the field. However, the effect of biochar on N2O emissions was only significant in the field, and no effect on cumulative CO2 emissions was observed. Cropping system also had a significant effect in the field study, with soils in grass and grass-forb cropping systems emitting more CO2 and less N2O than corn cropping systems. Observed biochar effects were consistent with previous studies showing that biochar amendments can reduce soil N2O emissions under specific, but not all, conditions. The disparity in N2O emission responses at the lab and field scales suggests that laboratory incubation experiments are not reliable for predicting the impact of biochar at the field scale.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0605.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Electrochemistry Keywords: arrayed flexible chloride sensor; wireless sensing system; hysteresis voltage; selectivity coefficient; dynamic microfluidic
Online: 31 July 2018 (05:16:24 CEST)
Water quality monitoring was an important objective in the surroundings. In this study, we investigated the sensing characteristics of the arrayed flexible chloride sensor with XBee wireless sensing system. The sensitivity and linearity of the wireless chloride sensing devices were 91.6 mV/pCl and 0.988, respectively. The hysteresis voltages were 50.14 mV and 36.71 mV during the cycles of 1 M → 10−1 M → 1 M → 10−3 M → 1 M and 1 M → 10−3 M → 1 M → 10−1 M → 1 M, respectively. The selectivity coefficients of the ClO− ion, ClO4− ion, NO3− ion and I− ion for Cl− ion were 5.0 × 10−2, 1.0 × 10−1, 5.9 × 10−3 and 5.6×10−1, respectively. The sensing characteristics of real time measurement were investigated for dynamic microfluidic. The arrayed flexible chloride sensor was integrated with the microfluidic device, syringe pump and wireless sensing system. The sensitivity and linearity were 273.1 mV/pCl and 0.978 at 35 μL/min, respectively.