ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0606.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: fracture; theoretical model; seepage pressure; rock deformation
Online: 25 September 2020 (11:36:54 CEST)
The formation of rock fractures in nature has a certain relationship with water seepage. In order to analyze the shape of rock fracture, we propose a rock deformation theoretical model in three-dimensional space considering with the condition of seepage water pressure, and establish the mass conservation equation, seepage equation, surrounding rock displacement equation, so as to deduce the rock deformation control equation under seepage pressure action. The numerical analysis of the nonlinear quadratic partial differential equation obtains the fracture deformation distribution in the example, and verifies with the calculated fracture morphology. And we further use this principle to analyze the fracture morphology in nature and prove the rationality of the theory.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0641.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: three-dimensional laser scanning; rock discontinuity; rock fracture; rock joint; discontinuity orientation.
Online: 23 April 2021 (13:15:02 CEST)
Manual measurement of rock discontinuities is time-consuming and subjective according to the experience of the surveyor. This work proposes a three-dimensional laser scanning-based method for the semi-automatic identification of rock discontinuities. Multisite cloud scanning is performed with real-time kinematic (RTK)-assisted orientation to estimate the rock fracturing degree; then, discontinuity orientations are extracted with the man–machine interactive method or automatic method. The proposed method was applied to actual examples to illustrate its accuracy at identifying rock discontinuities. The sensitivity of the identification accuracy to different parameters was investigated.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: artificial neural networks; rock breakage; rock blasting
Online: 23 July 2020 (10:16:24 CEST)
Over the years, various models have been developed in the stages of the mining process that have allowed predicting and enhancing results, but it is the breakage the variable that connects all the activities of the mining process from the point of view of costs (drilling, blasting, loading, hauling, crushing and grinding). To improve this process, we come up with an idea to develop a breakage prediction model; on the basis of the main variables involved in the drilling and blasting process. For this purpose, we design a computer model based on an Artificial Neuronal Networks (ANN), built by using the most representative variables that come into play with drilling and blasting, such as: the properties of the explosives, the geomechanical parameters of the rock mass, and the design parameters of drilling-blasting. For its experimentation and validation, we have taken the data from a copper mine as reference located in the north of Chile, because of we have the dataset of that ore deposit, which is valid and reliable to evaluate prediction problems based on ANN applied to copper mines. The ANN architecture was of the supervised type, feedforward, with 3 layers and 13 neurons in the only hidden layer, trained with the input data using a dataset with the previously mentioned variables, which then were compared with the breakage results. The model was feed backed in its learning process until it becomes perfected, and is a prediction option that can be used in future blasting of ore deposits with similar characteristics using the same representative variables. Therefore, this is a valid alternative for predicting rock breakage, given that it has been experimentally validated, and has achieved moderately reliable results, providing higher correlation coefficients than traditional models, and with the additional advantage that an ANN model provides, due to its ability to learn and recognize compiled dataset patterns. In this way, using this computer model we can obtain satisfactory results that allow us to predict breakage, providing an alternative for evaluating the costs that this entails.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0452.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Kinematic; Rock Mass Classification; R.M.R; S.M.R; Rock Slope Stability
Online: 22 February 2021 (10:07:14 CET)
Karakoram highway (K.K.H.) the only road link between two countries China and Pakistan. This road network is essential for two countries due to its strategic location and socioeconomic. The highway is more vulnerable due to landslide disasters, especially in rain and snow melting seasons, and different kinds of mass movement activities have occurred along K.K.H., such as rockfall, debris flow, and snow avalanche. The slope stability problems are widespread along with Karakorum (K.K.H.) between Besham city and the Dasu area because of the high seismic zone, rainfall, snow melting, and complex geology slope geometry, week, and adverse discontinuities sets. The detailed fieldwork was done along the Karakorum highway to minimize the risk of slope stability and for planning purposes in Besham to Dasu area and selected nine road-cut slopes. However, in these nine selected roadcut slopes, three slopes were already failed, four slopes are partially stable, and two slopes were stable. Both kinematic and empirical approaches are applied on all these nine road cut slopes and their discontinuities. The kinematic result has shown that all kinds of mode failure such as Toppling, Planar, and Wedge failure mode occurred in these slopes. The RMRb result has shown that all discounters lie in between fair to good rock. Both discrete and continuous (S.M.R.) results show that all discontinuity sets lie between the unstable, partially stable, and stable conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0424.v1
Online: 16 November 2020 (14:20:15 CET)
