Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Kinematic and Rock Mass Classification Assessment of Road Cut Slopes along with Karakoram Highway in Northern, Pakistan

Version 1 : Received: 19 February 2021 / Approved: 22 February 2021 / Online: 22 February 2021 (10:07:14 CET)

How to cite: Razzaak, A.; Huiming, T.; Ahmed, I.; Huang, L. Kinematic and Rock Mass Classification Assessment of Road Cut Slopes along with Karakoram Highway in Northern, Pakistan. Preprints 2021, 2021020452 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202102.0452.v1). Razzaak, A.; Huiming, T.; Ahmed, I.; Huang, L. Kinematic and Rock Mass Classification Assessment of Road Cut Slopes along with Karakoram Highway in Northern, Pakistan. Preprints 2021, 2021020452 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202102.0452.v1).

Abstract

Karakoram highway (K.K.H.) the only road link between two countries China and Pakistan. This road network is essential for two countries due to its strategic location and socioeconomic. The highway is more vulnerable due to landslide disasters, especially in rain and snow melting seasons, and different kinds of mass movement activities have occurred along K.K.H., such as rockfall, debris flow, and snow avalanche. The slope stability problems are widespread along with Karakorum (K.K.H.) between Besham city and the Dasu area because of the high seismic zone, rainfall, snow melting, and complex geology slope geometry, week, and adverse discontinuities sets. The detailed fieldwork was done along the Karakorum highway to minimize the risk of slope stability and for planning purposes in Besham to Dasu area and selected nine road-cut slopes. However, in these nine selected roadcut slopes, three slopes were already failed, four slopes are partially stable, and two slopes were stable. Both kinematic and empirical approaches are applied on all these nine road cut slopes and their discontinuities. The kinematic result has shown that all kinds of mode failure such as Toppling, Planar, and Wedge failure mode occurred in these slopes. The RMRb result has shown that all discounters lie in between fair to good rock. Both discrete and continuous (S.M.R.) results show that all discontinuity sets lie between the unstable, partially stable, and stable conditions.

Subject Areas

Kinematic; Rock Mass Classification; R.M.R; S.M.R; Rock Slope Stability

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