Rock salt is characterized by specific geomechanical and rheological properties. Layers of rock salt on depth over 900 m cause problems with shaft lining deformation. Methods of shaft lining protection used so far (e.g. in Sieroszowice mine) have not been effective enough. The research presents a patented and copyright protected concept of a shaft lining construction that can be used in rock masses with strong rheological properties and susceptible to leaching. In the case of salt layers, especially at significant depths the relative convergence of the heading contour may be about 40 ‰/year. That results in the fact that any other method of securing the shaft lining, e.g. by making it flexible, is not sufficient to ensure the stability of the shaft guidance geometry. In the new shaft lining concept, the excessive rock creep into the outbreak inside the shaft diameter is removed by local and controlled leaching of the shaft cheeks by means of fresh water through a porous medium at the contact layer behind the watertight tubing lining. The article presents the methodology of performing tests on a special device and the test results.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0284.v1
Online: 16 September 2021 (13:29:23 CEST)
A single paragraph Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) establish symbiotic relationships with many crops. These soil microbiotas improve the soil fertility through the soil physical, chemical and biological properties. extending the root absorbing area. In return, the symbiont receives plant carbohydrates for the completion of its life cycle. AMF also helps plants to cope with biotic and abiotic stresses such as extreme temperature, heavy metal, diseases, and pathogens. For soil physical properties, the mechanisms used by AMF are the production of a glycoprotein, glomalin, which creates a high quality of soil macro-aggregations. These macro-aggregations control soil erosion, nutrients and organic matter losses. For soil chemical properties, AMF produce acids and an enzyme called phosphatase. This enzyme hydrolyzes the inorganic phosphorus and the rock phosphate (RP) hence making P available in the soil for plant uptake. AMF also are involved in soil nitrogen, carbon and trace element cycling. Regarding the biological component of the soil, AMF influence the composition, diversity and activity of microbial communities in the hydrosphere. They also work in synergy with others soil microorganisms to improve soil fertility, plant growth and resistance against some diseases. In this review, we present the contribution of AMF on soil fertility and importance in polluted soils.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0024.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: aquifer, rock, radioactive isotopes, groundwater dating
Online: 4 October 2017 (16:45:54 CEST)
Uranium isotopes actively investigated as mechanistic or time scale tracers of natural processes. This paper describes the occurrence and redistribution of U in the Vendian aquifer of the paleo valley at NW Russia. Forty-four rock samples were collected from boreholes, and twenty-five groundwater samples. The U, Fe concentration, and 234U/238U activity ratio were determined in the samples. We estimated the 14C and 234U-238U residence time of groundwater in an aquifer. It has been established that the processes of chemical weathering of Vendian deposits led to the formation of a strong oxidation zone, developed above -250 m.a.s.l. The inverse correlation between the concentrations of uranium and iron is a result of removal of U from paleo valley slopes in oxidizing conditions and accumulation of U at the bottom of the paleo valley in reducing conditions, and accumulation of Fe on the slopes and removal from bottom. Almost all U on the slopes replaced by a newly formed hydrogenic U with a higher 234U/238U activity ratio. After that dissolution and desorption of hydrogenic U was occurred from the slopes during periods without any glaciations and marine transgressions. Elevated concentrations of U preserved in not oxidized lenses at the paleo valley bottom.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0343.v1
Online: 21 December 2021 (13:57:27 CET)
Abstract The expression patterns of microRNAs (small non-coding RNAs) are altered in many biological processes such as myogenesis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the impact of predicted miR-202, its target genes Akt2 and Rock-1 as a potential regulator of myoblast in the myocyte differentiation process using the C2C12 cell line. After confirmation of the differentiation process induced by 3% horse serum, the expression level of miRNA and its targets were evaluated. In the following, a luciferase assay was conducted to approve the effect of miRNA on its target. Our results indicated that miR-202 and Akt2 were significantly up-regulated during differentiation, while Rock-1 was downregulated. Co-transfection of miRNA with psiCHECK2-Rock-1 significantly presented that Rock-1 was directly targeted by miR-202. On the contrary, miR-202 has failed to enforce its inhibitory effect on Akt2 expression. In particular, miR-202 seems to be a regulator of muscle differentiation pathway thought targeting Rock-1.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0332.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: embedment; shale rock; proppant pack; fracture width
Online: 30 April 2019 (11:31:00 CEST)
This paper concerns the effect of proppant embedment related with hydraulic fracturing treatment. This phenomenon occurs if the strength of the reservoir rock is lower than proppant grains. The aim of the research is laboratory determining the loss of width of the proppant pack built of light ceramic grains. The laboratory simulation of the embedment phenomenon was carried out for a shale rock on a hydraulic press, in a specially prepared for this purpose a heated embedment chamber. Tests were conducted at high temperature and axial compressive stress conditions. The surfaces of the cylindrical core plugs (fracture faces) were imaged under an optical microscope equipped with 3D software. The fracture faces were examined and compared before and after the embedment phenomenon. The analysis of the obtained images of the fracture face were made based on the research method of the embedment phenomenon developed at Oil and Gas Institute-NRI. On the basis of laboratory tests, the parameters characterizing the embedment phenomenon were collected and discussed. In addition, the percentage reduction in the width of the proppant pack was determined.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0716.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: hard rock mine; cemented rock fill (CRF); backfilling step scenario; major principal stress; stress concentration factor (SCF); displacement
Online: 31 May 2021 (08:43:52 CEST)
Cemented rock fill (CRF) is commonly used in cut-and-fill stoping operation in underground mining. This allows for the maximum recovery of ore. Backfilling can improve stope stability in underground workings, and then improve ground stability of the whole mine site. Backfilling step scenarios vary from site to site. This paper presents the investigation of five different backfilling step scenarios and their impacts on the stability of stopes at four different mining levels. A comprehensive comparison of displacements, major principal stress and stress concentration factor (SCF) was conducted. The results show that different backfilling step scenarios have little influence on the final displacement for displacement in the stopes. Among the five backfilling scenarios, the major principal stress and stress concentration factor (SCF) have almost the same final results. The backfilling scenario SCN-1 is the optimum option among these five backfilling scenarios. It can immediately prevent the increase of the displacement and reduce the sidewall stress concentration, thereby preventing possible failures. Using the same strength of CRF can achieve same effects among the four mining levels. Applying backfilling CRF of the same strength at different mining depths is acceptable and feasible to improve the stability of the stopes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0046.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: Information entropy; Correlation dimension; Acoustic emission; Rock instability
Online: 5 May 2022 (15:59:42 CEST)
The issue of monitoring and early warning of rock instability has received increasing critical attention in the study of rock engineering. To investigate the damage evolution process of granite under triaxial compression tests, acoustic emission (AE) tests were performed simultaneously. This study firstly introduced two novel parameters, i.e., the coefficient of variation (CoV) of the information entropy and correlation dimension of the amplitude data from the AE tests, to identify the precursor of the failure of granite. Then the relationship between the changes in these parameters and the stress-time curve was compared and analyzed. The results of this study show that: (1) There is a strong correlation between the CoV of the information entropy and the failure process of granite. The granite failed when the CoV curve raised to a plateau. (2) The fluctuation of the correlation dimension indicates the different stages of the loading process, i.e., the initial compaction stage, the linear elastic stage, the yield stage, and the failure stage. Each stage contains a descending and a rising process in the correlation dimension curve, which indicates that this parameter could be used to identify the precursor of the failure as well. (3) The combined analysis of the two can improve the accuracy of rock instability prediction. This study provides new insights into the prediction of rock instability, which has theoretical implications for the stability of subsurface engineering rock masses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0094.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: hPSCs; ROCK inhibitors; fasudil; cell survival; metabolism; differentiation
Online: 8 November 2019 (10:41:13 CET)
Poor survival of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) following freezing, thawing, or passaging hinders maintenance and differentiation in stem cell research. Rho-associated kinases (ROCKs) play a crucial role in hPSC survival. To date, a typical ROCK inhibitor, Y-27632, has been the primary agent used in hPSC research. Here, we report that another ROCK inhibitor, fasudil, can be used as an alternative. Fasudil increased hPSC growth due to survival rather than proliferation following thawing and passaging, similar to Y-27632. It did not affect pluripotency and genetic integrity including mitochondrial genome (mtDNA). Notably, the genes related to metabolism, mTORC1, and TP53 have mainly displayed a faster recovery pattern with ROCK inhibitors than control. Furthermore, fasudil was confirmed as useful for the single dissociation of hPSCs and for aggregation. It also increased retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) differentiation and the survival of neural crest cells during differentiation. These findings suggest that fasudil can replace Y-27632 for use in stem cell research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0584.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: salt rock; creep; damage; fractional derivative; acoustic emission
Online: 30 July 2018 (11:15:31 CEST)
The use of salt rock for underground radioactive waste disposal facilities requires a comprehensive analysis of creep-damage process in salt rock. A computer-controlled creep setup is employed to carry out a creep test of salt rock lasted as long as 359 days under a constant uniaxial stress. The AE space-time evolution and energy releasing characteristics during creep test are studied in the meantime. A new creep-damage model is proposed on the basis of fractional derivative by combining the AE statistical regularity. It indicates that the AE data in non-decay creep process of salt rock can be divided into three stages. Furthermore, the parameters of new creep-damage model are determined by Quasi-Newton method. The fitting analysis suggests that the creep-damage model based on fractional derivative in this paper provides a precise description of full creep regions in salt rock.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0002.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: biota colonization; weathering; rock porosity; Pleistocene moraines; moraine relative dating
Online: 1 March 2021 (12:30:16 CET)
For the Altai mountainous region, especially the arid south-eastern part, the history of glacier fluctuations in Pleistocene and Holocene is still poorly known. The key plots were located in the Kargy valley (2288-2387 m a. s. l.) that is not currently affected by glaciations. The relative dating method was applied to define Pleistocene moraine chronology and configuration in the Kargy valley. Taking into account that relative dating methods are primarily based on weathering pat-terns, the mineralogy, porosity, and specificity of biological colonization as an agent of weath-ering were obtained for the moraine samples. Three moraine groups of different age (presumably MIS 6, MIS 4, and MIS 2) were identifies based on detailed investigation of morphological features. The moraine age was indirectly confirmed by the mesostructure of the moraine samples repre-sented by fine-grained shale: the older sample is characterized by a more developed fractal sur-face than the younger one. The growth of biota (crustose lichen and micromycetes) leads to initial biomass accumulation and subsequent rock disintegration. The accumulation of autochthonous fine earth on the rock surface was considered the initial stage of fine earth formation affected by biota.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0056.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: shale; CO2-water-rock interaction; mechanical properties; crack propagation; microstructure
Online: 5 August 2016 (12:35:12 CEST)
The effects of CO2-water-rock interactions on the mechanical properties of shale are essential for estimating the possibility of sequestrating CO2 in shale reservoirs. In this study, uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) tests together with an acoustic emission (AE) system and SEM & EDS analysis were performed to investigate the mechanical properties and microstructural changes of black shales with different saturation times (10 days, 20 days and 30 days) in water dissoluted with sub-/super-critical CO2. According to the experimental results, the values of UCS, Young’s modulus and brittleness index decrease gradually with increasing saturation time in water with sub-/super-critical CO2. Compared to intact samples, 30-days’ saturation causes reductions of 56.43% in UCS and 54.21% in Young’s modulus for sub-critical saturated samples, and 66.05% in UCS and 56.32% in Young’s modulus for super-critical saturated samples, respectively. The brittleness index also decreases drastically from 84.3% for intact samples to 50.9% for samples saturated in water with sub-critical CO2, to 47.9% for samples saturated in water with super-critical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2). SC-CO2 causes a greater reduction of shale’s mechanical properties. The crack propagation results obtained from the AE system show that longer saturation time produces higher peak cumulative AE energy. SEM images show that many pores occur when shale samples are saturated in water with sub-/super-critical CO2. The EDS results show that CO2-water-rock interactions increase the percentages of C and Fe and decrease the percentages of Al and K on the surface of saturated samples when compared to intact samples.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0174.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: high-pressure water jet; high-pressure abrasive water- jet; rock processing
Online: 9 December 2022 (09:22:30 CET)
Rocks are materials with a wide variety of structures and properties. These can be unprocessed conglomerates of conglomerated minerals as well as crystallized outcrop or metamorphic rocks. Their processing, especially shaping, poses many technological difficulties. Therefore, it is very important to answer the question of how these natural materials yield to high-pressure water jet and abrasive water. It is equally important to determine the effect of key process parameters such as pressure, water nozzle diameter and feed rate on cutting efficiency. The first two parameters determine the water output and power of the jet, while the third determines the jet erosion time per unit volume of material. Their interdependence, using appropriate evaluation indicators, allows to determine the energy intensity of processing and directions for its minimization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0352.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: lithologic heterogeneity; rock-mechanical property; mixed carbonate; tight reservoirs; Qaidam basin
Online: 24 October 2022 (07:12:09 CEST)
In order to understand the impact of lithologic heterogeneity of continental mixed fine-grained sedimentary rocks on reservoir brittleness in western Qaidam basin, the mechanical properties of the rocks and their correlation with mineral composition and petrographic characteristics were studied by measns of mineralogy, petrography and triaxial stress test. The results show that the reservoir rocks can be divided into 5 different types according to the mechanical properties of the reservoir (characteristics of stress-strain curves), among them Type I and III belong to similar elastoplastic failure model, type II shows a special pulse failure mode for plastic material, type IV shows a failure mode of mixed characteristics, and type V exhibits a typical plastic failure model. The correlation between minerals and mechanical properties indicates that quartz and feldspar, which are often considered brittle minerals, do not contribute much to the brittleness of continental fine-grained sedimentary rocks. The main minerals affecting reservoir brittleness are dolomite and clay minerals, and their contributions to reservoir brittleness are positive and negative, respectively. The petrographic analysis results prove that the abnormal correlation between rock mechanical properties and quartz and feldspar is caused by the different rock fabrics. When dolomite forms a rock skeleton, it typically exhibits greater strength, brittleness and physical properties than other minerals. Based on the results, a brittleness evaluation standard for continental fine-grained sedimentary rock reservoir is proposed, and the validity of the standard is verified by the spatial correlation between the lithology probability model and the micro-seismic monitoring data, indicating that the spatial heterogeneity of dolomite-rich rock is the main controlling factor for the development of ‘sweet spot’ in the Cenozoic continental fine-grained sedimentary rock reservoir in the Western Qaidam Basin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0184.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: Spectral; Geochemistry; Random Forest; Regression; Whole Rock; MIR; SWIR; VNIR; NMF
Online: 21 December 2021 (12:35:45 CET)
The efficacy of predicting geochemical parameters with a 2-chain workflow using spectral data as the initial input is evaluated. Spectral measurements spanning the approximate 400-25000nm spectral range are used to train a workflow consisting of a non-negative matrix function (NMF) step, for data reduction, and a random forest regression (RFR) to predict 8 geochemical parameters. Approximately 175000 spectra with their corresponding chemical analysis were available for training, testing and validation purposes. The samples and their spectral and chemical parameters represent 9399 drillcore. Of those, approximately 20000 spectra and their accompanying analysis were used for training and 5000 for model validation. The remaining pairwise data (150000 samples) were used for testing of the method. The data are distributed over 2 large spatial extents (980 km2 and 3025 km2 respectively) and allowed the proposed method to be tested against samples that are spatially distant from the initial training points. Global R2 scores and wt.% RMSE on the 150000 validation samples are Fe(0.95/3.01), SiO2(0.96/3.77), Al2O3(0.92/1.27), TiO(0.68/0.13), CaO(0.89/0.41), MgO(0.87/0.35), K2O(0.65/0.21) and LOI(0.90/1.14), given as Parameter(R2/RMSE), and demonstrate that the proposed method is capable of predicting the 8 parameters and is stable enough, in the environment tested, to extend beyond the training sets initial spatial location.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0131.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: pigmentary glaucoma; ROCK kinase inhibitor; RKI-1447; trabecular meshwork; phagocytosis; cytoskeleton
Online: 9 July 2018 (11:27:28 CEST)
Purpose: This study investigated the hypotensive effect of RKI-1447, a Rho kinase inhibitor, in a porcine ex vivo pigmentary glaucoma model. Methods: Twenty-eight porcine anterior chambers were perfused with medium supplemented with 1.67 × 107 pigment particles/mL for 48 hours before treatment with RKI-1447 (n = 16) or vehicle control (n = 12). Intraocular pressure (IOP) was recorded and outflow facility was calculated. Primary trabecular meshwork cells were exposed to RKI-1447 or vehicle control; effects on the cytoskeleton, motility, and phagocytosis were evaluated. Result: Compared to baseline, the perfusion of pigment caused a significant increase in IOP in the RKI-1447 group (P = 0.003) at 48 hours. Subsequent treatment with RKI-1447 significantly reduced IOP from 20.14 ± 2.59 mmHg to 13.38 ± 0.91 mmHg (P = 0.02). Pigment perfusion reduced the outflow facility from 0.27 ± 0.03 at baseline to 0.18 ± 0.02 at 48 hours (P < 0.001). This was partially reversed with RKI-1447. RKI-1447 caused no apparent histological changes in the micro- or macroscopic TM appearance. RKI-1447-treated primary TM cells showed significant disruption of the actin cytoskeleton both in the presence and absence of pigment (P < 0.001) but no effect on TM migration was observed. Pigment-treated TM cells exhibited a reduction in TM phagocytosis, which RKI-1447 reversed. Conclusion: RKI-1447 significantly reduces IOP by disrupting TM stress fibers and increasing TM phagocytosis. These features may make it useful for the treatment of secondary glaucomas with an increased phagocytic load.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0253.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Selenium species; Maize plants; Se fractions; Rock-soil-plant interface; Selenium accumulation
Online: 13 January 2023 (10:55:32 CET)
Maize (Zea mays) is one of the most important staple food and primary source of livestock feed in the world. As the consumption of maize grown on the selenium-enriched soils of Naore Valley is one of the apparent causes of selenosis in the area, this work collected and analyzed total Se, Se fractions, and Se species distributions in maize plant samples, including grains, leaves, stalks, roots, rhizosphere soils, and the most representative parent rock materials from Naore Valley, Ziyang County, China. The Se distribution in soils markedly correlated with the weathered Se-enriched bedrocks, but most of the Se in the analyzed soils is enclosed as recalcitrant residual Se and organic-sulfide bound Se. In contrast, Se in rocks had a comparatively higher bioavailability and is bounded mainly to organic matter and sulfides minerals, with very few of the Se enclosed in the residual fraction. Maize plants might take a large amount of Se from the organic-sulfide bound Se fraction in the Se-rich soils, the weathered products from bedrocks or plant litters. Total Se concentrations in the collected samples were observed in descending order soil>leaf>root>grain>stalk. The predominant Se species detected in maize plants was SeMet. Se inorganic forms, mainly Se(VI), decreased from root to grain and were possibly assimilated into organic forms. Se (IV) was barely present. The natural increases in Se concentration affected mainly leaf and root dry-weight biomass as they are the organs that coped with the highest Se accumulation. This paper offers an insight into the uptake, accumulation, and distribution of Se forms in natural Se-rich maize crops and an opportunity for shifting Se-rich soils from menaces to valuable resources for growing Se-rich agricultural products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0059.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: pore-scale model; non-Newtonian fluid; Finite Volume Method; Digital Rock Physics
Online: 15 September 2017 (10:09:40 CEST)
Most of the pore-scale imaging and simulations of non-Newtonian fluid are based on the simplifying geometry of network modeling and overlook the fluid rheology and heat transfer. In the present paper, we developed a non-isothermal and non-Newtonian numerical model of the flow properties at pore-scale by direct simulation of the 3D micro-CT images using a Finite Volume Method (FVM). The numerical model is based on the resolution of the momentum and energy conservation equations. Owing to an adaptive meshing technique and appropriate boundary conditions, rock permeability and mobility are accurately computed. A temperature and concentration-dependent power-law viscosity model in line with the experimental measurement of the fluid rheology is adopted. The model is first applied at isothermal condition to 2 benchmark samples, namely Fontainebleau sandstone and Grosmont carbonate, and is found to be in good agreement with the Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). Finally, at non-isothermal conditions, an effective mobility is introduced that enables to perform a numerical sensitivity study to fluid rheology, heat transfer, and operating conditions. While the mobility seems to evolve linearly with polymer concentration, the effect of the temperature seems negligible by comparison. However, a sharp contrast is found between carbonate and sandstone under the effect of a constant temperature gradient. Besides concerning the flow index and consistency factor, a good master curve is derived when normalizing the mobility for both the carbonate and the sandstone.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0083.v3
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: air waves; falling rock; semi-empirical model; uniform motion phase; acceleration movement phase
Online: 25 January 2017 (03:46:33 CET)
In this paper, a semi-empirical model of air waves induced by falling rock is described. The model is composed of a uniform motion phase (velocity close to 0 m·s-1) and an acceleration movement phase. The uniform motion phase was determined based on experimentally and the acceleration movement phase was derived by theoretical analysis. A series of experiments were performed to verify the semi-empirical model and elucidated the law of the uniform motion phase. The acceleration movement phase accounted for a larger portion with a greater height of the falling rock. Experimental results of different falling heights of the goaf showed close agreement with theoretical analysis values. The semi-empirical model could accurately and conveniently estimate the velocity of air wave induced by falling rock. Thus, the semi-empirical model can provide a reference and basis for estimating the speed of air waves and designing protective measures in mines.
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: mine rock drainage; sulfide oxidation; neutralization by silicates; secondary iron minerals; toxic element scavenging
Online: 15 October 2021 (12:22:41 CEST)
Mine waste rock and drainage pose lasting environmental, social, and economic threats to the mining industry, regulatory agencies, and society as a whole. Mine drainage can be alkaline, neutral, moderately or extremely acidic and contains significant levels of sulfate, dissolved iron, and frequently a variety of heavy metals and metalloids, such as cadmium, lead, arsenic, and selenium. In acid neutralization by carbonate and silicate minerals, a range of secondary minerals can form and possibly scavenge these potentially harmful elements. Apart from the extensively-studied microbial-facilitated sulfide oxidation, the diverse microbial communities present in mine rock and drainage may also participate in the formation, dissolution, and transformation of secondary minerals influencing the mobilization of these metals and metalloids. This article reviews major microbial-mediated geochemical processes occurring in mine rock piles that affect drainage chemistry, with a focus on the role of microorganisms in the formation, dissolution and transformation of secondary minerals. Understanding this is crucial for developing biologically-based measures to deal with contaminant release at the source, i.e., source control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0373.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Random filling; slate rock; core; wheel impression test; topographic settlement test; plate bearing test
Online: 18 August 2021 (08:23:11 CEST)
The construction of random fillings from the excavation of medium hardness rocks, with high particle sizes, presents limitations in compaction control. This research applies new control techniques with revised test procedures in the construction of the random fillings core, which constitutes the main part of the embankment, with the bigger volume and provides the geotechnical stability to the infrastructure. The maximum layer thickness researched was 800mm. As there are many types of rocks, this research is applied to metamorphic slates. Quality control has been carried out by applying new research associated with the revision of wheel impression test, topographic settlements and plate bearing test (PBT). A statistical analysis of the core of 16 slate random fillings has been carried out, with a total of 2250 in situ determination of density and moisture content, 75 wheel impression tests, 75 topographic settlement control and 75 PBT. The strong associations found between different tests have allowed to simplify the quality control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0374.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: soil–rock mixture, freezing–thawing interface, shear strength, shear failure surface, particle calculation model
Online: 17 May 2021 (09:34:41 CEST)
With global warming and accelerated degradation of permafrost, the engineering problems caused by the formation of weak zones between the shallow and permafrost layers of soil–rock mixture (S-RM) slopes in permafrost regions have become increasingly prominent. To explore the influence of rock content on the shear strength of the S-RM freezing–thawing interface, the variation in the shear strength for different rock content is studied herein using direct shear tests. In addition, a 3D laser scanner is used for obtaining the topography of the shear failure surface. Combined with the analysis results of the shear band-particle calculation model, the influence of the rock content on the shear strength of the interface is explored. It was found that the impact threshold of the rock content on the interface strength and failure mode is approximately 30%, when the rock content (R) is > 30% and that the shear strength increases rapidly with increasing rock content. When R ≤ 30%, the actual shear plane is similar to waves; when R > 30%, the shear plane appears as gnawing failure. The shear strength of S-RM freezing–thawing interface mainly comes from the bite force and friction between particles. The main reason for the increase in shear strength with increasing rock content is the increase in bite force between particles, which makes the ratio of bite force to friction force approximately 1:1.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0642.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Ornamental stone; rock mass state of stress and fracturing; marble exploitation techniques; waste reduction
Online: 30 October 2020 (13:39:36 CET)
The use of natural stone has a historical and environmental value that makes it strategically valuable for landscape conservation in Europe. Marble, among others, is widely spread on Earth, and it offers high-performance features in architectural applications. However, the complexity of these formations and the rock variability in different ore bodies require detailed studies of the natural and induced stress state, the fracturing degree, and the influence of external factor (such as temperature and/or chemical agents) on the mechanical properties in order to optimize the exploitation processes by reducing extractive waste. This article shows a series of studies conducted by the authors over the last 20 years aimed at making the exploitation of marble blocks in the Carrara basin safer, more efficient, and, therefore, more sustainable. In particular, studies for increasing the knowledge on the natural and the induced stress state through on-site measurements and numerical modeling, studies to improve the quality of the exploited material through improvements of cutting technologies, studies to improve the knowledge of the mechanical behavior of the material under varying loads and temperature conditions and studies to improve the reuse of water materials and their reduction are reported.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0087.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: physical model test; rock joint; strata and surface movement; final slope mining; surface settlement
Online: 19 September 2017 (07:30:14 CEST)
Strata and surface movement induced by mining under open-pit final slope is a huge threat to mine safety. Physical model test is an important method to study mining-induced strata and surface movement laws. Because of rock joints predominantly control rock mass deformation and failure, thus physical model test leaving out of consideration of rock joints is difficult to reflect the influence of rock joints on rock mass deformation. Therefore, this paper presents a three-dimensional physical model test considering simplified dominant rock joints. This test process includes the design of testing equipment, the construction of physical model with dominant rock joint sets, conduction of mining and deformation monitoring. And mining under eastern final slope of Yanqianshan iron mine was selected as a case to study the behavior of mining-induced strata and surface movement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0433.v2
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: pile-rock breakwater; wave transmission; wave reflection; energy dissipation; physical model; East Sea of Mekong Delta
Online: 8 November 2022 (06:44:38 CET)
The coastline in the Ca Mau and the Kien Giang provinces of the Vietnamese Mekong Delta has been severely eroded in recent decades. Pile-Rock Breakwaters (PRBW) are one of the most widely adopted structures for controlling shoreline erosion in this region. These structures are effective for wave energy dissipation, stimulating sediment accumulation, and facilitating the restoration of mangrove forests. These breakwaters are generally considered to be best-engineering practice however there is currently insufficient scientific evidence with regard to specific structural design aspects. This can lead to PRBW structures being compromised when deployed in the field. This study uses a physical model of a PRBW in a laboratory to investigate several design parameters, including crest width and working states (i.e. submerged, transition, and emerged), and investigates their relationship with the wave transmission coefficient, wave reflection coefficient, and wave energy dissipation. To investigate these relationships further, empirical formulas were derived for PRBWs under different sea states and crest widths to aid the design process. The results showed that PRBW width had a significant influence on the wave energy coefficients. The findings revealed that the crest width of the breakwater is inversely proportional to the wave transmission coefficient (Kt) under the emerged state. The crest width is also proportional to the wave reduction efficiency and wave energy dissipation in both working states (i.e., submerged and emerged states). The front wave disturbance coefficient (Kf) was found to be proportional to the wave reflection coefficient, and the wave height in front of the structure was found to increase by up to 1.4 times in the emerged state. The wave reflection coefficient requires special consideration to reduce the toe erosion in the structure. Lastly, empirical equations including linear and non-linear formulas were compared with previous studies for different classes of breakwaters. These empirical equations will be useful for understanding the wave transmission efficiency of PRBWs. The findings of this study provide important guidance for PRBW design in the coastal area of the Mekong Delta.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0047.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: CO2 reservoir rock; CO2 sealing capacity; CO2 sequestration; CO2 storage capacity; CO2 storage ratio; supercritical CO2
Online: 6 June 2019 (09:51:40 CEST)
Laboratory experiments were performed to measure the supercritical CO2 (scCO2) storage ratio (%) of the conglomerate and sandstone in Janggi Basin, which are classified as rock in Korea available for CO2 storage. The scCO2 storage capacity was evaluated by direct measurement of the scCO2 amount replacing pore water in a reservoir rock core. The scCO2 sealing capacity of the cap rock (i.e., tuff and mudstone), was also compared by measuring the initial scCO2 seepage pressure (Δp) into the rock core. The measured average scCO2 storage ratio of the conglomerate and the sandstone in Janggi Basin was 30.7 % and 13.1 %, respectively, suggesting that the scCO2 storage capacity is greater than 360,000 metric tons in the Janggi Basin. The initial scCO2 seepage pressure of the tuff in the Janggi Basin was 15 bar and continuous scCO2 injection into the tuff core occurred at Δp higher than 20 bar. For the mudstone, the initial scCO2 seepage pressure was higher than 150 bar (10 times higher than that of the tuff), demonstrating that the mudstone is more suitable than the tuff to shield scCO2 leakage from the reservoir rock in the Janggi Basin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0215.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Discrete Fracture Network (DFN); fractured rock hydrology; Boundary Element Method (BEM); Domain Decomposition Method (DDM); subsurface fluid flow
Online: 19 November 2019 (02:55:27 CET)
Modeling fluid flow in three-dimensional (3D) Discrete Fracture Networks (DFNs) is of relevance in many engineering applications, such as hydraulic fracturing, oil/gas production, geothermal energy extraction, nuclear waste disposal and CO2 sequestration. A new Boundary Element Method (BEM) technique with discontinuous quadratic elements and a parallel Domain Decomposition Method (DDM) is presented herein for the simulation of the steady-state fluid flow in 3D DFN systems with wellbores, consisting of planar fractures having arbitrary properties and wellbore trajectories. Numerical examples characterized by DFNs of increasing complexity are investigated to evaluate the accuracy and efficiency of the presented technique. The results show that accurate solutions can be obtained with less nodes than with mesh-based methods (e.g. Finite Element Method). In addition, the DDM algorithm used provides a quite fast convergence. The simulation results of the fluid flow around intersections among traces (linear intersections between fractures), intersections between traces and a fracture boundaries, and wellbore intersections is accurate. Source code is available at : https://github.com/BinWang0213/PyDFN3D.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0070.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: microbial sulphide oxidation, corrosion, mine waste and water remediation, biofilm development, inhibition of Acid mine and rock draiange
Online: 8 February 2018 (15:35:56 CET)
Abstract: Measures to counteract AMD generation need to start at the mineral surface, inhibiting mineral-oxidizing, acidophilic microbes. Laboratory and long-term field tests with pyrite-containing mining wastes, where Carbonaceous Phosphate Mining Waste (CPMW) was added, resulted in low acidity, and near neutral drainage. The effect was reproducible, nd confirmed by several independent research groups. This was shown to involve an organic coating, likely a biofilm. The biofilm formation was confirmed when CPMW was added to lignite coal waste with an initial pH of 1. Forty five days after the addition, the coal waste was dominated by heterotrophic microorganisms in biofilms. A review of the scientific literature supports that CPMW has physical and chemical characteristics which are capable of inducing a strong inhibitory effect on sulphide oxidation by forming an organic coating over the mineral surface. CPMW characteristics appear to provide the cornerstone of a new technology for the reduction of sulphide oxidation in mine wastes. An hypothesis for testing this technology is presented which could result in an economical and sustainable approach to mine waste and water management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0114.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Hydrochemcial characteristics; water-rock interaction; multivariate statistical analysis; mixing model; δD and δ18O isotopes; natural water system; Kangding County
Online: 17 November 2017 (12:34:26 CET)
The utilization for water resource has been of great concern to human life. To assess the natural water system in Kangding County, the integrated methods of hydrochemcial analysis, multivariate statistics and geochemical modelling were conducted on surface water, groundwater and thermal water samples. Surface water and groundwater were dominated by Ca-HCO3 type, while thermal water belonged to Ca-HCO3 and Na-Cl type. The analyzing results concluded the driving factors that affect hydrochemical components. Following the results of the combined assessments, hydrochemcial process was controlled by the dissolution of carbonate and silicate minerals with slight influence from anthropogenic activity. The mixing model of groundwater and thermal water was calculated using silica-enthalpy method, yielding cold-water fraction of 0.56-0.79 and estimated reservoir temperature of 130-199 oC, respectively. δD and δ18O isotopes suggested surface water, groundwater and thermal springs were of meteoric origin. Thermal water should have deep circulation through the Xianshuihe fault zone, while groundwater flows through secondary fractures where it recharges with thermal water. Those analytical results were used to construct a hydrological conceptual model, providing a better understanding of the natural water system in Kangding County.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0392.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: Earth’s natural pulse electromagnetic field; stress-strain state of rock mass; magnetic field strength; magnetic induction; pipeline; measurement; accident; civil communication
Online: 15 December 2020 (19:52:19 CET)
The paper presents an analysis of the method of recording the magnetic component of the Earth’s natural pulse electromagnetic field in an urban environment. This method of recording has already proved itself to be a method that allocates the stressed sections of rock mass at mining and, therefore, authors suppose its effectiveness for allocating active tectonic disturbances and forecasting accidents at underground utilities, what will help reduce the potential environmental hazard of these objects.